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1

High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modif...

2

High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.  

PubMed

Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. PMID:23867013

Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

2013-08-28

3

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection in household dogs.  

PubMed

A total of 1035 household dogs were examined for the presence of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) in their feces. Fecal samples from 151 (14.6%) of the dogs were positive for Giardia. The protozoan was more often detected in soft feces (26.4%) than in normal (10.0%) or diarrheic feces (13.7%) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The forms of the organisms obtained from the 151 dogs were cysts (77.5%), trophozoites (9.9%), or both cysts and trophozoites (12.6%). Dogs kept indoors had a higher prevalence (18.5%) of Giardia than dogs kept outdoors (4.8%) (p < 0.001). Giardia infection was also more prevalent in 1-6 months old puppies (21.7%) compared to other groups (2.4%-7.5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of Giardia in dogs originally purchased from pet shops or breeding kennels was extremely high (21.5%) compared to that of dogs from individual households (4.3%) (p < 0.001). With regard to human public health, the high infection rate of Giardia in puppies and dogs kept indoors is a serious problem because G. lamblia in infected dogs may have zoonotic potential. No reports of human giardiasis transmitted from dogs have been made. However, the results of this study suggest that the risk of Giardia transmission from household dogs to humans is not negligible. Pet owners should be taught appropriate hygiene measures to prevent Giardia transmission from dogs to humans. PMID:11558129

Itoh, N; Muraoka, N; Aoki, M; Itagaki, T

2001-08-01

4

[Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs].  

PubMed

A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important. PMID:12872692

Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

2003-06-01

5

High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

2015-01-01

6

High prevalence of Yersinia pestis in black-tailed prairie dog colonies during an apparent enzootic phase of sylvatic plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was introduced into North America over 100 years ago. The disease causes high mortality and extirpations in black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), which is of conservation concern because prairie dogs provide habitat for the critically endangered black-footed ferret\\u000a (Mustela nigripes). Our goal was to help elucidate the mechanism Y. pestis uses to persist in prairie ecosystems during

David A. Hanson; Hugh B. Britten; Marco Restani; Leigh R. Washburn

2007-01-01

7

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs  

E-print Network

observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain

Human Risk; Loïs Allela; Olivier Bourry; Régis Pouillot; André Délicat; Brice Kumulungui; Pierre Rouquet; Jean-paul Gonzalez; Eric M. Leroy

8

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.  

PubMed

The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in <1-year-old dogs were significantly more prevalent than in ? 1-year-old dogs (61.0 vs. 19.8 %, P < 0.0001; 7.3 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.0001; and 4.9 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.001; respectively). With respect to fecal condition, the prevalences of T. leonina and T. vulpis were significantly higher in unformed stool dogs than in formed ones (2.4 vs. 0 %, P < 0.01, and 4.3 vs. 0.8 %, P < 0.05, respectively). In all of the breeding kennels except for one kennel, intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %. PMID:25627028

Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

2015-03-01

9

Prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in household dogs.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in household dogs was estimated by examining feces from 1,743 dogs aged between 1 month and 15 years old. Fecal samples from 75 (4.3%) of the 1,743 dogs were positive for the eggs of T. canis. The dogs with positive fecal samples ranged from 1 month to 5 years old in age. The infection rate in dogs aged 1 to 6 months old was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that in dogs aged 7 months to 2 years old or over 3 years old. Indoor dogs aged 1 to 6 months old showed a significantly (p < 0.01) lower prevalence than outdoor dogs of the same age group. With respect to the place of origin of the dogs, those originating from individual households (5.7%) showed (p < 0.05) a higher prevalence as compared to the animals purchased from pet shops/breeding kennels (3.5%). Considering the origin and the living conditions, the prevalence in indoor dogs originating from individual households was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in indoor dogs purchased from pet shops/breeding kennels. PMID:15103902

Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

2004-02-01

10

Prevalence of dental disorders in pet dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral disorders of the dog represent for veterinarians a medical challenge and an important field of interest from the economical point of view. Although many epidemiological studies on dental diseases in beagles bred under controlled conditions have been realized, information on frequency of these alterations in populations of pet dogs, especially in Central Europe, is far from complete. The aim

M. Kyllar; K. Witter

11

High Prevalence of blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 Plasmids in Healthy Urban Dogs in France  

PubMed Central

In the community, close contacts between humans and dogs may promote the transfer of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase/plasmidic AmpC cephalosporinase (ESBL/pAmpC) genes. Large-scale prevalence studies on ESBL/pAmpC carriage in dogs are rare, and data on ESBL/pAmpC plasmids are even more limited. Here, a considerable rate of 18.5% ESBL/pAmpC carriers was found among 368 unrelated healthy dogs in Paris, France. This prevalence is much higher than the one found in healthy humans in the same city (6%) but close to that recently reported in dogs in China (24.5%). All isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, except one Salmonella enterica and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. The sequence type 131 (ST131) clone was rare (2/73 isolates). Interestingly, two plasmids (blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2) were unexpectedly highly predominant, raising the question of their successful spread. Considering that CTX-M-1 was recently found to be equally as abundant as CTX-M-15 in healthy Parisian subjects, the question of dogs being a CTX-M-1 reservoir for humans is open. Such a high prevalence of the blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 plasmid may result from the use of cephalexin in veterinary medicine, as previously demonstrated experimentally. In all, our study points out healthy urban dogs as a potential source of ESBL/pAmpC genes that can further disseminate to the human community. PMID:24982072

Saras, Estelle; Métayer, Véronique; Médaille, Christine; Madec, Jean-Yves

2014-01-01

12

Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.  

PubMed

Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) ?-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. PMID:21890275

Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

2012-03-23

13

Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 in galgos (Spanish greyhounds).  

PubMed

Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 is the most clinically important blood group in dogs, as negative recipients for this group may develop a life-threatening acute haemolytic transfusion reaction if they receive several DEA 1.1 positive blood transfusions. Due to their physical features, galgos are frequently used as blood donors in clinical practice, however, there are no published data regarding the prevalence of DEA 1.1 in this breed. Expression of DEA 1.1 was determined in 118 galgos and 88 dogs of other breeds being screened as potential blood donors, using an immunochromatographic cartridge typing kit (Quick Test DEA 1.1, Alvedia, Lyon, France). Of the total dogs, 53.4per cent (110/206) were positive for DEA 1.1. The prevalence of DEA 1.1 positive blood among our population of galgos and other-breed dogs were 51.7 per cent (61/118) and 55.7 per cent (49/88), respectively. Potential risk of sensitisation in a recipient of other breed following non-typed blood transfusion using blood from galgos was 22.9 per cent. Due to the clinical significance of DEA 1.1 and the high prevalence of this blood group in galgos of Spain, we strongly recommend blood-typing for this group before administering any blood transfusion using galgos as donors, as with transfusions from other commonly used breeds. PMID:24578316

Mesa-Sanchez, I; Ruiz de Gopegui-Fernández, R; Granados-Machuca, M M; Galan-Rodriguez, A

2014-04-01

14

Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among dogs and their owners  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Case reports have indicated transmission of Staphylococcus aureus between humans and pets. We investigated associations between level of contact between dog and owner, and S. aureus colonization. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus was determined for 830 dogs and 736 owners. Relatedness of isolates was investigated using antibiograms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Associations between carriage and demographics or amount of contact between owners and dogs were documented. S. aureus was isolated in 24% of humans and 8·8% of dogs. Antibiotic resistance was significantly more common in canine isolates. Of 17 owner/dog colonized pairs, six were indistinguishable by PFGE. Colonization of dogs was not associated with close human contact, but was strongly associated with health-care occupations (OR 3·29, 95% CI 1·49–7·26, P=0·002). In outbreak situations health-care workers' pets should be considered as a source of S. aureus. High rates of resistance indicate increased monitoring of antibiotic use in veterinary practice is needed. PMID:17678561

BOOST, M. V.; O'DONOGHUE, M. M.; JAMES, A.

2008-01-01

15

Increased prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in Bernese Mountain Dogs: a possible breed predisposition  

PubMed Central

Background Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. Results 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs and 62 control dogs (large breed dogs with long hair) were included. All dogs were considered healthy according to a questionnaire filled out by the owner, complete blood count, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture. Bernese Mountain Dogs and control dogs were kept in similar environments. Seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by ELISA and Western blot and was 58% in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to 15% in control dogs. This difference was significant. Neither antibodies against leptospires nor vaccination or hair coat color influenced the results. Conclusion The cause of the considerably higher prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain Dogs and it's consequences are not known. A breed predisposition can be suspected. PMID:17626630

Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

2007-01-01

16

The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples.  

PubMed

Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets. PMID:25583357

Bouzid, Maha; Halai, Kapil; Jeffreys, Danielle; Hunter, Paul R

2015-01-30

17

Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae) Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05). However, significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health. PMID:24757557

Oluwasina, Oseni Saheed; ThankGod, Onyiche Emmanuel; Augustine, Omonuwa Omojefe; Gimba, Fufa Ido

2014-01-01

18

Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.  

PubMed

Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum. PMID:22245069

King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

2012-06-01

19

Prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and their clinical relevance in dogs in Munich, Germany.  

PubMed

Although prevalences of antibodies against Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum have been reported to be high in the German dog population, the importance of the diseases caused by both agents is still not well characterized in a field situation.The aim of this study was (1) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl and A. phagocytophilum in dogs in Munich, Germany, and (2) to assess the clinical presentation and laboratory values of antibody-positive dogs and compare them to a negative control group. In total, 448 randomly selected dogs were screened for antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl and A. phagocytophilum with the SNAP 4Dx assay (IDEXX, Laboratories, Inc., USA). Dogs carrying antibodies against B. burgdorferi sl and/or A. phagocytophilum were classified as "positive"(n=100), the following 100 negative dogs served as control group. In both groups, physical examination and laboratory parameters were compared. 22 (4.9%) dogs had antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl, 78 (19.4%) to A. phagocytophilum, nine (2.0%) to both agents. Bernese Mountain Dogs had significantly more often antibodies against B. burgdorferi sl. Negative dogs were more often diagnosed as "healthy" compared to A. phagocytophilum antibody-positives that showed more often elevated body temperature and poor general condition; beyond that, there were no differences in clinical and laboratory abnormalities between both groups. Although dogs tested negative were more often considered healthy, there were no differences in parameters considered "specific" for both infections between dogs with and without antibodies. Hence, tests detecting antibodies against both agents are not able to detect animals with the clinical disease. PMID:22919928

Barth, Charlotte; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

2012-01-01

20

Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.  

PubMed

Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. PMID:25046431

Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

21

Toxocara canis in household dogs: prevalence, risk factors and owners' attitude towards deworming.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and risk factors for shedding of Toxocara eggs were determined for 916 Dutch household dogs older than 6 months. Additionally, the owners answered a questionnaire about their dogs and their attitude towards routine deworming was assessed. Faecal samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. The overall prevalence of dogs shedding Toxocara eggs was 4.6 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk for 1-7-year-old dogs to shed Toxocara eggs was significantly lower (OR 0.38) than that of 6-12-month-old dogs. Compared to dogs walking ?20 % of the time off-leash, those ranging freely 50-80 % and 80-100 % of the time had a significantly higher risk (OR 10.49 and 13.52, respectively) of shedding Toxocara eggs. Other risk factors were coprophagy (OR 2.44) and recently being kenneled (OR 2.76). Although the applied deworming frequency was not significantly associated with shedding Toxocara eggs, there was a trend towards no shedding in dogs under strict supervision that were dewormed 3-4 times a year. Most dog owners (68 %) recognized 'dog's health' as the main reason for deworming. Only 16 % of dogs were dewormed four times a year. It was concluded that the prevalence of Toxocara egg-shedding household dogs is almost unchanged over recent years and that the knowledge of owners is insufficient to expect sound decisions on routine deworming. PMID:25468379

Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

2015-02-01

22

Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6%) and hunting dogs (1.7%). The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs. PMID:24972327

Maia, Carla; Cortes, Helder; Brancal, Hugo; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Pimenta, Paulo; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

2014-01-01

23

Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in a large national sample of pet dogs visiting veterinary hospitals in the United States (2003-2009).  

PubMed

Estimates of the prevalence of intestinal infection of dogs with Giardia spp. in the United States vary widely. Risk factors for infection in a large sample of dogs over an extended period of time have not been well characterized. A national, electronic database of medical records was used to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for Giardia spp. infection among dogs visiting Banfield Pet Hospital™ located in 43 states in the United States. The overall prevalence of Giardia spp. Infection was 0.44% (95% CI: 0.43-0.45%) in approximately 2.5 million owned dogs who had a fecal flotation test performed from January 2003 to December 2009. A steady decrease in annual prevalence was observed, from a high of 0.61% in 2003 to 0.27% in 2009. Seasonal increases in prevalence were noted during the winter and summer months. Giardia spp. prevalence was highest in the Mountain region, especially Colorado (2.63%; 95% CI: 2.53-2.73%), and in puppies ?0.5 year of age (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64%). It was lowest for dogs of mixed breeding compared with pure breeds. Infection risk was 25-30% greater in sexually intact dogs compared to spayed and neutered dogs. PMID:23337331

Mohamed, Ahmed S; Glickman, Larry T; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elizabeth; Moore, George E

2013-07-01

24

Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei Infection in Pet Dogs in Southern China  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29–2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83–1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53–1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02–1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55–36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0–11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0–6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant “baseline” data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355

Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2014-01-01

25

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

26

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from Sri Lanka and genetic characterization of the parasite isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 86 unwanted dogs obtained in two batches (36 in batch 1, 50 in batch 2) from Sri Lanka was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 58 (67.4%) of 86 dogs with titers of 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in four, ...

27

Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors. PMID:19934595

Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

2009-12-01

28

Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors. PMID:19934595

Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

2009-01-01

29

Trypanosoma evansi infection in dogs: seasonal prevalence and chemotherapy.  

PubMed

A 1-year survey was undertaken to determine the incidence of Trypanosoma evansi in dogs at Ludhiana, India. Of 64 dogs examined by wet film, thin smear, thick smear and mouse inoculation, three (4.68%) were found to be positive for T. evansi. All the positive animals were detected during the rainy and post-rainy seasons. The treatment of three infected dogs with a combination of quinpyramine sulphate and chloride (3:2 w/w) resulted in complete recovery of two dogs; another dog died on the day therapy was initiated. PMID:8291188

Singh, B; Kalra, I S; Gupta, M P; Nauriyal, D C

1993-10-01

30

Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.  

PubMed

Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a reservoir host for Bvb and Br and that ectoparasite control is an important component of shelter intake protocols. PMID:24268654

Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

2014-01-31

31

Prevalence of Toxocara spp. and other parasites in dogs and cats in Halifax, Nova Scotia.  

PubMed

Several cases of visceral larva migrans syndrome in children led to an investigation of the ova of Toxocara spp. and other species in stool specimens from stray dogs and cats in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Fecal samples from 474 stray dogs and 299 stray cats were examined. Ova of Toxocara canis or cati were present in stools from 26.6% of the dogs and 25.1% of the cats. In dogs the prevalence of Toxocara canis was noticeably greater in puppies (56.1%) than in mature animals (11.9%). PMID:647456

Malloy, W F; Embil, J A

1978-01-01

32

Prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma. PMID:23659343

Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki

2013-09-01

33

Prevalence of borreliosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs and vectors in Voronezh Reserve (Russia).  

PubMed

Most of the dogs studied for the prevalence of CVBD have previously received acaricidal and insecticidal treatments. In the present work, a very specific population of dogs (Group 1) that had never been treated against ticks and mosquitoes was studied. Moreover, the territory occupied by this population has also never been treated, because it is a protected area--Voronezh Natural Reserve. Canine patients from veterinary clinics (Group 2) that had been treated against VBD vectors were studied for comparison. Eighty-two dogs (Group 1) were enrolled in June, 2008. Blood samples were tested using the IDEXX SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test. A specific heartworm antigen was detected in 12.2% samples. The seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found to be 34.1%. The antibodies to Borrelia C6 peptide and to Ehrlichia canis were detected in 2.4% of the samples. Almost all dogs with infections had no clinical signs. Only 3 mixed-infected dogs showed non-specific clinical signs. During the tick season, 358 Ixodes ricinus were collected; the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 21.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Four hundred and forty dogs (Group 2) were studied for comparison. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected only in one dog, seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum represented 1.1%, no E. canis seropositive dogs were identified, and 8.2% dogs were found infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Fifty-six percent of dogs with dirofilariosis had clinical signs. All dogs with anaplasmosis showed specific clinical signs--fever, anemia, splenitis. Three dogs died within a few days. PMID:24054985

Volgina, N S; Romashov, B V; Romashova, N B; Shtannikov, A V

2013-12-01

34

Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs?  

PubMed Central

Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

2013-01-01

35

Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Doherty, Paul F; Gage, Kenneth L; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Long, Dustin H; Antolin, Michael F

2013-12-01

36

Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

37

Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France.  

PubMed

In order to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) from radiographs that were submitted for authorative grading, and its changes over the time in 31 breeds of dogs in France, a 14 year-retrospective study was conducted. Significant differences were observed between breeds, with HD prevalence ranging from 59.7% (Cane Corso) to 3.9% (Siberian Husky). When comparing the 1993-1999 with the 2000-2006 period in 15 breeds, a significant decrease in HD prevalence was detected in Berger Picard, Bernese Mountain dog, Briard, Gordon Setter, White Swiss Sheepdog and Rottweiler. Modifications observed in the other breeds were not statistically significant. PMID:18288340

Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Viguier, E; Carozzo, C; Collard, F; Cachon, T; Maitre, P; Fau, D

2008-01-01

38

Prevalence of owner-reported behaviours in dogs separated from the litter at two different ages.  

PubMed

The present study examined the prevalence of behaviours in dogs separated from the litter for adoption at different ages. Seventy adult dogs separated from their dam and littermates and adopted between the ages of 30 and 40 days were compared with 70 adult dogs that had been taken from the litter for adoption at two months. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire eliciting information on whether their dog exhibited potentially problematic behaviours when in its usual environment. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the age at which the dog was separated from the litter might predispose it to developing undesirable behaviours. The odds of displaying destructiveness, excessive barking, fearfulness on walks, reactivity to noises, toy possessiveness, food possessiveness and attention-seeking were significantly greater for the dogs that had been removed from the litter earlier during the socialisation period. In addition, dogs purchased from a pet shop at 30 to 40 days of age were reported to exhibit some of the listed behaviours with a significantly higher frequency than dogs purchased from a pet shop at two months. No significant differences were observed with dogs obtained from other types of sources. The dogs in the youngest age group (18 to 36 months) had a higher probability of displaying destructiveness and tail chasing. These findings indicate that, compared with dogs that remained with their social group for 60 days, dogs that had been separated from the litter earlier were more likely to exhibit potentially problematic behaviours, especially if they came from a pet shop. PMID:21865608

Pierantoni, L; Albertini, M; Pirrone, F

2011-10-29

39

Phenobarbitone-induced haematological abnormalities in idiopathic epileptic dogs: prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to assess prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome of phenobarbitone induced haematological abnormalities (PBIHA) in dogs. The medical records of two veterinary referral institutions were searched for dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and treated with PB as monotherapy or polytherapy between March 2003 and September 2010. Sixteen dogs had PBIHA; the median age at diagnosis was 69.5?months. Phenobarbitone was administered at a median dose of 3?mg/kg twice a day for a median period of 100.5?days and the median serum phenobarbitone level was 19??g/ml. Two dogs had neutropenia, three had anaemia and thrombocytopenia, two had anaemia and neutropenia; the remaining nine had pancytopenia. All dogs were referred for non-specific clinical signs. Phenobarbitone was discontinued after diagnosis, and the median time to resolution of PBIHA was 17?days. The prevalence and risk factors for PBIHA were evaluated from a questionnaire survey of referring practices to obtain more detailed follow-up on cases diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The prevalence rate of PBIHA was 4.2%, and the condition occurred in dogs treated with standard therapeutic doses often within the first three months after starting treatment. Serial haematological evaluations should be therefore considered from the beginning of phenobarbitone therapy to allow early diagnosis and treatment of PBIHA. PMID:24836432

Bersan, E; Volk, H A; Ros, C; De Risio, L

2014-09-13

40

Effects of incision closure method on infection prevalence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the effect of incisional closure with either stainless steel skin staples or intradermal poliglecaprone 25 on the prevalence of surgical site infection following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs treated with unilateral tibial plateau leveling osteotomy at Memphis Veterinary Specialists between 2006 and 2013. Procedures (n = 306) from 242 dogs were included in the study. The association of potential risk factors with the occurrence of postoperative infection was assessed using logistic regression. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Weight and administration of postoperative antimicrobials were found to significantly influence surgical site infection prevalence. No significant association was noted between closure method and prevalence of postoperative infection. PMID:25829557

Atwood, Chase; Maxwell, Mac; Butler, Ryan; Wills, Robert

2015-04-01

41

Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 in dogs in Switzerland evaluated with the gel column technique.  

PubMed

Canine blood typing has become an established and essential laboratory test due to the rising demand for safe and efficient blood transfusions. The most immunogenic and clinically important blood type is DEA 1.1. Little is known about DEA 1.1 frequencies or special characteristics among different canine breeds. 304 dogs were tested for DEA 1.1. DEA 1.1-typing was performed using a commercial gel column technique (ID-Gel Test Canine DEA 1.1, DiaMed, Cressier, Switzerland). Fifty-three percent of all tested dogs reacted positive for DEA 1.1, whereas 49 % of the mixed breeds tested DEA 1.1-positive. All Bernese mountain dogs (n = 22) and Rottweilers (n = 9) tested positive for DEA 1.1, while all Boxers (n = 8), Flat-Coated Retrievers (n = 9), and Border Collies (6) tested negative for DEA 1.1. The prevalence of DEA 1.1 in dogs in Switzerland was found to be comparable to that reported from other countries. The tested breeds were found to differ considerably in the frequency of DEA 1.1. This knowledge is useful for selection of blood donors. However, DEA 1.1 blood typing of donor and recipient prior to transfusion and cross matching in sensitized dogs is unavoidable. PMID:21780065

Riond, B; Schuler, E; Rogg, E; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

2011-08-01

42

Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.  

PubMed

Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indicates that 17.8% of the 213 analyzed dogs were positive for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma with a prevalence of 4.2% for E. canis, 14.1% for Anaplama platys and 0% for A. phagocytophilum. Seven (7.1%) of the tested dogs were positive for Bartonella spp. with two characterized as Bartonella rochalimae, four as B. henselae and one as B.v. subsp. berkhoffii. PMID:25638478

Azzag, Naouelle; Petit, Elisabeth; Gandoin, Christelle; Bouillin, Corinne; Ghalmi, Farida; Haddad, Nadia; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

2015-02-01

43

Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England  

PubMed Central

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O?Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

2014-01-01

44

Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.  

PubMed

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

2014-01-01

45

Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Pet Dogs in Central China  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Henan Province, Central China was investigated. A total of 125 blood samples were collected from pet dogs during April to June 2013, and all samples were examined by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA) and nested PCR. The overall T. gondii prevalence in pet dogs was 24.0% (30/125), with 20.8% (26/125) in IHA and 10.4% (13/125) in PCR, respectively. No statistical associations were found between animal gender and age and the prevalence of T. gondii infection. Thirteen positive DNA samples were genotyped using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, (3’+5’) SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Of these, only 2 samples were genotyped with complete data for all loci, and a novel genotype (type III at SAG3 and GRA6 loci, and type I at other loci) was identified. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in dogs in China. PMID:25748720

Qian, Wei-Feng; Yan, Wen-Chao; Wang, Tian-Qi; Zhai, Kai; Han, Li-Fang; Lv, Chao-Chao

2015-01-01

46

Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Pet Dogs in Central China.  

PubMed

The prevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Henan Province, Central China was investigated. A total of 125 blood samples were collected from pet dogs during April to June 2013, and all samples were examined by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA) and nested PCR. The overall T. gondii prevalence in pet dogs was 24.0% (30/125), with 20.8% (26/125) in IHA and 10.4% (13/125) in PCR, respectively. No statistical associations were found between animal gender and age and the prevalence of T. gondii infection. Thirteen positive DNA samples were genotyped using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, (3'+5') SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Of these, only 2 samples were genotyped with complete data for all loci, and a novel genotype (type III at SAG3 and GRA6 loci, and type I at other loci) was identified. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in dogs in China. PMID:25748720

Qian, Wei-Feng; Yan, Wen-Chao; Wang, Tian-Qi; Zhai, Kai; Han, Li-Fang; Lv, Chao-Chao

2015-02-01

47

Inter-dog aggression in a UK owner survey: prevalence, co-occurrence in different contexts and risk factors.  

PubMed

Aggression between dogs is common and can result in injury. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence, evaluate co-occurrence with human-directed aggression, and investigate potential risk factors, using a cross-sectional convenience sample of dog owners. Aggression (barking, lunging, growling or biting) towards unfamiliar dogs was reported to currently occur, by 22 per cent of owners, and towards other dogs in the household, by 8 per cent. A low level of concordance between dog and human-directed aggression suggested most dogs were not showing aggression in multiple contexts. Aggression towards other dogs in the household was associated with increasing dog age, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques, and attending ring-craft classes. Aggression towards other dogs on walks was associated with location of questionnaire distribution, owner age, age of dog, origin of dog, dog breed type, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques and attending obedience classes for more than four weeks. In both, the amount of variance explained by models was low (<15 per cent), suggesting that unmeasured factors mostly accounted for differences between groups. These results suggest general characteristics of dogs and owners which contribute to intraspecific aggression, but also highlight that these are relatively minor predictors. PMID:23193037

Casey, R A; Loftus, B; Bolster, C; Richards, G J; Blackwell, E J

2013-02-01

48

Prevalence of the Generalist Flea Pulex simulans on Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, USA: The Importance of Considering Imperfect Detection.  

PubMed

If a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. We fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (Siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) during June-August 2012 in the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico, USA. With the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: Oropsylla hirusta (a prairie dog specialist) and Pulex simulans (a generalist). Detection probability was <100% for both species and about 21% lower for P. simulans. Pulex simulans may be especially difficult to detect because it is about half the size of O. hirusta. Monthly occupancy (prevalence) for P. simulans was estimated at 24% (June, 95% confidence interval?=?19-30), 39% (July, 32-47), and 56% (August, 49-64) in new prairie dog colonies, and 43% (32-54), 61% (49-71), and 79% (70-87) in old colonies. These results suggest P. simulans can attain high prevalence on prairie dogs, especially in old colonies. If P. simulans is highly prevalent on prairie dogs, it may serve as a "bridge vector" between Cynomys and other mammalian hosts of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, and even function as a reservoir of Y. pestis between outbreaks. PMID:25588009

Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Antolin, Michael F; Long, Dustin H; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Gage, Kenneth L

2015-04-01

49

Pathological conditions of the reproductive organs of male stray dogs in the tropics: prevalence, risk factors, morphological findings and testosterone concentrations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for pathological conditions of the reproductive organs in stray dogs under tropical conditions. Three hundred and eighteen dogs were examined post-mortem in the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. Before killing, a blood sample (from the cephalic vein) for testosterone assay was taken. Pathological conditions of the reproductive organs were found in 135 of the dogs (42.5%) and in 175 of the testes (64.8%). The most frequent pathologies found were testicular degeneration, cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia and testicular tumours (in 15.1%, 6.6%, 6.6% and 5.4% of the dogs and 15.1, 4.6, 6.0 and 3.5 of the testes, respectively). Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) was seen in 5.4% of the dogs. Testicular degeneration was more common in old dogs and underweight dogs (p < 0.05). Testicular tumours were 14.3 times more common in cryptorchid dogs. Age was another important factor for the development of testicular tumours (p < 0.05). Lower levels of testosterone concentration (p < 0.05) were observed in dogs with advanced testicular degeneration (0.7 +/- 0.8 nM), dogs with hypoplastic testicles (0.8 +/- 0.9 nM) and dogs with one degenerated and one retained testis or with bilateral cryptorchidism (1.2 +/- 0.9 nM) compared to dogs with one or two normal testes (7.0 +/- 5.5 nM). Testicular volume and weight were significantly lower in degenerated, hypoplastic and retained testes compared with the contralateral normal testis. Some spermatogenic activity was found in three of the retained testes, producing oligozoospermic smears with a high percentage of sperm abnormalities. No comparable epidemiological data about male pathological conditions of the reproductive organs in the dog is available. The prevalence found in this study, yet, appears high. PMID:16984349

Ortega-Pacheco, A; Rodríguez-Buenfil, J C; Segura-Correa, J C; Bolio-Gonzalez, M E; Jiménez-Coello, M; Linde Forsberg, C

2006-10-01

50

Prevalence and characterization of small tympanic bone spicules and drumstick-like hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules in the middle ear cavity of dogs.  

PubMed

Rounded, sessile, hyperattenuating structures detected in computed tomography (CT) studies of canine tympanic bullae have been termed "otoliths." These have been proposed to represent dystrophic mineralizations or heterotopic bone formations in the middle ear that are potentially related to chronic otitis media. Aims of the current study were to describe the prevalence, macroscopic, and histological features of structures consistent with "otoliths" in the canine tympanic cavity. Tympanic bullae from 50 routinely necropsied dogs and 139 retrospectively retrieved CT scans of canine clinical cases were examined. Small tympanic bone spicules with pointed or clubbed tips essentially arising from the free margin of the septum bullae were bilaterally present in the tympanic cavities of all 50 of the necropsied dogs. In 48% of the dogs, "otolith"-like CT-detectable bone spicules carrying drumstick-like hyperostoses that were 1-6 mm in diameter were also present. In the retrospective survey of bulla CT scans of 139 cases, the prevalence of hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules (HTBS) was 20%. Findings from the current study indicated that the presence of small tympanic bone spicules in adult dogs is most likely due to physiological bone growth in the septum bullae and that HTBS represent osseous proliferations of small tympanic bone spicules. However, the factors inducing formation of hyperostotic spicules from small tympanic bone spicules remain unknown. The high prevalence of HTBS displaying a similar appearance in bulla CT scans in dogs suggests that these spicules should be included in a differential diagnosis list for "otoliths." PMID:25138894

Parzefall, Birgit; Rieger, Alexandra; Volk, Holger A; Maierl, Johann; Brühschwein, Andreas; Blutke, Andreas

2015-01-01

51

Postambulatory hand swelling (big hand syndrome): prevalence, demographics, and association with dog walking.  

PubMed

Introduction. Postambulatory hand swelling (PAHS) seems to be common in the general population. There are few mention in the medical literature. The objective were (1) to identify prevalence; (2) to compare gender and age groups; (3) to determine if dog owners and walkers are more or less prone. Materials and Methods. 1009 semirandomly surveys were completed from walkers. Age, gender, and dog ownership were assessed. We discussed, among dog owners, whether or not they walk their dog regularly, whether or not they notice swollen hands after walking, and, if so, if the swelling resolves over 24 hours or persists. Results. 699 females and 410 males, among whom, 28.9% of females but only 16.3% of males reported PAHS (P < 0.001). Surprisingly, those with swelling were statistically younger than those without (49.2 versus 52.8 years, P = 0.003), and dog owners were more likely than nonowners to report swelling (28.1% versus 21.7%; P = 0.015). In terms of persistent swelling, this was observed in twice the percentage of females as males (13.3 versus 6.5%) and tended to involve older subjects (54.0 versus 48.8 years), but with no statistical difference significance. Conclusions. PAHS is a relatively common phenomenon, seemingly more common in females. PMID:22474600

Ravaglia, Fabio F A; Leite, M Goretti; Bracellos, Tiago F; Cliquet, Alberto

2011-01-01

52

Postambulatory Hand Swelling (Big Hand Syndrome): Prevalence, Demographics, and Association with Dog Walking  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Postambulatory hand swelling (PAHS) seems to be common in the general population. There are few mention in the medical literature. The objective were (1) to identify prevalence; (2) to compare gender and age groups; (3) to determine if dog owners and walkers are more or less prone. Materials and Methods. 1009 semirandomly surveys were completed from walkers. Age, gender, and dog ownership were assessed. We discussed, among dog owners, whether or not they walk their dog regularly, whether or not they notice swollen hands after walking, and, if so, if the swelling resolves over 24 hours or persists. Results. 699 females and 410 males, among whom, 28.9% of females but only 16.3% of males reported PAHS (P < 0.001). Surprisingly, those with swelling were statistically younger than those without (49.2 versus 52.8 years, P = 0.003), and dog owners were more likely than nonowners to report swelling (28.1% versus 21.7%; P = 0.015). In terms of persistent swelling, this was observed in twice the percentage of females as males (13.3 versus 6.5%) and tended to involve older subjects (54.0 versus 48.8 years), but with no statistical difference significance. Conclusions. PAHS is a relatively common phenomenon, seemingly more common in females. PMID:22474600

Ravaglia, Fabio F. A.; Leite, M. Goretti; Bracellos, Tiago F.; Cliquet, Alberto

2011-01-01

53

Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

2015-01-01

54

Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

2015-01-01

55

Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs  

PubMed Central

We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered. PMID:23820161

Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

2013-01-01

56

Prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs and rodents and their possible role in human leptospirosis from Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

A total of 100 blood and 18 urine samples of rodents and suspected dogs were collected from Mumbai, India during 2006-2008. In order to determine the role of animals in transmission of the disease to humans, all the samples were screened retrospectively by real-time polymerase chain reaction for leptospiral DNA and antibodies were detected using microscopic agglutination test. Leptopsiral DNA was detected from two blood and five urine samples from rodents. Of a total of 71 rodent and dog samples investigated for anti-Leptospira antibodies, 14 (19.7%) were positive. Pyrogenes was the predominant serovar found in 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7) from suspected canine cases and rodents, respectively; followed by Icterohemorrhagiae, which was found in one rodent sample 14.28% (1/7). The study proves that there is high prevalence of leptospirosis in rodents and dogs in this region, which proves possible role of these animals in transmission of leptospires to humans. Hence it is imperative to necessary control measures to prevent human leptospirosis. PMID:24399392

Patil, D; Dahake, R; Roy, S; Mukherjee, S; Chowdhary, A; Deshmukh, R

2014-01-01

57

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed by PCR in farmed red foxes, arctic foxes and raccoon dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids. PMID:22428309

Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, S?awomir

2012-01-01

58

Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.  

PubMed

Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (p<0.0001). Thirty five percent (51/146) of the dogs were infested with ticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (p<0.029). This is the first description of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

2014-01-31

59

Prevalence of the dog nematode Spirocerca lupi in populations of its intermediate dung beetle host in the Tshwane (Pretoria) Metropole, South Africa.  

PubMed

Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Spirocercidae) is a cosmopolitan parasite, principally of domestic dogs and dung beetles are its main intermediate hosts. In South Africa there has recently been growing concern over the upsurge of reported cases of clinical spirocercosis in dogs, while little is known or understood about the dynamics of the host-parasite associations between dung beetles and this nematode. We determined and compared the prevalence of infection in dung beetles between rural, urban and peri-urban areas of Tshwane (Pretoria) Metropole. Dung beetles were sampled during April and October 2006, at various localities in each of these areas. Localities were selected on the basis of being focal areas of high infection with S. lupi in dogs. Pig, dog and cow dung-baited pitfall traps were used for sampling the beetles. Trap contents were collected 48 h after the traps had been set and only dung beetles were collected from the traps. In total, 453 specimens belonging to 18 species were collected from 63 pitfall traps in all three areas. The numbers of species that were collected varied among the three areas. Dung beetles, irrespective of species (18) and numbers (447), predominantly preferred pig dung. The prevalence of dung beetles infected with the larvae of S. lupivaried considerably in the three areas. In the urban area 13.5% of the dung beetles dissected were infected, while the prevalence of S. lupi in dung beetles in the rural area was 2.3%. All the dung beetles that were infected with this nematode showed a preference for omnivore (pig and dog) dung. PMID:19294987

Du Toit, C A; Scholtz, C H; Hyman, W B

2008-12-01

60

Prevalence of biofilms on surgical suture segments in wounds of dogs, cats, and horses.  

PubMed

The formation of biofilms on surgical implants is thought to play a major role in chronic infection and wound-healing disorders and has been rarely described in veterinary medicine. Due to poor and unreliable results from bacterial culturing, histology may be an economic tool for the detection of biofilms. In this study, the prevalence of biofilms on surgical suture materials and swabs with chronic wound-healing complications in dogs, cats, and horses was assessed by histologic examination using hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, and Giemsa stains, as well as periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Of the 91 tissue samples with intralesional suture material or swab residues associated with inflammation, only 2 contained bacterial colonies arranged in an extracellular polymeric matrix consistent with a biofilm. The results of this study suggest that biofilms on suture material may occur in veterinary medicine. PMID:24994621

König, L; Klopfleisch, R; Kershaw, O; Gruber, A D

2015-03-01

61

Prevalence of Babesia and Anaplasma in ticks infesting dogs in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Ticks are important vectors of disease in companion animals and transmit an extensive range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens to dogs and cats. They may also be vectors of zoonotic pathogens which affect the health of in-contact owners. In recent years, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis have all shown signs of increased prevalence and distribution in various parts of Europe. Here, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. pathogens in Ixodes ticks, collected from dogs in the UK in 2009, were evaluated using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA or 18S rDNA regions respectively. Species identification was performed by alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. After sequencing, 5 out of 677 tick samples (0.74%) contained rDNA which shared 97-100%% sequence homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Of these, three samples came from Ixodes ricinus and two from Ixodes hexagonus. Sixteen out of 742 ticks (2.4%) were positive for Babesia and of these 11 showed 97-100% homology with B. gibsoni. All of these 11 samples were derived from I. ricinus. One sample, again from I. ricinus, showed 99% homology for B. divergens. Four of the Babesia spp sequences were of the "venatorum" or EU1 type, three of which came from I. ricinus and one from an Ixodes canisuga. This strain has been associated with severe human cases of babeisiosis. A further 246 positive results, which appeared to show the presence of Anaplasma following PCR, were shown by sequence analysis to be derived from the bacterium Candidatus "Midichloria mitochondrii", which to date has been assumed to be non-pathogenic. The results are of interest because the presence of B. gibsoni in the UK further confirms the worldwide distribution of this piroplasm and supports the inference that I. ricinus may act as a vector for Babesia of the gibsoni-complex. PMID:24055106

Smith, Faith D; Wall, Lauren Ellse Richard

2013-11-15

62

Serum concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in leishmaniotic dogs.  

PubMed

In order to assess whether the concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) changes in leishmaniotic dogs before and after treatment, HDL cholesterol (HDL-Chol and HDL%), C reactive protein (CRP) and activity of the antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase (PON-1) were measured in sera from 10 controls and 10 leishmaniotic dogs. Seven of these latter were sampled also 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment with antimonials and allopurinol. HDL-chol, and PON-1 were low in leishmaniotic dogs at admission and increased after treatment. HDL-chol and HDL% correlated positively with PON-1 and negatively with CRP suggesting that HDLs decrease through an oxidative mechanism. Therefore, HDLs may be used to monitor the magnitude of oxidation associated with inflammation in leishmaniotic dogs. PMID:25440996

Ibba, Fabrizio; Rossi, Gabriele; Meazzi, Sara; Giordano, Alessia; Paltrinieri, Saverio

2015-02-01

63

Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in stray dogs of Urmia, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in stray dogs living in Urmia city, 135 blood samples were collected. Serum samples were screened for detection\\u000a of anti-N. caninum IgG antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT; ?50). Antibodies were seen in 36 (27%) of 135 dogs. The IFAT\\u000a antibody titers were as follows: 1:50 in 16 dogs, 1:100 in ten dogs, 1:200

Mohammad Yakhchali; Shahram Javadi; Ahmad Morshedi

2010-01-01

64

Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania.  

PubMed

During the last decades, Dirofilaria spp. infection in European dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. The present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from Romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. From July 2010 to March 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of Romania and serological SNAP tests were performed for the detection of D. immitis antigen. The remaining blood clots were subsequently used for DNA extraction followed by multiplex PCR for assessing filarioid species diversity (i.e. D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum). Based on molecular detection, an overall prevalence of 6.92 % (n?=?27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.70-10.03 %) for D. repens, 6.15 % (n?=?24; 95 % CI 4.07-9.14 %) for D. immitis and 2.05 % (n?=?8; 95 % CI 0.96-4.16 %) for A. reconditum was recorded, with significant variations according to sampling areas. Coinfections of D. immitis and D. repens were recorded in 23.91 % (n?=?11) positive dogs. A slightly higher prevalence for D. immitis was detected at the SNAP test (n?=?28, 7.17 %; 95 % CI 4.91-10.33 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p?=?0.66). However, only 53.57 % (n?=?15) of antigen-positive dogs were confirmed by PCR, while other dogs (n?=?9) PCR positive for D. immitis were negative at the serology. The present study shows that Dirofilaria species are endemic in the southern and southeastern areas of Romania, This article also provides, for the first time, an epidemiological picture of the distribution of A. reconditum in Romania. PMID:25544702

Ionic?, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Gy?rke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Annoscia, Giada; Albrechtová, Kate?ina; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

2015-03-01

65

Distinct B-cell and T-cell lymphoproliferative disease prevalence among dog breeds indicates heritable risk.  

PubMed

Immunophenotypes in lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) are prognostically significant, yet causative factors for these conditions, and specifically those associated with heritable risk, remain elusive. The full spectrum of LPD seen in humans occurs in dogs, but the incidence and lifetime risk of naturally occurring LPD differs among dog breeds. Taking advantage of the limited genetic heterogeneity that exists within dog breeds, we tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes would differ among different breeds. The sample population included 1,263 dogs representing 87 breeds. Immunophenotype was determined by the presence of clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain or T-cell receptor gamma chain. The probability of observing the number of B-cell or T-cell tumors in a particular breed or breed group was compared with three reference populations. Significance was computed using chi2 test, and logistic regression was used to confirm binomial predictions. The data show that, among 87 breeds tested, 15 showed significant differences from the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes seen across the dog population as a whole. More significantly, elevated risk for T-cell LPD seems to have arisen ancestrally and is retained in related breed groups, whereas increased risk for B-cell disease may stem from different risk factors, or combinations of risk factors, arising during the process of breed derivation and selection. The data show that domestic dogs provide a unique and valuable resource to define factors that mediate risk as well as genes involved in the initiation of B-cell and T-cell LPD. PMID:15994938

Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Burnett, Robert C; Parker, Heidi G; Inusah, Seidu; Thomas, Rachael; Avery, Paul R; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Ostrander, Elaine A; Cutter, Gary C; Avery, Anne C

2005-07-01

66

Dogs  

MedlinePLUS

... their stool, and their food. By providing your pet with routine veterinary care and some simple health tips, you are less ... feces and possible spread of disease. Monitor your pet's health ... a veterinarian for routine evaluation and care to keep your dog healthy and prevent infectious ...

67

The Prevalence of Nine Genetic Disorders in a Dog Population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n?=?476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n?=?8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

2013-01-01

68

Renal calculi in dogs and cats: prevalence, mineral type, breed, age, and gender interrelationships (1981-1993).  

PubMed

Three hundred seventeen specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 214 female dogs and 103 male dogs, and 71 specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 38 female cats and 33 male cats were submitted for mineral analysis between July 1, 1981, and December 31, 1993. Among dogs, 45 breeds were affected with renal calculi. Thirty-three breeds and a crossbred group were represented among females, but 8 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 81% of the total. Among male dogs, 30 breeds and a crossbred group were represented, but 7 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 69% of the total. Among cats, 10 breeds and a crossbred group were represented. Dogs and cats with renal calculi were older than those of 2 comparison population groups. More than one-half of the renal calculi in both dogs and cats were from the 1st known episode of urolithiasis. The risk of formation of renal calculi was found to be higher for cats than for dogs, when compared to other stone-forming cats and dogs (approximately 4.95 per 100 stone-forming cats and 2.88 per 100 stone-forming dogs). Among dogs, breeds at highest risk of developing renal calculi were Miniature Schnauzers, Shih Tzus, Lhasa Aposos, Yorkshire Terriers, and female Pugs. Also at high risk were male Dalmatians and male Basset Hounds. Among small dogs, females generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi than were males. Regardless of size, terrier breed males generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi. Breeds of dogs at low risk for development of renal calculi included crossbreds. German Shepherd Dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and female Dachshunds. When only 1 kidney was involved, the risk of left renal calculus was greatest for both dogs and cats, but bilateral renal involvement was relatively common in both species (19% and 9%, respectively). Among dogs, specimens composed of 1 mineral substance (e.g., struvite) occurred more often in males (58.3%) than in females (37.9%). Female dogs formed renal calculi containing struvite or oxalate more often than did males; males formed calculi containing urate more often than did females. Calculi containing oxalate, apatite, or some combination of these minerals predominated among cats; only 1 specimen from 38 female cats and only 4 specimens from 33 male cats contained neither oxalate nor apatite. Crossbred cats were significantly less likely to have renal calculi than were other breeds. A single renal calculus specimen was identified in several uncommon breeds including Tonkinese and Birman cats, and Affenpinscher, Clumber Spaniel, English Shepherd, and Field Spaniel dogs. No significant differences were observed between male and female dogs or between male and female cats with regard to mineral type of the specimen and the presence of urinary tract infection. PMID:9503355

Ling, G V; Ruby, A L; Johnson, D L; Thurmond, M; Franti, C E

1998-01-01

69

Prevalence of fragmented medial coronoid process of the ulna in lame adult dogs.  

PubMed

Over a period of three years, a diagnosis of fragmented medial coronoid process of the ulna was confirmed by arthroscopy in 263 dogs, in 69 of which both elbow joints were affected, giving a total of 332 affected joints; 39 of the joints were also affected by osteochondrosis dissecans of the trochlea of the humerus. More than half of the dogs (51.7 per cent) were over one year old when first examined. In 259 (78 per cent) of the joints there were radiographic changes of secondary osteoarthrosis of different severity, but the other 73 (22 per cent) had no signs of osteophytosis except for a mild sclerosis. Among these 73 there were 14 joints in 13 dogs between 19 and 36 months old and 11 joints in 10 dogs over three years old. A further 12 joints in 11 dogs over three years old showed only mild arthrosis. In five of the 11 joints of the dogs over three years old which had no radiological signs of arthrosis, the fragment was already dislocated. Among the dogs over 18 months old with no arthrosis and the dogs over three years old with mild arthrosis, the most commonly affected breeds were the Bernese mountain dog, rottweiler and boxer. PMID:12219900

Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Langhann, A; Fehr, M; Nolte, I

2002-08-24

70

Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in cats and dogs in Heilongjiang province, China.  

PubMed

This study investigated 319 fecal specimens of cats (n=52) and dogs (n=267) from Heilongjiang province, China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene identified C. felis and C. parvum in one cat each (3.8%) and C. canis and C. ubiquitum in 6 dogs (2.2%). Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and phylogenetic analysis characterized zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, NED1, and NED2 and host-adapted ones NED3, NED4, and PtEb IX in 18 dogs (6.7%) and human-pathogenic genotypes D and IV in 3 cats (5.8%). Genotyping based on the hypermutation of G. duodenalis triosephosphate isomerase gene (TPI) facilitated identification of assemblage F in a cat (1.9%) and assemblages C and E in 12 dogs (4.5%). Subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates were determined by measuring the diversity of both TPI nucleotide and amino acid sequences. C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV, and G. duodenalis assemblage C identified herein have been documented in human infections in China. C. canis, C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, and E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV carried by cats or dogs also existed in wastewater in China. The finding suggested pet animals could be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis and potential sources of water contamination in China. PMID:25665462

Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Jinping; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Siwen; Xiao, Lihua

2015-03-15

71

Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia doudenalis in dogs from China.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to carry out a survey for the presence of Giardia duodenalis infection in canine using ELISA and PCR and to identify risk factors for infection. Samples from 318 dogs' feces living in nine cities in China were used in the present study. Each sample was tested for the presence of G. duodenalis-specific antigens using ELISA and 197 out of 318 samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis using PCR. The overall rate of canines infected with giardiasis in the present study was 16.04?% and 15.22?% using ELISA and PCR, respectively. No significant difference was found between sex and Giardia positivity. Young dogs (up to one year) and living in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, giardiasis in dogs was present in nine cities in China; as risk factors, young dogs (up to one year) and living in communities were of great significance. Giardia-infected canine should be treated for hygienic management to prevent transmission of the infection from dog to human. PMID:24814763

Yang, Dubao; Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Limei; Dong, Hong; Jing, Zhihong; Li, Zhan; Liu, Jianzhu

2015-04-01

72

Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana.  

PubMed

Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs. PMID:25686301

Clarke, Lorelei L; Ballweber, Lora R; Allen, Kelly; Little, Susan E; Lappin, Michael R

2014-01-01

73

Risk factors associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in a metapopulation of black-tailed prairie dogs in Mexico.  

PubMed

Interest in the study of infectious diseases of wildlife has grown in recent decades and now focuses on understanding host-parasite dynamics and factors involved in disease occurrence. The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a useful species for this type of investigation because it lives in heterogeneous landscapes where human activities take place, and its populations are structured as a metapopulation. Our goal was to determine if colony area, density, and proximity to human settlements are associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in black-tailed prairie dogs of northwestern Chihuahua State, Mexico. We captured 266 prairie dogs in 11 colonies in 2009 and analyzed 248 serum samples with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody to any of the 12 pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans. Serologically positive test results for only serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Celledoni, and Tarassovi were considered for statistical analysis. Almost 80% of sera were positive for at least one pathogenic serovar (MAT titer ?1?80). The highest recorded antibody prevalences were to serovars Bratislava and Canicola. Correlation analysis showed a negative relationship between L. interrogans antibody prevalence and colony area (r?=?-0.125, P<0.005), suggesting that animals living in larger colonies were at a lower risk than those in smaller colonies. The correlation between the serovar Canicola and distance was negative (r?=?-0.171, P<0.007), and this relationship may be explained by the presence of domestic dogs associated with human dwellings. This is the first study of Leptospira spp. antibody prevalence in prairie dogs, and it provides valuable insights into the dynamics of leptospirosis in threatened wildlife species. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of Leptospira serovars in metapopulations of prairie dogs and other domestic and wild mammals in grassland communities. PMID:25380365

Montiel-Arteaga, Ana; Atilano, Daniel; Ayanegui, Alejandra; Ceballos, Gerardo; Suzán, Gerardo

2015-01-01

74

Preliminary Investigation of the Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Giardia intestinalis in Dogs in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the genus Giardia (G.) intestinalis is the only species found in humans as well as in other mammals, including domestic and farm animals. Molecular characterisation\\u000a of strains isolated from different hosts revealed the existence of sevenmajor genotypic assemblages. Assemblage A and B isolates\\u000a have been recovered from a broad range of hosts, including humans, livestock, cats, dogs, beavers and

Z. Szénási; S. Marton; I. Kucsera; B. Tánczos; K. Horváth; E. Orosz; Z. Lukács; Z. Szeidemann

2007-01-01

75

Coronary and myocardial adaptations to high altitude in dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to high altitude (hypoxic hypoxemia) induces coronary and/or collateral growth. Fourteen mongrel dogs were maintained at a simulated altitude of 18,000 ft for 1 mo and 7 dogs maintained for 3 mo. Within 2 days after their sojourn, the following data were obtained at ambient pressure: pulmonary, right heart chamber, and wedge pressures as well as cardiac output. On an isolated heart preparation, coronary and collateral flows were determined; each vessel was injected with a different color tracer; and the heart was sliced, separated by perfusion territories, and examined for myocardial hypertrophy. We found that pulmonary artery pressures in altitude-adapted animals were higher compared with controls, and coronary flow per gram was increased after 1 mo of exposure but not different from control after 3 mo. Collateral flows were not significantly different from that of control animals, and biventricular hypertrophy occurred with right ventricular dominance. Comparing these results with those that we obtained previously from anemic animals, we favor the hypothesis that oxygen availability rather than blood flow velocity is most likely linked to vascular growth. PMID:2124423

Scheel, K W; Seavey, E; Gaugl, J F; Williams, S E

1990-12-01

76

The safety and efficacy of the oral rabies vaccine SAG2 in Indian stray dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of human rabies throughout the world. Dogs are primarily responsible for rabies transmission. Among them, stray dogs play a major role in that country. Parenteral vaccination programmes are insufficient to eliminate rabies partly due to difficulties in establishing satisfactory immunisation coverage in the dog population in view of the high

F. Cliquet; J. P. Gurbuxani; H. K. Pradhan; B. Pattnaik; S. S. Patil; A. Regnault; H. Begouen; A. L. Guiot; R. Sood; P. Mahl; R. Singh; F. X. Meslin; E. Picard; M. F. A. Aubert; J. Barrat

2007-01-01

77

Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%?60.42%) and dogs (57.41%?43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

2014-01-01

78

Eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration into splenic B-cell high-grade lymphoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old mixed-breed dog showing ascites, anorexia and anemia was found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. The dog died 4 days after initial presentation and was diagnosed with splenic high-grade B-cell lymphoma at necropsy. Remarkable infiltrations of eosinophils were observed in spleen and liver tissues. The eosinophilia and infiltration of eosinophils into the lesions could have been associated with B-cell lymphoma because causes other than lymphoma were excluded. This is the first report of eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltrations into neoplastic lesions in a dog with high-grade B-cell lymphoma. PMID:20467202

Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ugai, Jun; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ide, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayam, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2010-10-01

79

Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

80

MHC variability supports dog domestication from a large number of wolves: high diversity in Asia.  

PubMed

The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA-DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA-DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392

Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P

2013-01-01

81

Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41–42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8·2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats. PMID:17032467

GÜRTLER, R. E.; CECERE, M. C.; LAURICELLA, M. A.; CARDINAL, M. V.; KITRON, U.; COHEN, J. E.

2009-01-01

82

Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control. PMID:16651867

Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

2006-06-01

83

Baroreceptors mask sympathetic responses to high intraocular pressure in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

These experiments were designed to investigate whether increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized dogs produces differential control of sympathetic nerve activities to various organs (heart, kidney, liver, and spleen) and if these sympathetic responses are modified by baroreceptors. We performed simultaneous multi-recordings of cardiac, renal, hepatic and splenic sympathetic nerve activities (CNA, RNA, HNA and SpNA, respectively) during 2 min of

Toru Yahagi; Shozo Koyama; Kazumasa Osaka; Haruhide Koyama

2008-01-01

84

Dogs and intestinal parasites: a public health problem.  

PubMed Central

The stools of 239 stray dogs were examined for intestinal parasites. Of the helminths found, Toxocara canis (43.5%), tapeworms (25.5%), Ascaris species (21.3%) and hookworms (12.5%) were the commonest. Of the protozoans found, Isospora species and Entamoeba coli were the most prevalent. An unusual feature of the present study was the finding of Ascaris species. The importance of the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs, the close contact of humans with dogs' excreta and the possible role of this environmental pollution in the spread of human disease are discussed. PMID:1125888

Seah, S. K.; Hucal, G.; Law, C.

1975-01-01

85

Proteomic analysis of highly prevalent amyloid a amyloidosis endemic to endangered island foxes.  

PubMed

Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA). Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34%) in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%), spleen (58%), oral cavity (45%), and vasculature (44%) and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-? chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ? 0.05). Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins. PMID:25429466

Gaffney, Patricia M; Imai, Denise M; Clifford, Deana L; Ghassemian, Majid; Sasik, Roman; Chang, Aaron N; O'Brien, Timothy D; Coppinger, Judith; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer; Munson, Linda; Sigurdson, Christina

2014-01-01

86

Proteomic Analysis of Highly Prevalent Amyloid A Amyloidosis Endemic to Endangered Island Foxes  

PubMed Central

Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA). Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34%) in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%), spleen (58%), oral cavity (45%), and vasculature (44%) and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-? chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ?0.05). Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins. PMID:25429466

Gaffney, Patricia M.; Imai, Denise M.; Clifford, Deana L.; Ghassemian, Majid; Sasik, Roman; Chang, Aaron N.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Coppinger, Judith; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer; Munson, Linda; Sigurdson, Christina

2014-01-01

87

Japanese Shiba dogs possessing erythrocytes with high Glut1 activity and high ascorbic acid recycling capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glut-1 was discovered in erythrocytes of some Japanese Shiba dogs. They have Glut-1 as well as Glut-4 in erythrocytes, while\\u000a other Shiba dogs and other breeds have only Glut-4. Dog erythrocytes with Glut-1 showed much higher affinity for entry of\\u000a glucose and oxidized ascorbic acid and greater capacity for ascorbic acid (AA) recycling than those with only Glut-4. Dog\\u000a is

Eri Ogawa; Nobuya Hishiyama

88

Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).  

PubMed

Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts. PMID:18605787

Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

2008-06-01

89

Ticks and haemoparasites of dogs from Praia, Cape Verde.  

PubMed

In February 2008 an epidemiological field study on arthropod-borne infections in dogs was carried out in Praia, the capital city of Cape Verde. For this purpose 130 dogs were included in the study. Of these, 94.6% were infested with ticks. Altogether, 1293 ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus (in all evaluated cases R. sanguineus) were collected. Examination for haemotropic parasites was performed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lymph node fine-needle aspirates were screened by PCR for Leishmania infantum infections in 20 dogs with enlarged lymph nodes. Our investigation revealed two species of protozoa (Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis) and two species of rickettsiae (Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis). In 101 dogs (77.7%) DNA of one or more pathogens was detected. The PCR examination for H. canis was positive in 83 dogs (63.8%), for E. canis in 34 dogs (26.2%), for A. platys in 10 dogs (7.7%) and for B. canis in five dogs (3.8%), whereas neither B. gibsoni nor L. infantum DNA could be detected. Of the infected dogs, 71.3% had a monoinfection, 27.7% had infections with two pathogens and 1.0% with three pathogens. B. canis, H. canis, E. canis, A. platys and their vector tick R. sanguineus are endemic to Cape Verde and can be present in dogs in high prevalences. These results outline the risk of importing tropical canine diseases when Capeverdian stray dogs are taken to Europe. PMID:19729247

Götsch, S; Leschnik, M; Duscher, G; Burgstaller, J P; Wille-Piazzai, W; Joachim, A

2009-12-01

90

The prevalence of joint hypermobility among high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to deter- mine the prevalence of joint hypermobility among high school students and to define the characteristics of pa- tients with joint hypermobility. Methods: The students underwent complete history and physical examination. In order to designate marfanoid habitus, body weight, height, and span\\/height and upper\\/lower segment ratios were recorded. The degree of joint

Ümit Seçkin; Birkan Sonel Tur; Özlem Y?lmaz; ?lker Ya?c?; Hatice Bodur; Tansu Aras?l

2005-01-01

91

High prevalence of headaches in patients with epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the association between headaches and epilepsy. Methods Consecutive adult epileptic patients who went to the outpatient clinic of the Epilepsy Center of PLA General Hospital between February 01, 2012, and May 10, 2013, were recruited into this study. A total of 1109 patients with epilepsy completed a questionnaire regarding headaches. Results Overall, 60.1% of the patients (male: 57.2%; female: 63.8%) reported headaches within the last year. The age-weighted prevalence of interictal migraine was 11.7% (male 8.9%, female 15.3%), which is higher than that reported in a large population-based study (8.5%, male 5.4%, female 11.6%) using the same screening questions. The prevalence of postictal headaches was 34.1% (males 32.7%, females 35.2%), and the presence of preictal headaches was 4.5% (males 4.3%, females 5.2%). The prevalence of headache yesterday in the general population was 4.8% (male 3.0%, female 6.6%). Thus, the prevalence of headaches, including migraine, is higher in epileptic patients in China. Conclusions The high prevalence of postictal headaches confirms the frequent triggering of a headache by a seizure. A much lower frequency of preictal headaches, a condition in which the real triggering effect of the headache on the seizure might be difficult to prove. PMID:25366245

2014-01-01

92

Organ blood flow during high-frequency ventilation at low and high airway pressure in dogs.  

PubMed

Using the radiolabeled microsphere technique, the authors studied hemodynamic variables and regional blood flow to multiple peripheral organs during conventional positive-pressure ventilation (CV) and high-frequency ventilation (HFV) at low and high mean airway pressure (Paw). Twenty supine anesthetized, paralyzed dogs were ventilated using CV (14-16 breaths/min) and HFV (rate = 10 Hz) in random order. In the first group (low Paw, n = 10), Paw was maintained at 3 cmH2O during CV and HFV. In the second group (high Paw, n = 10), Paw was increased to 13 cmH2O during CV and HFV. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and right atrial pressure remained constant during low and high Paw trials. No differences in heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, or cardiac output were noted during CV and HFV within the low and high Paw groups. In addition, blood flow to multiple peripheral organs during CV and HFV remained constant within each Paw group, except for a small decrease in cerebellar blood flow during HFV at high Paw trials showed a significant decrease in hepatic arterial and outer kidney cortical flow at high Paw. Total cerebral blood flow was decreased at high Paw, as were regional flows to diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. However, these differences were not attributable to differences in cerebral perfusion pressure or intracranial pressure, and cerebral oxygen delivery was not different between high Paw and low Paw groups. It is concluded that under conditions of similar Paw in anesthetized dogs, HFV does not significantly alter hemodynamic patterns or regional circulation relative to CV. PMID:3524318

Gioia, F R; Harris, A P; Traystman, R J; Rogers, M C

1986-07-01

93

Modeling the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs for a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis abundance and prevalence data, for domestic dogs of Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, were fitted to mathematical models to evaluate transmission parameters. Abundance models, assuming the presence and absence of immunity, were fit for both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis using Bayesian priors, maximum likelihood, and Monte Carlo sampling techniques. When the

Christine M. Budke; Qiu Jiamin; Philip S. Craig; Paul R. Torgerson

2005-01-01

94

Chromosome-specific paints from a high-resolution flow karyotype of the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and duallaser flow cytometry, we have routinely obtained high-resolution bivariate flow karyotypes of the dog in which 32 peaks are resolved. To allow the identification of the chromosome types in each peak, chromosomes were flow sorted, amplified and labelled by polymerase chain reaction with partially degenerate primers and hybridized onto metaphase spreads of a male

Cordelia F. Langford; Patricia E. Fischer; Matthew M. Binns; Nigel G. Holmes; Nigel P. Carter

1996-01-01

95

Ownership of High-Risk ("Vicious") Dogs as a Marker for Deviant Behaviors: Implications for Risk Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status in settings…

Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Dates, Harold F.; Mahlman, Andrew R.

2006-01-01

96

Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.  

PubMed

Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was signi?cantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans. PMID:24280028

Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

2015-03-01

97

High prevalence of HPV among female students in Finland.  

PubMed

We studied the prevalence of HPV DNA among university students within the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. First-y students attending a general health examination as well as students visiting a general practitioner for contraception were enrolled. Vaginal self-samples or cervicovaginal swabs were collected from a total of 1469 students. HPV DNA was determined using a liquid hybridization test. Of all students 33.0% were positive for HPV DNA. Of all positive samples 84.3% were positive for high-risk HPV. The study demonstrated a strikingly high HPV DNA prevalence among the young women. Self-collected samples proved to be acceptable for HPV DNA detection using liquid hybridization. PMID:16308223

Auvinen, Eeva; Niemi, Marja; Malm, Christian; Zilliacus, Robert; Trontti, Anu; Fingerroos, Rita; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Bjorma

2005-01-01

98

High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

2009-01-01

99

High Prevalence of Tropheryma whipplei in Lao Kindergarten Children  

PubMed Central

Background Tropheryma whipplei is a bacterium commonly found in feces of young children in Africa, but with no data from Asia. We estimated the prevalence of T. whipplei carriage in feces of children in Lao PDR (Laos). Methods/Principal Findings Using specific quantitative real-time PCR, followed by genotyping for each positive specimen, we estimated the prevalence of T. whipplei in 113 feces from 106 children in Vientiane, the Lao PDR (Laos). T. whipplei was detected in 48% (51/106) of children. Those aged ?4 years were significantly less frequently positive (17/52, 33%) than older children (34/54, 63%; p< 0.001). Positive samples were genotyped. Eight genotypes were detected including 7 specific to Laos. Genotype 2, previously detected in Europe, was circulating (21% of positive children) in 2 kindergartens (Chompet and Akad). Genotypes 136 and 138 were specific to Chompet (21% and 15.8%, respectively) whereas genotype 139 was specific to Akad (10.55%). Conclusions/Significance T. whipplei is a widely distributed bacterium, highly prevalent in feces of healthy children in Laos. Further research is needed to identify the public health significance of this finding. PMID:25699514

Keita, Alpha Kabinet; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sibounheuang, Bountoy; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Mayxay, Mayfong; Raoult, Didier; Newton, Paul N.; Fenollar, Florence

2015-01-01

100

Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border  

PubMed Central

In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010–2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

2014-01-01

101

Discospondylitis and Orchitis Associated with High Brucella Titre in a Dog  

PubMed Central

A case of discospondylitis and orchitis associated with high Brucella titre in a dog is presented. Clinical signs included intermittent pain, poor appetite and a decreased level of physical activity. Radiographic evidence of discospondylitis was found. Histopathological findings on the testes are included. Treatment regime and clinical progress are given. Diagnosis and treatment of B. canis are described and a brief review of the treatment of discospondylitis is presented. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422294

Anderson, G. I.; Binnington, A. G.

1983-01-01

102

High cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-10 attained by AAV in dogs.  

PubMed

Intrathecal (IT) gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) may be clinically promising as a treatment for chronic pain if it can produce sufficiently high levels of a transgene product in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although this strategy was developed in rodents, no studies investigating CSF levels of an analgesic or antiallodynic protein delivered by IT AAV have been performed in large animals. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an antiallodynic cytokine for which target therapeutic levels have been established in rats. The present study tested IT AAV8 encoding either human IL-10 (hIL-10) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a dog model of IT drug delivery. AAV8/hIL-10 at a dose of 3.5 × 10(12) genome copies induced high hIL-10 levels in the CSF, exceeding the target concentration previously found to be antiallodynic in rodents by >1000-fold. AAV8/EGFP targeted the primary sensory and motor neurons and the meninges. hIL-10, a xenogeneic protein in dogs, induced anti-hIL-10 antibodies detectable in the CSF and serum of dogs. The high hIL-10 levels demonstrate the efficacy of AAV for delivery of secreted transgenes into the IT space of large animals, suggesting a strong case for further development toward clinical testing. PMID:25354684

Pleticha, J; Malkmus, S A; Heilmann, L F; Veesart, S L; Rezek, R; Xu, Q; Yaksh, T L; Beutler, A S

2015-02-01

103

Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28?s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95). Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49) followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85) and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84). Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR?=?4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31) and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR?=?0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43). Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions to combat hookworm in the country. PMID:22564445

2012-01-01

104

Trends in high blood pressure prevalence in Greek adolescents.  

PubMed

A school-based screening with anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements was performed in adolescents aged 12-17 years in the island of Samos, Greece, in 2004 and also in 2007. A total of 446 adolescents were included in the analysis in 2004 and 558 in 2007. The 2007 study population had higher levels of body mass index (BMI) (P<0.05) and systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.001), compared with 2004. The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% in 2004 and 22.9% in 2007 (P<0.01 for difference). Mean age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted BP increase was 4.1/10.5 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic). In multivariate analysis, BMI, male gender and age, but also modifiable factors (lack of physical activity, breakfast skipping, smoking and low milk consumption) were associated with increased BP levels in the study population. These data indicate that further to BMI, other factors such as adverse lifestyle and dietary habits appear to be associated with elevated BP levels in adolescents. Moreover, rising trends seem to characterize the prevalence of high BP. PMID:19158825

Kollias, A; Antonodimitrakis, P; Grammatikos, E; Chatziantonakis, N; Grammatikos, E E; Stergiou, G S

2009-06-01

105

High prevalence of esophageal dysmotility in asymptomatic obese patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important health problem affecting >500 million people worldwide. Esophageal dysmotility is a gastrointestinal pathology associated with obesity; however, its prevalence and characteristics remain unclear. Esophageal dysmotilities have a high prevalence among obese patients regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of esophageal dysmotility among obese patients. The secondary goals were to characterize these pathologies in obese patients and identify risk factors. METHOD: A prospective study from January 2009 to March 2010 at the University of Montreal Hospital Centre (Montreal, Quebec) was performed. Every patient scheduled for bariatric surgery underwent preoperatory esophageal manometry and was included in the study. Manometry was performed according to a standardized protocol with the following measures: superior esophageal sphincter – coordination and release during deglutition; esophageal body – presence, propagation, length, amplitude and type of esophageal waves of contraction; lower esophageal sphincter – localization, tone, release, intragastic pressure and intraesophageal pressure. All reference values were those used in the digestive motility laboratory. A gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaire was completed on the day manometry was performed. Chart reviews were performed to identify comorbidities and treatments that could influence the results. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were included (mean [± SD] age 43±10 years; mean body mass index 46±7 kg/m2; 70% female). Esophageal manometry revealed dysmotility in 51% (n=27) of the patients. This dysmotility involved the esophageal body in 74% (n=20) of the patients and the inferior sphincter in 11% (n=3). Mixed dysmotility (body and inferior sphincter) was found in 15% (n=4) of cases. The esophageal body dysmotilities were hypomotility in 85% (n=23) of the patients, either from insignificant waves (74% [n=20]), nonpropagated waves (11% [n=3]) or low-amplitude waves (33% [n=9]). Gastroesophageal symptoms were found in 66% (n=35) of obese patients, including heartburn (66% [n=23]), regurgitation (26% [n=9]), dysphagia (43% [n=15]), chest pain (6% [n=2]) and dyspepsia (26% [n=9]). Among symptomatic patients, 51% (n=18) had normal manometry and 49% (n=17) had abnormal manometry (statistically nonsignificant). Among asymptomatic patients (n=18), 44% (n=8) had normal manometry and 56% (n=10) had abnormal manometry (statistically nonsignificant). Furthermore, no statistical differences were found between the normal manometry group and the abnormal manometry group with regard to medication intake or comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Esophageal dysmotilities had a high prevalence in obese patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms cannot predict the presence of esophageal dysmotility. Hypomotility of the esophageal body is the most common dysmotility, especially from the absence of significant waves. PMID:24945185

Côté-Daigneault, Justin; Leclerc, Pierre; Joubert, Josette; Bouin, Mickael

2014-01-01

106

Relationship between paraoxonase 1 activity and high density lipoprotein concentration during naturally occurring babesiosis in dogs.  

PubMed

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a negative acute phase protein bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL) and during the acute phase response (APR) protects HDL from peroxidation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between PON1 and HDL in canine babesiosis, a disease characterized by oxidative damages and by an APR. PON1, HDL and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood collected from 15 controls and 29 dogs with babesiosis sampled at admission, and on days 1 and 7 after treatment. At admission, PON1 and HDL were significantly lower in affected dogs. HDL concentration increased at day 1 while PON1 increased and CRP decreased at day 7. This suggests that the decrease of PON1 at admission is in part due to an increased consumption, the decreased HDL may depend on lipid peroxidation and its rapid increase after treatment may depend on the antioxidant activity of PON1. PMID:25104322

Rossi, G; Kuleš, J; Rafaj, R Bari?; Mrljak, V; Lauzi, S; Giordano, A; Paltrinieri, S

2014-10-01

107

High Prevalence of Natural Chlamydophila Species Infection in Calves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the acquisition and prevalence of Chlamydophila sp. infection in calves. Specimens were collected at weekly intervals from birth to week 12 postpartum from 40 female Holstein calf-dam pairs in a dairy herd. Real-time PCR detected, quantified, and differentiated Chlamydophila 23S rRNA gene DNA from vaginal cytobrush swabs and milk samples. Chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with lysed Chlamydophila abortus or Chlamydophila pecorum elementary body antigens quantified antibodies against Chlamydophila spp. in sera. Chlamydophila sp. DNA was found in 61% of calves and 20% of dams in at least one positive quantitative PCR. In calves, clinically inapparent C. pecorum infection with low organism loads was fivefold more prevalent than C. abortus infection and was most frequently detected by vaginal swabs compared to rectal or nasal swabs. In dams, C. abortus dominated in milk and C. pecorum dominated in the vagina. The group size of calves correlated positively (P < 0.01) with Chlamydophila infection in quadratic, but not linear, regression. Thus, a doubling of the group size was associated with a fourfold increase in frequency and intensity of Chlamydophila infection. For groups of 14 or 28 calves, respectively, logistic regression predicted a 9 or 52% probability of infection of an individual calf and a 52 or 99.99% probability of infection of the group. Anti-Chlamydophila immunoglobulin M antibodies in Chlamydophila PCR-positive calves and dams and in dams that gave birth to calves that later became positive were significantly higher than in PCR-negative animals (P ? 0.02). Collectively, crowding strongly enhances the frequency and intensity of highly prevalent Chlamydophila infections in cattle. PMID:15583297

Jee, JunBae; Degraves, Fred J.; Kim, TeaYoun; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

2004-01-01

108

Whole-genome sequencing of six dog breeds from continuous altitudes reveals adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia  

PubMed Central

The hypoxic environment imposes severe selective pressure on species living at high altitude. To understand the genetic bases of adaptation to high altitude in dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 60 dogs including five breeds living at continuous altitudes along the Tibetan Plateau from 800 to 5100 m as well as one European breed. More than 150× sequencing coverage for each breed provides us with a comprehensive assessment of the genetic polymorphisms of the dogs, including Tibetan Mastiffs. Comparison of the breeds from different altitudes reveals strong signals of population differentiation at the locus of hypoxia-related genes including endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1) and beta hemoglobin cluster. Notably, four novel nonsynonymous mutations specific to high-altitude dogs are identified at EPAS1, one of which occurred at a quite conserved site in the PAS domain. The association testing between EPAS1 genotypes and blood-related phenotypes on additional high-altitude dogs reveals that the homozygous mutation is associated with decreased blood flow resistance, which may help to improve hemorheologic fitness. Interestingly, EPAS1 was also identified as a selective target in Tibetan highlanders, though no amino acid changes were found. Thus, our results not only indicate parallel evolution of humans and dogs in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, but also provide a new opportunity to study the role of EPAS1 in the adaptive processes. PMID:24721644

Gou, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Ze; Yan, Dawei; Yang, Shuli; Jia, Jia; Kong, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zehui; Lu, Shaoxiong; Lian, Linsheng; Wu, Changxin; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Guozhi; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Qiang; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Baohong; Wei, Dongkai; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianfa; Yan, Yulin; Zhao, Guiying; Dong, Xinxing; Li, Mingli; Deng, Weidong; Leng, Jing; Wei, Chaochun; Wang, Chuan; Mao, Huaming; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Guohui; Li, Yixue

2014-01-01

109

Molecular detection and characterization of Cryptosporidium species in household dogs, pet shop puppies, and dogs kept in a school of veterinary nursing in Japan.  

PubMed

Members of Cryptosporidium species, which are protozoan parasites, are prevalent worldwide and can cause diarrhoea in both humans and animals, including dogs. In addition, the Cryptosporidium species harboured in dogs have the potential for zoonotic transmission. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species infection and perform molecular characterization of isolates in household dogs, pet shop puppies, and dogs kept in a school of veterinary nursing in Japan. Fresh faecal samples were collected once from 529 household dogs (aged from 2 months to 18 years old, from 9 veterinary clinics located in 6 different regions), 471 pet shop puppies (? 3 months old, from 4 pet shops located in 2 different regions), and 98 dogs (aged from 2 to 11 years old) kept in a veterinary nursing school. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was employed for the detection of Cryptosporidium species, and 111 random samples of PCR amplicons (approximately 500-bp) were sequenced for the molecular characterization of the isolates. The prevalences of Cryptosporidium species in household dogs, pet shop puppies, and veterinary nursing school dogs were 7.2%, 31.6%, and 18.4%, respectively. In household dogs, no significant correlation was observed between the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and the age (? 6 months vs. >6 months), living conditions (indoor vs. outdoor), faecal conditions (formed vs. unformed), and location of residence. In pet shop puppies, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species was not related to faecal condition; however, the prevalence significantly differed among the pet shops. All of the 111 sequence samples (26 from household dogs, 75 from pet shop puppies, and 10 from veterinary nursing school dogs) were identified as Cryptosporidium canis. The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium species infections in pet shop puppies and dogs of a veterinary nursing school in Japan. However, because Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most common causes of human infections, it is likely that the risk of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium species from dogs to humans is low. PMID:24461210

Itoh, Naoyuki; Oohashi, Yoshino; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichi; Saeki, Hideharu; Kanai, Kazutaka; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

2014-03-01

110

Serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background Canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs) comprise illnesses caused by a spectrum of pathogens that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Some dogs have persistent infections without apparent clinical, hematological or biochemical abnormalities, whereas other dogs develop acute illnesses, persistent subclinical infections, or chronic debilitating diseases. The primary objective of this study was to screen healthy dogs for serological and molecular evidence of regionally important CVBDs. Methods Clinically healthy dogs (n?=?118), comprising three different groups: Gp I blood donor candidates (n?=?47), Gp II healthy dog volunteers (n?=?50), and Gp III stray dogs (n?=?21) were included in the study. Serum and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anti-coagulated blood specimens collected from each dog were tested for CVBD pathogens. Results Of the 118 dogs tested, 97 (82%) dogs had been exposed to or were infected with one or more CVBD pathogens. By IFA testing, 9% of Gp I, 42% of Gp II and 19% of Gp III dogs were seroreactive to one or more CVBD pathogens. Using the SNAP 4DX® assay, Gp I dogs were seronegative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) antibodies and D. immitis antigen. In Gp II, 8 dogs were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive, 2 were infected with D. immitis and 1 was B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) seroreactive. In Gp III, 6 dogs were infected with D. immitis and 4 were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive. Using the BAPGM diagnostic platform, Bartonella DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from 19% of Gp I, 20% of Gp II and 10% of Gp III dogs. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, 6% of Gps I and II and 19% of Gp III dogs were infected with other CVBD pathogens. Conclusion The development and validation of specific diagnostic testing modalities has facilitated more accurate detection of CVBDs. Once identified, exposure to vectors should be limited and flea and tick prevention enforced. PMID:24655461

2014-01-01

111

Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Junior High and Senior High School Students in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…

Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

2008-01-01

112

Rimonabant prevents additional accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat during high-fat feeding in dogs  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether rimonabant, a type 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in dogs maintained on a hypercaloric high-fat diet (HHFD). To determine whether energy expenditure contributed to body weight changes, we also calculated resting metabolic rate. Twenty male dogs received either rimonabant (1.25 mg·kg?1·day?1, orally; n = 11) or placebo (n = 9) for 16 wk, concomitant with a HHFD. VAT, SAT, and nonfat tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting metabolic rate was assessed by indirect calorimetry. By week 16 of treatment, rimonabant dogs lost 2.5% of their body weight (P = 0.029), whereas in placebo dogs body weight increased by 6.2% (P < 0.001). Rimonabant reduced food intake (P = 0.027), concomitant with a reduction of SAT by 19.5% (P < 0.001). In contrast with the VAT increase with placebo (P < 0.01), VAT did not change with rimonabant. Nonfat tissue remained unchanged in both groups. Body weight loss was not associated with either resting metabolic rate (r2 = 0.24; P = 0.154) or food intake (r2 = 0.24; P = 0.166). In conclusion, rimonabant reduced body weight together with a reduction in abdominal fat, mainly because of SAT loss. Body weight changes were not associated with either resting metabolic rate or food intake. The findings provide evidence of a peripheral effect of rimonabant to reduce adiposity and body weight, possibly through a direct effect on adipose tissue. PMID:19366874

Richey, Joyce M.; Woolcott, Orison O.; Stefanovski, Darko; Harrison, L. Nicole; Zheng, Dan; Lottati, Maya; Hsu, Isabel R.; Kim, Stella P.; Kabir, Morvarid; Catalano, Karyn J.; Chiu, Jenny D.; Ionut, Viorica; Kolka, Cathryn; Mooradian, Vahe; Bergman, Richard N.

2009-01-01

113

Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases is high  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To present the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Methods: Twelve layman descriptions of common musculoskeletal diseases were part of the questionnaires of a prospective cohort study of a random sample in the general Dutch population aged 25 years or more (baseline: n=3664, follow up after six months: n=2338). Data collection also included information about pain relating to five different anatomical areas. Results: Osteoarthritis of the knee (men 10.1%, women 13.6%) was amongst the most reported musculoskeletal diseases, whereas the figures for self reported rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were 1.6% and 4.6% for men and women, respectively. The coexistence of these diseases is high: 47 of the 66 combinations were reported more often than would be expected if they were independent of each other (p<0.05). For most diseases the test-retest reliability was good (? between 0.6 and 0.8), but for repetitive strain injury (?=0.37) and chronic arthritis other than RA (?=0.44) the agreement was fair to moderate. All complaints of pain were more often reported by those with musculoskeletal diseases than those without those diseases, and the pain pattern was disease-specific. Conclusions: Self reported musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent, with a fair to good reliability and a disease-specific pain pattern. Health surveys are a limited but valuable source of information for this group of health problems, which is not available from most other sources of information. PMID:12810427

Picavet, H; Hazes, J

2003-01-01

114

Identifying areas of high risk of human exposure to coccidioidomycosis in Texas using serology data from dogs.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever (VF) is an emerging soil-borne fungal zoonosis affecting humans and animals. Most non-human cases of VF are found in dogs, which we hypothesize may serve as sentinels for estimating the human exposure risk. The objective of this study is to use the spatial and temporal distribution and clusters of dogs seropositive for VF to define the geographic area in Texas where VF is endemic, and thus presents a higher risk of exposure to humans. The included specimens were seropositive dogs tested at a major diagnostic laboratory between 1999 and 2009. Data were aggregated by zip code and smoothed by empirical Bayesian estimation to develop an isopleth map of VF seropositive rates using kriging. Clusters of seropositive dogs were identified using the spatial scan test. Both the isopleth map and the scan test identified an area with a high rate of VF-seropositive dogs in the western and southwestern parts of Texas (relative risk = 31). This location overlapped an area that was previously identified as a potential endemic region based on human surveys. Together, these data suggest that dogs may serve as sentinels for estimating the risk of human exposure to VF. PMID:22856539

Gautam, R; Srinath, I; Clavijo, A; Szonyi, B; Bani-Yaghoub, M; Park, S; Ivanek, R

2013-03-01

115

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in dogs with recently diagnosed but untreated pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the prevalence of visible pituitary masses in 21 dogs with recently diagnosed and untreated pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. All dogs had clinical signs and routine database values (CBC, serum biochemical panel, and urinalysis) consistent with a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism, and none had clinical signs suggestive of an intracranial mass. Each dog had plasma cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration or low-dose dexamethasone administration consistent with hyperadrenocorticism. Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was confirmed by the finding of 2 equal-size adrenal glands on abdominal ultrasonography and by results of plasma endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration and high-dose dexamethasone suppression testing. Sagittal and transverse T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain were obtained before and after IV administration of gadopentenate dimeglumine. Eleven dogs had visible masses, ranging in size from 4 to 12 mm at greatest vertical height. Mean age and body weight of dogs with a visible pituitary mass was not significantly different from dogs without a visible mass. There was no significant difference in endocrine test results when comparing dogs with a visible pituitary mass to dogs without. The prevalence of visible pituitary masses in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was greater than suggested by the prevalence of clinical neurologic signs. PMID:7744686

Bertoy, E H; Feldman, E C; Nelson, R W; Duesberg, C A; Kass, P H; Reid, M H; Dublin, A B

1995-03-01

116

Liquid Drugs and High Dead Space Syringes May Keep HIV and HCV Prevalence High – A Comparison of Hungary and Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania

V. Anna Gyarmathy; Alan Neaigus; Nan Li; Eszter Ujhelyi; Irma Caplinskiene; Saulius Caplinskas; Carl A. Latkin

2010-01-01

117

The effect of high dose digoxin on cytokines in healthy dogs.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta are pro-inflammatory cytokines, causing myocardial dysfunction and a negative inotropic effect. The drugs used to treat heart failure affect the production of cytokines. Digoxin, on which this study was focused, is one of the drugs for the treatment of heart failure. AIM: The present study was designed to examine the early effects of high doses of digoxin on the production of cytokines in healthy dogs. METHODS: Digoxin was given parenterally to dogs at 0.15 mg/kg. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production and levels of digoxin in the serum were measured 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h following administration of digoxin. RESULTS: As the levels of serum digoxin taken at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of administration were considered significantly high compared with preceding values (p < 0.001), no notable change in serum IL-1beta and TNF-alpha levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high doses of digoxin do not cause a significant cytokine production in heart muscle in the early phase. PMID:12396478

Dülger, Haluk; Sekero?lu, Mehmet Ramazan; Eryonucu, Beyhan; Noyan, Tevfik; Alici, Süleyman

2002-01-01

118

Dog Flu Outbreak Unleashes Warnings from Veterinarians  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dog Flu Outbreak Unleashes Warnings From Veterinarians Pay attention ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- With more than 1,000 dogs sickened by a highly contagious dog flu in ...

119

A molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis in domestic dogs in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, asymptomatic dogs in nine provinces of Turkey were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon canis infection. DNA obtained from blood samples collected from 694 domestic dogs (243 stray, 288 shelter, and 163 pets) of both genders and varying ages were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, 285 thin blood smears prepared from these blood samples were also evaluated for microscopic examination. Direct microscopy revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of three of 285 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-3.04) tested. Using PCR, 155 of the 694 (22.3%; 95% CI: 19.28-25.61) were found to be positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult dogs (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-30.7) than young animals (16.4%; 95% CI: 12.2-21.3). Although the prevalence determined by PCR was higher in male dogs (24.5%; 95% CI: 19.6-29.9) than in female dogs (20.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-25.1), gender differences were not significant. Pet dogs had a lower prevalence of infection (10.4%; 95% CI: 6.2-16.2) compared to stray (26.3%; 95% CI: 20.9-32.3) and shelter dogs (25.7%; 95% CI: 20.7-31.1), but no significant association between stray and shelter dogs was found for the presence of the parasite. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed a high prevalence of H. canis in dogs from several provinces in Turkey, and it suggests that the age and origin are associated with the parasite. PMID:25771934

Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi; Altay, Kür?at; Balkaya, ?brahim; Utuk, Armagan Erdem; K?rbas, Ak?n; ?imsek, Sami; Dumanl?, Nazir

2015-04-30

120

Low prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Jilin, Henan and Anhui Provinces of the People’s Republic of China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are consider...

121

High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.  

PubMed

The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 ?m × 11.9 ?m, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. PMID:21074324

Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

2011-02-10

122

The staging and treatment of multicentric high-grade lymphoma in dogs: A review of recent developments and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of canine lymphoma with resultant enhanced classification schemes and the possibility of individualised, tailored therapies. However, although complete remission may be achieved using multi-agent chemotherapy, the mortality rate from this neoplasm remains high. This review focuses on the staging of high-grade multicentric lymphoma in the dog, on conventional

Laura Marconato

2011-01-01

123

Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.  

PubMed

To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223

Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

2008-02-14

124

Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

2014-06-01

125

Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto®) in slow release collars to control ticks and fleas in highly infested dog communities  

PubMed Central

Background Dog communities living in kennels are at high risk of being infected by ticks and fleas. In spite of the indubitable efficacy of several topical ectoparasiticides registered for the control of ectoparasites in dogs, the short period of action and the price of these products limit their use in dog communities. This paper reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars to cure dogs highly infested with ectoparasites and to prevent infestations for 8 months in a refuge with a history of unsuccessful environmental treatments. Methods A total of 82 dogs were collared with slow release collars containing a formulation of imidacloprid 10% / flumethrin 4.5%. Dogs were followed-up for ectoparasite presence after 2, 7 and 14 days and thereafter biweekly up to 90 days. Furthermore, dogs were examined for ectoparasites whilst replacing collars 8 months after their application. Results At the time of treatment 79 (96.3%) out of 82 included dogs were heavily infested by ticks and 53 (68.8%) out of the 77 combed dogs were infested by fleas. Tick infested dogs had an estimated mean intensity of 46.9 (± 65.7), while flea infested animals had a load between 20 and 50 fleas. In addition, some of the flea infested dogs (18.9%) were presenting signs of flea allergic dermatitis (FAD). Two days after treatment, 49 (60.5%) and 9 (11.7%) dogs were still infested by live ticks and fleas, respectively. However, the mean intensity of ticks decreased to 3.5 (± 4.3) with a reduction of 92.5%. Except for sporadic cases, no attached ectoparasites were found on dogs from the day 14 visit until the end of the investigation. Cases of FAD resolved without any other treatment within 30 days. Conclusions Ticks and fleas represent a constant hazard for dog populations. Therefore, in particular settings, such as dog refuges, sustainable and long-term strategies to control ectoparasite infestations are needed. Based on the observed evidence of efficacy, long-term duration and safety, the imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars can be regarded as an efficacious and sustainable means for ectoparasite control and for treatment of FAD in high-risk dog communities. PMID:23866926

2013-01-01

126

Pulmonary hypertension induced in dogs by hypoxia at different high-altitude levels.  

PubMed

Chronic natural hypoxia at 2300 m altitude induces mild pulmonary hypertension (PH) in healthy dogs. The influence of more severe hypoxia on the same group of dogs was evaluated by re-examining such dogs at 3500 m, after they had regularly exercised at this altitude level for half a year. Despite severe hypoxaemia at 3500 m (PaO2 52+/-5 mmHg), none of the dogs developed erythrocytosis, and their PCV at 3500 m (48% +/- 4%) did not differ from that at 2300 m (49% +/- 4%). There was a tendency towards an elevated systemic BP, with a significant increase in diastolic BP (105 +/- 13 mmHg at 3500 m versus 98 +/- 17 at 2300 m). Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was detected in 7 dogs at 3500 m compared to 8 dogs at 2300 m. The mean TR Vmax was significantly higher at 3500 m, and all 7 dogs had systolic PH at 3500 m (33.6-54.8 mmHg), when PH was defined as TR Vmax > or = 2.8 m/s, i.e. a peak pressure gradient > 30 mmHg. Hence, in dogs, increasing altitude and the concomitant hypoxia result in a progressively more pronounced PH and an elevated systemic BP. Intermittent severe hypoxaemia of around 50 mmHg may not cause erythrocytosis in healthy dogs, even over a prolonged period. PMID:14672455

Glaus, T M; Hässig, M; Baumgartner, C; Reusch, C E

2003-12-01

127

Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?  

PubMed Central

This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855

Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

2014-01-01

128

Helminth infection in southern Laos: high prevalence and low awareness  

PubMed Central

Background Helminthiasis is a public health concern in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos). This study aimed to understand helminth infection and associated risk factors in relation to existing local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding worm infections in endemic communities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 randomly selected villages in Saravane district, Southern Laos. Two stool samples obtained from 574 members (aged ?2 years) of selected households were examined using the Kato Katz method. Household heads (n?=?130) were interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and direct observations were performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict infection. Content analysis was conducted for qualitative data. Results The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia sp. was 88.7%, 86.6%, 32.9%, 9.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Most individuals were co-infected with O. viverrini and hookworm. More men had multiple helminth infections than did women. Only one-third of household heads had heard about liver fluke before, of which 59.2% associated it with eating raw fish dish. Among the soil-transmitted helminths, roundworm was the most well known (70.8%) but was attributed to raw food consumption (91.3%). Eating raw fish was a common practice (75.4%); few households possessed a latrine (16.1%); less than half of the study participants mentioned health benefits from latrine use and personal hygiene. Focus group discussion participants had a low level of awareness of worm infections; more men liked eating raw fish than did women; some disliked using latrines because they were not used to it and because of their bad smell. Poor personal and village hygiene practices were observed. Conclusions This study highlights a high helminth infection rate and poor community awareness of worm infections and associated risk factors. Only a sound awareness of worm infection and the underlying risk factors may prevent infection and re-infection after treatment. PMID:24499584

2013-01-01

129

A single-centre, open-label, controlled, randomized clinical trial to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis in a high prevalence area.  

PubMed

The innate immune response acting immediately after initial infection with Leishmania parasites is known to play a relevant role in prevention against clinical progression of the disease. Domperidone is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that has shown to enhance the innate cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a high prevalence area. The study was performed with 90 healthy, seronegative dogs of different sex, age, weight and breed from a single veterinary clinic located in Valencia (Spain). Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs in one group (domperidone-treated group; n=44) were administered an oral suspension of domperidone at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day during 30 consecutive days, every 4 months. Dogs in the other group (negative control group; n=46) were left untreated. A 21-month follow-up period was implemented covering two seasonal phases of the sand fly vector. During this period all animals underwent periodic clinical examinations and blood samplings for anti-Leishmania serological testing. Dogs seropositive for Leishmania (IFAT antibody titre?1:80) plus at least one clinical sign consistent with CanL (indicative of active infection and incipient disease progression) were categorized as a 'prevention failure'. These dogs were withdrawn from the study after confirming the infection by direct observation of the parasite in smears of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow aspirates. The cumulative percentage of 'prevention failure' after 12 months was significantly lower in the domperidone-treated group than in the negative control group (7% versus 35%, p=0.003). Differences between groups persisted after 21 months (11% versus 48%, p<0.001). The prevention rate provided by domperidone was 80% during the first 12 months and 77% throughout the complete 21-month follow-up period, with odds ratios of 7.3 (p=0.001) and 7.15 (p<0.001), respectively, this indicating that the risk for domperidone-treated dogs to develop the clinical disease is quite 7 times lower than for dogs left untreated. The results of this study demonstrate that the implementation of a strategic domperidone-based treatment programme consisting in quarterly repeated 30-day treatments with domperidone effectively reduces the risk to develop clinical CanL in areas with high prevalence of the disease. PMID:24698328

Sabaté, David; Llinás, Jorge; Homedes, Josep; Sust, Mariano; Ferrer, Lluís

2014-07-01

130

Combined exposure to dog and indoor pollution: incident asthma in a high-risk birth cohort.  

PubMed

The impact of single exposures on asthma development is better understood than the effect of multiple exposures. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of combined early exposure to dog allergen (Can-f1) plus indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO?) or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in a high-risk birth cohort. We also aimed to assess atopy's impact on the effects of these exposures. Peri-birth ETS exposure was measured using cord blood cotinine (CCot). During year 1, atopy, NO?, Can-f1, and urinary cotinine (UCot) were measured. At 7 yrs of age, 380 children were assessed for asthma and BHR. Exposure effects were determined using stepwise multiple linear regression. Co-exposure to elevated Can-f1 and NO?, or Can-f1 and ETS (CCot), increased risk for asthma, relative to having neither such exposure (OR 4.8 (95% CI 1.1-21.5) and 2.7 (1.1-7.1), respectively); similar risks resulted when substituting dog ownership for allergen. Atopy increased asthma and BHR risk associated with several exposures; notably, atopy with elevated UCot, relative to atopy without such exposure, increased risk of BHR (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.1-8.6)). In a high-risk birth cohort, early co-exposure to Can-f1 and NO? or ETS increased the risk of incident asthma. Atopy increased the risk of asthma and BHR associated with ETS. PMID:20530047

Carlsten, C; Brauer, M; Dimich-Ward, H; Dybuncio, A; Becker, A B; Chan-Yeung, M

2011-02-01

131

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

1995-01-01

132

High prevalence of asthma in cross country skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To study the prevalence of asthma (asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness) in Swedish cross country skiers compared with non-skiers and monitor changes in symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness during the year. DESIGN--Cross sectional study during the winter ski season and in the summer. SETTING--Six ski clubs for élite skiers (total 47) in two different areas of Sweden. SUBJECTS--42 élite cross country

K Larsson; P Ohlsén; L Larsson; P Malmberg; P O Rydström; H Ulriksen

1993-01-01

133

High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl\\u000a in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were\\u000a determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de Val?ncia, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Do?ana (Guadalquivir Marshes).\\u000a Lead pellet density

R. Mateo; J. Belliure; J. C. Dolz; J. M. Aguilar Serrano; R. Guitart

1998-01-01

134

High-molecular-weight renin converting enzyme from dog kidney: detection and fractionation.  

PubMed

Renal cortical high-molecular-weight renin (Mw:60,000) of the dog is a complex of renin (low-molecular-weight renin; Mw:40,000) and a renin binding protein. We detected an enzyme-like substance that catalyzes the conversion from high- into low-molecular-weight renin. When the renal cortical extract was added to the high-molecular-weight renin and the preparation incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min, the high-molecular-weight renin was converted into the low-molecular-weight form. No such conversion occurred in the case of renal medullary extract. This converting substance was fractionated using concanavalin A Sepharose, 70% ammonium sulfate saturation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The converting activity was inhibited by potassium tetrathionate, N-ethylmaleimide and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). These events suggest that this substance is an enzyme possessing sulfhydryl moieties. However, a cathepsin B inhibitor leupeptin did not affect the activity. Accordingly, the high-molecular-weight renin converting enzyme, which is sensitive to sulfhydryl oxidation, may explain the mechanism of interconversion between high- and low-molecular-weight renin involving the oxidation-reduction of tissue sulfhydryl groups. PMID:3884947

Tanaka, M; Iwao, H; Ikemoto, F; Yamamoto, K

1985-03-25

135

An ultrastructural study on indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to mandible in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to mandible in dogs. Eighteen dogs aged 12-13 months were divided equally into six groups (n = 3 in each group) with random allocation, then a high-speed missile projectile (a ball bearing of stainless steel, phi6.0 mm, 0.88 g) was shot at right mandible body (the wound tract was below the fourth premolar, 1 cm or so to the root tips) of each dog, but the teeth were not wounded directly. The dogs were killed 6 h (n = 3), 24 h (n = 3), 3 days (n = 3), 7 days (n = 3), 2 weeks (n = 3) and 4 weeks (n = 3) after the wound, respectively; then ultrastructural change of dental pulp of the fourth premolar and the second premolar of right mandible, and the second premolar of left mandible was observed through transmission electron microscope. The results showed that mean initial velocity of projectiles was 778.0 +/- 33.2 m s(-1) and mean projection energy was 266.1 +/- 19.1 J, which were in conformity with parameters of gunshot wound. On the wound side, dental pulp of the fourth mandibular premolar was injured seriously and irreversible necrosis happened in the end; yet, dental pulp of the second mandibular premolar was injured less seriously, reversibly; on the opposite side, dental pulp of the second mandibular premolar was injured slightly and temporarily. It may be concluded that there are several characteristics in indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to dogs' mandible: the injured area is relatively extensive; traumatic degree decreases progressively and sharply with the distance to the wound tract increasing; ultrastructural change of nerval damage takes place in early stage after wound, etc. PMID:19021656

Ren, Changqun; Liu, Ruifeng; Tian, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Shuxia

2008-12-01

136

Is high prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild and domestic animals associated with disease incidence in humans?  

PubMed Central

We investigated a focus of highly endemic Echinococcus multilocularis infection to assess persistence of high endemicity in rural rodents, explore potential for parasite transmission to domestic carnivores, and assess (serologically) putative exposure versus infection frequency in inhabitants of the region. From spring 1993 to spring 1998, the prevalence of E. multilocularis in rodents was 9% to 39% for Arvicola terrestris and 10% to 21% for Microtus arvalis. From June 1996 to October 1997, 6 (7%) of 86 feral dogs and 1 of 33 cats living close to the region tested positive for intestinal E. multilocularis infection. Testing included egg detection by coproscopy, antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and specific parasite DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Thus, the presence of infected domestic carnivores can increase E. multilocularis exposure risk in humans. A seroepidemiologic survey of 2,943 blood donors in the area used specific Em2-ELISA. Comparative statistical analyses of seroprevalence and clinical incidence showed an increase in Em2-seroprevalence from 1986 and 1996-97 but no increase in clinical incidence of alveolar hydatid disease. PMID:11384517

Gottstein, B.; Saucy, F.; Deplazes, P.; Reichen, J.; Demierre, G.; Busato, A.; Zuercher, C.; Pugin, P.

2001-01-01

137

High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, P< 0.001) and final (19.2% vs. 10.2%, P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension was higher among football athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (?0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

2014-01-01

138

High Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Children with Thyroid Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24741574

Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

139

High prevalence of parotideal abnormalities among HCV infected patients.  

PubMed

Several salivary diseases, such as Sjogren syndrome (SS), chronic lymphocytic sialadenitis and parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, may occur in the setting of HCV infection. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of parotid abnormalities in a cohort of 310 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) attending the Unit of Infectious Diseases of the Garibaldi Nesima Hospital of Catania. Our control group consisted of 188 patients with chronic HBV infection. We found that the prevalence of parotideal diseases was significantly higher among HCV-infected patients in comparison with HBV-infected (17% vs. 1%). Indeed, 53 CHC subjects had parotideal abnormalities: 24 patients (45.3%) had lymphoepithelial cysts of the salivary gland, six patients (11.3%) had a benign tumour, six patients (11.3%) had granulomatous lesions, 12 patients (22.7%) had Sjogren's syndrome and four patients (7.5%) were diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic sialadenitis. Finally, one patient (1.9%) had parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In conclusion, parotideal abnormalities are common among HCV-infected individuals and targeted diagnostic protocols may help identify parotid involvement in this population of subjects. PMID:24651088

Cacopardo, Bruno; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Gussio, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe

2014-03-01

140

Genetic convergence in the adaptation of dogs and humans to the high-altitude environment of the tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:25091388

Wang, Guo-Dong; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Zhai, Weiwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, He-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yan; Gao, Yun; Ge, Ri-Li; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2014-08-01

141

High Prevalence of Self-Reported Photophobia in Adult ADHD  

PubMed Central

Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N?=?494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances. PMID:25540636

Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

2014-01-01

142

Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history  

PubMed Central

High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

2009-01-01

143

Epidemiological study and control trial of taeniid cestode infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5-10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

Guo, Zhihong; Li, Wei; Peng, Mao; Duo, Hong; Shen, Xiuying; Fu, Yong; Irie, Takao; Gan, Tiantian; Kirino, Yumi; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

2014-03-01

144

Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

2013-01-01

145

Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in a High HIV Prevalence Population Provided with Enhanced Diagnosis of Symptomatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Directly observed treatment short course (DOTS), the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB) transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We investigated the epidemiology of prevalent and incident TB in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced primary health care. Methods and Findings Twenty-two businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe, were provided with free smear- and culture-based investigation of TB symptoms through occupational clinics. Anonymised HIV tests were requested from all employees. After 2 y of follow-up for incident TB, a culture-based survey for undiagnosed prevalent TB was conducted. A total of 6,440 of 7,478 eligible employees participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. For HIV-positive and -negative participants, the incidence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 25.3 and 1.3 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 18.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.3 to 34.5: population attributable fraction = 78%), and point prevalence after 2 y was 5.7 and 2.6 per 1,000 population (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.5 to 6.8: population attributable fraction = 14%). Most patients with prevalent culture-positive TB had subclinical disease when first detected. Conclusions Strategies based on prompt investigation of TB symptoms, such as DOTS, may be an effective way of controlling prevalent TB in high HIV prevalence populations. This may translate into effective control of TB transmission despite high TB incidence rates and a period of subclinical infectiousness in some patients. PMID:17199408

Corbett, Elizabeth L; Bandason, Tsitsi; Cheung, Yin Bun; Munyati, Shungu; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Hayes, Richard; Churchyard, Gavin; Butterworth, Anthony; Mason, Peter

2007-01-01

146

Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.  

PubMed

Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. PMID:18689663

Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Cully, Jack F

2008-07-01

147

Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

2008-01-01

148

Colorblind Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into dogs' ability (or inability) to see color. Learners conduct an experiment by first performing a control test and then experimenting to see if dogs are able to fetch colored balls amid a background of gray balls. Learners collect, record, and graph the data to draw conclusions about colorblindness in dogs. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Colorblind Dogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

149

Breed, gender and age pattern of diagnosis for veterinary care in insured dogs in Japan during fiscal year 2010.  

PubMed

We calculated the annual prevalence of diseases of 18 diagnostic categories in the insured dog population in Japan, using data from 299,555 dogs insured between April 2010 and March 2011. The prevalence was highest for dermatological disorders (22.6% for females and 23.3% for males), followed by otic diseases (16.4% for females and 17.2% for males) and digestive system disorders (15.7% for females and 16.4% for males). The prevalence of cardiovascular, urinary, neoplasia and endocrine disorders, increased with age; infectious diseases and injuries showed a high prevalence at young ages, and the prevalence of musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders showed a bimodal peak at young and old ages. A large variation in prevalence was observed between breeds for dermatological, otic, digestive, ophthalmological and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25746927

Inoue, Mai; Hasegawa, A; Hosoi, Y; Sugiura, K

2015-04-01

150

Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A prairie dog stands on alert. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease. Better protection of prairie dogs against plague would minimize the risk of disease transfer to endangered black-footed ferrets, aid in prairie dog conservation, and protec...

151

High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.  

PubMed

One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

2014-12-01

152

High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain  

PubMed

Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de València, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Doñana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de València): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones. PMID:9680527

Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart

1998-08-01

153

Prevalence of substance use among Iranian high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study assessed the rate of substance use among Iranian high school students. Participants: 397 high school students (200 girls and 197 boys) were selected randomly and were assessed. Measurements: A confidential questionnaire was distributed, completed by the students, and collected in the same sessions in 2000. Results: The mean ages for high school girls and boys were 15.85

Jamshid Ahmadi; Mahsa Hasani

2003-01-01

154

The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs  

PubMed Central

Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

2013-01-01

155

Tick-borne pathogens and disease in dogs on St. Kitts, West Indies.  

PubMed

Between 2009 and 2011, we conducted a case-control study of ticks and tick-associated pathogens affecting dogs on the island of St. Kitts, eastern Caribbean, including 55 cases of clinically suspected tick-borne disease (TBD) and 110 presumably healthy animals presented for elective surgeries. Rhipicephalus sanguineus caused year-round infestations of dogs, and 36% of the dogs in the study were infested at the time of examination. Overall, 62% of suspected TBD cases and 24% of presumably healthy dogs tested positive by PCR for infections with: Anaplasma platys (0% and 4%), Babesia canis vogeli (20% and 6%), Babesia gibsoni (18% and 5%), Ehrlichia canis (35% and 7%), and Hepatozoon canis (5% and 2%). Co-infections were documented in 15% of these PCR-positive dogs. Antibodies against A. platys or E. canis were noted in 36% of the dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most common sign of infection, followed by anemia. This is the first detection of A. platys, B. canis vogeli, or H. canis on St. Kitts and the first detection of B. gibsoni in the Caribbean. We conclude that tick-borne pathogens of dogs are highly prevalent in this region and may present in dogs that appear healthy, in spite of hematologic abnormalities that may increase surgical risk. PMID:23481028

Loftis, Amanda D; Kelly, Patrick J; Freeman, Mark D; Fitzharris, Susan; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Wang, Chengming

2013-09-01

156

Population Genetics of Schistosoma japonicum within the Philippines Suggest High Levels of Transmission between Humans and Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosoma japonicum, which remains a major public health problem in the Philippines and mainland China, is the only schistosome species for which zoonotic transmission is considered important. While bovines are suspected as the main zoonotic reservoir in parts of China, the relative contributions of various non-human mammals to S. japonicum transmission in the Philippines remain to be determined. We examined the population genetics of S. japonicum in the Philippines in order to elucidate transmission patterns across host species and geographic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings S. japonicum miracidia (hatched from eggs within fecal samples) from humans, dogs, pigs and rats, and cercariae shed from snail-intermediate hosts, were collected across two geographic areas of Samar Province. Individual isolates were then genotyped using seven multiplexed microsatellite loci. Wright's FST values and phylogenetic trees calculated for parasite populations suggest a high frequency of parasite gene-flow across definitive host species, particularly between dogs and humans. Parasite genetic differentiation between areas was not evident at the definitive host level, possibly suggesting frequent import and export of infections between villages, although there was some evidence of geographic structuring at the snail–intermediate host level. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest very high levels of transmission across host species, and indicate that the role of dogs should be considered when planning control programs. Furthermore, a regional approach to treatment programs is recommended where human migration is extensive. PMID:19030225

Rudge, James W.; Carabin, Hélène; Balolong, Ernesto; Tallo, Veronica; Shrivastava, Jaya; Lu, Da-Bing; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Olveda, Remigio; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Webster, Joanne P.

2008-01-01

157

Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities  

PubMed Central

This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

2011-01-01

158

The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods  

PubMed Central

Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems). Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n?=?133) owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n?=?54) reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n?=?36) reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired behaviours do not appear to distinguish between training methods. Rather, owner gender and attendance at training classes appear more important, although explaining a relatively small amount of variance between groups. More owners using reward based methods for recall / chasing report a successful outcome of training than those using e-collars. PMID:22748195

2012-01-01

159

Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.  

PubMed

Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human and veterinary public health, contributing to the general awareness of pet owners and veterinarian practitioners and reinforcing the need for effective control measures against vectors and preventive therapy in companion animals. PMID:25440945

Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

2014-11-15

160

The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods Incident and prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a Korean prospective observational cohort study. Incident HD patients were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD patients initiating HD. Prevalent HD patients were defined as patients who had been receiving HD for > 3 months. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Results This study included 1,165 incident and 1,641 prevalent HD patients. Following a median 24 months of follow-up, the mortality rates of the HF and low-flux (LF) groups did not significantly differ in the incident patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592 to 1.847; p = 0.878). In the prevalent patients, HF dialysis was associated with decreased mortality compared with LF dialysis (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.416 to 0.885; p = 0.009). Conclusions HF dialysis was associated with a decreased mortality rate in prevalent HD patients, but not in incident HD patients. PMID:25378976

Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo

2014-01-01

161

LOW PREVALENCE AND INCREASED HOUSEHOLD CLUSTERING OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION IN HIGH ALTITUDE VILLAGES IN PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal historical evidence suggests that tuberculosis was uncommon at high altitude, but whether transmission is affected by high altitude is not known. To test whether high altitude lowers infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the prevalence of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity was compared between two high altitude villages (3,340 meters (10,960 feet) and 3,500 meters (11,480 feet)) and three sea-level sites

SUSAN OLENDER; MAYUKO SAITO; JANE APGAR; KARI GILLENWATER; CHRISTIAN T. BAUTISTA; ANDRES G. LESCANO; PEDRO MORO; LUZ CAVIEDES; EVELYN J. HSIEH; ROBERT H. GILMAN

2003-01-01

162

The staging and treatment of multicentric high-grade lymphoma in dogs: a review of recent developments and future prospects.  

PubMed

In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of canine lymphoma with resultant enhanced classification schemes and the possibility of individualised, tailored therapies. However, although complete remission may be achieved using multi-agent chemotherapy, the mortality rate from this neoplasm remains high. This review focuses on the staging of high-grade multicentric lymphoma in the dog, on conventional and novel treatment strategies (including chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, radiation therapy and molecular-targeted agents), and on the management of relapsed or refractory cases. PMID:20627636

Marconato, Laura

2011-04-01

163

Prevalence of Refractive Errors among High School Students in Western Iran  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive errors among high school students. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we applied stratified cluster sampling on high school students of Aligoudarz, Western Iran. Examinations included visual acuity, non-cycloplegic refraction by autorefraction and fine tuning with retinoscopy. Myopia and hyperopia were defined as spherical equivalent of -0.5/+0.5 diopter (D) or worse, respectively; astigmatism was defined as cylindrical error >0.5 D and anisometropia as an interocular difference in spherical equivalent exceeding 1 D. Results Of 451 selected students, 438 participated in the study (response rate, 97.0%). Data from 434 subjects with mean age of 16±1.3 (range, 14 to 21) years including 212 (48.8%) male subjects was analyzed. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism was 29.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 25-33.6%], 21.7% (95%CI, 17.8-25.5%), and 20.7% (95%CI, 16.9-24.6%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia increased significantly with age [odds ratio (OR)=1.30, P=0.003] and was higher among boys (OR=3.10, P<0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia was significantly higher in girls (OR=0.49, P=0.003). The prevalence of astigmatism was 25.9% in boys and 15.8% in girls (OR=2.13, P=0.002). The overall prevalence of high myopia and high hyperopia were 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism was 14.5%, 4.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Overall, 4.6% (95%CI, 2.6-6.6%) of subjects were anisometropic. Conclusion More than half of high school students in Aligoudarz had at least one type of refractive error. Compared to similar studies, the prevalence of refractive errors was high in this age group. PMID:25279126

Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Beiranvand, Asghar; Papi, Omid-Ali; Hoseini Yazdi, Hosein; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Norouzirad, Reza; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

2014-01-01

164

Seroepidemiological evidence for a relationship between Neospora caninum infections in dogs and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs from dairy farms with a known prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in the cattle were examined for the presence of N. caninum antibodies using an ELISA. Data of farm dogs were compared with those of dogs examined at a university clinic, which originated mainly in urban areas. Of the 152 farm dogs, 36 (23.6%) were seropositive to N. caninum,

W Wouda; Th Dijkstra; A. M. H Kramer; C van Maanen; J. M. A Brinkhof

1999-01-01

165

The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

2009-01-01

166

Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…

Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao

2013-01-01

167

High Prevalence of Beijing and EAI4-VNM Genotypes among M. tuberculosis Isolates in Northern Vietnam  

E-print Network

High Prevalence of Beijing and EAI4-VNM Genotypes among M. tuberculosis Isolates in Northern Department of Tuberculosis, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Abstract A total of 221 isolates of M. tuberculosis were sampled from hospitals and the general population in the northern plain of Vietnam, one

Choisy, Marc

168

High Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Wild Populations of Lowland Leopard Frogs Rana yavapaiensis in  

E-print Network

High Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Wild Populations of Lowland Leopard Frogs Rana. Winter field surveys in the last decade have documented die-offs in populations of the lowland leopard populations of the lowland leopard frog as well as four of the American bullfrog R. catesbeiana (a putative

Ryan, Michael J.

169

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd  

E-print Network

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd: tissue distribution of disease) Abstract ­ Following a severe outbreak of clinical scrapie in 2006­2007, a large dairy goat herd was culled) was positive in only 30 (41.7%) of the infected goats. However, the efficiency of rectal and palatine tonsil

Boyer, Edmond

170

A fatal reovirus is highly prevalent in captive blue crab, Callinectes sapidus  

E-print Network

in disease-prone aquaculture Sof shell crab producOon Look for viral nucleic acid 10 crabs with virus from an infected soft shell crab ·Sacrifice injected crabs and assess ds1 A fatal reovirus is highly prevalent in captive blue crab, Callinectes sapidus ISAAH conference

Kane, Andrew S.

171

High prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a remote, undertreated population of Namibian pastoralists.  

PubMed

The highly remote pastoralist communities in Kaokoland, Namibia, have long been presumed to have high gonorrhoea prevalence. To estimate gonorrhoea prevalence and correlates of infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 446 adults across 28 rural villages. Gonorrhoea status was determined from urethral and vaginal swabs via qPCR assay. All participants answered a closed-ended interview about demographics, sexual behaviour and symptom history. Sixteen per cent of participants had high-level infections (?ID(50) dose) and 48% had low-level infections (prevalence than men of both high- and low-level infections. High-level infections were regionally and seasonally clustered, occurring in young adults in the Ehama region during the winter. Low-level infections were distributed homogenously across demographic characteristics, season, and region. All low-level infections and most high-level infections (men 78%, women 95%) were asymptomatic and left untreated. The epidemic-like nature of high-level gonorrhoea cases suggests that intervention efforts can be focused on seasons of high social activity. PMID:25267407

Hazel, A; Ponnaluri-Wears, S; Davis, G S; Low, B S; Foxman, B

2014-11-01

172

Airborne fungi in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 ?m were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 ?m were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.

Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.

173

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Myopia in High-School Students in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate prevalence and associated factors for myopia in high school students in Beijing. Methods Grade 10 and 11 high school students were randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Beijing. The students underwent non-cylcoplegic auto-refractometry and an interview. Results Out of 4798 eligible students, 4677 (93.4%) students (mean age:16.9±0.7years;range:16–18 years) participated. Mean refractive error of right eyes and left eyes was ?2.78±2.29 diopters and ?2.59±2.50 diopters, respectively. Prevalence of myopia (defined as ? ?1.00 diopters in the worse eye) was 80.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 79.6–81.8%). Out of 3773 students with myopia, 1525 (40.4%) wore glasses daily. In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher prevalence of myopia was associated with female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 1.31;95%CI:1.11–1.55), Han ethnicity (OR = 1.64;95%CI:1.28–2.11), attending key schools (OR = 1.48;95%CI:1.24,1.77), higher family income (OR = 1.37;95%CI:1.09–1.71), longer time spent for near work (OR = 1.43;95%CI:1.06–1.93), shorter near work distance (OR = 1.87;95%CI:1.55–2.26), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.16–1.70), and parental myopia (OR = 2.28;95%CI:1.80–2.87). The interaction between distance from near work and time spent for near work was statistically (P = 0.03) significant. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of high myopia (?-6.0 diopters) was associated with studying in key schools (OR = 1.38;95%CI:1.05,1.81), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.09,1.79), and a higher number of myopic parents (OR = 2.66;95%CI:2.08,3.40). Conclusions A prevalence of about 80% for myopia and a prevalence of about 10% for high myopia in students aged 16 to 18 years and attending classes of grade 10 and 11 in a Chinese metropolitan region is another example of the high prevalence of moderate and high myopia in metropolitan areas of China. With this young myopic generation getting older, myopia as cause for visual impairment and blindness may further increase in importance. Future studies may address whether active rests during studying with looking into the distance are preventive against myopia development or progression. PMID:25803875

Duan, Jia Li; Luo, Yan Xia; Liu, Li Juan; Li, Xia; Gao, Qi; Zhu, Hui Ping; He, Yan; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiu Hua

2015-01-01

174

Dog Whisperer  

E-print Network

to star in a Chinese TV show called "Leader of the Pack." Mr. Millan, as you might know, is famous for being the Dog Whisperer. His training programs and TV show have made him a household name among dog owners. His approach is all about exercise...

Hacker, Randi

2013-05-22

175

Electrical activation to the parasternal intercostal muscles during high-frequency spinal cord stimulation in dogs.  

PubMed

High-frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) is a novel technique of inspiratory muscle activation involving stimulation of spinal cord pathways, which may have application as a method to provide inspiratory muscle pacing in ventilator-dependent patients with spinal cord injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the spatial distribution of motor drive to the parasternal intercostal muscles during spontaneous breathing with that occurring during HF-SCS. In nine anesthetized dogs, HF-SCS was applied at the T2 spinal level. Fine-wire recording electrodes were used to assess single motor unit (SMU) pattern of activation in the medial bundles of the 2nd and 4th and lateral bundles of the 2nd interspaces during spontaneous breathing and HF-SCS following C1 spinal section. Stimulus amplitude during HF-SCS was adjusted such that inspired volumes matched that occurring during spontaneous breathing (protocol 1). During HF-SCS mean peak SMU firing frequency was highest in the medial bundles of the 2nd interspace (17.1 ± 0.6 Hz) and significantly lower in the lateral bundles of the 2nd interspace (13.5 ± 0.5 Hz) and medial bundles of the 4th (15.2 ± 0.7 Hz) (P < 0.05 for each comparison). Similar rostrocaudal and mediolateral gradients of activity were observed during spontaneous breathing prior to C1 section. Since rib cage movement was greater and peak discharge frequencies of the SMUs higher during HF-SCS compared with spontaneous breathing, stimulus amplitude during HF-SCS was adjusted such that rib cage movement matched that occurring during spontaneous breathing (protocol 2). Under this protocol, mean peak SMU frequencies and rostrocaudal and mediolateral gradients of activity during HF-SCS were not significantly different compared with spontaneous breathing. This study demonstrates that 1) the topographic pattern of electrical activation of the parasternal intercostal muscles during HF-SCS is similar to that occurring during spontaneous breathing, and 2) differential spatial distribution of parasternal intercostal activation does not depend upon differential descending synaptic input from supraspinal centers. PMID:25342707

DiMarco, Anthony F; Kowalski, Krzysztof E

2015-01-15

176

Tuberculosis screening in high human immunodeficiency virus prevalence settings: turning promise into reality  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Twenty years of sky-high tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and high TB mortality in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence countries have so far not been matched by the same magnitude or breadth of responses as seen in malaria or HIV programmes. Instead, recommendations have been narrowly focused on people presenting to health facilities for investigation of TB symptoms, or for HIV testing and care. However, despite the recent major investment and scale-up of TB and HIV services, undiagnosed TB remains highly prevalent at community level, implying that diagnosis of TB remains slow and incomplete. This maintains high transmission rates and exposes people living with HIV to high rates of morbidity and mortality. More intensive use of TB screening, with broader definitions of target populations, expanded indications for screening both inside and outside of health facilities, and appropriate selection of new diagnostic tools, offers the prospect of rapidly improving population-level control of TB. Diagnostic accuracy of suitable (high throughput) algorithms remains the major barrier to realising this goal. In the present study, we review the evidence available to guide expanded TB screening in HIV-prevalent settings, ideally through combined TB-HIV interventions that provide screening for both TB and HIV, and maximise entry to HIV and TB care and prevention. Ideally, we would systematically test, treat and prevent TB and HIV comprehensively, offering both TB and HIV screening to all health facility attendees, TB households and all adults in the highest risk communities. However, we are still held back by inadequate diagnostics, financing and paucity of population-impact data. Relevant contemporary research showing the high need for potential gains, and pitfalls from expanded and intensified TB screening in high HIV prevalence settings are discussed in this review. PMID:23928165

Corbett, E. L.; MacPherson, P.

2014-01-01

177

An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs  

PubMed Central

An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw?=?1.16×10?10, Pgenome, corrected?=?0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3?-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5?-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3?-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species. PMID:25275565

Minor, Katie M.; Shelton, G. Diane; Patterson, Edward E.; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso

2014-01-01

178

Prevalence and Correlates of “High Dose” Antipsychotic Prescribing: Findings from a Hospital Audit  

PubMed Central

Background: High dose antipsychotic prescribing is common in psychiatric care, despite a lack of its benefit from research evidence. While several studies have explored the prevalence and factors associated with high dose antipsychotic prescribing, no such report has emanated from a developing country like Nigeria. Aim: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of high dose prescribing among in-patients at a tertiary psychiatric hospital and to determine the pattern of antipsychotic drugs prescribed. Materials and Methods: An audit of in-patients at a regional tertiary psychiatric facility was carried out. We examined case notes and conducted oral interviews where necessary, on all patients receiving antipsychotics using a proforma designed for the study. Results: The prevalence of high dose prescribing was 38% (65/171) using a prescribed daily dose/defined daily dose ratio of 1.5. The rate of antipsychotic polypharmacy was 7% (12/171). The atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine was the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic in monotherapy. Predictors of high dose prescribing were diagnoses (P = 0.04), polypharmacy (P = 0.04), a history of previous in-patient care (P = 0.02), and use of anticholinergic drugs (P = 0.01). Conclusions: High dose prescribing was common among in-patients audited. Further studies are needed to examine factors that promote “high dose” prescribing. PMID:23634332

Adesola, AO; Anozie, IG; Erohubie, P; James, BO

2013-01-01

179

Survey of selected tick-borne diseases in dogs in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background Due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern Europe. Although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in Finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. We determined the antibody and DNA prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in Finland: Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and Bartonella. Methods Anti-Ap, ?Bb and –Ec antibodies were determined in 340 Finnish pet dogs and 50 healthy hunting dogs using the 4DX Snap®Test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs for the detection of Ap and Bartonella DNA were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to a vector borne agent. Results The overall seroprevalence was highest for Ap (5.3%), followed by Bb (2.9%), and Ec (0.3%). Seropositivities to Ap and Bb were significantly higher in the Åland Islands (p <0.001), with prevalence of Ap and Bb antibodies of 45 and 20%, respectively. In healthy hunting dogs, seropositivity rates of 4% (2/50) and 2% (1/50) were recorded for Ap and Bb, respectively. One client-owned dog and one hunting dog, both healthy, were infected with Ap as determined by PCR, while being seronegative. For Bartonella spp., none of the dogs tested was positive by PCR. Conclusions This study represents the first data of seroprevalence to tick borne diseases in the Finnish dog population. Our results indicate that dogs in Finland are exposed to vector borne diseases, with Ap being the most seroprevalent of the diseases tested, followed by Bb. Almost 50% of dogs living in Åland Islands were Ap seropositive. This finding suggests the possibility of a high incidence of Ap infection in humans in this region. Knowing the distribution of seroprevalence in dogs may help predict the pattern of a tick borne disease and may aid in diagnostic and prevention efforts. PMID:24957468

2014-01-01

180

High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis; Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions; P<0.05 was considered of statistical significance; descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages. Results A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40% and 82% among schools, with a median of 59.2%; the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2% high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old; hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P?0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program. PMID:25182717

Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Ault, Steven K.; Castillo, Phillip; Serrano, Kenton; Troya, Guillermo

2014-01-01

181

High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the female population of Guatemala.  

PubMed

The potential introduction of the newly licensed HPV-vaccines at affordable prices could play a central role in preventing cervical cancer in middle and low-income countries, where most of the cases occur. In spite of this, basic epidemiological data about HPV and HPV-related lesions are still scarce. To determine the prevalence of cervical abnormalities, HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and related risk factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study in a population from Guatemala that included 297 women from the general population (GP women) and 297 sex workers (SW). All participating women were interviewed and underwent a complete gynecological examination that included collection of cervical cells for cytological diagnosis, HPV DNA detection and typing by PCR methods. Cervical HPV DNA prevalence among GP women and from SW was 38.1% (95% CI: 32.5-43.8) and 67.3% (95% CI: 61.7-72.6), respectively. The prevalence of abnormal cytology among GP women was 7.7% (ASCUS = 1.4%, LSIL = 4.7%, ASC-H = 0.3% and HSIL = 1.4%) and among SW was 21.6% (ASCUS = 7.5%, LSIL = 10.6%, ASC-H = 1.4% and HSIL = 2.1%). The most prevalent HPV types among women with normal cytology were HPVs 51 (n = 30), 66 (n = 25) and 16 (n = 25), and among women with HSIL or ASC-H (n = 14) HPVs 58 (n = 5) and 16 (n = 5). Determinants associated with HPV DNA detection were having had an occasional partner during the last 6 months and smoking habit among GP women, and being a minor among SW. HPV and abnormal cytology prevalence is high among women in Guatemala. The introduction of a HPV vaccination program would prevent an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden. PMID:19415744

Vallès, Xavier; Murga, Gladys Beatriz; Hernández, Gabriela; Sabidó, Meritxell; Chuy, Alejandro; Lloveras, Belén; Alameda, Francesc; de San José, Sílvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Pedroza, Isabel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Casabona, Jordi

2009-09-01

182

High levels of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA determined by qPCR and infectiousness to Triatoma infestans support dogs and cats are major sources of parasites for domestic transmission.  

PubMed

The competence of reservoir hosts of vector-borne pathogens is directly linked to its capacity to infect the vector. Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, and exhibit a much higher infectiousness to triatomines than seropositive humans. We quantified the concentration of T. cruzi DNA in the peripheral blood of naturally-infected dogs and cats (a surrogate of intensity of parasitemia), and evaluated its association with infectiousness to the vector in a high-risk area of the Argentinean Chaco. To measure infectiousness, 44 infected dogs and 15 infected cats were each exposed to xenodiagnosis with 10-20 uninfected, laboratory-reared Triatoma infestans that blood-fed to repletion and were later individually examined for infection by optical microscopy. Parasite DNA concentration (expressed as equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL, Pe/mL) was estimated by real-time PCR amplification of the nuclear satellite DNA. Infectiousness increased steeply with parasite DNA concentration both in dogs and cats. Neither the median parasite load nor the mean infectiousness differed significantly between dogs (8.1Pe/mL and 48%) and cats (9.7Pe/mL and 44%), respectively. The infectiousness of dogs was positively and significantly associated with parasite load and an index of the host's body condition, but not with dog's age, parasite discrete typing unit and exposure to infected bugs in a random-effects multiple logistic regression model. Real-time PCR was more sensitive and less time-consuming than xenodiagnosis, and in conjunction with the body condition index, may be used to identify highly infectious hosts and implement novel control strategies. PMID:24732410

Enriquez, G F; Bua, J; Orozco, M M; Wirth, S; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V

2014-07-01

183

Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013  

PubMed Central

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ?600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

2014-01-01

184

High Prevalence of High-Level Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Tel Aviv, Israel: Correlation with Response to Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the drug susceptibilities of gonococcal isolates from 100 consecutive patients attending clinics in the Tel Aviv area of Israel during the period from February to September 2000 has shown a 61% rate of ciprofloxacin resistance (MICs, >1 g\\/ml); 51 isolates were highly resistant (MICs, >4 g\\/ml). Ciprofloxacin- resistant strains were more prevalent among isolates with chromosomally mediated

Michael Dan; Francesca Poch; Bracha Sheinberg

2002-01-01

185

Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

2008-01-01

186

High performance liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for the quantitation of BMS-204352 in dog K(3)EDTA plasma.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC/MS) assay was developed and validated for the determination of BMS-204352 in dog K(3)EDTA plasma. A 0.5 mL aliquot of control plasma was spiked with BMS-204352 and internal standard (IS) and buffered with 1 mL of 5 mM ammonium acetate. The mixture was then extracted with 3 mL of toluene. After separation and evaporation of the organic phase to dryness using nitrogen at 40 degrees C, the residue was reconstituted in the mobile phase and 25 microL of the sample were injected onto a Hypersil C(18) column (2 x 50 mm; 3 microm) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The mobile phase was consisted of two solvent mixtures (A and B). Solvent A was composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% triethylamine in 75:25 v/v water:methanol, pH adjusted to 5.5 with glacial acetic acid, and solvent B was 5 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. A linear gradient system was used to elute the analytes. The mass spectrometer was programmed to admit the de-protonated molecules at m/z 352.7 (IS) and m/z 357.9 (BMS-204352). Standard curves of BMS-204352 were linear (r(2) > or = 0.998) over the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The mean predicted quality control (QC) concentrations deviated less than 5.1% from the corresponding nominal values (ie 4, 80, 400 and 2000 ng/mL); the within- and between-assay precision of the assay were within 5.5% relative standard deviation. Stability of BMS-204352 was confirmed after at least three freeze/thaw cycles and BMS-204532 was stable in dog plasma when stored frozen at or below -20 degrees C for at least 16 weeks in spiked QC samples and for at least 4 1/2 weeks for in vivo study samples. BMS-204352 and IS were stable in the injection solvent at room temperature for at least 24 h. The assay was applied to delineate the pharmacokinetic disposition of BMS-204352 in dogs following a single intravenous dose administration. In conclusion, the assay is accurate, precise, specific, sensitive and reproducible for the pharmacokinetic analysis of BMS-204532 in dog plasma. PMID:11920941

Yao, Ming; Mantha, Subbarao; Shah, Vinod R; Vachharajani, Nimish N; Arnold, Mark E; Pursley, Janice M; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

2002-05-01

187

HIV testing among youth in a high-risk city: prevalence, predictors, and gender differences.  

PubMed

While HIV is prevalent among adolescents and young adults, testing levels remain low and little is known about gender differences in HIV testing. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of past-year HIV testing and evaluate associations between HIV testing and individual- and partner-level factors by gender among heterosexually experienced youth (15-24 years) in Baltimore, Maryland (N = 352). Past-year HIV testing was prevalent (60.1%) and differed by gender (69.4% among women vs. 49.6% among men, p = 0.005). For women, African-American race (AOR 3.09) and recent older partner by ?2 years (AOR 4.04) were significantly associated with testing. Among men, only African-American race was associated with testing (OR 4.23), with no patterns identified based on risk behavior or perceived partner risk. HIV testing among adolescent and young adults was prevalent in this highly affected urban area. Findings emphasize the value of a gender lens, and provide direction for optimizing engagement in HIV testing. PMID:25495522

Decker, Michele R; Rodney, Ria; Chung, Shang-En; Jennings, Jacky M; Ellen, Jon M; Sherman, Susan G

2015-05-01

188

High prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among other medically compromised conditions in dental patients: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the last few decades, oral health care has become a greater priority as people live longer with serious medical conditions and disabilities. As a result, they require more comprehensive dental treatment. We are now, more than ever, at a turning point in history where dental care, or more broadly oral health care, is an integral part of medical care. Therefore, a need was felt to study the prevalence of medically compromised patients seeking dental treatments. Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study conducted by reviewing the patient records starting from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2010 for the presence of medically compromised conditions. Demographic data of the patients was also collected. Results: The prevalence of medically compromised conditions in dental patients of our hospital in the present study was 1.02%. The Cardiovascular diseases accounted to be the most prevalent condition (57.87%) followed by Endocrine disorders (35.73%). Conclusion: Even though the prevalence of medically compromised conditions in dental patients is not high, dentists should bear in mind that some of the patients may harbor such conditions, which are contraindicated for certain dental procedures or medication or require special attention when treating these patients. PMID:22629028

Bhateja, Sumit

2012-01-01

189

Prevalence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Among High Risk Human Groups  

PubMed Central

Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), an acute viral infection, is a zoonotic disease which is transmitted to humans by infected ticks, direct contact with fresh meat or blood of infected animals (usually domestic livestock), or direct contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person. Livestock handlers, skin processors, veterinary staff, livestock market workers, and other personnel engaged in jobs requiring some contact with animals and/or animal products are at high risk for CCHF. Most reported cases of this disease in Iran belong to butchers and slaughterhouse workers. Objectives: We aimed to study the prevalence of CCHF in slaughterhouse workers and livestock handlers who were admitted to Boo-ali Hospital for treatment of CCHF. Materials and Methods: We evaluated all patients’ files with confirmed CCHF admitted to Boo-ali Hospital in Zahedan, in southeastern part of Iran, during 1999-2011. Then, we examined the prevalence of disease among the high risk groups. Results: Out of 362 patients with CCHF (86% male, 14% female; with age range 12-78 years), 123 (34%) were slaughterhouse workers, 103 (28.5%) livestock handlers and farmers, 32 (9%) housewives, 7 (2%) students, 6 (1.9%) teachers, 4 (1.2%) military personnel, and other groups were workers with different employments. Conclusions: The present study showed that CCHF is highly prevalent in high risk occupational groups in Zahedan, Iran. Further surveillance, teaching and prevention programs are recommended. PMID:24971294

Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Metanat, Maliheh; Alavi-Naini, Roya

2014-01-01

190

An endosymbiotic conidial fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, protects the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, from desiccation imposed by an entomopathogenic fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional role of an endosymbiotic conidial fungus (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) prevalent within the integumental glands and hemocoel of the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) was investigated to explore the nature of this tick\\/fungus association. D. variabilis is normally highly resistant to Metarhizium anisopliae, a widely-distributed entomopathogenic fungus, but when mature female ticks harboring S. brevicaulis were fed a solution containing

Jay A. Yoder; Joshua B. Benoit; David L. Denlinger; Justin L. Tank; Lawrence W. Zettler

2008-01-01

191

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.  

PubMed

A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-03-01

192

Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics profile of helicid in beagle dogs using gradient elution high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple, sensitive and reliable gradient elution high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was developed for quantifying helicid in dog plasma. The limit of detection (LOD) and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) were 0.3 and 1ng/mL, respectively. This method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, extraction recoveries, matrix effects, carry-over, cross-talk, dilution integrity, stability and incurred sample reanalysis (ISR). Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters of helicid in beagle dogs were researched from a two period crossover design study. After intravenous administration (i.v.), helicid had a mean (±SD) AUC0-? of 12062.06±2482.69ng/mLh and terminal half-life (t1/2z) of 2.91±1.37h, while Cmax was 35613.23±8157.18ng/mL. Following intragastric gavage administration (i.g.), AUC0-? was 7589.16±1797.20ng/mLh along with a longer t1/2z of 4.10±4.35h. Cmax was researched at 0.58±0.20h. The absolute bioavailability (F) of helicid was 15.74±1.87%. PMID:25743699

Jia, Yuanwei; Shen, Jie; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Wei; Xie, Haitang

2015-04-15

193

Prognostic significance of the expression levels of the p16, p15, and p14 genes in dogs with high-grade lymphoma.  

PubMed

The prognostic significance of the inactivation of the p16, p15, and p14 genes has been reported in lymphoid malignancies in humans. To evaluate the relationship between inactivation of the p16, p15, and p14 genes and prognosis in canine high-grade lymphoma, primary tumor cell samples obtained from 71 dogs with high-grade lymphoma were examined for the expression levels of these genes. Quantitative and conventional reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses were used to measure the amounts of p16, p15, and p14 mRNAs. The methylation status of the CpG island of the p16 gene was evaluated using methylation-specific PCR. Overall survival (OS) was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model were used to evaluate factors that influenced OS. Of 62 dogs examined, p16, p15, and p14 mRNA levels were found to be undetectable in 21, 18, and 10 dogs, respectively. In 20/68 dogs analyzed, the CpG island of the p16 gene was shown to be methylated. The prognostic significance of inactivation of the p16, p15, and p14 genes as well as various conventional factors obtained from medical records was examined. p16 expression status and anatomic form/immunophenotype were found to correlate with OS in the dogs with high-grade lymphoma. p16 mRNA level over its cut-off value correlated with a poor prognosis; however, the expression levels of p15 and p14 mRNAs and p16 methylation status did not influence the prognosis in dogs with high-grade lymphoma. PMID:24365070

Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Sato, Masahiko; Maeda, Shingo; Igarashi, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Masashi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2014-02-01

194

Prevalence of driving distractions among high school student drivers in three Canadian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMotor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and hospitalisation for Canadian youth. Graduated Drivers Licensing have been implemented in several Canadian provinces.PurposeTo assess the prevalence of compliance with rules and driving distractions among high school students in three Canadian cities (Halifax, Barrie and Vancouver) representing different geographic, socioeconomic and jurisdictional settings.MethodsObservations were made at schools in the three

J Oda; A Macpherson; T Middaugh-Bonney; M Brussoni; S Piedt; I Pike

2010-01-01

195

Prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis is increased in high bone mass  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls. Design HBM cases came from the UK-based HBM study: HBM was defined by BMD Z-score. Unaffected relatives of index cases were recruited as family controls. Age-stratified random sampling was used to select further population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. Pelvic radiographs were pooled and assessed by a single observer blinded to case-control status. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Results 530 HBM hips in 272 cases (mean age 62.9 years, 74% female) and 1702 control hips in 863 controls (mean age 64.8 years, 84% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic OA, defined as Croft score ?3, was higher in cases compared with controls (20.0% vs 13.6%), with adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] 1.52 [1.09, 2.11], P = 0.013. Osteophytes (OR 2.12 [1.61, 2.79], P < 0.001) and subchondral sclerosis (OR 2.78 [1.49, 5.18], P = 0.001) were more prevalent in cases. However, no difference in the prevalence of joint space narrowing (JSN) was seen (OR 0.97 [0.72, 1.33], P = 0.869). Conclusions An increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA and osteophytosis was observed in HBM cases compared with controls, in keeping with a positive association between HBM and OA and suggesting that OA in HBM has a hypertrophic phenotype. PMID:24971870

Hardcastle, S.A.; Dieppe, P.; Gregson, C.L.; Hunter, D.; Thomas, G.E.R.; Arden, N.K.; Spector, T.D.; Hart, D.J.; Laugharne, M.J.; Clague, G.A.; Edwards, M.H.; Dennison, E.M.; Cooper, C.; Williams, M.; Davey Smith, G.; Tobias, J.H.

2014-01-01

196

High prevalence of PfCRT K76T mutation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Ghana.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum has successfully developed resistance to almost all currently used antimalarials. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene at position 76 resulting in a change in coding from lysine to threonine (K76T) has been implicated to be the corner stone of chloroquine resistance. Widespread resistance to chloroquine in endemic regions led to its replacement with other antimalarials. In some areas this replacement resulted in a reversion of the mutant T76 allele to the wild-type K76 allele. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of the K76T mutation of the Pfcrt gene eight years after the ban on chloroquine sales and use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 regional hospitals in Ghana. PCR-RFLP was used to analyse samples collected to determine the prevalence of Pfcrt K76T mutation. Of the 1318 participants recruited for this study, 246 were found to harbour the P. falciparum parasites, of which 60.98% (150/246) showed symptoms for malaria. The prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutant allele was 58.54% (144/246) and that of the K76 wild-type allele was 41.46% (102/246). No difference of statistical significance was observed in the distribution of the alleles in the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants (P=0.632). No significant association was, again, observed between the alleles and parasite density (P=0.314), as well as between the alleles and Hb levels of the participants (P=0.254). Notwithstanding the decline in the prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutation since the antimalarial policy change in 2004, the 58.54% prevalence recorded in this study is considered high after eight years of the abolishment of chloroquine usage in Ghana. This is in contrast to findings from other endemic areas where the mutant allele significantly reduced in the population after a reduction chloroquine use. PMID:24727053

Afoakwah, Richmond; Boampong, Johnson N; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Nwaefuna, Ekene K; Verner, Orish N; Asare, Kwame K

2014-08-01

197

Dog Bite Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive action. Your veterinarian can examine your dog to ... or one they know. Some owners actually promote aggression in their dogs or allow aggression to go ...

198

Facial dog attack injuries.  

PubMed

The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

2015-02-01

199

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Tick-borne Pathogens in Dogs and Ticks from Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi) collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%), Ehrlichia canis (12.7%), Rickettsia spp. (8.8%), Babesia rossi (6.6%), Anaplasma platys (6.6%), Babesia vogeli (0.6%) and Theileria sp. (0.6%) was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%), H. canis (21.1%), Rickettsia spp. (10.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3%) and A. platys (1.9%) was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents. PMID:23505591

Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Eyal, Osnat; Guthmann, Yifat; Harrus, Shimon

2013-01-01

200

High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation.  

PubMed

Biofilms that form on roots, litter and soil particles typically contain multiple bacterial species. Currently, little is known about multispecies biofilm interactions and few studies have been based on environmental isolates. Here, the prevalence of synergistic effects in biofilm formation among seven different soil isolates, cocultured in combinations of four species, was investigated. We observed greater biofilm biomass production in 63% of the four-species culture combinations tested than in biofilm formed by single-species cultures, demonstrating a high prevalence of synergism in multispecies biofilm formation. One four-species consortium, composed of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Xanthomonas retroflexus, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, exhibited strong synergy in biofilm formation and was selected for further study. Of the four strains, X. retroflexus was the only one capable of forming abundant biofilm in isolation, under the in vitro conditions investigated. In accordance, strain-specific quantitative PCR revealed that X. retroflexus was predominant within the four-species consortium (>97% of total biofilm cell number). Despite low relative abundance of all the remaining strains, all were indispensable for the strong synergistic effect to occur within the four-species biofilm. Moreover, absolute individual strain cell numbers were significantly enhanced when compared with those of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation occurs. PMID:24936766

Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas S; Sørensen, Søren J; Burmølle, Mette

2015-01-01

201

High prevalence of the epidemic Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 in Iberian free-range pigs.  

PubMed

Previous studies in intensively raised piglets have detected a high prevalence of the epidemic Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078. In this article we present a longitudinal survey of C. difficile colonisation in a population of Iberian pigs reared under a free-range system. A total of 160 faecal samples from 20 piglets belonging to different litters were obtained by weekly sampling. C. difficile was recovered from samples collected at different times throughout the survey from a 90% of piglets, resulting in an overall prevalence of 25.6% in the studied samples. Most positive samples (75.6%) came from ? 15-day animals, but some piglets shed C. difficile even on day +50. All isolates were ribotype 078, harboured toxin-encoding genes and showed in vitro resistance to several fluoroquinolones. A majority of isolates (80.5%) were also high-level resistant to ertapenem, and four metronidazole heteroresistant isolates (9.8%) were detected. In conclusion, Iberian free-range pigs can be a potential reservoir of epidemic antimicrobial-resistant strains of C. difficile, showing a prevalence rate similar to that found for intensively raised animals. PMID:23876331

Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Peláez, Teresa; Astorga, Rafael J; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

2013-10-01

202

High prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a riparian population in Takeo Province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (<20 years) than in the adult population (>20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection. PMID:22711932

Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

2012-06-01

203

Canine hepacivirus and idiopathic hepatitis in dogs from a Dutch cohort.  

PubMed

Liver diseases are highly prevalent in the general dog population, though the etiology is often unknown. Recently a homolog of human hepatitis C virus was discovered in dogs with respiratory infections. Although this canine hepacivirus (CHV) was detectable in some liver samples, a clear link with liver disease has not been established. A recent study by Bexfield et al. showed that in a large cohort of dogs from the UK with idiopathic hepatitis, no evidence can be found for exposure to, or carrier state of CHV both in liver and in serum. The authors however state that 'the absence of CHV infection on dogs from the UK might not represent the global ecology of the virus'. We investigated CHV-infection in 267 liver biopsies from 120 dogs idiopathic hepatitis and 135 control animals, in a population from the Netherlands. Using a highly sensitive PCR assay for CHV-NS3, no CHV was detected in all 267 liver samples. Our data show that the lack of association between canine hepacivirus and chronic liver disease in dogs is not limited to the UK, but is also found in an independent cohort from the European continent. PMID:24903449

van der Laan, L J W; de Ruiter, P E; van Gils, I M; Fieten, H; Spee, B; Pan, Q; Rothuizen, J; Penning, L C

2014-12-01

204

Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations. PMID:24107268

2013-01-01

205

High prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus in a cohort of healthy young African female subjects  

PubMed Central

Objectives We measured the prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young female subjects recruited for a safety and immunogenicity trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in Tanzania. Methods Healthy HIV negative female subjects aged 10–25?years were enrolled and randomised (2:1) to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine or placebo (Al(OH)3 control). At enrolment, if sexually active, genital specimens were collected for HPV DNA, other reproductive tract infections and cervical cytology. Subjects were followed to 12?months when HPV testing was repeated. Results In total 334 participants were enrolled; 221 and 113 in vaccine and control arms, respectively. At enrolment, 74% of 142 sexually active subjects had HPV infection of whom 69% had >1 genotype. Prevalent infections were HPV-45 (16%), HPV-53 (14%), HPV-16 (13%) and HPV-58 (13%). Only age was associated with prevalent HPV infection at enrolment. Among 23 girls who reported age at first sex as 1?year younger than their current age, 15 (65.2%) had HPV infection. Of 187 genotype-specific infections at enrolment, 51 (27%) were present at 12?months. Overall, 67% of 97 sexually active participants with results at enrolment and 12?months had a new HPV genotype at follow-up. Among HPV uninfected female subjects at enrolment, the incidence of any HPV infection was 76 per 100 person-years. Conclusions Among young women in Tanzania, HPV is highly prevalent and acquired soon after sexual debut. Early HPV vaccination is highly recommended in this population. PMID:23486859

Watson-Jones, Deborah; Baisley, Kathy; Brown, Joelle; Kavishe, Bazil; Andreasen, Aura; Changalucha, John; Mayaud, Philippe; Kapiga, Saidi; Gumodoka, Balthazar; Hayes, Richard J; de Sanjosé, Silvia

2013-01-01

206

An evaluation of dog rabies control in Limpopo province (South Africa).  

PubMed

Rabies is a prevalent and re-emerging disease in South Africa particularly in rural areas with high human densities. Outbreaks are frequently reported in the north and eastern parts of this country, probably an indication of inadequacy in the control of the disease. Following the 2005/2006 outbreak in Limpopo, we undertook an analysis of case surveillance data and genetically characterized 18 rabies viruses, all recovered from domestic dogs. Although rabies prevalence gradually declined annually from 2007, dog rabies still remains a public and veterinary health hazard in this region. Sylvatic rabies cycles are maintained by the black-backed jackal species in specific ecological conditions in the northwest of the province (Waterberg area), unlike in the north and east (Vhembe and Mopani districts, respectively), where spillover of infection between dogs and jackals is likely to predominate. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the rabies virus strain currently circulating within dog populations in Limpopo province is the same variant responsible for the 2005/2006 rabies outbreak. However, residual foci probably exist hence the observed sporadic outbreaks. These data further underline the value of continuous and sustainable dog immunization in controlling rabies. PMID:21733270

Sabeta, C T; Mkhize, G C; Ngoepe, E C

2011-10-01

207

High Prevalence of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Urban Sri-Lankan Population  

PubMed Central

Background South-Asian's are predisposed to early onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young Sri-Lankans is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine by questionnaire and anthropometry the prevalence of first degree family history (FH) of T2DM, physical inactivity, raised waist circumference (WC) and raised body mass index (BMI) in a representative healthy urban population selected by cluster sampling. Those with ?2 risk-factors were evaluated for metabolic syndrome (MS) and recruited for an intervention trial. Of 23,296 participants screened, 22,507 (53% Female) were eligible [8,497 aged 10–14 yrs, 4,763 aged 15–19 yrs and 9,247 aged 20–40 yrs]. 51% had none of the 4 risk-factors, 26% 1 risk-factor and 23% (5,163) ?2 risk-factors of whom 4,532 were assessed for MS. Raised BMI was noted in 19.7% aged 10–14 yrs, 15.3% between 15–19 yrs, and between 20–40 yrs, 27.4% of males vs. 21.8% of females p<0.001. Prevalence of raised WC was greater in females for each age group: 42.7% vs. 32.1%; 28.1% vs. 16.1%; 34.5% vs. 25.7% (p<0.05 for all) as was physical inactivity: 39.9% vs. 14.5%; 51.7% vs. 20.0%; 62.7% vs. 41.3% which rose in both sexes with age (p<0.05 for all). FH of T2DM was present in 26.2%. In 4532 (50%<16 yrs) with ?2 risk-factors, impaired fasting glycaemia/impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) prevalence was 16%. MS was more prevalent in males [10–16 yrs (13.0% vs. 8.8%), 16–40 yrs (29.5% vs. 20.0%) p<0.001 for both]. Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young urban Sri-Lankans with significant gender differences. A primary prevention intervention trial is ongoing in this cohort. Clinical Trial Registration Number SLCTR/2008/World Health Organization (WHO) international clinical trial registry platform. PMID:22348068

Wijesuriya, Mahen; Gulliford, Martin; Charlton, Judith; Vasantharaja, Laksha; Viberti, Giancarlo; Gnudi, Luigi; Karalliedde, Janaka

2012-01-01

208

Prevalence of Invalid Computerized Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results in High School and Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Limited data are available regarding the prevalence and nature of invalid computerized baseline neurocognitive test data. Objective: To identify the prevalence of invalid baselines on the desktop and online versions of ImPACT and to document the utility of correcting for left-right (L-R) confusion on the desktop version of ImPACT. Design: Cross-sectional study of independent samples of high school (HS) and collegiate athletes who completed the desktop or online versions of ImPACT. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 3769 HS (desktop ?=? 1617, online ?=? 2152) and 2130 collegiate (desktop ?=? 742, online ?=? 1388) athletes completed preseason baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of 5 ImPACT validity indicators, with correction for L-R confusion (reversing left and right mouse-click responses) on the desktop version, by test version and group. Chi-square analyses were conducted for sex and attentional or learning disorders. Results: At least 1 invalid indicator was present on 11.9% (desktop) versus 6.3% (online) of the HS baselines and 10.2% (desktop) versus 4.1% (online) of collegiate baselines; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased this overall prevalence to 8.4% (HS) and 7.5% (collegiate). Online Impulse Control scores alone yielded 0.4% (HS) and 0.9% (collegiate) invalid baselines, compared with 9.0% (HS) and 5.4% (collegiate) on the desktop version; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased the prevalence of invalid Impulse Control scores to 5.4% (HS) and 2.6% (collegiate). Male athletes and HS athletes with attention deficit or learning disorders who took the online version were more likely to have at least 1 invalid indicator. Utility of additional invalidity indicators is reported. Conclusions: The online ImPACT version appeared to yield fewer invalid baseline results than did the desktop version. Identification of L-R confusion reduces the prevalence of invalid baselines (desktop only) and the potency of Impulse Control as a validity indicator. We advise test administrators to be vigilant in identifying invalid baseline results as part of routine concussion management and prevention programs. PMID:22892410

Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Solomon, Gary S.; Ott, Summer D.; Karpf, Robin

2012-01-01

209

Canine visceral leishmaniasis: performance of a rapid diagnostic test (Kalazar Detect) in dogs with and without signs of the disease.  

PubMed

Current visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control programs in Brazil include the infected dog elimination but, despite this strategy, the incidence of human VL is still increasing. One of the reasons is the long delay between sample collection, analysis, control implementation and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Due to the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs, the diagnosis of these animals is important considering their vector infection capacity. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis is essential for an efficient surveillance program. In this study we evaluated the performance of rK39 antigen in an immunochromatographic format to detect symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs and compared the results with those using a crude antigen ELISA. The sensitivity of rK39 dipstick and ELISA were 83% vs. 95%, respectively, while the specificity was both 100%. Our results also demonstrated that the dipstick test was able to detect infected dogs presenting different clinical forms. PMID:18565485

Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Moreira, Márcio Antônio Batistela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Dietze, Reynaldo

2008-08-01

210

High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

211

High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

2012-01-01

212

High Prevalence of Infertility among Women with Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of infertility in women with Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and associated factors. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Endocrinology Clinic for Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases, with 193 women aged 18–50 years with GD and 66 women aged 18–60 years with HT. The women were interviewed to obtain data on their gynecological and obstetric history and family history of autoimmune diseases. Their medical records were reviewed to determine the characteristics of the disease and to confirm association with other autoimmune diseases. Infertility was defined as 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse without conception. Results. The prevalence of infertility was 52.3% in GD and 47.0% in HT. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years and 39.2 years, in GD and HT, respectively. The mean number of pregnancies was lower in women who were 35 years old or younger at diagnosis and was always lower following diagnosis of the disease, irrespective of age. The only variable associated with infertility was a shorter time of the disease in HT. Conclusions. The prevalence of infertility was high in women with GD and HT and affected the number of pregnancies in young women. PMID:24678319

Quintino-Moro, Alessandra; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise E.

2014-01-01

213

Students' Perceptions of a Highly Controversial yet Keystone Species, the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped that…

Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.

2008-01-01

214

Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon dog and the native red fox. PMID:24533328

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-01-01

215

Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.  

PubMed

Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon dog and the native red fox. PMID:24533328

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-12-01

216

J Infect Dis . Author manuscript Effect of male circumcision on the prevalence of high-risk human  

E-print Network

-risk human papillomavirus in young men: results of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Orange Farm Abstract Introduction A causal association links high-risk human papillomavirus gonorrhoeae ; isolation & purification ; Papillomavirus Infections ; epidemiology ; Prevalence ; Risk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Simultaneously high prevalences of hepatitis B and C virus infections in a population in Putian County, China.  

PubMed

This study investigated a rare area of endemicity with a high prevalence of both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, in Putian County, China. Among 1,050 subjects, the overall prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity was 15.8%, and that of anti-HCV seropositivity was 28.9%. Intrafamilial viral transmission might be the major cause of the high prevalence of HBV infection in this region. However, HCV infection was shown to be associated with the use of inadequately sterilized medical equipment. PMID:22403430

Lu, Wen-Ping; Lin, Guo-Xian; Shi, Shuang; Dong, Jia-Hong

2012-06-01

218

Spirocercosis in owned and stray dogs in Grenada.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of Spirocerca lupi and its associated lesions in owned and stray dogs in Grenada. During 2001-2011 necropsies were carried out on 1022 owned and 450 stray dogs at the pathology diagnostic laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, Grenada. Lesions due to S. lupi characterized by focal to multifocal granulomatous esophagitis with aneurysms, mineralized plaques and nodules in the adjacent thoracic aorta were found in 90 (8.8%; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-10.5%) of owned dogs and 64 (14.2%; 95% CI, 11.2-17.6%) of stray dogs. Stray dogs were significantly more affected by spirocercosis than owned dogs (p=0.0022). Of the 90 owned dogs with spirocercosis, 3 dogs had aberrant migration to the thoracic vertebral column with resultant spondylitis; 1 dog each had aberrant migration involving the stomach and the lung. Two dogs had ruptured aorta with hemothorax. Among the 64 stray dogs with spirocercosis, one dog had an esophageal granuloma that transformed into a fibroblastic osteosarcoma; spondylitis due to aberrant migration of S. lupi and hypertrophic osteopathy. We report spirocercosis for the first time in the dogs from a tropical island of Grenada. PMID:22841904

Chikweto, A; Bhaiyat, M I; Tiwari, K P; de Allie, C; Sharma, R N

2012-12-21

219

Hepatitis E Virus Serosurvey among Pet Dogs and Cats in Several Developed Cities in China  

PubMed Central

Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257

Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

2014-01-01

220

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 28.89 ± 5.76 years (range 13–42 years). Of the 157 women tested, HEV seroprevelance was 28.66% (45/157). Among the seropositive women, 64.40% (29/45) tested positive for anti-HEV IgM while 35.60% (16/45) tested positive to HEV IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was highest (46.15%) among women 21–25 years of age, followed by 42.82% in = 20 year group, then 36.84% in = 36 year group. Of the 157 women, 75.79% and 22.92% were in their third and second trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Anti-HEV antibodies detected in women in their third trimester of pregnancy (30.25%) was significantly higher, P < 0.05, than in women in their second trimester of pregnancy (25.0%). Conclusion Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in pregnant women. PMID:19619291

Adjei, Andrew A; Tettey, Yao; Aviyase, John T; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Obed, Samuel; Mingle, Julius AA; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Adiku, Theophilus K

2009-01-01

221

High prevalence and genetic diversity of Plasmodium malariae and no evidence of Plasmodium knowlesi in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of malaria remains high in parts of Bangladesh, there continues to be a substantial shortage of information regarding the less common malaria parasites such as Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. Recent studies indicate that P. malariae may be extremely rare, and so far, there are no data on the presence (or absence) of P. knowlesi in southeastern Bangladesh. Genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was performed to assess the presence and prevalence of P. malariae and P. knowlesi in 2,246 samples originating from asymptomatic and febrile participants of a cross-sectional and a febrile illnesses study in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in southeastern Bangladesh. P. malariae was detected in 60 samples (2.7%) corresponding to 8% of the 746 samples giving positive PCR results for Plasmodium sp., mainly because of the high prevalence (9.5%) among asymptomatic study participants testing positive for malaria. Symptomatic cases were more common (4.3% of all symptomatic malaria cases) during the dry season. Parasitemias were low (1,120-2,560/?l in symptomatic and 120-520/?l in asymptomatic carriers). Symptomatic patients presented mild to moderate symptoms like fever, chills, headache, dizziness, fatigue and myalgia.Although both the intermediate as well as the definite host are known to be endemic in southeastern Bangladesh, no evidence for the presence of P. knowlesi was found. We conclude that the role of P. malariae is highly underestimated in rural Bangladesh with major implications for malaria control and elimination strategies. PMID:24578257

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Harl, Josef; Starzengruber, Peter; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Bloeschl, Ingrid; Haque, Rashidul; Matt, Julia; Khan, Wasif Ali; Noedl, Harald

2014-04-01

222

High Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B Infection and Association with Underweight in Rwandan Children  

PubMed Central

Background Giardia duodenalis is highly endemic in East Africa but its effects on child health, particularly of submicroscopic infections, i.e., those below the threshold of microscopy, and of genetic subgroups (assemblages), are not well understood. We aimed at addressing these questions and at examining epidemiological characteristics of G. duodenalis in southern highland Rwanda. Methodology/Principal Findings In 583 children <5 years of age from communities and health facilities, intestinal parasites were assessed by triplicate light microscopy and by PCR assays, and G. duodenalis assemblages were genotyped. Cluster effects of villages were taken into account in statistical analysis. The prevalence of G. duodenalis as detected by microscopy was 19.8% but 60.1% including PCR results. Prevalence differed with residence, increased with age, and was reduced by breastfeeding. In 492 community children without, with submicroscopic and with microscopic infection, underweight (weight-for-age z-score prevalence of G. duodenalis in high-endemicity areas may be greatly underestimated by light microscopy, particularly when only single stool samples are analysed. Children with submicroscopic infections show limited overt manifestation, but constitute unrecognized reservoirs of transmission. The predominance of assemblage B in Rwanda may be involved in the seemingly unimposing manifestation of G. duodenalis infection. However, the association with impaired child growth points to its actual relevance. Longitudinal studies considering abundant submicroscopic infections are needed to clarify the actual contribution of G. duodenalis to morbidity in areas of high endemicity. PMID:22720102

Klotz, Christian; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Lyng, Michel; Musemakweri, Andre; Aebischer, Toni; Martus, Peter; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

2012-01-01

223

High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on doctors' neckties.  

PubMed

We set out to investigate whether neckties worn by doctors are more likely to be contaminated with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to neckties worn by preclinical medical undergraduates who have never been exposed to a hospital environment. We discovered that more than half (52%) of neckties worn by doctors were contaminated with Staphylococcus and out of these, 62% of them were identified as MRSA. In contrast, none of the student's ties were contaminated with MRSA. Due to the high prevalence of staphylococcus detected on doctors' neckties, we recommend that health care workers do not wear neckties. PMID:20527275

Koh, K C; Husni, S; Tan, J E; Tan, C W; Kunaseelan, S; Nuriah, S; Ong, K H; Morad, Z

2009-09-01

224

High Prevalence of Malaria Parasitemia and Anemia among Hospitalized Children in Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda. Methods Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district, Uganda between May 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled and followed-up until discharge, death or referral. Data were collected on social-demographic characteristics, current and past illnesses and clinical signs and symptoms. Blood smears, hemoglobin (Hgb) levels and HIV testing were performed from finger/heel prick blood. The associations between malaria infection and other factors were estimated using log-binomial regression to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (aPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for clustering at health facilities. Results 2471 children were enrolled. The most common medical presentations were fever (96.2%), cough (61.7%), vomiting (44.2%), diarrhea (20.8%), and seizures (16.0%). The prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 54.6%. Children with malaria were more likely to present with a history of fever (aPRR 2.23; CI 1.18–4.24) and seizures (aPRR 1.12; CI 1.09–1.16). Confirmed malaria was significantly lower among girls than boys (aPRR 0.92; CI 0.91–0.93), HIV infected children (aPRR 0.60 CI 0.52–0.71), and children with diarrhea (aPRR 0.76; CI 0.65–0.90). The overall prevalence of anemia (Hgb<10 g/dl) was 56.3% and severe anemia (Hgb<6 g/dL) was 17.8%. Among children with severe anemia 76.8% had malaria parasitemia, of whom 93.1% received blood transfusion. Malaria associated mortality was 0.6%. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among inpatient children under five years. Malaria prevention is a priority in this population. PMID:24358185

Kiggundu, Valerian L.; O'Meara, Wendy P.; Musoke, Richard; Nalugoda, Fred K.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Baghendaghe, Enos; Lutalo, Tom; Achienge, Marion K.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Makumbi, Fred; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K.

2013-01-01

225

High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population.  

PubMed

The nematode worm Spirocerca lupi has a cosmopolitan distribution and can cause the death of its final canid host, typically dogs. While its life cycle, which involves a coprophagous beetle intermediate host, a number of non-obligatory vertebrate paratenic hosts and a canid final host, is well understood, surprisingly little is known about its transmission dynamics and population genetic structure. Here we sequenced cox1 to quantify genetic variation and the factors that limit gene flow in a 300 km(2) area in South Africa. Three quarters of the genetic variation, was explained by differences between worms from the same host, whereas a quarter of the variation was explained by differences between worms from different hosts. With the help of a newly derived model we conclude that while the offspring from different infrapopulations mixes fairly frequently in new hosts, the level of admixture is not enough to homogenize the parasite populations among dogs. Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. PMID:22226763

de Waal, Pamela J; Gous, Annemarie; Clift, Sarah J; Greeff, Jaco M

2012-06-01

226

High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

2013-04-01

227

Portal Vein Glucose Entry Triggers a Coordinated Cellular Response That Potentiates Hepatic Glucose Uptake and Storage in Normal but Not High-Fat/High-Fructose–Fed Dogs  

PubMed Central

The cellular events mediating the pleiotropic actions of portal vein glucose (PoG) delivery on hepatic glucose disposition have not been clearly defined. Likewise, the molecular defects associated with postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) following consumption of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD) are unknown. Our goal was to identify hepatocellular changes elicited by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and PoG signaling in normal chow-fed (CTR) and HFFD-fed dogs. In CTR dogs, we demonstrated that PoG infusion in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia triggered an increase in the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase (GS), which occurred in association with further augmentation in HGU and glycogen synthesis (GSYN) in vivo. In contrast, 4 weeks of HFFD feeding markedly reduced GK protein content and impaired the activation of GS in association with diminished HGU and GSYN in vivo. Furthermore, the enzymatic changes associated with PoG sensing in chow-fed animals were abolished in HFFD-fed animals, consistent with loss of the stimulatory effects of PoG delivery. These data reveal new insight into the molecular physiology of the portal glucose signaling mechanism under normal conditions and to the pathophysiology of aberrant postprandial hepatic glucose disposition evident under a diet-induced glucose-intolerant condition. PMID:23028137

Coate, Katie C.; Kraft, Guillaume; Irimia, Jose M.; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W.; Roach, Peter J.; Shiota, Masakazu; Cherrington, Alan D.

2013-01-01

228

High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. Methods 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. Results There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Conclusions Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future. PMID:22047498

2011-01-01

229

High Tuberculosis Prevalence in a South African Prison: The Need for Routine Tuberculosis Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is a major health concern in prisons, particularly where HIV prevalence is high. Our objective was to determine the undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (“undiagnosed tuberculosis”) prevalence in a representative sample of prisoners in a South African prison. In addition we investigated risk factors for undiagnosed tuberculosis, to explore if screening strategies could be targeted to high risk groups, and, the performance of screening tools for tuberculosis. Methods and Findings In this cross-sectional survey, male prisoners were screened for tuberculosis using symptoms, chest radiograph (CXR) and two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture. Anonymised HIV antibody testing was performed on urine specimens. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of symptoms and investigations were calculated, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated on sputum culture as the gold standard. From September 2009 to October 2010, 1046 male prisoners were offered enrolment to the study. A total of 981 (93.8%) consented (median age was 32 years; interquartile range [IQR] 27–37 years) and were screened for tuberculosis. Among 968 not taking tuberculosis treatment and with sputum culture results, 34 (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4–4.9%) were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HIV prevalence was 25.3% (242/957; 95% CI 22.6–28.2%). Positive HIV status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–4.2) and being an ex-smoker (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2–5.9) were independently associated with undiagnosed tuberculosis. Compared to the gold standard of positive sputum culture, cough of any duration had a sensitivity of 35.3% and specificity of 79.6%. CXR was the most sensitive single screening modality (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 92.2%). Adding CXR to cough of any duration gave a tool with sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 73.8%. Conclusions Undiagnosed tuberculosis and HIV prevalence was high in this prison, justifying routine screening for tuberculosis at entry into the prison, and intensified case finding among existing prisoners. PMID:24498059

Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Fielding, Katherine L.; Malden, Justin L.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.; Charalambous, Salome

2014-01-01

230

Male and female hypogonadism are highly prevalent in South Africans with Addison's disease.  

PubMed

Hypogonadism may complicate Addison's disease (primary hypoadrenalism), but prevalence and metabolic sequelae of hypogonadism in Addison's disease are poorly described. We recruited patients from the South African Addison's disease national registry who received stable replacement doses of hydrocortisone and had no acute illness. Male biochemical testosterone deficiency was defined as an early morning basal testosterone<9.9 nmol/l and premature ovarian failure (POF) when menopause occurred before 40 years of age. Cardiometabolic risk variables were measured in males only. Male hypogonadism prevalence was 33% (14/42), and 10 patients had newly diagnosed hypogonadism. Two untreated patients had elevated FSH or LH (>10 or 12 IU/l). Testosterone deficiency did not correlate with age, disease duration or hydrocortisone dose. Untreated male hypogonadal subjects had a higher (mean ± standard deviation) BMI compared to eugonadal subjects 29.2 ± 4.9 kg/m(2) vs. 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m(2) (p=0.01) and a higher median (interquartile range) high-sensitive-CRP 6.4 (2.5-14.0) mg/l vs. 1.45 (0.6-2.8) mg/l (p=0.002). There were no differences between the 2 groups in lipids, lipoproteins and fasting glucose. The median (interquartile range) DHEAS was lower in the hypogonadal 0.31 (0.27-0.37) ?mol/l, compared with the eugonadal group 0.75 (0.50-1.51) ?mol/l (p=0.005). POF was documented in 11% of female patients. Male testosterone deficiency was highly prevalent in this cohort and was primarily due to secondary hypogonadism. Only BMI and hs-CRP were increased in untreated male hypogonadal subjects. Male and female hypogonadism appears to be a common complication of Addison's disease and may contribute to its morbidity. PMID:24799025

Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Blom, D J; Haarburger, D

2014-09-01

231

High Prevalence of HTLV-1 Infection among Japanese Immigrants in Non-endemic Area of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has worldwide distribution and is considered endemic in many world regions, including southwestern Japan and Brazil. Japanese immigrants and their descendants have a high risk of acquiring this infection due to intense population exchange between Brazil and Japan. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV, analyze the main risk factors associated with this infection, identify the main circulating types and subtypes of HTLV in Japanese immigrants and descendants living in Campo Grande-MS (Middle-West Brazil), as well as analyze the phylogenetic relationship among isolates of HTLV. Study Design A total of 219 individuals were interviewed and submitted to blood collection. All collected blood samples were submitted for detection of anti-HTLV-1/2 using the immunoassay ELISA and confirmed by immunoblot method. The proviral DNA of the 14 samples HTLV- 1 positive were genotyped by nucleotide sequencing. Results The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 6.8% (IC 95%: 3,5-10,2). Descriptive analysis of behavioral risk factors showed statistical association between HTLV-1 and age greater than or equal to 45 years. The proviral DNA of HTLV-1 was detected in all HTLV-1 positive samples. Of these, 14 were sequenced and classified as Cosmopolitan subtype, and 50% (7/14) belonged to subgroup A (transcontinental) and 50% (7/14) to the subgroup B (Japanese). Conclusion The high prevalence of HTLV-1 found evidence of the importance of early diagnosis and counseling of individuals infected with HTLV-1 for the control and prevention of the spread of this infection among Japanese immigrants and their descendants in Central Brazil. PMID:25886507

Bandeira, Larissa M.; Uehara, Silvia N. O.; Asato, Marcel A.; Aguena, Gabriela S.; Maedo, Cristiane M.; Benites, Nikolas H.; Puga, Marco A. M.; Rezende, Grazielli R.; Finotti, Carolina M.; Cesar, Gabriela A.; Tanaka, Tayana S. O.; Castro, Vivianne O. L.; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana C. P.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Motta-Castro, Ana R. C.

2015-01-01

232

Dog Breeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

2004-07-05

233

Dog Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.

2012-06-26

234

Dog Fights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

Taylor, Kelley R.

2010-01-01

235

Ticks parasitizing dogs in northwestern Georgia.  

PubMed

From January 1998 through September 1999, 324 dogs in three northwestern Georgia counties were examined for ticks. Six species of ticks were recovered. The three most commonly collected ticks were the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (310 male male, 352 female female; prevalence, 97%; mean intensity 2.1); the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (118 male male, 119 female female, 38 nymphs; prevalence, 22%; mean intensity, 3.8); and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (8 male male 26 female female, 2 nymphs; prevalence, 5%; mean intensity, 2.4). Other ticks recovered were Ixodes cookei Packard (3 female female); the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch (2 female female); and the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (1 female). Another adult female specimen of I scapularis was recovered from a cat, further reinforcing that this medically important tick is present in northwestern Georgia. PMID:11931241

Goldberg, M; Recha, Y; Durden, L A

2002-01-01

236

Diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in dogs in different geographical settings  

PubMed Central

Background Blastocystis is a ubiquitous, globally distributed intestinal protist infecting humans and a wide range of animals. Several studies have shown that Blastocystis is a potentially zoonotic parasite. A 1996 study reported a 70% Blastocystis prevalence in Brisbane pound dogs while another study found that pet dogs/cats of 11 symptomatic Blastocystis infected patients harboured at least one Blastocystis subtype (ST) in common with the patient. These results raised the possibility that dogs might be natural hosts of Blastocystis. In this study, we aimed to investigate this hypothesis by estimating the prevalence of Blastocystis carriage and characterising the diversity of STs in dogs from three different environmental settings and comparing these STs with the range that humans harbour. Methods Two hundred and forty faecal samples from dogs from three different geographical regions with varying levels of socio-economic development and sanitation, namely i) 80 pet and pound dogs from Brisbane, Australia, ii) 80 semi-domesticated dogs from Dong Village, Cambodia and iii) 80 stray dogs from the densely populated cities of Sikkim, Delhi and Mumbai in India, were screened for Blastocystis using PCR and subtyped based on the “barcode region” of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Results The prevalence of Blastocystis in dogs from Brisbane and Cambodia was 2.5% (2/80) and 1.3% (1/80), respectively, in contrast to 24% (19/80) in stray dogs from India. Stray dogs in India carried a diverse range of Blastocystis STs including ST 1, 4, 5 and 6 while the dogs from Brisbane carried only ST1 and one Cambodian dog carried ST2. Conclusion The results suggest there is geographical variation in Blastocystis prevalence and STs between dog populations as reported in human studies. In addition, the greater diversity of STs and higher prevalence of Blastocystis in Indian stray dogs compared to pet/pound and community dogs in Australia and Cambodia could reflect close proximity to humans and other animals and exposure to their faeces. It appears that dogs are not natural hosts for Blastocystis but rather are transiently and opportunistically infected with a diversity of STs. PMID:23883734

2013-01-01

237

Ask Dog Lady  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What to do with a problem dog? What is the best book on dog training? Would Tony Soprano benefit from owning a dog? How can you trust your dog walker with your dog? All these questions are addressed by the Dog Lady, who gives advice, as she says herself, on "dogs, love, and life." Always readable and often funny, the Dog Lady answers emails from viewers with questions about their canine pets. Users can read recent columns or review the "Best in Show" archive, a collection of the Dog Lady's most memorable advice. [CH

238

High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.  

PubMed

The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

Gordon, Catherine A; Acosta, Luz P; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Williams, Gail M; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P

2015-02-01

239

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines  

PubMed Central

The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Gray, Darren J.; Williams, Gail M.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

2015-01-01

240

High Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pregnant Women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite notable progress in the fight against iodine deficiency disorders in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a recent study has shown that pregnant women in Lubumbashi were still iodine deficient. Our objective was to assess thyroid function in this population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in maternity units from three different socioeconomic areas in Lubumbashi, serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin, and thyroperoxidase antibodies were measured in 225 pregnant women attending antenatal visits, in 75 women who recently delivered, and in 75 nonpregnant controls. The outcome was the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Results: Median values in pregnant women, women who recently delivered, and nonpregnant women were 1.80, 2.80, and 1.54?mIU/L for thyrotropin (p<0.001); 0.85, 1.11, and 1.16?ng/dL for free thyroxine (p<0.001); and 13.3, 9.5, and 10.4?ng/mL for thyroglobulin (p=0.01), respectively. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women, in women who recently delivered, and in nonpregnant women was 31%, 8%, and 20% for isolated hypothyroxinemia (p<0.001); 12%, 24%, and 5% for subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.002); 8%, 3%, and 3%, for overt hypothyroidism (p=0.09); and 5%, 13%, and 4%, for positive thyroperoxidase antibodies (p=0.03), respectively. In multiple logistic regression, women who were pregnant or who recently delivered, who lived in a poor socioeconomic area, and who had low urinary iodine concentration were more likely to have an increased serum thyrotropin: odds ratio (OR)=3.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–9.53) for pregnancy, OR=4.49 [CI 1.66–15.01] for postpartum period, OR=3.68 [CI 1.85–7.35] for semiurban area, and OR=0.44 [CI 0.19–0.96] for urinary iodine concentration ?250??g/L. Conclusions: Our results show that there is a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women of Lubumbashi, and this high prevalence is associated with iodine deficiency. To prevent obstetrical adverse outcomes and neurological damage in children, iodine supplementation is needed before conception or in early pregnancy in Lubumbashi. PMID:23957235

Twite, Kabange E.; Daumerie, Chantal; Wallemacq, Pierre; Donnen, Philippe; Kalenga, Muenze K.; Robert, Annie

2014-01-01

241

Rodent and Flea Abundance Fail to Predict a Plague Epizootic in Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages. PMID:20158331

Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L.

2010-01-01

242

High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection. PMID:25621003

2014-01-01

243

High prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients with chronic low back pain.  

PubMed

Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common symptoms in outpatient clinics, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is one of the causes of LBP. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of chronic LBP in patients with aortic aneurysm. The study included 23 patients with AAA and 23 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA); all of them visited a regional center hospital in Akita, Japan. A total of 207 hypertension patients were also enrolled as a control. Chronic LBP was defined in patients who visited the orthopedic outpatient clinic for the LBP treatment for more than three months. The prevalence of chronic LBP in the AAA group (52.2%) was significantly higher than that in the TAA (17.4%, P < 0.05) or hypertension patients (11.6%, P < 0.01). The rate of a trigger point (TP) injection was significantly higher in the AAA group or the TAA group than that in hypertension patients (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the AAA and TAA groups. The TP injection represents an injection of local anesthesia to the low back muscles. We also evaluated the involvement of various factors in LBP caused by AAA, such as age, gender, blood pressure, the existence of dissection, and the maximum diameter of AAA, but none of them showed significant relationship to LBP. The prevalence of LBP is high in AAA patients, and doctors who treat chronic LBP should be aware of AAA as a potential cause of LBP. PMID:23759898

Tsuchie, Hiroyuki; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Nishi, Tomio; Abe, Hidekazu; Takeshima, Masaaki; Shimada, Yoichi

2013-01-01

244

A four-year evaluation of the chronic toxicity of megestrol acetate in dogs.  

PubMed

A 4-year evaluation of the chronic toxicity of megestrol acetate in dogs is reported. .01, .1 or .25 mg of megestrol acetate/kg/day or .25 mg of chlormadinone acetate/kg/day was administered orally for 4 years t o female beagle dogs. The hormone-treated dogs tended to gain more weig ht than did the controls (controls vs. .25 mg megestrol acetate every month after the 3rd p less than .01). All treated dogs revealed decreased evidence of estrus. Mucoid vaginal discharges were more prevalent among the middle and high dose groups. Mean hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte values were slightly decreased while mean total leucocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rates were slightly increased in the middle and high dose groups. Clotting me chanism did not reveal any disturbances. Evidence of diabetes consistin g of bilateral cataracts, elevated serum glucose concentrations and glycosuria after 4 years in 2 of 16 high-dose megestrol acetate and in 6 of 15 chlormadinone acetate-treated dogs was revealed. It is concluded that the effects of megestrol acetate were similar but less severe than those of chlormadinone acetate. PMID:52913

Weikel, J H; Nelson, L W; Reno, F E

1975-09-01

245

Dynamics of an SIR model with vaccination dependent on past prevalence with high-order distributed delay.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the dynamics of an SIR model of childhood vaccination under the assumption that the vaccination uptake rate depends on past values of disease prevalence. The delay kernel is a high order Erlang function, which allows no instantaneous feedback between prevalence at time t and vaccinations at time t. Multiple types of endemic equilibria are found, as are stable and unstable equilibria, periodic orbits, dependence on initial conditions, and apparent chaos. PMID:25555542

Eckalbar, John C; Eckalbar, Walter L

2015-03-01

246

First isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from tissues of dogs from Vietnam.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dogs are considered a potential risk for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans because they can mechanically transmit oocysts to people and in certain parts of the world dog meat is consumed by humans. The prevalence of T. gondii in 42 unwanted dogs from Vietnam was determined. Antibodies to T...

247

OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN SERA FROM DOGS OF THE CITY OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of this parasite because they are the only hosts known to excrete N. caninum oocysts. In order to understand the prevalence of N. caninum in dogs, sera from 500 owned dogs and from...

248

High Prevalence of Respiratory Muscle Weakness in Hospitalized Acute Heart Failure Elderly Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Respiratory Muscle Weakness (RMW) has been defined when the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) is lower than 70% of the predictive value. The prevalence of RMW in chronic heart failure patients is 30 to 50%. So far there are no studies on the prevalence of RMW in acute heart failure (AHF) patients. Objectives Evaluate the prevalence of RMW in patients admitted because of AHF and the condition of respiratory muscle strength on discharge from the hospital. Methods Sixty-three patients had their MIP measured on two occasions: at the beginning of the hospital stay, after they had reached respiratory, hemodynamic and clinical stability and before discharge from the hospital. The apparatus and technique to measure MIP were adapted because of age-related limitations of the patients. Data on cardiac ejection fraction, ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) were collected. Results The mean age of the 63 patients under study was 75 years. On admission the mean ejection fraction was 33% (95% CI: 31–35) and the BNP hormone median value was 726.5 pg/ml (range: 217 to 2283 pg/ml); 65% of the patients used NIV. The median value of MIP measured after clinical stabilization was -52.7 cmH2O (range: -20 to -120 cmH2O); 76% of the patients had MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. On discharge, after a median hospital stay of 11 days, the median MIP was -53.5 cmH2O (range:-20 to -150 cmH2O); 71% of the patients maintained their MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. The differences found were not statistically significant. Conclusion Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition. PMID:25671566

Verissimo, Pedro; Timenetsky, Karina T.; Casalaspo, Thaisa Juliana André; Gonçalves, Louise Helena Rodrigues; Yang, Angela Shu Yun; Eid, Raquel Caserta

2015-01-01

249

A high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency does not translate into a comparable prevalence of anemia.  

PubMed

Based on biochemical evidence, a high prevalence of biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency has been reported in a number of areas in the world. The evidence that these biochemical abnormalities lead to a comparable prevalence of anemia is reviewed. The overall contribution of vitamin B12 deficiency to the global burden of anemia is probably not significant, except perhaps in women and their infants and children in vegetarian communities. In developed countries, folate-deficiency anemia is uncommon. In some developing countries, this anemia is still seen, but there are no comprehensive data on the relative prevalence compared with anemia due to malaria, iron-deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and HIV disease. It seems unlikely that folate deficiency makes a major contribution to the burden of anemia in developing countries. Iron-deficiency anemia may coexist with vitamin B12 and especially folate deficiency, and may confound the hematological features of the vitamin deficiencies whose prevalence would then be underestimated. Supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with folic acid can virtually eliminate folate-deficiency anemia in these women. There are very few data on the hematological effect of vitamin B12 supplementation or fortification at the population level. The addition of vitamin B12 to the supplementation of the diet of pregnant women with iron and folic acid does not produce an increased hematological response, at least in nonvegetarian populations. There are numerous reports of the effect of folic acid fortification of food on tests of folate status, but only a single published report on the hematological response was found. PMID:18709883

Metz, Jack

2008-06-01

250

High prevalence and genotypic diversity of the human papillomavirus in Amazonian women, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a women population living within the state of Amazonas, Brazil, and to determine the viral genotypes found. The study included 361 sexually active women over 18 years of age. We performed the Pap test and the molecular diagnosis for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons obtained were sequenced in automatic sequencer for genotyping. The presence of HPV DNA was found in 29.1% (105) of the women. Only 321 women presented satisfactory slides for cytological diagnosis, 97.9% (314) had normal cytology (negative for cancer), and 2.1% (7) had abnormal cytology (4 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, and 2 HSIL). The types more frequently found were HPV 16 (58.1%) and HPV 58 (20.0%). Additionally, we found more 13 types of HPV. Compared with previous studies in Brazil, our data confirmed a high prevalence and genotypic diversity of HPV in Brazilian women. PMID:23997570

Rocha, Danielle Albuquerque Pires; Barbosa Filho, Roberto Alexandre Alves; de Queiroz, Francisca Andrade; Dos Santos, Cristina Maria Borborema

2013-01-01

251

High Prevalence and Genotypic Diversity of the Human Papillomavirus in Amazonian Women, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a women population living within the state of Amazonas, Brazil, and to determine the viral genotypes found. The study included 361 sexually active women over 18 years of age. We performed the Pap test and the molecular diagnosis for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons obtained were sequenced in automatic sequencer for genotyping. The presence of HPV DNA was found in 29.1% (105) of the women. Only 321 women presented satisfactory slides for cytological diagnosis, 97.9% (314) had normal cytology (negative for cancer), and 2.1% (7) had abnormal cytology (4 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, and 2 HSIL). The types more frequently found were HPV 16 (58.1%) and HPV 58 (20.0%). Additionally, we found more 13 types of HPV. Compared with previous studies in Brazil, our data confirmed a high prevalence and genotypic diversity of HPV in Brazilian women. PMID:23997570

Rocha, Danielle Albuquerque Pires; Barbosa Filho, Roberto Alexandre Alves; de Queiroz, Francisca Andrade; dos Santos, Cristina Maria Borborema

2013-01-01

252

High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among common bacterial isolates in a tertiary healthcare facility in rwanda.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health threat in both developed and developing countries. Many developing countries, including Rwanda, lack adequate surveillance systems, and therefore, the prevalence of AMR is not well-known. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the prevalence of AMR among common bacterial isolates from clinical specimens obtained from patients on the medical wards of Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). We evaluated the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial pathogens cultured from urine, blood, sputum, and wound swab specimens obtained over a 6-month period (July 1 to December 30, 2013). There were 154 positive cultures from specimens obtained from 141 unique patients over the study period. Urine, blood, wound swab, and sputum cultures comprised 55.2%, 25.3%, 16.2%, and 3.3% of the total specimens evaluated; 31.4% and 58.7% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least one of the third generation cephalosporins. Eight percent of E. coli isolates were resistant to imipenem; 82% and 6% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant respectively. Antimicrobial resistance rates are high in Rwanda and pose a serious therapeutic challenge to the management of common infections. PMID:25646259

Ntirenganya, Cyprien; Manzi, Olivier; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Ogbuagu, Onyema

2015-04-01

253

High prevalence of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) in an isolated region of Japan.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant cerebeller ataxias (ADCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that differ in both the clinical manifestations and modes of inheritance. At present, eight different genes causing ADCAs have been found: spinocerebeller ataxia type 1 (SCA1), SCA2, SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), SCA6, SCA7, SCA8, SCA12 and dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). The relative prevalence of each mutation varies according to race and native place. We studied 117 unrelated ADCA families that originated from the Tohoku District in the northernmost part of Honshu Island in Japan (mainly Miyagi Prefecture in the central part of Tohoku District). The SCA1 mutation was the most frequent among the known disorders (24.8% of all such families). The relative prevalence of SCA1 in the Tohoku District is very high compared with the values already reported from other regions in the world. Because the population of this area had seldom moved, the alleles with SCA1 mutations (including alleles with an intermediate CAG repeat number) are assumed to have been present in this area for a long time. PMID:11018707

Onodera, Y; Aoki, M; Tsuda, T; Kato, H; Nagata, T; Kameya, T; Abe, K; Itoyama, Y

2000-09-15

254

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors in high school and NCAA division I football players.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MetSyn risk factors in high school (HS) and college (College) football players and to examine if the prevalence varied according to body fat percent (%Fat). One hundred twenty-three males (height 179.0 ± 6.7 cm; weight 89.4 ± 19.6 kg) from 7 different high schools and 82 males (height 186.2 ± 6.8 cm; weight 99.6 ± 16.8 kg) from one university participated. All testing occurred in the early morning after an overnight fast. %Fat, waist circumference, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and blood glucose were determined using standard testing procedures. The MetSyn risk factor levels were determined using American Heart Association criteria. Subjects were grouped by position and playing level (HS, College). Independent t-tests, chi-square analysis, 2-way analysis of variance, and path analytic models were used in the statistical analysis. Significance was set at p < 0.05. 6.8% (n = 14) of the sample met the American Heart Association criteria for MetSyn. Offensive and defensive linemen accounted for 92.3% of the players meeting MetSyn criteria with each playing level (HS, College) having 7 subjects. The MetSyn criteria differed significantly across %Fat. Obese players were more likely to meet the criteria for MetSyn. %Fat was a statistically significant predictor of mean arterial blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and waist circumference. The MetSyn exists in both HS- and College-level football players, with almost all cases occurring in the athletes with the highest levels of %Fat (offensive/defensive lineman). Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the prevalence of MetSyn risk factors in offensive and defensive linemen and take appropriate actions to ensure athlete safety. PMID:22996023

Steffes, Gary D; Megura, Alex E; Adams, James; Claytor, Randal P; Ward, Rose M; Horn, Thelma S; Potteiger, Jeffrey A

2013-07-01

255

High prevalence of syphilis among street-based female sex workers in Nanchang, China  

PubMed Central

Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) play a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. Several studies reported that street-based FSWs have higher risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs. Therefore, street-based FSWs should be specifically targeted for HIV and STIs intervention programs. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence rates and risk factors of HIV and syphilis among FSWs in Nanchang, China. Materials and Methods: Using convenience sampling methods, 361 street-based FSWs were recruited from August 2011 to February 2012. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire on socioeconomic and sex behavioral information and were tested for HIV and syphilis. Risk for HIV and syphilis infection was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: No HIV infections were found. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 43.5%. Nearly 46.1% of street-based FSWs reported having education for no more than 6 years. Having reproductive tract infections at current visit, duration of sex work more than 5 years, indulgence in unprotected sex trade in the last time, unprotected sex trade in the last month, and unprotected sex with boyfriend or spouse in the last month were reported by 35.2%, 43.5%, 33.8%, 60.4%, and 93.1% street-based FSWs, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having reproductive tract infections at current visit [odds ratio (OR), 12.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.01-24.37], duration of sex work more than five years (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.40-7.54), and unprotected sex trade in the last month (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.22) were independently associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of syphilis among street-based FSWs is very high. Most street-based FSWs in our survey had low education, long experience of commercial sex, and high rate of inconsistent condom use. Comprehensive interventions targeting this high-risk group, especially scaling up screening and ensuring consistent use of condoms during sex are needed. PMID:25396127

Tao, Xiao Hua; Jiang, Tao; Shao, Dan; Xue, Wei; Ye, Fa Shun; Wang, Ming; He, Mei Hua

2014-01-01

256

PBS-Nova: Dogs And More Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website, designed to accompany a television Feature Program on the world of Dogs, asks "How and why did man's best friend evolve from wolves, and why are dogs so remarkably diverse today?" The site showcases a slide show on working dogs and an interactive matching game entitled, Dogs Around the World. Also included at this website are a Teacher's Guide, a Links and Books page, and an Inquiry Article about Dog diversity. Additionally, this site links to the TV program transcript and to a recent "washingtonpost.com discussion with biologist and dog expert Ray Coppinger."

257

High-prevalence Borrelia miyamotoi infection among [corrected] wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Tennessee.  

PubMed

During spring and fall 2009, 60 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) harvested by Tennessee hunters were surveyed for Borrelia spp. by sampling their blood, tissue, and attached ticks. In both seasons, 70% of turkeys were infested with juvenile Amblyomma americanum; one spring turkey hosted an adult female Ixodes brunneus. Polymerase chain reaction assays followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 58% of the turkeys were positive for the spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, with tissue testing positive more frequently than blood (P = 0.015). Sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer indicated > or = 99% similarity to previously published sequences of the North American strain of this spirochete. Positive turkeys were present in both seasons and from all seven middle Tennessee counties sampled. No ticks from the turkeys tested positive for any Borrelia spp. This is the first report of B. miyamotoi in birds; the transmission pathways and epidemiological significance of this high-prevalence spirochetal infection remain uncertain. PMID:21175079

Scott, M C; Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Baker, E; Edwards, H; Crowder, C; Tsao, J I; Hickling, G J

2010-11-01

258

Real-time PCR Demonstrates High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: Implications for Surveillance and Control  

PubMed Central

Background The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can be high, approaching 65% in some endemic areas. Of the currently available microscopy-based diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosome infections in the Philippines and elsewhere, most exhibit varying diagnostic performances, with the Kato-Katz (KK) method having particularly poor sensitivity for detecting low intensity infections. This suggests that the actual prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica may be much higher than previous reports have indicated. Methodology/Principal Findings Six barangay (villages) were selected to determine the prevalence of S. japonicum in humans in the municipality of Palapag, Northern Samar. Fecal samples were collected from 560 humans and examined by the KK method and a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. A high S. japonicum prevalence (90.2%) was revealed using qPCR whereas the KK method indicated a lower prevalence (22.9%). The geometric mean eggs per gram (GMEPG) determined by the qPCR was 36.5 and 11.5 by the KK. These results, particularly those obtained by the qPCR, indicate that the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this region of the Philippines is much higher than historically reported. Conclusions/Significance Despite being more expensive, qPCR can complement the KK procedure, particularly for surveillance and monitoring of areas where extensive schistosomiasis control has led to low prevalence and intensity infections and where schistosomiasis elimination is on the horizon, as for example in southern China. PMID:25606851

Gordon, Catherine. A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Williams, Gail M.; Gray, Darren J.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

2015-01-01

259

Serological prevalence and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection among women in Santiago, Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology is a main factor for designing vaccination programs and surveillance strategies; nevertheless, there are few reports of HPV seroprevalence in the general population, especially in Latin America. This study aimed to describe high-risk HPV serological prevalence, persistence, and association with concurrent cervical infection, in Chilean women. Methods 1021 women from the general population, aged 15–85 years, were studied in 2001 of whom 600 were reexamined in 2006. The assessments at both time points included cervical HPV DNA testing, HPV antibody testing, cervical cytology and a sociodemographic/behavioral questionnaire. HPV DNA and antibodies against L1 protein of types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 were assessed by reverse line blot and multiplex serology, respectively. Results Seropositivity was high at both baseline (43.2%) and follow-up (50.2%) and increased with age (p?prevalences were 6.7% and 8.7%. DNA and seroprevalence were associated at baseline (p?=?0.01 for any HPV). Early age at first sexual intercourse and having had two or more sexual partners were independently associated with seropositivity. Most (82.0%) initially seropositive women remained seropositive at follow-up; 21.6% of initially seronegative women seroconverted, reaching 17.5% among women older than 60 years of age. ASCUS or worse cytology was correlated with HPV DNA positivity but not with HPV seropositivity. Conclusion HPV seroprevalence studies are a useful tool for learning about the dynamics of HPV infection in a community. This study contributes to understanding the natural history of HPV infection and provides a baseline assessment before the incorporation of HPV vaccination into a national program. PMID:24990706

2014-01-01

260

Multiple zoonotic parasites identified in dog feces collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal-a potential threat to human health.  

PubMed

Dogs play many roles and their presence within people's houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed. PMID:25257358

Mateus, Teresa Letra; Castro, António; Ribeiro, João Niza; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

2014-09-01

261

Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

2014-01-01

262

Effects of high-volume, rapid-fluid therapy on cardiovascular function and hematological values during isoflurane-induced hypotension in healthy dogs  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the administration of a high volume of isotonic crystalloid at a rapid rate on cardiovascular function in normovolemic, isoflurane-anesthetized dogs during induced hypotension. Using a prospective study, 6 adult dogs were induced to general anesthesia and cardiovascular and hematological values were measured while the dogs were maintained at 3 hemodynamic states: first during light anesthesia with 1.3% end-tidal isoflurane (ETI); then during a hypotensive state induced by deep anesthesia with 3% ETI for 45 min while administered 1 mL/kg body weight (BW) per minute of isotonic fluids; and then decreased to 1.6% ETI while receiving 1 mL/kg BW per minute of fluids for 15 min. End-tidal isoflurane (ETI) at 3.0 ± 0.2% decreased arterial blood pressure (ABP), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume index (SVI), and increased stroke volume variation (SVV) and central venous pressure (CVP). Fluid administration during 3% ETI decreased only SVV and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), while CVP increased progressively. Decreasing ETI to 1.6 ± 0.1% returned ABP and SVI to baseline (ETI 1.3 ± 0.1%), while CI and heart rate increased and SVV decreased. There was significant progressive clinical hemodilution of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), and central-venous oxygen content (CcvO2). High-volume, rapid-rate administration of an isotonic crystalloid was ineffective in counteracting isoflurane-induced hypotension in normovolemic dogs at a deep plane of anesthesia. Cardiovascular function improved only when anesthetic depth was reduced. Excessive hemodilution and its adverse consequences should be considered when a high volume of crystalloid is administered at a rapid rate. PMID:23024452

Valverde, Alexander; Gianotti, Giacomo; Rioja-Garcia, Eva; Hathway, Amanda

2012-01-01

263

High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia  

PubMed Central

Summary The HIV epidemic in Estonia is rapidly expanding, and injection drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group contributing to the expansion. A convenience sample of 159 IDUs visiting syringe-exchange programmes (SEPs) was selected to quantify the association of HIV-risk behaviours and blood-borne infections. A high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody (HBVcore), hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibodies (56, 85.1, 21.3, and 96.2%, respectively) was associated with high-risk injections, unsafe sexual behaviour and alcohol abuse. These findings emphasize the importance of evidence-based secondary prevention among the HIV-infected, especially given the uncertain sustainability of antiretroviral and substance abuse treatments. PMID:17326862

Uusküla, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; Heimer, Robert

2010-01-01

264

Prevalence of Students with Symptoms of Depression among High School Students in a District of Western Turkey: An Epidemiological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…

Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal

2008-01-01

265

To Unfold a Hidden Epidemic: Prevalence of Child Maltreatment and Its Health Implications among High School Students in Guangzhou, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment as perpetrated by parents, its associated health outcomes, and its resilient factors among high school students in China. Methods: A multi-level stratified random school-based survey was conducted in 2005. Twenty four high schools were randomly chosen from eight districts in…

Wong, William C. W.; Leung, Phil W. S.; Tang, Catherine S. K.; Chen, Wei-Qing; Lee, Albert; Ling, Davina C.

2009-01-01

266

Determination of Morphological, Biometric and Biochemical Susceptibilities in Healthy Eurasier Dogs with Suspected Inherited Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1–3 years old), adult males and adult females (4–8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the development of glaucoma. This cohort will be used as a sentinel for longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25380252

Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

2014-01-01

267

Determination of the prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2 (HHLO-2) infection in humans and dogs using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR in Korea.  

PubMed

Helicobacter spp. may have multiple routes of transmission. It is unclear, however, whether the agent is zoonotic and therefore transmitted from an animal reservoir, including dogs. The aim of this population-based study was to assess the relationship between pet ownership or frequent exposure to dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection, especially focusing on HHLO-2 (Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2) in saliva and feces samples in Korea, using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR. One hundred twenty-four eligible human subjects and 39 dogs participated in this study. Relativity of contact with dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection diagnosed by genus-specific PCR showed a statistically significant result (P<0.01), but in the relativity analyses between contact with dogs and H. pylori, H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections diagnosed using species-specific PCR, only Helicobacter felis showed a statistically significant result. Although H. pylori infection showed a statistically significant relativity, no statistically significant association was found between veterinarian subjects and Helicobacter. spp., H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections. On performing risk factor analyses of HHLO-2 infection by transmission, using matching species, between HHLO-2-positive dog owners and HHLO-2-positive dogs, Helicobacter felis infection showed an extremely significant relativity (P<0.0001), and Helicobacter bizzozeronii may also be a possible significant risk factor (P<0.01). These results suggest that HHLO-2 infection might be a zoonotic infection, because continuous contact with dogs was proved to be correlated with human H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections in this study. PMID:24065079

Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Dong; Lee, Young-Sun; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

2014-01-01

268

Prevalence of HIV, Syphilis, HCV and Their High Risk Behaviors among Migrant Workers in Eastern China  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. Methods A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. Results 17,377 (92.8%) of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73%) of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid) partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4%) had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently) was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single); male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job); having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%–0.06%) and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%–0.51%), respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%–0.70%). Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. Conclusions Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant workers in China. PMID:23451193

Wang, Qing; Zheng, Hui; Chen, Xin; Su, Jing; Peng, Zhihang; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

2013-01-01

269

High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries. PMID:24921627

Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-01-01

270

[Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs and livestock from Xinjiang production and construction corps].  

PubMed

The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs and livestock was investigated in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps by stratified random sampling. A total of 5 391 dog feces were detected by double antibody sandwich ELISA, and the positive rate of dog coproantigen was 0.69% (37/5 391). The livestock were subjected to necropsy, inspection and palpation. The prevalence of E. granulosus infection in livestock was 3.88% (431/11 122). PMID:25223066

Han, Fei; Wang, Bing-Quan; Wang, Li-Jie; Xiong, Jun; Xi, Yi; Wu, Li-Wen; Ma, Fu-Rong; Li, Fan-Ka

2014-06-01

271

Bounding on Rough Terrain with the LittleDog Robot  

E-print Network

A motion planning algorithm is described for bounding over rough terrain with the LittleDog robot. Unlike walking gaits, bounding is highly dynamic and cannot be planned with quasi-steady approximations. LittleDog is modeled ...

Shkolnik, Alexander C.

272

Small mammals associated with colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Southern High Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non-colony sites. Of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in our study area, >80 were on slopes of playa lakes; thus, we used sites of colonies and non-colonies that were on slopes of playa lakes. We trapped small mammals on 29 pairs of sites. Overall abundance did not differ between types of sites, but some taxa exhibited associations with colonies (Onychomys leucogaster) or non-colonies (Chaetodipus hispidus, Reithrodontomys, Sigmodon hispidus). Diversity and evenness of small mammals did not differ between colonies and non-colonies in 2002, but were higher on non-colonies in 2003. Although we may not have detected some rare or infrequently occurring species, our data reveal differences in diversity and evenness of more common species among the types of sites. Prairie dogs are touted as a keystone species with their colonies associated with a greater faunal diversity than adjacent lands. Our findings contradict several studies reporting greater diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of prairie dogs. We suggest that additional research across a wider landscape and incorporating landscape variables beyond the immediate trapping plot may further elucidate interspecific associations between black-tailed prairie dogs and species of small rodents.

Pruett, A.L.; Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Ray, J.D.

2010-01-01

273

Not Just "A Walking the Dog": Dog Walking and Pet Play and Their Association With Recommended Physical Activity Among Adolescents.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To examine the role of pet play and dog walking in children's and adolescents' leisure time, and the relationship between these activities and physical activity. Design . The study design was observational. Setting . The study setting was metropolitan Perth and nonmetropolitan regions in Western Australia. Subjects . The study included 1097 primary school (mean age, 10.1 years; SD, 1.6 years) and 657 secondary school (mean age, 14.0 years; SD, 1.3 years) students. Measures . Validated measures of total physical activity, dog walking, and pet play activity (prevalence and time) were calculated. Analysis . Generalized linear models tested for differences between proportions, while adjusting for socioeconomic status, age, and school-level clustering. Results . Approximately one third of primary school and one quarter of secondary school students reported that they walked the dog at least once in the last week. Pet play was the most common play activity for primary and secondary school girls, and the second and third most popular play activity for secondary and primary school boys, respectively. Secondary school students who walked the dog or played with pets spent an average of 1 hour per week on each activity, and they were significantly more likely (p < .005) to meet national physical activity recommendations than secondary school students not reporting these activities. Conclusion . Given the significant proportion of young people who frequently engage in dog walking and pet play, and the high level of pet ownership in many Western countries, promotion of these activities to support young people's health is warranted. PMID:25162325

Martin, Karen E; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Trapp, Georgina S A

2014-08-27

274

Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344

Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

2014-01-01

275

Cost-effectiveness model for hepatitis C screening and treatment: Implications for Egypt and other countries with high prevalence.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, and many developing countries report intermediate-to-high prevalence. However, the economic impact of screening and treatment for HCV in high prevalence countries has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for HCV infection for asymptomatic, average-risk adults using a Markov decision analytic model. In our model, we collected age-specific prevalence, disease progression rates for Egyptians and local cost estimates in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV infection (~15%) in the world. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how cost-effective HCV screening and treatment might be in other developing countries with high and intermediate prevalence. In Egypt, implementing a screening programme using triple-therapy treatment (sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon and ribavirin) was dominant compared with no screening because it would have lower total costs and improve health outcomes. HCV screening and treatment would also be cost-effective in global settings with intermediate costs of drug treatment (~$8000) and a higher sustained viral response rate (70-80%). PMID:25469976

Kim, David D; Hutton, David W; Raouf, Ahmed A; Salama, Mohsen; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Soliman, Amr S

2015-01-01

276

Stray Dogs, Saints, and Saviors: Fighting for the Soul of America's Toughest High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book tells the real-life story of Locke High School. Locke High--originally known for its excellence--became one of the toughest, most dysfunctional schools in the nation. Then in 2007 teachers voted to bring in an upstart charter school organization called "Green Dot" to try and restore the Locke Saints' past glory. It was a brave and…

Russo, Alexander

2011-01-01

277

Prevalence, control and awareness of high blood pressure among Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of elevated blood pressure (BP) among Canadian adults and to determine the level of control, treatment, awareness and prevalence of other risk factors among adults with high BP. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Nine Canadian provinces, from 1986 to 1990. PARTICIPANTS: A probability sample of 26,293 men and women aged 18 to 74 years was selected from the health insurance registers in each province. For 20,582 subjects, BP was measured at least twice. Nurses administered a standard questionnaire and recorded two BP measurements using a standardized technique. Two further BP readings, anthropometric measurements and a blood specimen for lipid analysis were obtained from those subjects who attended a clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP, prevalence of elevated BP using different criteria, and prevalence of smoking, elevated blood cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity and presence of diabetes by high BP status are reported. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen percent of men and 13% of women had diastolic BP of 90 mm Hg or greater or were on treatment (or both). About 26% of these subjects were unaware of their hypertension, 42% were being treated and their condition controlled, 16% were treated and not controlled, and 16% were neither treated nor controlled. Use of non-pharmacologic treatment of high BP with or without medication was low (22%). Hypertensive subjects showed a higher prevalence of elevated total cholesterol, high body mass index, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle than normotensive subjects. Most people with elevated BP were in the 90 to 95 mm Hg range for diastolic pressure and 140 to 160 mm Hg range for systolic pressure. Prevalence of high isolated systolic BP sharply increased in men (40%) and women (49%) 65 to 74 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively low level of control of elevated BP calls for population and individual strategies, stressing a non-pharmacologic approach and addressing isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. PMID:1596849

Joffres, M R; Hamet, P; Rabkin, S W; Gelskey, D; Hogan, K; Fodor, G

1992-01-01

278

Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

2013-11-01

279

Absorption, uptake and tissue affinity of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan after oral administration in rats and dogs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the absorption, distribution and excretion of (99m)technetium-labeled, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (((99m)Tc-HA) and (99m)technetium pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) after single dose, oral administration to Wistar rats and Beagle dogs. A pilot study utilized (99m)Tc-HA alone, and a second confirmatory study compared uptake of labeled (99m)Tc-HA with (99m)Tc-P. Urinary and fecal excretion after (99m)Tc-HA ingestion by rats showed 86.7-95.6% of radioactivity was recovered, almost all in feces. All tissues examined showed incorporation of radioactivity from (99m)Tc-HA starting at 15 min and persisting for 48 h, in a pattern significantly different from (99m)Tc-P. Whole-body scintigraphs and close-ups of the ventral chest region showed nonalimentary radioactivity from (99m)Tc-HA concentrated in joints, vertebrae and salivary glands four hours after administration. Autoradiography of skin, bone and joint tissue pieces after 24 h showed incorporation of radioactivity from (99m)Tc-HA, but not from (99m)Tc-P. Conversely, absorption, distribution and excretion of (99m)Tc was completely different from (99m)Tc-HA, showing an expected pattern of rapid absorption and excretion in urine, with accumulation in thyroid glands, stomach, kidney and bladder. This report presents the first evidence for uptake and distribution to connective tissues of orally administered, high-molecular-weight HA. PMID:18959406

Balogh, Lajos; Polyak, Andras; Mathe, Domokos; Kiraly, Reka; Thuroczy, Juliana; Terez, Marian; Janoki, Gyozo; Ting, Yaoting; Bucci, Luke R; Schauss, Alexander G

2008-11-26

280

High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in tsunami-flooded shelters established after the great East-Japan earthquake.  

PubMed

High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in disaster shelters has been reported in the aftermath of earthquakes in Japan. Calf DVT was examined using sonography in the shelters after the Great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. By the end of July 2011, 701 out of 8,630 evacuees suspected with calf DVT, judged by inspections or medical interviews, were examined in 32 shelters, and 190 evacuees were confirmed to have calf DVT. The prevalence of DVT was 2.20%, which was 200 times higher than the usual incidence in Japan. The DVT prevalence seemed to decrease with time. By the end of May, a significantly higher prevalence of DVT was found in tsunami-flooded shelters (109 of 3,871 evacuees; 2.82%) than in non-flooded shelters (53 of 3,155 evacuees; 1.68%). After June, its prevalence was still higher (18/541; 3.33%) in tsunami-flooded shelters than in non-flooded shelters (10/1063; 0.94%). The cause of the high prevalence of DVT was supposed to be dehydration due to the delay in supplying drinking water, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by the evacuees because of a shortage of clean water to wash their hands. Dehydration was especially noticed in women because they restricted themselves of water intake to avoid using unsanitary toilet facilities. Moreover, crowded shelters restricted the mobility of elderly people, which would exacerbate the prevalence of DVT. Those deteriorated and crowded shelters were observed in tsunami-flooded areas. Therefore, long-term shelters should not be set up in flooded areas after tsunami. PMID:22728376

Ueda, Shinsaku; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Muneichi; Suzuki, Satoshi

2012-01-01

281

KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS  

E-print Network

KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS Kendal Shepherd (BVSc, CCAB, MRCVS) Adapted for classroom use;2 Keeping ourselves safe near dogs 1 Do you have a pet dog? 2 Do you like dogs? 3 Does a relative of yours have a pet dog? 4 What makes dogs likely to bite? 5 How can we prevent a dog biting us? 6 Is a small

Little, Tony

282

High incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in south east Scotland: evidence of a genetic predisposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo determine the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lothian and Border Health Board Regions of south east Scotland.METHODSIncidence study: all patients were identified in whom a diagnosis of Poser category probable or definite multiple sclerosis was made by a neurologist between 1992 and 1995. Prevalence study: all patients known to have multiple sclerosis who were alive and

P M Rothwell; D Charlton

1998-01-01

283

High Prevalence of Precocious Puberty and Obesity in Childhood Narcolepsy with Cataplexy  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: We analyzed the potential predictive factors for precocious puberty, observed in some cases of childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) and for obesity, a much more common feature of NC, through a systematic assessment of pubertal staging, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic/endocrine biochemical analyses. Design: Cross-sectional on consecutive recruitment. Setting: Hospital sleep center and pediatric unit. Patients: Forty-three children and adolescents with NC versus 52 age-matched obese children as controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Patients underwent clinical interview, polysomnographic recordings, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 measurement, and human leukocyte antigen typing. Height, weight, arterial blood pressure, and Tanner pubertal stage were evaluated. Plasma lipid and glucose profiles were analyzed. When an altered pubertal development was clinically suspected, plasma concentrations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones were determined. Children with NC showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (74%) and a higher occurrence of precocious puberty (17%) than obese controls (1.9%). Isolated signs of accelerated pubertal development (thelarche, pubic hair, advanced bone age) were also present (41%). Precocious puberty was significantly predicted by a younger age at first NC symptom onset but not by overweight/obesity or other factors. In addition, overweight/obesity was predicted by younger age at diagnosis; additional predictors were found for overweight/obesity (short disease duration, younger age at weight gain and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), which did not include precocious puberty. NC symptoms, pubertal signs appearance, and body weight gain developed in close temporal sequence. Conclusions: NC occurring during prepubertal age is frequently accompanied by precocious puberty and overweight/obesity, suggesting an extended hypothalamic dysfunction. The severity of these comorbidities and the potential related risks require a multidiagnostic approach and a tailored therapeutic management. Citation: Poli F; Pizza F; Mignot E; Ferri R; Pagotto U; Taheri S; Finotti E; Bernardi F; Pirazzoli P; Cicognani A; Balsamo A; Nobili L; Bruni O; Plazzi G. High prevalence of precocious puberty and obesity in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy. SLEEP 2013;36(2):175–181. PMID:23372264

Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Mignot, Emmanuel; Ferri, Raffaele; Pagotto, Uberto; Taheri, Shahrad; Finotti, Elena; Bernardi, Filippo; Pirazzoli, Piero; Cicognani, Alessandro; Balsamo, Antonio; Nobili, Lino; Bruni, Oliviero; Plazzi, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

284

High prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA detected in cervical swabs from women in southern Selangor, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to play an important role in the genesis of cervical cancer. Since new screening and prevention strategies, namely improved HPV testing and HPV vaccination have been aggressively promoted recently, it is crucial to investigate the HPV distribution in Malaysia in order to maximize their cost-effectiveness. This study was therefore conducted to assess the HPV type distribution in the most populous region, the state of Selangor. A total of 200 cervical swab samples were collected in two health-screening campaigns, and also from women attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in several hospitals in Selangor. DNA extraction was performed and HPV DNA was detected via nested PCR using MY09/MY11 as outer primers and GP5+/GP6+ as inner primers which target the L1 gene of the viral genome. The purified PCR products were subjected to automated DNA sequencing to determine the HPV genotype. Out of 180 ?-globin positive samples, 84 (46.7%) were positive for HPV DNA. The most common HPV type found was high-risk oncogenic type 16 (40%), followed by HPV type 18 (3.3%), HPV 33 (1.7%), HPV 31 (0.6%), and low-risk HPV 87 (0.6%). Our study confirmed that nested PCR method is highly sensitive in detecting HPV DNA even in low risk patients. Since a relatively high prevalence rate of HPV infection was found in this population, prompt healthcare policy changes to bring about implementation of early HPV vaccination program is desirable to prevent a high incidence of cervical cancer. PMID:21338211

Chong, P P; Asyikin, N; Rusinahayati, M; Halimatun, S; Rozita, R; Ng, C K; Hamilton, W H Wan; Tan, B C; Noraihan, N; Rohani, A; Faezah, H; Latiffah, L; Maha, A; Sabariah, A R

2010-01-01

285

Cat and Dog Bites  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

286

Prevalence of high blood pressure in 122,053 adolescents: a systematic review and meta-regression.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries. We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013. Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were considered. The pooled prevalence's of HBP were estimated by random effects. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify the sources of heterogeneity across studies. Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and total of 122,053 adolescents included. The pooled-prevalence of HBP was 11.2%, 13% for boys, and 9.6% for girls (P < 0.01). Method of measurement of BP and year in which the survey was conducted were associated with heterogeneity in the estimates of HBP among boys. The data indicate that HBP is higher among boys than girls, and that the method of measurement plays an important role in the overall heterogeneity of HBP value distributions, particularly in boys. PMID:25501086

de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A; Horta, Bernardo L; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

2014-12-01

287

Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

2015-01-01

288

Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P?=?0.008), cholesterol (P?=?0.003), triglyceride (P?=?0.018), and fasting insulin (P?dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P?=?0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P?=?0.030) in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss. PMID:22929809

2012-01-01

289

A comparative study of hematological parameters of ? and ? thalassemias in a high prevalence zone: Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Saudi Arabia falls in the high prevalent zone of ?? and ? thalassemias. Early screening for the type of thalassemia is essential for further investigations and management. The study was carried out to differentiate the type of thalassemia based on red cell indices and other hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 991 clinically suspected cases of thalassemias in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The hematological parameters were studied on Coulter STKS. Cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed on all the blood samples. Gene deletion studies were carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique using the restriction endonucleases Bam HI. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 11.5 version. RESULTS: The hemoglobin electrophoresis and gene studies revealed that there were 406 (40.96%) and 59 (5.95 %) cases of ? thalassemia trait and ? thalassemia major respectively including adults and children. 426 cases of various deletion forms of ? thalassemias were seen. Microcytosis was a common feature in ? thalassemias trait and (-?/-?) and (--/??) types of ? thalassemias. MCH was a more significant distinguishing feature among thalassemias. ? thalassemia major and ? thalassemia (-?/??) had almost normal hematological parameters. CONCLUSION: MCV and RBC counts are not statistically significant features for discriminating between ? and ? thalassemias. There is need for development of a discrimination index to differentiate between ? and ? thalassemias traits on the lines of discriminatory Indices available for distinguishing ? thalassemias trait from iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22345994

Mehdi, Syed Riaz; Al Dahmash, Badr Abdullah

2011-01-01

290

High prevalence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms in a group of Italian dental technicians  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational and chronic exposure to solvents and metals is considered a possible risk factor for Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. While manufacturing dental prostheses, dental technicians are exposed to numerous chemicals that contain toxins known to affect the central nervous system, such as solvents (which contain n-hexane in particular) and metals (which contain mercury, iron, chromium, cobalt and nickel). Methods We performed an epidemiological and clinical study on all 27 dental technicians working in a school for dental technicians. We asked all the technicians to fill in a self-administered questionnaire on extrapyramidal symptoms, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), a self-administered screening instrument, to detect any psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we invited all 27 dental technicians to undergo a neurological examination and provide a detailed occupational history in our clinic. Results Of the 14 subjects who underwent the neurological examination, four had postural tremor and one had a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms in this group of male dental technicians working in a state technical high school in Rome. We believe that this finding may be due to the presence of toxins in the dental technician's work. PMID:17686154

Fabrizio, Edito; Vanacore, Nicola; Valente, Marcella; Rubino, Alfonso; Meco, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

291

Quantitative Detection of Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum by High-Sensitivity Real-Time PCR Reveals High Prevalence of Vaginal Infection in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Bovine vaginal cytobrush specimens were analyzed for the presence of Chlamydia spp. by a high-sensitivity, high-specificity quantitative PCR. The 53% prevalence of low-level Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum genital infection detected in virgin heifers suggests predominantely extragenital transmission of Chlamydia in cattle and conforms to the high seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia antibodies. PMID:12682170

DeGraves, Fred J.; Gao, Dongya; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Schlapp, Tobias; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

2003-01-01

292

High Prevalence of the EBER Variant EB-8m in Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are the most highly expressed transcripts in all EBV-associated tumors and are involved in both lymphoid and epithelioid carcinogenesis. Our previous study on Chinese isolates from non-endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) identified new EBER variants (EB-8m and EB-10m) which were less common but relatively more frequent in NPC cases than healthy donors. In the present study, we determined the EBER variants in NPC cases and healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of NPC within China and compared the EBER variants, in relation to the genotypes at BamHI F region (prototype F and f variant), between population groups and between two areas. According to the phylogenetic tree, four EBER variants (EB-6m, EB-8m, EB-10m and B95-8) were identified. EB-6m was dominant in all population groups except for endemic NPC group, in which EB-8m was dominant. EB-8m was more common in endemic NPC cases (82.0%, 41/50) than non-endemic NPC cases (33.7%, 32/95) (p<0.0001), and it was also more frequent in healthy donors from endemic area (32.4%, 24/74) than healthy donors from non-endemic area (1.1%, 1/92) (p<0.0001). More importantly, the EB-8m was more prevalent in NPC cases than healthy donors in both areas (p<0.0001). The f variant, which has been suggested to associate with endemic NPC, demonstrated preferential linkage with EB-8m in endemic isolates, however, the EB-8m variant seemed to be more specific to NPC isolates than f variant. These results reveal high prevalence of EBER EB-8m variant in endemic NPC cases, suggesting an association between NPC development and EBV isolates carrying EB-8m variant. Our finding identified a small healthy population group that shares the same viral strain which predominates in NPC cases. It could be interesting to carry extensive cohort studies following these individuals to evaluate the risk to develop NPC. PMID:25807550

Shen, Zhi-chao; Luo, Bing; Chen, Jian-ning; Chao, Yan; Shao, Chun-kui; Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Yun

2015-01-01

293

A canine purgation study and risk factor analysis for echinococcosis in a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

The Tibetan plateau of western China has been shown to have a very high prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. The domestic dog is suspected to be the primary definitive host for the transmission of both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis to humans in this locality. A purgation study of 371 dogs in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province during 2002-2003 resulted in an E. multilocularis prevalence of 12% and an E. granulosus prevalence of 8%. These crude prevalences were then adjusted, based on the known sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of E. granulosus and a suggested sensitivity for the detection of E. multilocularis. In addition, it was assumed that some immature parasites of either species could be misidentified morphologically and wrongly assigned. This resulted in credible true prevalence intervals of between 13-33% for E. multilocularis and 8-19% for E. granulosus. Prevalences of other intestinal helminthes found on purgation were: Taenia spp. 31%, Dipylidium caninum 1%, and ascarids 8%. Risk factors associated with the acquisition of canine echinococcosis were evaluated based on responses to a questionnaire administered to dog owners. Male dogs were more likely to be infected with Echinococcus spp. than female dogs (P<0.05) and dogs allowed to roam were more likely to be infected with E. multilocularis (P<0.05). PMID:15619374

Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Qian, Wang; Torgerson, Paul R

2005-01-01

294

Prevalence and Co-Occurrence of Actionable Genomic Alterations in High-Grade Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose We sought to define the prevalence and co-occurrence of actionable genomic alterations in patients with high-grade bladder cancer to serve as a platform for therapeutic drug discovery. Patients and Methods An integrative analysis of 97 high-grade bladder tumors was conducted to identify actionable drug targets, which are defined as genomic alterations that have been clinically validated in another cancer type (eg, BRAF mutation) or alterations for which a selective inhibitor of the target or pathway is under clinical investigation. DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) were defined by using array comparative genomic hybridization. Mutation profiling was performed by using both mass spectroscopy-based genotyping and Sanger sequencing. Results Sixty-one percent of tumors harbored potentially actionable genomic alterations. A core pathway analysis of the integrated data set revealed a nonoverlapping pattern of mutations in the RTK-RAS-RAF and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways and regulators of G1-S cell cycle progression. Unsupervised clustering of CNAs defined two distinct classes of bladder tumors that differed in the degree of their CNA burden. Integration of mutation and copy number analyses revealed that mutations in TP53 and RB1 were significantly more common in tumors with a high CNA burden (P < .001 and P < .003, respectively). Conclusion High-grade bladder cancer possesses substantial genomic heterogeneity. The majority of tumors harbor potentially tractable genomic alterations that may predict for response to target-selective agents. Given the genomic diversity of bladder cancers, optimal development of target-specific agents will require pretreatment genomic characterization. PMID:23897969

Iyer, Gopa; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Schultz, Nikolaus; Hanrahan, Aphrothiti J.; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Balar, Arjun V.; Kim, Philip H.; Lin, Oscar; Weinhold, Nils; Sander, Chris; Zabor, Emily C.; Janakiraman, Manickam; Garcia-Grossman, Ilana R.; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; Bochner, Bernard H.; Reuter, Victor E.; Bajorin, Dean F.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Taylor, Barry S.; Solit, David B.

2013-01-01

295

Acute Portal Hypertension Models in Dogs: Low- and High-Flow Approaches  

PubMed Central

Effective animal models are needed to evaluate the feasibility of new techniques to assess portal hypertension (PH). Here we developed 2 canine models of acute PH by increasing intrasinusoidal resistance and by increasing the portal vein (PV) flow volume to test the efficacy of a noninvasive technique to evaluate PH. The acute low-flow PH model was based on embolization of liver circulation by using a gelatin sponge material. The acute high-flow PH model was based on increasing the PV flow volume by using an arteriovenous (A-V) shunt from the femoral artery and saline infusion. PV pressures and diameters were assessed before and after inducing PH. Pressure values and diameters were obtained from the inferior vena cava in 3 unmanipulated controls. The low-flow model of PH was repeatable and successfully increased PV pressure by an average of 16.5 mm Hg within 15 min. The high-flow model of PH failed to achieve increased PV pressures. However, saline supplementation of the portal circulation in the high-flow model led to mean increases in PV pressures of 12.8 mm Hg within 20 min. Pulsatility in the PV was decreased in the low-flow model and increased in the high-flow model relative to baseline. No changes in PV diameter were noted in either model. These acute PH models are relatively straightforward to implement and may facilitate the evaluation of new techniques to assess PH. PMID:23114046

Dave, Jaydev K; Liu, Ji-Bin; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Merton, Daniel A; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Altemus, Joseph; Needleman, Laurence; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming

2012-01-01

296

Global warming will reshuffle the areas of high prevalence and richness of three genera of avian blood parasites.  

PubMed

The importance of parasitism for host populations depends on local parasite richness and prevalence: usually host individuals face higher infection risk in areas where parasites are most diverse, and host dispersal to or from these areas may have fitness consequences. Knowing how parasites are and will be distributed in space and time (in a context of global change) is thus crucial from both an ecological and a biological conservation perspective. Nevertheless, most research articles focus just on elaborating models of parasite distribution instead of parasite diversity. We produced distribution models of the areas where haemosporidian parasites are currently highly diverse (both at community and at within-host levels) and prevalent among Iberian populations of a model passerine host: the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla; and how these areas are expected to vary according to three scenarios of climate change. On the basis of these models, we analysed whether variation among populations in parasite richness or prevalence are expected to remain the same or change in the future, thereby reshuffling the geographic mosaic of host-parasite interactions as we observe it today. Our models predict a rearrangement of areas of high prevalence and richness of parasites in the future, with Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon parasites (today the most diverse genera in blackcaps) losing areas of high diversity and Plasmodium parasites (the most virulent ones) gaining them. Likewise, the prevalence of multiple infections and parasite infracommunity richness would be reduced. Importantly, differences among populations in the prevalence and richness of parasites are expected to decrease in the future, creating a more homogeneous parasitic landscape. This predicts an altered geographic mosaic of host-parasite relationships, which will modify the interaction arena in which parasite virulence evolves. PMID:24488566

Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; de la Hera, Iván; Fernández-González, Sofía; Pérez-Tris, Javier

2014-08-01

297

HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN SUBPOPULATION PROFILE AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PREVALENCE IN MALE PARTICIPANTS OF THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a heterogeneous lipoprotein class and there is no consensus on the value of HDL subspecies in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk assessment. We tested the hypothesis whether specific HDL subpopulations are significantly associated with CHD-prevalence. ApoA-I concentr...

298

Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts

Phil WS Leung; William CW Wong; WQ Chen; Catherine SK Tang

2008-01-01

299

Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

300

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop-ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop- ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in many developed countries suggests that current control strategies are suboptimal. The increase tuberculosis. We describe and discuss a theoretical framework based upon mathematical transmission models

Blower, Sally

301

Prevalence of Whole-Body Skin Self-Examination in a Population at High Risk for Skin Cancer (Australia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Whole-body skin self-examination (SSE) with presentation of suspicious lesions to a physician may improve early detection of melanoma. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and determinants of SSE in a high-risk population in preparation for a community-based randomised controlled trial of screening for melanoma.

Joanne F. Aitken; Monika Janda; John B. Lowe; Mark Elwood; Ian T. Ring; Philippa H. Youl; David W. Firman

2004-01-01

302

Relation between high energy phosphate and lethal injury in myocardial ischemia in the dog.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between progressive depletion of high energy phosphate and the onset of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium following coronary occlusion has been evaluated. Myocardial ischemia was induced by proximal occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery for 15, 30, 40, or 60 minutes. Cell injury in the severely ischemic posterior papillary muscle (PP) was evaluated by electron microscopy and by measuring the capacity of slices of the injured PP to maintain electrolytes, resynthesize high energy phosphate, and exclude inulin during in vitro incubation. ATP content in the ischemic myocardium decreased to 35%, 9%, 7%, and 5% of control values after 15, 30, 40, and 60 minutes of ischemia, respectively, and was associated with a corresponding depletion of total adenine nucleotides. The loss of 65% of the ATP after 15 minutes of ischemia (reversible injury) was associated with only minimal ultrastructural changes and no significant defects of electrolytes in incubated slices. However, the depletion of over 90% of the ATP after 40 minutes of ischemia (irreversible injury) was associated with significant fine structural changes and markedly altered cell volume regulation. The results suggest a close relationship between the marked depletion of high energy phsophates and the development of lethal injury in acutely ischemic myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:686146

Jennings, R. B.; Hawkins, H. K.; Lowe, J. E.; Hill, M. L.; Klotman, S.; Reimer, K. A.

1978-01-01

303

SMALL MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH COLONIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS) IN THE SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS  

E-print Network

common species among the types of sites. Prairie dogs are touted as a keystone species) often are touted as a keystone species within the Great Plains ecosys- tem. If adhering to the definition of a keystone species as one whose impact on its c

Wallace, Mark C.

304

Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high quality senior dog diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibility and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets cont...

305

Prevalence of canine toxocariasis in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Toxocara canis is one of the most common parasitic helminth worm of dogs and also a causative agent of zoonotic disease in humans. This pilot study was conducted to determine the presence of T. canis infection in dog population in and around Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 558 faecal samples both from stray and owned dogs were screened and overall 24.3 % dogs were found positive for T. canis. A comparison between owned and stray dogs suggests that the higher prevalence was observed in the latter group. The age of the dogs had a considerable influence on prevalence, with a much higher proportion of younger dogs being infected. Among the stray dogs, the infection rate is much higher (62.79 %) in pups, as compared to 7.8 % in adult. Similarly, of the owned dogs screened 41.74 % pups were infected while the infection rate in adults was only 3.38 %. The higher rate of prevalence of this parasite in dogs could be the source of soil contamination for transmission of Toxocariasis which is of public health importance in this region. PMID:24505188

Sahu, Shivani; Samanta, S; Sudhakar, N R; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Maurya, P S; Pawde, A M; Kumar, Ashok

2014-03-01

306

Prevalence of concomitant intraarticular lesions in patients treated operatively for high-grade acromioclavicular joint separations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of concomitant intraarticular lesions to the glenohumeral joint or to surrounding soft tissue structures with non-randomized prospective case series. High-grade acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations result from direct or indirect force impact to the shoulder girdle. Fourty consecutive patients (2 female, 38 male) with high-grade acromioclavicular joint dislocations (Rockwood III: n = 3; IV: n = 3; V: n = 34) who underwent diagnostic arthroscopy at the time of acromioclavicular joint repair were evaluated. Associated pathologic lesions were documented and treated by an all-arthroscopic approach. As a result, traumatic intraarticular lesions were found in 15% (n = 6/40) of cases. Two patients had an isolated partial tear of the subscapularis tendon. One patient had a combined tear of the subscapularis and supraspinatus tendon (PASTA type lesion). Two patients showed a type II SLAP-lesion and one patient had a type VI SLAP-lesion. Arthroscopic treatment included rotator cuff reconstruction in two cases and debridement of the partially torn tendon in one case. Two patients underwent an arthroscopic SLAP-repair and in one patient a debridement of a labral flap tear was performed. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction was achieved via an open technique using suture anchors in 14 cases and via an all-arthroscopic approach using a double Tight-rope technique in 26 cases. To conclude, in number of cases, high-grade AC-separations may be associated with traumatic concomitant glenohumeral pathologies resulting from the same trauma impact to the shoulder girdle. A combined or an all-arthroscopic approach allows to accurately diagnose and treat associated intraarticular pathologies. PMID:19020860

Pauly, Stephan; Gerhardt, Christian; Haas, Norbert P; Scheibel, Markus

2009-05-01

307

Low Prevalence of Rotavirus and High Prevalence of Norovirus in Hospital and Community Wastewater after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these data with pre-vaccination data. The major finding was the low prevalence of RV compared to NoV in all sampling points (11% vs 44%, p<0.05), and that RV concentration was lower as compared to NoV. RV was observed mainly during the rainy season (July–September), and the majority of all RV detected (6/9) belonged to subgroup (SG) I. The partial VP7-gene obtained from one RV positive sample was similar (99% nt identity) to a G6 VP7-gene of bovine origin and similar to the corresponding gene of the vaccine strain (98%). Furthermore RV G-types 2 and 4 were found in the incoming wastewater. NoV strains were detected throughout the year, of which a majority (20/21) were of genotype GII.4. We conclude that the introduction of RV vaccination reduced the transmission of RV in the community in Nicaragua. However, the burden of diarrhea in the country remains high, and the high prevalence of NoVs in hospital and municipal wastewater is noteworthy. This study highlights the need for further assessment of NoV following RV vaccine introduction. PMID:22016794

Bucardo, Filemón; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

2011-01-01

308

High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-01-01

309

Prevalence of HPV High-Risk Genotypes in Three Cohorts of Women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).  

PubMed

The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30'S and 50'S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30'S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50'S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30'S and 50'S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study. PMID:24106609

Zohoncon, Theodora M; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W; Yonli, Albert T; Compaore, Tegwinde R; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouédraogo, Charlemagne M R; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiéma, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A; Simpore, Jacques

2013-01-01

310

Prevalence of HPV High-Risk Genotypes in Three Cohorts of Women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30?S and 50?S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30?S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50?S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30?S and 50?S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study. PMID:24106609

Zohoncon, Theodora M.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Yonli, Albert T.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouédraogo, Charlemagne M.R.; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiéma, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A.; Simpore, Jacques

2013-01-01

311

High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

PubMed Central

The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease. PMID:9616201

McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

1998-01-01

312

High prevalence of myocardial monoclonal antimyosin antibody uptake in patients with chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies were undertaken to assess the presence of myocardial uptake in patients with chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Three groups were studied: 17 patients with chronic (greater than 12 months) idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 12 patients with a large, poorly contracting left ventricle not due to dilated cardiomyopathy (control patients) and 8 normal individuals. The patients in the cardiomyopathy and control groups showed a similar degree of clinical and functional impairment. Imaging was undertaken 48 h after antimyosin injection. The heart/lung ratio of antimyosin uptake was used to assess the results. The mean ratio in the cardiomyopathy group was 1.83 +/- 0.36 (range 1.40 to 2.80), a value significantly higher than that obtained in the control patients without cardiomyopathy (mean 1.46 +/- 0.04, range 1.38 to 1.50) or normal subjects (mean 1.46 +/- 0.13, range 1.31 to 1.6) (p less than 0.01). No difference in the ratio was noted between the normal subjects and control patients. Abnormal antimyosin uptake was seen in 12 (70%) of the 17 patients with cardiomyopathy and in only 1 (8%) of the 12 control patients. Positive monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies are highly prevalent in chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Obrador, D.; Ballester, M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Pons-Llado, G.

1989-05-01

313

High Prevalence of Mucosa-Associated E. coli Producing Cyclomodulin and Genotoxin in Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Some Escherichia coli strains produce toxins designated cyclomodulins (CMs) which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle of host cells, suggesting a possible link between these bacteria and cancers. There are relatively few data available concerning the colonization of colon tumors by cyclomodulin- and genotoxic-producing E. coli. We did a qualitative and phylogenetic analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli harboring cyclomodulin-encoding genes from 38 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 31 with diverticulosis. The functionality of these genes was investigated on cell cultures and the genotoxic activity of strains devoid of known CM-encoding gene was investigated. Results showed a higher prevalence of B2 phylogroup E. coli harboring the colibatin-producing genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (55.3%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (19.3%), (p<0.01). Likewise, a higher prevalence of B2 E. coli harboring the CNF1-encoding genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (39.5%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (12.9%), (p?=?0.01). Functional analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were functional. Analysis of the ability of E. coli to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells Int-407 indicated that highly adherent E. coli strains mostly belonged to A and D phylogroups, whatever the origin of the strains (CRC or diverticulosis), and that most E. coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup displayed very low levels of adhesion. In addition, 27.6% (n?=?21/76) E. coli strains devoid of known cyclomodulin-encoding genes induced DNA damage in vitro, as assessed by the comet assay. In contrast to cyclomodulin-producing E. coli, these strains mainly belonged to A or D E. coli phylogroups, and exhibited a non significant difference in the distribution of CRC and diverticulosis specimens (22% versus 32.5%, p?=?0.91). In conclusion, cyclomodulin-producing E. coli belonging mostly to B2 phylogroup colonize the colonic mucosa of patients with CRC. PMID:23457644

Sauvanet, Pierre; Raisch, Jennifer; Delmas, Julien

2013-01-01

314

Long QT Interval in Turner Syndrome – A High Prevalence of LQTS Gene Mutations  

PubMed Central

Objectives QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype. Methods Adult women with Turner syndrome (n?=?88) were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%), and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett’s (bQTc) and Hodges’s formula (hQTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. Results The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0±25.5 ms) compared to controls (390.4±17.8 ms) was prolonged (p<0.001) and did not change over time (416.9±22.6 vs. 415.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.4). 45,X karyotype was associated with increased hQTc prolongation compared to other Turner syndrome karyotypes (418.2±24.8 vs. 407.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.055). In women with Turner syndrome and a bQTc >432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2) and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E. PMID:23936059

Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian H.; Pedersen, Lisbeth N.; Berglund, Agnethe; Jensen, Henrik K.; Andersen, Niels H.; Gravholt, Claus H.

2013-01-01

315

Molecular Characterization of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Raccoon Dogs in China  

PubMed Central

Background The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus can infect a variety of animals and continually poses a threat to animal and human health. While many genotypes of H5N1 virus can be found in chicken, few are associated with the infection of mammals. Characterization of the genotypes of viral strains in animal populations is important to understand the distribution of different viral strains in various hosts. This also facilitates the surveillance and detection of possible emergence of highly pathogenic strains of specific genotypes from unknown hosts or hosts that have not been previously reported to carry these genotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Two H5N1 isolates were obtained from lung samples of two raccoon dogs that had died from respiratory disease in China. Pathogenicity experiments showed that the isolates were highly pathogenic to chicken. To characterize the genotypes of these viruses, their genomic sequences were determined and analyzed. The genetic contents of these isolates are virtually identical and they may come from the same progenitor virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates were genetically closely related to genotype V H5N1 virus, which was first isolated in China in 2003, and were distinct from the dominant virus genotypes (e.g. genotype Z) of recent years. The isolates also contain a multibasic amino acid motif at their HA cleavage sites and have an E residue at position 627 of the PB2 protein similar to the previously-identified avian viruses. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report that genotype V H5N1 virus is found to be associated with a mammalian host. Our results strongly suggest that genotype V H5N1 virus has the ability to cross species barriers to infect mammalian animals. These findings further highlight the risk that avian influenza H5N1 virus poses to mammals and humans, which may be infected by specific genotypes that are not known to infect these hosts. PMID:19270752

Qi, Xian; Li, Xihan; Rider, Paul; Fan, Weixing; Gu, Hongwei; Xu, Longtao; Yang, Yonghua; Lu, Sangwei; Wang, Hua; Liu, Fenyong

2009-01-01

316

High HIV Prevalence and Diagnosis Rates in New York City Black Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to identify population and subpopulation disparities in rates of HIV diagnosis and prevalence among black males\\u000a 13 years and older in New York City. We used population-based data from the New York City HIV\\/AIDS surveillance registry and\\u000a US Census 2000 to calculate HIV prevalence in 2006 and HIV diagnosis rates in 2007. Black males were the largest demographic\\u000a group

Ellen W. WiewelDavid; David B. Hanna; Elizabeth M. Begier; Lucia V. Torian

2011-01-01

317

Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis (TB) in an Emergency Room in a Region with High Prevalence of TB in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Setting Public hospital emergency room (ER) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, a setting with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objective To determine the prevalence of PTB, using a symptom based active case finding (ACF) strategy in the ER of a public hospital in an area with high prevalence of TB and HIV, as well as variables associated with pulmonary TB diagnosis. Methods Cross sectional study. All patients ?18 years seeking care at the ER were screened for respiratory symptoms and those with cough ?2 weeks were invited to provide a chest radiograph and two unsupervised samples of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture. Results Among 31,267 admissions, 6,273 (20.1%) reported respiratory symptoms; 197 reported cough ?2 weeks, of which pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 30. In multivariate analysis, the variables associated with a pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis were: age (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97; p<0.0001), sputum production (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06–0.56; p?=?0.003), and radiographic findings typical of TB (OR 12.11, 95% CI 4.45–32.93; p<0.0001). Conclusions This study identified a high prevalence of pulmonary TB among patients who sought care at the emergency department of a tertiary hospital, emphasizing the importance of regular screening of all comers for active TB in this setting. PMID:25211158

Silva, Denise Rossato; Müller, Alice Mânica; Tomasini, Karina da Silva; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Golub, Jonathan E.; Conde, Marcus Barreto

2014-01-01

318

The Prevalence of Exposure to Domestic Violence Among High School Students in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms. PMID:24719707

Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe

2014-01-01

319

Prevalence, serologic and genetic studies of high expressers of the blood group A antigen on platelets*  

PubMed Central

Objective/Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). Background: A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. Material/Methods: A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is a typical continuous variable, platelets were screened and divided into two categories: low expressers (LEs) and high expressers (HEs). A three-generation family was investigated looking for an inheritance mechanism. Results: The prevalence of the HE platelet phenotype among group A1 donors was 2%. The mean of MFI on platelets of A1 subgroup of EUBs differs from that of AFBs (P = 0·0115), whereas the frequency of the HE phenotype was similar between them (P = 0·5251). A significant difference was found between sexes (P = 0·0039). Whereas the serum glycosyltransferase from HE family members converted significantly more H antigen on group O erythrocytes into A antigens compared with that in LE serum, their ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 genes were consensus. The theoretically favourable, transcriptionally four-repeat ABO enhancer was not observed. Conclusion: The occurrence of HE in several members suggests familial aggregation. Indeed, in repeated measures, stability of the MFI values is suggesting an inherited condition. Factors outside the ABO locus might be responsible for the HE phenotype. Whether the real mechanism of inheritance is either of a polygenic or of a discrete Mendelian nature remains to be elucidated. PMID:20553427

Sant’Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; do Nascimento, E M

2010-01-01

320

High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 ?m and wall thickness of 2.47 ?m in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 ?m cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 ?m in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 ?m in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 ?m in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

2013-12-01

321

Molecular Genetic Diversity of the Gyeongju Donggyeong Dog in Korea  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to analyze the genetic characteristics of the Donggyeong dog and establish parentage conservation systems for it by using 10 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). A total of 369 dogs from 12 dog breeds including the Donggyeong dog were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 10 with a mean value of 7.6 in the Donggyeong dog. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4706 to 0.9020 (mean 0.7657) and from 0.4303 to 0.8394 (mean 0.7266), respectively. The total exclusion probability of 10 microsatellite loci was 0.99955. Of the 10 microsatellite markers, the AHT121, AHTh260 and CXX279 markers had relatively high PIC values (?0.7). This study found that there were specific alleles, 116 allele at AHT121 in the Donggyeong dog when compared with other dog breeds. Also, the results showed two (Korean native dogs and the foreign dog breeds) distinct clusters. The closest distance (0.1184) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Jindo dog, and the longest distance (0.3435) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Bulgae. The Korean native dog breeds have comparatively near genetic distances between each other. PMID:25030603

LEE, Eun-Woo; CHOI, Seong-Kyoon; CHO, Gil-Jae

2014-01-01

322

High Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Prevalence among Patients with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Controls in an Urban Emergency Department.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal species that can also be a formidable pathogen. In the United States, an epidemic of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has been occurring for the last 15 years. In the context of a study in which we identified patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and randomized them to receive one of two antimicrobial treatment regimens, we assessed S. aureus colonization in the nares, throat, and perianal skin on the day of enrollment and 40 days after therapy. We compared the prevalence of colonization between the SSTI patients and an uninfected control population. A total of 144 subjects and 130 controls, predominantly African American, participated in this study, and 116 returned for a 40-day follow-up visit. Of the SSTI patients, 76% were colonized with S. aureus at enrollment, as were 65% of the controls. Patients were more likely than the controls to be colonized with USA300 MRSA (62/144 [43.1%] versus 11/130 [8.5%], respectively; P < 0.001). The nares were not the most common site of colonization. The colonization prevalence diminished somewhat after antibiotic treatment but remained high. The isolates that colonized the controls were more likely than those in the patients to be methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) (74/84 [88.1%] versus 56/106 [52.8%], respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of S. aureus colonization among SSTI patients was high and often involved USA300 MRSA. The prevalence diminished somewhat with antimicrobial therapy but remained high at the 40-day follow-up visit. Control subjects were also colonized at a high prevalence but most often with a genetic background not associated with a clinical infection in this study. S. aureus is a commensal species and a pathogen. Plans for decolonization or eradication should take this distinction into account. PMID:25540401

Kumar, Neha; David, Michael Z; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Sieth, Julia; Daum, Robert S

2015-03-01

323

Evidence favoring the existence of two high molecular weight precursor forms of dog kidney renin.  

PubMed

Extraction of canine renal cortical tissue at pH 7.4 in the presence of the protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate (0.2 mM), Na2EDTA (7.8 mM), sodium tetrathionate (7.8 mM). N-ethyl maleimide (7.8 mM) yielded renin activity in two high molecular weight (HMW) forms, 65,000 (65K) and 55,000 (55K). Serial gel filtration chromatography of such extracts stored at 4 C showed that over the course of 2 days, activity at both 65,000 and 55,000 decreased almost entirely, while low molecular weight (LMW) activity at 41,000 (41K), not present immediately after extraction, had appeared in the extracts, The renin activity of the extract doubled over the first 24 h of storage and remained stable over the next 24 h. The activity of all three renin forms was comparably inhibited by antirenin antibodies. Our results support the concept that HMW renin(s) is a biological precursor of 41K renin. The new finding of a renin form intermediate in apparent molecular weight between 65K and 41K renin suggests that proteolytic processing of HMW to LMW renin may involve more than one step. The fact that in vitro conversion of HMW to LMW renin will occur under these conditions but takes place slowly may provide a technique for the future study of the precise manner in which HMW is converted to LMW renin. PMID:456314

Potter, D M; Dunn, P M; McDonald, W J

1979-08-01

324

Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda.  

PubMed

Standard therapy for malaria in Uganda changed from chloroquine to chloroquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2000, and artemether-lumefantrine in 2004, although implementation of each change was slow. Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms are associated with alterations in drug sensitivity. We followed the prevalence of drug resistance-mediating P. falciparum polymorphisms in 982 samples from Tororo, a region of high transmission intensity, collected from three successive treatment trials conducted during 2003-2012, excluding samples with known recent prior treatment. Considering transporter mutations, prevalence of the mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, and pfmdr1 1246Y alleles decreased over time. Considering antifolate mutations, the prevalence of pfdhfr 51I, 59R, and 108N, and pfdhps 437G and 540E were consistently high; pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G were uncommon, but most prevalent during 2008-2010. Our data suggest sequential selective pressures as different treatments were implemented, and they highlight the importance of genetic surveillance as treatment policies change over time. PMID:24799371

Mbogo, George W; Nankoberanyi, Sheila; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Baliraine, Frederick N; Nsobya, Samuel L; Conrad, Melissa D; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Kamya, Moses; Tappero, Jordan; Staedke, Sarah G; Dorsey, Grant; Greenhouse, Bryan; Rosenthal, Philip J

2014-07-01

325

Characterization of the Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome) in Fecal Samples from Dogs  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and phylogenetic description of fungal organisms and their role as part of the intestinal ecosystem have not yet been studied extensively in dogs. This study evaluated the fungal microbiome of 19 dogs (12 healthy dogs and 7 dogs with acute diarrhea) using fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. Five distinct fungal phyla were identified, with Ascomycota (medians: 97.9% of obtained sequences in healthy dogs and 98.2% in diseased dogs) and Basidiomycota (median 1.0% in healthy dogs and median 0.5% in diseased dogs) being the most abundant fungal phyla. A total of 219 fungal genera were identified across all 19 dogs with a median (range) of 28 (4–69) genera per sample. Candida was the most abundant genus found in both the diseased dogs (median: 1.9%, range: 0.2%–38.5% of sequences) and healthy dogs (median: 5.2%, range: 0.0%–63.1% of sequences). Candida natalensis was the most frequently identified species. No significant differences were observed in the relative proportions of fungal communities between healthy and diseased dogs. In conclusion, fecal samples of healthy dogs and dogs with acute diarrhea harbor various fungal genera, and their role in gastrointestinal health and disease warrants further studies. PMID:23738233

Foster, M. Lauren; Dowd, Scot E.; Stephenson, Christine; Steiner, Jörg M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.

2013-01-01

326

Characterization of the fungal microbiome (mycobiome) in fecal samples from dogs.  

PubMed

The prevalence and phylogenetic description of fungal organisms and their role as part of the intestinal ecosystem have not yet been studied extensively in dogs. This study evaluated the fungal microbiome of 19 dogs (12 healthy dogs and 7 dogs with acute diarrhea) using fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. Five distinct fungal phyla were identified, with Ascomycota (medians: 97.9% of obtained sequences in healthy dogs and 98.2% in diseased dogs) and Basidiomycota (median 1.0% in healthy dogs and median 0.5% in diseased dogs) being the most abundant fungal phyla. A total of 219 fungal genera were identified across all 19 dogs with a median (range) of 28 (4-69) genera per sample. Candida was the most abundant genus found in both the diseased dogs (median: 1.9%, range: 0.2%-38.5% of sequences) and healthy dogs (median: 5.2%, range: 0.0%-63.1% of sequences). Candida natalensis was the most frequently identified species. No significant differences were observed in the relative proportions of fungal communities between healthy and diseased dogs. In conclusion, fecal samples of healthy dogs and dogs with acute diarrhea harbor various fungal genera, and their role in gastrointestinal health and disease warrants further studies. PMID:23738233

Foster, M Lauren; Dowd, Scot E; Stephenson, Christine; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

2013-01-01

327

Gastrointestinal parasites of urban dogs in Perth, Western Australia.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in a sample of urban dogs in Perth and the knowledge of their owners about the control and zoonotic transmission of these parasites. Faecal samples (421), collected from dogs originating from five sources, were examined by microscopy and questionnaires administered to dog owners and managers/owners of pet shops. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism was higher in pet shop puppies (51%), than in dogs from refuges (37%), breeding kennels (32.7%), veterinary clinics (15.6%) and exercise areas (5.3%). Protozoa, in particular Giardia, were detected more frequently (22.1%) than helminth parasites. After adjusting for other factors with multiple logistic regression, puppies less than 6 months of age, dogs living in households with more than one dog, and dogs from refuges were significantly more likely to be parasitized. The prevalence of Giardia was found to be directly associated with the number of doses of anthelmintics given in a year, increasing 1.2 times for each dose administered. The majority of owners were aware of the potential risk to human health from canine helminths, however only one third were aware of the means of transmission to humans. It is concluded that veterinarians can play an important role in increasing the level of awareness of canine zoonotic parasites. PMID:10328840

Bugg, R J; Robertson, I D; Elliot, A D; Thompson, R C

1999-05-01

328

From Wolf to Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this video-enhanced lesson, students will learn that all dogs came from one ancestor- the wolf. Students will watch and discuss video segments from the NATURE film “Dogs that Changed the World,” and explore different theories about how this transformation happened. Students will learn about different breeds of dogs and create a book with pictures and information about a variety of dog breeds. In the culminating activity, students will interview a dog owner and create a poster and/or a presentation about his/her dog.

2010-01-01

329

High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections  

PubMed Central

Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

2013-01-01

330

Rethinking Mandatory HIV Testing During Pregnancy in Areas With High HIV Prevalence Rates: Ethical and Policy Issues  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051

Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita

2007-01-01

331

Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins  

PubMed Central

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

2011-01-01

332

Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases  

PubMed Central

Background The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. Methods Patients undergoing lumbar punctures between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2008 at a public sector referral hospital were studied. Cases were classified by microbiological diagnosis, or in the absence of definitive microbiology as 1) normal CSF (neutrophils ? 1 × 106/L, lymphocytes ? 5 × 106/L, protein ? 0.5 g/dL, glucose ?1.5 mmol/L), 2) minor abnormalities (neutrophils 2-5, lymphocytes 6-20, protein 0.51-1.0, glucose 1.0-1.49) or 3) markedly abnormal (neutrophils>5, lymphocytes>20, protein>1.0, glucose<1.0). Results 5578 LPs were performed on 4549 patients, representing 4961 clinical episodes. Of these, 2293 had normal CSF and 931 had minor abnormalities and no aetiology identified. Of the remaining 1737, microbiological diagnoses were obtained in 820 (47%). Cryptococcus accounted for 63% (514) of microbiological diagnoses, TB for 28% (227), bacterial meningitis for 8% (68). Of the remaining 917 who had marked abnormalities, the majority (59%) had a sterile lymphocytic CSF. Of note 16% (81) patients with confirmed Cryptococcus, 5% (12) with TB and 4% (3) with bacterial meningitis had normal CSF cell-counts and biochemistry. Conclusions Cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis are now the commonest causes of adult meningitis in this setting. TB meningitis is probably underdiagnosed by laboratory investigation, as evidence by the large numbers presenting with sterile lymphocytic markedly abnormal CSFs. PMID:20230635

2010-01-01

333

High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types  

PubMed Central

Objective To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia. Methods Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients. Results Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with “unclassified dementia” followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson’s disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline. Interpretation Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy. PMID:25493273

Doss, Sarah; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Hyman, Bradley T; Panzer, Jessica A; Synofzik, Matthis; Dickerson, Bradford; Mollenhauer, Brit; Scherzer, Clemens R; Ivinson, Adrian J; Finke, Carsten; Schöls, Ludger; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Jahn, Holger; Höltje, Markus; Biswal, Bharat B; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Buchert, Ralph; Höglinger, Günther U; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Unger, Marcus M; Körtvélyessy, Peter; Bittner, Daniel; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Paul, Friedemann; Meisel, Andreas; Lynch, David R; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Endres, Matthias; Teegen, Bianca; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried; Dalmau, Josep; Prüss, Harald

2014-01-01

334

Individuals with high bone mass have an increased prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

We previously reported an association between high bone mass (HBM) and a bone-forming phenotype of radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA). As knee and hip OA have distinct risk factors, in this study we aimed to determine (i) whether HBM is also associated with knee OA, and (ii) whether the HBM knee OA phenotype demonstrates a similar pattern of radiographic features to that observed at the hip. HBM cases (defined by DXA BMD Z-scores) from the UK-based HBM study were compared with unaffected family controls and general population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. A single blinded observer graded AP weight-bearing knee radiographs for features of OA (Kellgren–Lawrence score, osteophytes, joint space narrowing (JSN), sclerosis) using an atlas. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusting a priori for age and gender, and additionally for BMI as a potential mediator of the HBM–OA association, using Stata v12. 609 HBM knees in 311 cases (mean age 60.8 years, 74% female) and 1937 control knees in 991 controls (63.4 years, 81% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA, defined as Kellgren–Lawrence grade ? 2, was increased in cases (31.5% vs. 20.9%), with age and gender adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.38 [1.81, 3.14], p < 0.001. The association between HBM and osteophytosis was stronger than that for JSN, both before and after adjustment for BMI which attenuated the ORs for knee OA and osteophytes in cases vs. controls by approximately 50%. Our findings support a positive association between HBM and knee OA. This association was strongest for osteophytes, suggesting HBM confers a general predisposition to a subtype of OA characterised by increased bone formation. PMID:25445455

Hardcastle, S.A.; Dieppe, P.; Gregson, C.L.; Arden, N.K.; Spector, T.D.; Hart, D.J.; Edwards, M.H.; Dennison, E.M.; Cooper, C.; Sayers, A.; Williams, M.; Davey Smith, G.; Tobias, J.H.

2015-01-01

335

Individuals with high bone mass have an increased prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

We previously reported an association between high bone mass (HBM) and a bone-forming phenotype of radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA). As knee and hip OA have distinct risk factors, in this study we aimed to determine (i) whether HBM is also associated with knee OA, and (ii) whether the HBM knee OA phenotype demonstrates a similar pattern of radiographic features to that observed at the hip. HBM cases (defined by DXA BMD Z-scores) from the UK-based HBM study were compared with unaffected family controls and general population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. A single blinded observer graded AP weight-bearing knee radiographs for features of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence score, osteophytes, joint space narrowing (JSN), sclerosis) using an atlas. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusting a priori for age and gender, and additionally for BMI as a potential mediator of the HBM-OA association, using Stata v12. 609 HBM knees in 311 cases (mean age 60.8years, 74% female) and 1937 control knees in 991 controls (63.4years, 81% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA, defined as Kellgren-Lawrence grade?2, was increased in cases (31.5% vs. 20.9%), with age and gender adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.38 [1.81, 3.14], p<0.001. The association between HBM and osteophytosis was stronger than that for JSN, both before and after adjustment for BMI which attenuated the ORs for knee OA and osteophytes in cases vs. controls by approximately 50%. Our findings support a positive association between HBM and knee OA. This association was strongest for osteophytes, suggesting HBM confers a general predisposition to a subtype of OA characterised by increased bone formation. PMID:25445455

Hardcastle, S A; Dieppe, P; Gregson, C L; Arden, N K; Spector, T D; Hart, D J; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Sayers, A; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

2015-02-01

336

Why is high-risk drinking more prevalent among men than women? evidence from South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background It is important to identify and quantify the factors that affect gender differences in high-risk drinking (HRD), from both an academic and a policy perspective. However, little is currently known about them. This study examines these factors and estimates the percentage contribution each makes to gender differences in HRD. Methods This study analyzed information on 23,587 adults obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 1998, 2001, and 2005. It found that the prevalence of HRD was about 5 times higher among men (0.37) than women (0.08). Using a decomposition approach extended from the Oaxaca-Blinder method, we decomposed the gender difference in HRD to an "overall composition effect" (contributions due to gender differences in the distribution of observed socio-economic characteristics), and an "overall HRD-tendency effect" (contributions due to gender differences in tendencies in HRD for individuals who share socio-economic characteristics). Results The HRD-tendency effect accounted for 96% of the gender difference in HRD in South Korea, whereas gender differences in observed socio-economic characteristics explained just 4% of the difference. Notably, the gender-specific HRD-tendency effect accounts for 90% of the gender difference in HRD. Conclusion We came to a finding that gender-specific HRD tendency is the greatest contributor to gender differences in HRD. Therefore, to effective reduce HRD, it will be necessary to understand gender differences in socioeconomic characteristics between men and women but also take notice of such differences in sociocultural settings as they experience. And it will be also required to prepare any gender-differentiated intervention strategy for men and women. PMID:22304965

2012-01-01

337

High prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage in Dutch community patients with gastrointestinal complaints.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the rate of carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in the community in the Netherlands and to gain understanding of the epidemiology of these resistant strains. Faecal samples from 720 consecutive patients presenting to their general practitioner, obtained in May 2010, and between December 2010 and January 2011, were analysed for presence of ESBL-E. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed according to the Dutch national guidelines. PCR, sequencing and microarray were used to characterize the genes encoding for ESBL. Strain typing was performed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy-three of 720 (10.1%) samples yielded ESBL-producing organisms, predominantly E. coli. No carbapenemases were detected. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (34/73, 47%). Co-resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was found in (9/73) 12% of the ESBL-E strains. AFLP did not show any clusters, and MLST revealed that CTX-M-15-producing E. coli belonged to various clonal complexes. Clonal complex ST10 was predominant. This study showed a high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Dutch primary care patients with presumed gastrointestinal discomfort. Hence, also in the Netherlands, a country with a low rate of consumption of antibiotics in humans, resistance due to the expansion of CTX-M ESBLs, in particular CTX-M-15, is emerging. The majority of ESBL-producing strains do not appear to be related to the international clonal complex ST131. PMID:22757622

Reuland, E A; Overdevest, I T M A; Al Naiemi, N; Kalpoe, J S; Rijnsburger, M C; Raadsen, S A; Ligtenberg-Burgman, I; van der Zwaluw, K W; Heck, M; Savelkoul, P H M; Kluytmans, J A J W; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

2013-06-01

338

HIGH PREVALENCE OF CONTRALATERAL ANKLE ABNORMALITIES IN ASSOCIATION WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS AND MALALIGNMENT  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate ankle joint abnormalities in a knee osteoarthritis (OA) cohort. Methods Participants (n=159) with symptomatic and radiographic OA in at least one knee underwent technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan (scored 0–3) of the ankles and forefeet. Knee radiographs were graded for OA features of joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophyte (OST). Ankle symptoms and history of ankle injury were assessed by self-report. Knee alignment was measured from a long-limb radiograph. Ankle radiographs were obtained on those who returned for follow-up (n=138) and were graded for ankle tibiotalar JSN and OST. Design Ankle scintigraphic abnormalities were frequent (31% of individuals, one-third bilateral). Ankle symptoms were reported by 23% of individuals and history of ankle injury by 24%. Controlling for gender, age, BMI, and contralateral predictor, ankle scintigraphic abnormalities were associated with: ipsilateral ankle symptoms (P=0.005); contralateral knee JSN (P=0.001), knee OST (P=0.006) and knee malalignment (P=0.08); and history of ankle injury or surgery of either ankle (P<0.0001). At follow-up, scintigraphic abnormalities of the ankle were strongly associated with presence of tibiotalar radiographic OA (P<0.0001). Conclusions Although considered rare, we observed a high prevalence of radiographic features of ankle OA in this knee OA cohort. History of overt ankle injury did not appear to account for the majority of ankle abnormalities. These results are consistent with a probable kinematic association of knee OA pathology and contralateral ankle abnormalities and suggest that interventions targeting mechanical factors may be needed to prevent ankle OA in the setting of knee OA. PMID:23867580

Kraus, Virginia Byers; Worrell, Teddy W; Renner, Jordan B; Coleman, R Edward; Pieper, Carl F

2013-01-01

339

Detection of highly prevalent hepatitis B virus coinfection among HIV-seropositive persons in Ghana.  

PubMed

Simple hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) tests may facilitate ascertainment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in settings with high endemicity but limited infrastructure. We evaluated two rapid HBsAg tests and characterized HBV coinfection in a Ghanaian HIV-positive cohort. Samples from 838 patients were tested by the rapid assays Determine and Vikia and the reference assays Architect, Murex version 3, and Liaison Ultra. The assays were also evaluated using the 2nd International Standard, a seroconversion panel, and two mutant panels. HBsAg-positive samples underwent HBV DNA quantification by real-time PCR and surface and polymerase gene population sequencing. Overall, 140/838 patients (16.7%; 95% confidence interval, 14.2 to 19.2%) were HBsAg positive, and of these, 103/140 (73.6%) were e-antigen negative and 118/140 (84.3%) showed an HBV DNA level of >14 IU/ml (median, 8,279 IU/ml). Assay sensitivities and specificities were as follows: Architect, 97.9 and 99.6%; Liaison, 97.1 and 99.4%; Murex, 98.6 and 99.3%; Determine, 69.3 and 100%; and Vikia, 70.7 and 100%. With Determine, the limit of detection was >1.5 to 3.4 HBsAg IU/ml, and the median HBV DNA loads were 598 and 10,905 IU/ml in Determine-negative and -positive samples, respectively (P = 0.0005). Results were similar with the Vikia assay. HBV DNA sequencing indicated infection with genotype E in 82/86 (95.3%) patients. HBsAg mutations affected assay performance, including a T123A mutant that escaped detection by Architect. Major drug resistance mutations were observed in 4/86 patients (4.6%). The prevalence of HBV coinfection was high in this HIV-positive Ghanaian cohort. The two rapid assays identified HBsAg-positive patients at risk for liver disease with high specificity, albeit with only moderate sensitivity. PMID:20631103

Geretti, Anna Maria; Patel, Mauli; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Chadwick, David; Verheyen, Jens; Fraune, Maria; Garcia, Ana; Phillips, Richard Odame

2010-09-01

340

Prospective assessment of the prevalence of pelvic, paraaortic and high paraaortic lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively define the prevalence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in at risk endometrial cancer (EC). Methods From 2004-2008, frozen section based Mayo Criteria prospectively identified patients “not at-risk” of LNM (30% EC population; grade I/II, <50% myometrial invasion and tumor diameter ?2cm) where lymphadenectomy was not recommended. The remaining 70% EC cohort was considered “at-risk” of LNM; where a systematic pelvic and infrarenal paraaortic lymphadenectomy was recommended. Patients were prospectively followed. The area between renal vein and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was labeled as high paraaortic area. For calculating the prevalence of LNM in high paraaortic area, the denominator was the population with known anatomic location of nodal tissue in relation to the IMA. Results Of the 742 patients, 514 were at risk; of which 89% underwent recommended lymphadenectomy. A mean (± standard deviation) of 36 (±14) pelvic and 18 (±9) paraaortic nodes were harvested. The prevalence of pelvic and paraaortic LNM was 17% and 12%, respectively. In presence of pelvic LNM, 51% had paraaortic LNM. In absence of pelvic LNM, 3% had paraaortic LNM; of which 67% were located exclusively in high paraaortic area. Among patients with paraaortic LNM, 88% had high paraaortic LNM; and 35% had only high paraaortic LNM. The cases of paraaortic LNM with negative pelvic nodes seemed to cluster in moderate to high grade endometrioid EC with ?50% myometrial invasion. Conclusion We present reference data for the prevalence of LNM in at-risk EC patients to guide lymphadenectomy decisions for clinical and research purposes. PMID:24120926

Kumar, Sanjeev; Podratz, Karl C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Cliby, William A.; Keeney, Gary L.; Thomas, Gillian; Mariani, Andrea

2015-01-01

341

Ultra high resolution SFC-MS as a high throughput platform for metabolic phenotyping: application to metabolic profiling of rat and dog bile.  

PubMed

Ultra high resolution SFC-MS (on sub-2?m particles) coupled to mass spectrometry has been evaluated for the metabolic profiling of rat and dog bile. The selectivity of the SFC separation differed from that seen in previous reversed-phase UPLC-MS studies on bile, with the order of elution for analytes such as e.g., the bile acids showing many differences. The chromatography system showed excellent stability, reproducibility and robustness with relative standard deviation of less than 1% for retention time obtained over the course of the analysis. SFC showed excellent chromatographic performance with chromatographic peak widths in the order of 3s at the base of the peak. The use of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide as a mobile phase solvent also reduced the overall consumption of organic solvent by a factor of 3 and also reduced the overall analysis time by a factor of 30% compared to reversed-phase gradient LC. SFC-MS appear complementary to RPLC for the metabolic profiling of complex samples such as bile. PMID:24815366

Jones, Michael D; Rainville, Paul D; Isaac, Giorgis; Wilson, Ian D; Smith, Norman W; Plumb, Robert S

2014-09-01

342

Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Rabies Vaccine Is Safe, Highly Immunogenic, and Provides Long-Lasting Protection in Dogs and Cats ?  

PubMed Central

Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, has shown promise as a vaccine vector for mammals. Here, we generated a recombinant avirulent NDV La Sota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against rabies. The recombinant virus, rL-RVG, retained its high-growth property in chicken eggs, with titers of up to 109.8 50% egg infective doses (EID50)/ml of allantoic fluid. RVG expression enabled rL-RVG to spread from cell to cell in a rabies virus-like manner, and RVG was incorporated on the surface of the rL-RVG viral particle. RVG incorporation did not alter the trypsin-dependent infectivity of the NDV vector in mammalian cells. rL-RVG and La Sota NDV showed similar levels of sensitivity to a neutralization antibody against NDV and similar levels of resistance to a neutralization antibody against rabies virus. Animal studies demonstrated that rL-RVG is safe in several species, including cats and dogs, when administered as multiple high doses of recombinant vaccine. Intramuscular vaccination with rL-RVG induced a substantial rabies virus neutralization antibody response and provided complete protection from challenge with circulating rabies virus strains. Most importantly, rL-RVG induced strong and long-lasting protective neutralization antibody responses to rabies virus in dogs and cats. A low vaccine dose of 108.3 EID50 completely protected dogs from challenge with a circulating strain of rabies virus for more than a year. This is the first study to demonstrate that immunization with an NDV-vectored vaccine can induce long-lasting, systemic protective immunity against rabies. PMID:21632762

Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tao, Lihong; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Yang, Chinglai; Chen, Hualan; Bu, Zhigao

2011-01-01

343

Contact with pigs and cats associated with high prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among farmers.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to Toxoplasma were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 159 abattoir workers, 142 pig farmers, and 106 grain or berry farmers. Farmers occupationally exposed to pigs had antibodies in 53 (37%) cases, abattoir workers in 40 (25%) cases, and farmers not exposed to pigs in 24 (23%) cases. In each group antibodies were more prevalent among those who had a cat or cats in the household. Controlling for age and cat contacts changed the prevalences less than one percent. The results indicate that pig farmers might have an occupational risk of toxoplasmosis. As the prevalence of antibodies among abattoir workers was about the same as among the referent farmers, it seems unlikely that infection from Toxoplasma could be acquired by mere handling of raw meat. PMID:1472442

Seuri, M; Koskela, P

1992-01-01

344

High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined. PMID:9452292

Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

1998-01-01

345

High prevalence and low awareness of hypertension in a market population in enugu, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background. A community-based study put the prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria at 32.8%. Market workers in Nigeria lead sedentary life style and often depend on salt-laden fast food while at work. Method. An unselected population of market workers were screened for hypertension and its risk factors by a pretested, structured questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigation. Hypertension was defined as BP ? 140 and/or ? 90?mmHg or being on drug therapy. Results. Forty-two percent of the screened population were hypertensive. Of this number, 70.6% did not know they were hypertensive before the screening. More males than females (P = .022) were hypertensive. Prevalence of hypertension increased with age from 5.4% in the age group <20 years to 80% in the age group ?70 years. Conclusion. The prevalence of hypertension in market workers in this study was 42%, and the majority of them were unaware of their disease. PMID:21331378

Ulasi, Ifeoma I; Ijoma, Chinwuba K; Onwubere, Basden J C; Arodiwe, Ejikeme; Onodugo, Obinna; Okafor, Christian

2011-01-01

346

Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats subjected to differing antibiotic pressures.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in dogs and cats subjected to differing antibiotic pressures, and the prevalence of vancomycin resistance genes in isolates from these animals. Enterococci were isolated from fecal samples of 65 healthy dogs and 29 healthy cats brought to animal hospitals, from rectal swabs of 73 puppies and 15 kittens from five breeders and two pet shops, and from fecal samples of 20 dogs and 9 cats that were treated with antibiotics in Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University Animal Medical Center. The rates of resistance to ampicillin among isolates from the kitten-puppy group and healthy dog-cat group were 6.8 and 4.3%, respectively. In contrast, the rates of resistance to ampicillin in enterococci from the treatment group under antibiotic pressure were 37.5%. There was a significant difference between the antibiotic-treated group and the untreated group (P<0.01). Similarly, in the treatment group, the rate of resistance to enrofloxacin was extremely high (75.0%). In comparison, in the healthy group and kitten-puppy group, the rates of resistance to enrofloxacin were 23.4 and 12.1%, respectively. Among these groups, a significant difference was also observed in the apparent resistance rates (P<0.01). Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) harboring vanA or vanB were not detected in any groups. Therefore, contamination of VRE in dogs and cats is still considered to be minimal in Japan. PMID:23358495

Kataoka, Yasushi; Ito, Chieko; Kawashima, Aya; Ishii, Miki; Yamashiro, Satoko; Harada, Kazuki; Ochi, Hiroki; Sawada, Takuo

2013-01-01

347

High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis:   There has been no reported national survey of diabetes in India in the last three decades, although several regional studies\\u000a show a rising prevalence of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose\\u000a tolerance in six major cities, covering all the regions of the country. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   Using a stratified random

A. Ramachandran; C. Snehalatha; A. Kapur; V. Vijay; V. Mohan; A. K. Das; P. V. Rao; C. S. Yajnik; K. M. Prasanna Kumar; Jyotsna D. Nair

2001-01-01

348

Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.  

PubMed

Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca. PMID:9177091

Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

1997-06-24

349

Hepatitis B and C prevalence among the high risk groups of Pakistani population. A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B and C cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Little is known about the existence of hepatitis B and C among high risk groups of the Pakistani population. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in high risk groups, their comparison and the possible mode of acquisition by obtaining the history of exposure to known risk factors. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out in Karachi, from January 2007 to June 2008. HBsAg and Anti HCV screening was carried out in blood samples collected from four vulnerable or at risk groups which included injecting drug users (IDUs), prisoners, security personnel and health care workers (HCWs). Demographic information was recorded and the possible mode of acquisition was assessed by detailed interview. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using the STATA software. Results We screened 4202 subjects, of these, 681 individuals were reactive either with hepatitis B or C. One hundred and thirty three (3.17%) were hepatitis B reactive and 548 (13.0%) were diagnosed with hepatitis C. After adjusting for age, security personnel, prisoners and IV drug users were 5, 3 and 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B reactive respectively as compared to the health care workers. IDUs were 46 times more likely to be hepatitis C positive compared with health care workers. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatitis B and C was considerably higher in IDUs, prisoners and security personnel compared to HCWs group. Hepatitis C is more prevalent than hepatitis B in all these risk groups. Prevalence of hepatitis C increased with the increase in age. Use of unsterilized syringes, used syringes, body piercing and illicit sexual relations were found to be important associated risk factors for higher prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in these groups. PMID:22958798

2012-01-01

350

Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Laos: A Community-Wide Cross-Sectional Study of Humans and Dogs in a Mass Drug Administration Environment  

PubMed Central

We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8–44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3–49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4–10.4%), respectively. We observed strong heterogeneity for helminthiasis by ethnicity, province, and wealth status, which coincided with a risk profile demonstrating that Mon-Khmer persons and the poorest households are highly vulnerable. Necator americanus was the dominant hookworm species infecting humans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the only Ancylostoma species detected. Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation. PMID:22492147

Conlan, James V.; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2012-01-01

351

Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Laos: a community-wide cross-sectional study of humans and dogs in a mass drug administration environment.  

PubMed

We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7-28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8-44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3-49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4-10.4%), respectively. We observed strong heterogeneity for helminthiasis by ethnicity, province, and wealth status, which coincided with a risk profile demonstrating that Mon-Khmer persons and the poorest households are highly vulnerable. Necator americanus was the dominant hookworm species infecting humans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the only Ancylostoma species detected. Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation. PMID:22492147

Conlan, James V; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

2012-04-01

352

High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality. PMID:24809062

Golob, Barbara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrta?nik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko

2014-01-01

353

The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland: Part 1: A population study on sled dogs during the racing season.  

PubMed

The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of surveillance of reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of TBE. Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring for the presence of D. repens. PMID:24491396

Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata

2014-05-28

354

Clinical and mycological analysis of dog’s oral cavity  

PubMed Central

The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis. PMID:24159296

Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; de Oliveira Nobre, Márcia; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

2013-01-01

355

High Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Intracellular Growth Ability of Legionella in Hot Spring Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. Methods Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. Results Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ?0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ?0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ?400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ?3 MPN/L (p<0.01). The Legionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (p<0.01). Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%), and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%), 6 (23.4%), 5 (19.2%), 1 (18.5%), 2 (10.2%), 8 (0.4%), 10 (0.8%), 9 (1.9%) and 12 (0.4%). Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. Conclusions Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are urgently needed. PMID:23527075

Zhou, Haijian; Wang, Huanxin; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Mingqiang; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Shao, Zhujun

2013-01-01

356

The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.  

PubMed

1) Most humans, like other mammals, gradually lose the intestinal enzyme lactase after infancy and with it the ability to digest lactose, the principle sugar in milk. At some point in prehistory, a genetic mutation occurred and lactase activity persisted in a majority of the adult population of Northern and Central Europe. 2) Persistence of intestinal lactase, the uncommon trait worldwide, is inherited as a highly penetrant autosomal-dominant characteristic. Both types of progeny are almost equally common when one parent is a lactose maldigester and the other a lactose digester. 3) The incidence of lactose maldigestion is usually determined in adults by the administration in the fasting state of a 50-g dose of lactose in water, the equivalent of that in 1 L of milk. Measurement is made of either the subsequent rise in blood glucose or the appearance of additional hydrogen in the breath. It is also sometimes identified by measuring lactase activity directly in a biopsy sample from the jejunum. For children the test dose is reduced according to weight. Depending on the severity of the lactase deficiency and other factors, the test dose may result in abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhea. 4) The frequency of lactose maldigestion varies widely among populations but is high in nearly all but those of European origin. In North American adults lactose maldigestion is found in approximately 79% of Native Americans, 75% of blacks, 51% of Hispanics, and 21% of Caucasians. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America prevalence rates range from 15-100% depending on the population studied. 5) Whenever the lactose ingested exceeds the capacity of the intestinal lactase to split it into the simple sugars glucose and galactose, which are absorbed directly, it passes undigested to the large intestine. There it is fermented by the colonic flora, with short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen gas as major products. The gas produced can cause abdominal distention and pain and diarrhea may also result from the fermentation products. 6) Among individuals with incomplete lactose digestion, there is considerable variation in awareness of lactose intolerance and in the quantity of lactose that can be ingested without symptoms. A positive standard lactose test is not a reliable predictor of the ability of an individual to consume moderate amounts of milk and milk products without symptoms. In usual situations the quantity of lactose ingested at any one time is much less than in the lactose-tolerance test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3140651

Scrimshaw, N S; Murray, E B

1988-10-01

357

High Prevalence of Lipid Transfer Protein Sensitization in Apple Allergic Patients with Systemic Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Apple allergy manifests as two main groups of clinical entities reflecting different patterns of allergen sensitization: oral allergy syndrome (OAS) and generalized symptoms (GS). Objective We analysed the sensitization profile to a wide panel of different components of food allergens (rMal d 1, Mal d 2, rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3, rBet v 1 and Pho d 2) for a population of Mediterranean patients with OAS and GS to apple. Methods Patients (N?=?81) with a history of apple allergy that could be confirmed by positive prick-prick test and/or double-blind-placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), were included. Skin prick test (SPT) and ELISA were performed using a panel of inhalant, fruit and nut allergens. ELISA and ELISA inhibition studies were performed in order to analyse the sensitization patterns. Results Thirty-five cases (43.2%) had OAS and 46 (56.8%) GS. SPT showed a significantly higher number of positive results with peach, cherry and hazelnut in those with GS. ELISA showed a significantly high percentage of positive cases to rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3 and Pho d 2 in patients with OAS and GS compared to controls, and to rBet v 1 in patients with OAS vs controls and between OAS and GS patients. Three different patterns of recognition were detected: positive to LTP (rMal d 3 or rPru p 3), positive to profilin (rMal d 4 and Pho d 2), or positive to both. There were also patients with rMal d 1 recognition who showed cross-reactivity to rBet v 1. Conclusion In an apple allergy population with a high incidence of pollinosis different patterns of sensitization may occur. LTP is most often involved in those with GS. Profilin, though more prevalent in patients with OAS, has been shown to sensitise patients with both types of symptoms. PMID:25210741

Campo, Paloma; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Perkins, James; Garrido, Maria; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, Maria José

2014-01-01

358

Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, reveal a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

Monzón, J.; Kays, R.; Dykhuizen, D. E.

2014-01-01

359

Dog epilepsy gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have now identified a genetic mutation responsible for epilepsy in dogs. Further research on dogs with this mutation might help researchers better understand how to treat or prevent seizures in humans with Lafora disease, according to the authors.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2005-01-07

360

HIGH PREVALENCE OF VIABLE TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION IN MARKET WEIGHT PIGS FROM A FARM IN MASSACHUSETTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ingestion of uncooked infected meat is considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and little is known of the prevalence of viable T. gondii in meat used for human consumption in the U.S. In the present study, viable T. gondii was isolated from 51 of 55 of ...

361

High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In

Andrej Steyer; Karmen Godi? Torkar; Ion Gutiérrez-Aguirre; Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj

2011-01-01

362

The relationship between therapeutic injections and high prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY To determine the prevalence and routes of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan, we collected sera in 1993 from a geographically based random sample of residents, and in 1994 identified 15 HCV-infected individuals (cases) and 67 age and sex matched uninfected individuals (controls). Initially we approached 504 households, and collected serum from a randomly selected

S. P. LUBY; K. QAMRUDDIN; A. A. SHAH; A. OMAIR; O. PAHSA; A. J. KHAN; J. B. McCORMICK; F. HOODBHOUY; S. FISHER-HOCH

1997-01-01

363

Institution Type-Dependent High Prevalence of Dementia in Long-Term Care Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It is estimated that there are 90,000 patients with dementia in the 23 million habitants of Taiwan, with a few institutions specialized in dementia care. To assess the need of institutional care for dementia, we investigated the institution prevalence of dementia. Methods: We performed stratified randomized sampling of elder residents from different types of institutions in different regions of

Ta-Fu Chen; Ming-Jang Chiu; Li-Yu Tang; Yueh-Hsia Chiu; Shu-Feng Chang; Che-Long Su; Shaw-Ji Chen; Chung-Wei Lin; Wan-Yu Shih; Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen; Rong-Chi Chen

2007-01-01

364

Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in a High HIV Prevalence Population Provided with Enhanced Diagnosis of Symptomatic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDirectly observed treatment short course (DOTS), the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB) transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We

Elizabeth L. Corbett; Tsitsi Bandason; Yin Bun Cheung; Shungu Munyati; Peter Godfrey-Faussett; Richard Hayes; Gavin Churchyard; Anthony Butterworth; Peter Mason

2007-01-01

365

Prevalence of sudden cardiac death during competitive sports activities in Minnesota High School athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Reliable prevalence data would be useful in assessing the impact of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes on the community and designing effective preparticipation screening strategies.Background. The frequency with which these catastrophes occur is largely unknown.Methods. We utilized a circumstance unique to Minnesota in which the precise number of participants and deaths due to cardiovascular disease could be

Barry J Maron; Thomas E Gohman; Dorothee Aeppli

1998-01-01

366

High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

2014-01-01

367

Highly Prevalent but Not Always Persistent: Undergraduate and Graduate Student's Misconceptions about Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although past research has documented the prevalence of misconceptions in introductory psychology classes, few studies have assessed how readily upper-level undergraduate and graduate students endorse erroneous beliefs about the discipline. In Study 1, we administered a 30-item misconception test to an international sample of 670 undergraduate,…

Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin; Nichols, Austin Lee; Miller, Haylie; Saad, Carmel Gabriel; Dukes, Kristin; Lynch, Amy-Jo

2015-01-01

368

Two years of combined high-intensity physical training and heat acclimatization affect lymphocyte and serum HSP70 in purebred military working dogs.  

PubMed

Military working dogs in hot countries undergo exercise training at high ambient temperatures for at least 9 mo annually. Physiological adaptations to these harsh conditions have been extensively studied; however, studies focusing on the underlying molecular adaptations are limited. In the current study, military working dogs were chosen as a model to examine the effects of superimposing endurance exercise on seasonal acclimatization to environmental heat stress. The lymphocyte HSP70 profile and extracellular HSP70 were studied in tandem with physiological performance in the dogs from their recruitment for the following 2 yr. Aerobic power and heat shock proteins were measured at the end of each summer, with physical performance tests (PPTs) in an acclimatized room (22°C). The study shows that together with a profound enhancement of aerobic power and physical performance, hsp72 mRNA induction immediately post-PPT and 45 min later, progressively increased throughout the study period (relative change in median lymphocyte hsp72 mRNA first PPT, 4.22 and 12.82; second PPT, 17.19 and 109.05, respectively), whereas induction of HSP72 protein was stable. These responses suggest that cellular/molecular adaptive tools for maintaining HSP72 homeostasis exist. There was also a significant rise in basal and peak median optical density extracellular HSP at the end of each exercise test (first PPT, 0.13 and 0.15; second PPT, 1.04 and 1.52, respectively). The relationship between these enhancements and improved aerobic power capacity is not yet fully understood. PMID:24903923

Bruchim, Yaron; Aroch, Itamar; Eliav, Ady; Abbas, Atallah; Frank, Ilan; Kelmer, Efrat; Codner, Carolina; Segev, Gilad; Epstein, Yoram; Horowitz, Michal

2014-07-15

369

High prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and genotype distribution among general population, blood donors and risk groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the general population and in various high risk groups in south India was assessed. A total of 258 out of 3589 (7.1%) subjects (both general and risk groups) tested positive for HCV RNA by RT-PCR, while the third generation ELISA detected only 6.1% (221\\/3589). This suggests that a number of cases

Mohammed N. Khaja; Chandra Madhavi; Rekha Thippavazzula; Farees Nafeesa; Aejaz M. Habib; Chittoor M. Habibullah; Ramareddy V. Guntaka

2006-01-01

370

Histological and immunophenotypic profile of nasal NK\\/T cell lymphomas from Peru: High prevalence of p53 overexpression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal NK\\/T-cell lymphoma is a unique form of lymphoma highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). These lymphomas are rare in Western populations and much more prevalent in some Asian and Latin American countries. Although there are several sizable studies from Asian countries, the same is not true from South America. The aim of this study was to analyze a series

Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez; Janet L Franklin; Ivonne Guerrero; Laszlo Krenacs; K. N Naresh; Clementina Rama-Rao; Kishor Bhatia; Mark Raffeld; Ian T Magrath

1999-01-01

371

Cytokine gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer patients from two Italian areas at high and low cancer prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-RN), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) genes are supposed to be key determinants of gastric cancer risk. Our aim was to study the association between these polymorphisms and gastric cancer in two areas characterized by high (Pavia\\/Bologna, North Italy) and low (San Giovanni Rotondo, South Italy) gastric cancer prevalence. Genomic DNA was obtained

F. Perri; A. Piepoli; C. Bonvicini; A. Gentile; M. Quitadamo; M. Di Candia; R. Cotugno; F. Cattaneo; M. R. Zagari; L. Ricciardiello; M. Gennarelli; F. Bazzoli; G. N. Ranzani; A. Andriulli

2005-01-01

372

High prevalence of rare dopamine receptor D4 alleles in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations have been reported of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both the personality trait of novelty seeking and attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The increased prevalence of the 7R allele in ADHD probands is consistent with the common variant–common disorder hypothesis, which proposes that the high frequency of many complex genetic disorders is related

D L Grady; H-C Chi; Y-C Ding; M Smith; E Wang; S Schuck; P Flodman; M A Spence; J M Swanson; R K Moyzis

2003-01-01

373

Dog models of naturally occurring cancer.  

PubMed

Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models for natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has a vastly reduced genetic variation compared with humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five- to eight-fold faster than do humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the past decade, have developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here, we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

Rowell, Jennie L; McCarthy, Donna O; Alvarez, Carlos E

2011-07-01

374

Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

2011-01-01

375

High Prevalence of Nickel Allergy in an Overweight Female Population: A Pilot Observational Analysis  

PubMed Central

Context In our Allergy Unit, we incidentally observed that a low Nickel diet, prescribed for delayed allergy to Nickel sulfate, reduced body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in overweight patients. Objectives This pilot cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to compare the prevalence of Nickel allergy of overweight individuals versus the general population. We also had the chance to report the efficacy of a low Nickel diet on BMI and waist circumference in Nickel-sensitive overweight subjects. Methods Eighty-seven overweight subjects, with a BMI >26 Kg/m2, were consecutively enrolled in a health prevention program, and screened for the presence of Nickel allergy. The enrolled population was mostly females (72/87) (82.8%). Forty-three overweight women and two men showed a Nickel allergy and started a low Nickel diet. After 6-months of dieting, 24 overweight allergic women could be traced and changes in BMI and waist circumference were calculated. Main Outcome Measurements Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight. Results Prevalence of Nickel allergy in overweight female was 59.7%, compared with a prevalence rate of 12.5% in the general population. A significant reduction in BMI was observed in 24 out of 43 overweight females with Nickel allergy after 24 weeks of a low Nickel diet. Relative to baseline, mean BMI decrease was 4.2±0.5 (P <0.001) and the mean decline in waist circumference was 11.7±0.6 cm (P< 0.001). Conclusions This pilot observational analysis showed a substantially higher prevalence of Nickel allergy among overweight females, especially those with metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease. A normocaloric low Nickel diet was effective in reducing BMI in this population. Further research is strongly needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:25822975

Lusi, Elena Angela; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo Maria; Patrissi, Tommaso; Guarascio, Paolo

2015-01-01

376

Comparing Total Body Irradiation High and Low Dose Rates for Minimum-Intensity Conditioning of Dogs for DLA-Identical Marrow Grafts  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that total body irradiation (TBI) given at a high dose rate would be more immunosuppressive and lead to a higher incidence of stable hematopoietic cell engraftment following suboptimal levels of conditioning irradiation than irradiation given at a low dose rate. We assessed engraftment success of dog leukocyte antigen identical marrow transplantation into recipients given 100, 150, and 200 cGy TBI, administered at 7 or 70 cGy/min. Dogs received donor marrow the same day as TBI and were subsequently treated with postgrafting immunosuppression consisting of mycophenolate mofetil (28 days) and cyclosporine (37 days). Donor chimerism was tested until the end of study, which was characterized by either graft rejection or stable engraftment. Increasing the radiation dose rate from the traditional 7 cGy/min to 70 cGy/min did not lead to increased engraftment success at any of the irradiation doses tested. The dose rate of 70 cGy/minute was no more hematotoxic than 7 cGy/minute. TBI delivered at a high dose rate was well tolerated but did not lead to a better rate of allogeneic hematopoietic cell engraftment than TBI delivered at a lower rate. PMID:23994246

Graves, Scott S.; Storer, Barry E.; Butts, Tiffany M.; Storb, Rainer

2013-01-01

377

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma. Gambogic acid was used as an internal standard (IS). After a simple liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate, the analyte and internal standard were separated on an Acquity BEH C18 (100?×?2.1?mm, 1.7?µm; Waters ) column at a flow rate of 0.2?mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-methanol (10:90, v/v) as mobile phase. Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring mode with the transitions m/z 631.3???507.3 and m/z 629.1???573.2 was used to quantify gambogenic acid and the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 5-1000?ng/mL, with a coefficient of determination (r) of 0.999 and good calculated accuracy and precision. The low limit of quantification was 5?ng/mL. The intra-and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were <15%. The methodology recoveries were more than 66.63%. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after intravenous injection administration of gambogenic acid in dogs at a dose of 1?mg/kg. PMID:24802389

Chen, Jin Pei; Wang, Dian Lei; Yang, Li Li; Wang, Chen Yin; Wang, Shan Shan

2014-12-01

378

Energy metabolism of Inuit sled dogs.  

PubMed

We explored how seasonal changes in temperature, exercise and food supply affected energy metabolism and heart rate of Inuit dogs in Greenland. Using open flow respirometry, doubly labeled water, and heart rate recording, we measured metabolic rates of the same dogs at two different locations: at one location the dogs were fed with high energy food throughout the year while at the other location they were fed with low energy food during summer. Our key questions were: is resting metabolic rate (RMR) increased during the winter season when dogs are working? Does feeding regime affect RMR during summ