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1

High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Sixty eight (67.3%) of 101 dogs were seropositive with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 8, 1:100 in 9, 1:200 in 10, 1:400 in 10, 1:800 in 10, 1:1600 in 3, and 1:3200 or higher in 2. None of the dogs’ characteristics studied including age, sex, breed, and history of deworming, rabies vaccination and contact with cats was associated with seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. Conclusion Using the dogs as sentinel animals, the results indicate high contamination with T. gondii of the environment in Veracruz, Mexico. Results have public health implications, and further studies in Veracruz should be conducted to establish the sources of environmental contamination with T. gondii and to determine optimal preventive measures against T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:25134696

2014-01-01

2

High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.  

PubMed

Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. PMID:23867013

Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

2013-08-28

3

The prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Kirikkale.  

PubMed

Heartworm infection is one of the most important parasitic diseases in dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of heartworm in dogs in Kirikkale. Blood samples of 172 dogs were collected. Microfilariae were detected in 10 (5.8%). dogs with the Knott technique. The anal and excretory pores stained with acid phosphates showed that the microfilariae belonged to Dirofilaria immitis. Microfilariae were found in dogs aged between 2-10 years, and especially in Siberian huskies, setters, pointers and crossbred sheepdogs. The serum samples of 142 dogs were analyzed using the commercial ELISA test kit for detection of anti-D. immitis antibody. The occult infection rate was found to be 27.46% in dogs. According to these results, Kirikkale region has a high risk for heartworm infection. PMID:18985575

Yildiz, Kader; Duru, Sibel Yasa; Ya?ci, Bu?rahan B; Ocal, Naci; Gazya?ci, Aycan N

2008-01-01

4

Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.

Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

2014-01-01

5

High prevalence of Yersinia pestis in black-tailed prairie dog colonies during an apparent enzootic phase of sylvatic plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was introduced into North America over 100 years ago. The disease causes high mortality and extirpations in black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), which is of conservation concern because prairie dogs provide habitat for the critically endangered black-footed ferret\\u000a (Mustela nigripes). Our goal was to help elucidate the mechanism Y. pestis uses to persist in prairie ecosystems during

David A. Hanson; Hugh B. Britten; Marco Restani; Leigh R. Washburn

2007-01-01

6

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in living raccoon dogs assessed by hematological examination.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) was examined in the southeast region of Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, using a rapid immunomigration (RIM) test kit. Between April 2007 and March 2010, we examined 108 raccoon dogs rescued and housed by the Kanazawa Zoological Garden. D. immitis infection was found in 8 (7.4%) raccoon dogs. This is the first report to reveal the prevalence of D. immitis infection in living raccoon dogs. The prevalence of the infection was lower than previously reported values obtained on postmortem examination. One reason might be that the present study included young raccoon dogs infected with immature worms. Significant high-risk areas of D. immitis infection in the raccoon dogs were not observed. PMID:21293077

Kido, Nobuhide; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

2011-06-01

7

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Dandong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Dandong, China. A total of 886 dogs were examined for D. immitis infection by microscopic examination and PCR, indicating that the prevalence was 16.6% (213\\/886) and 24.0% (147\\/886), respectively. The odds of infection were significantly higher in older dogs

Honglie Hou; Guoshun Shen; Wei Wu; Pengtao Gong; Quan Liu; Juan You; Yanan Cai; Jianhua Li; Xichen Zhang

8

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs  

E-print Network

observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus–epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus–IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus–epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic. *Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville,

Human Risk; Loïs Allela; Olivier Bourry; Régis Pouillot; André Délicat; Brice Kumulungui; Pierre Rouquet; Jean-paul Gonzalez; Eric M. Leroy

9

Prevalence of dirofilarial infection in raccoon dogs in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) is known to acquire canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection. We surveyed the prevalence of heartworm infection in free-ranging raccoon dogs in the Nishi-Tama (Tokyo) and Kanagawa areas of Japan. A total of 75 raccoon dog carcasses, including 29 animals from the Nishi-Tama area and 46 from the Kanagawa area, were necropsied between 1992 and

Kazuhide Nakagaki; Takashi Suzuki; Shin Ichi Hayama; Eiji Kanda

2000-01-01

10

Prevalence of dental disorders in pet dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral disorders of the dog represent for veterinarians a medical challenge and an important field of interest from the economical point of view. Although many epidemiological studies on dental diseases in beagles bred under controlled conditions have been realized, information on frequency of these alterations in populations of pet dogs, especially in Central Europe, is far from complete. The aim

M. Kyllar; K. Witter

11

High prevalence of blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 plasmids in healthy urban dogs in France.  

PubMed

In the community, close contacts between humans and dogs may promote the transfer of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase/plasmidic AmpC cephalosporinase (ESBL/pAmpC) genes. Large-scale prevalence studies on ESBL/pAmpC carriage in dogs are rare, and data on ESBL/pAmpC plasmids are even more limited. Here, a considerable rate of 18.5% ESBL/pAmpC carriers was found among 368 unrelated healthy dogs in Paris, France. This prevalence is much higher than the one found in healthy humans in the same city (6%) but close to that recently reported in dogs in China (24.5%). All isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, except one Salmonella enterica and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. The sequence type 131 (ST131) clone was rare (2/73 isolates). Interestingly, two plasmids (blaCTX-M-1/IncI1/ST3 and blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2) were unexpectedly highly predominant, raising the question of their successful spread. Considering that CTX-M-1 was recently found to be equally as abundant as CTX-M-15 in healthy Parisian subjects, the question of dogs being a CTX-M-1 reservoir for humans is open. Such a high prevalence of the blaCMY-2/IncI1/ST2 plasmid may result from the use of cephalexin in veterinary medicine, as previously demonstrated experimentally. In all, our study points out healthy urban dogs as a potential source of ESBL/pAmpC genes that can further disseminate to the human community. PMID:24982072

Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Métayer, Véronique; Médaille, Christine; Madec, Jean-Yves

2014-09-01

12

High prevalence and variability of CTX-M-15-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli observed in stray dogs in rural Angola.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area. PMID:24568119

Albrechtova, Katerina; Kubelova, Michaela; Mazancova, Jana; Dolejska, Monika; Literak, Ivan; Cizek, Alois

2014-08-01

13

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Shenyang, Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we first report the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China. Sera from 528 randomly selected dogs were examined for D. immitis antigen using SNAP®4Dx test kit; 12.7% tested showed seropositive. No significant difference of infection was observed in different genders and breeds (P>0.05), but the difference was significant in different age groups and rearing conditions (P<0.05). The result suggested that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Shenyang, and should be given attention. PMID:23864752

Liu, Chengwu; He, Jianbin; Yang, Min; Sun, Ming

2013-01-01

14

Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

Vieira, Ana Luisa; Vieira, Maria Joao; Oliveira, Joao Manuel; Simoes, Ana Rita; Diez-Banos, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

2014-01-01

15

Prevalence of behaviour problems reported by owners of dogs purchased from an animal rescue shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of behaviour problems exhibited by dogs within 4 weeks of acquisition from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland. One thousand five hundred and forty-seven people who had purchased a dog from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland were sent a postal questionnaire designed to collect information on the behaviours exhibited by their dog within the

Deborah L Wells; Peter G Hepper

2000-01-01

16

Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barron, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

17

Prevalence of disease in dogs purchased from an animal rescue shelter.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diseases suffered by dogs within two weeks of their acquisition from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland was investigated. A postal questionnaire was completed by 556 people who had purchased a dog from the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (USPCA) to provide information on the diseases suffered by their dog. The majority of the dogs (53.7 per cent) had an ailment the most common being coughing and diarrhoea. Of the respondents who returned their dog to the USPCA, 92 per cent did so because the animal was unhealthy. Stray dogs were more likely to have an ailment than unwanted dogs, specifically coughing, and/or skin problems. More puppies suffered from parvovirus, vomiting, and/or diarrhoea than did juveniles or adults. Adult dogs were more likely to have a cough than juveniles or puppies. There was no association between the sex of the dogs and their ailments. PMID:10028582

Wells, D L; Hepper, P G

1999-01-01

18

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs and Human Risk  

PubMed Central

During the 2001–2002 outbreak in Gabon, we observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 14 the 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus–epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus–IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus–epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic. PMID:15757552

Allela, Lois; Bourry, Olivier; Pouillot, Regis; Delicat, Andre; Yaba, Philippe; Kumulungui, Brice; Rouquet, Pierre; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

2005-01-01

19

Ebola virus antibody prevalence in dogs and human risk.  

PubMed

During the 2001-2002 outbreak in Gabon, we observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus-epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus-IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus-epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic. PMID:15757552

Allela, Loïs; Boury, Olivier; Pouillot, Régis; Délicat, André; Yaba, Philippe; Kumulungui, Brice; Rouquet, Pierre; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Leroy, Eric M

2005-03-01

20

Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei Infection in Pet Dogs in Southern China  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29–2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83–1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53–1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02–1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55–36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0–11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0–6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant “baseline” data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355

Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2014-01-01

21

Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in southern China.  

PubMed

Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29-2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83-1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53-1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02-1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55-36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0-11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0-6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant "baseline" data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355

Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2014-01-01

22

Prevalence of the Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection, and to examine the relationship between host factors (gender, age and breed) and D. immitis infection in dogs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. A total of 676 dogs were examined for D. immitis infection. Adult worms (necropsy) and blood samples were collected

M. E. Bolio-Gonzalez; R. I. Rodriguez-Vivas; C. H. Sauri-Arceo; E. Gutierrez-Blanco; A. Ortega-Pacheco; R. F. Colin-Flores

2007-01-01

23

Prevalence and epidemiological aspects of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Kayseri Province, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection and to investigate the risk factors related to heartworm disease in dogs from Kayseri, Turkey. Blood samples were collected from 280 dogs from May 2005 to March 2006 and were examined by membrane filtration-acid phosphatase histochemical staining and antigen Elisa techniques to detect circulating microfilariae and antigens of

A. Yildirim; A. Ica; O. Atalay; O. Duzlu; A. Inci

2007-01-01

24

The prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii among hospitalized animals and stray dogs.  

PubMed Central

Hospitalized animals and stray dogs were serologically tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the data were examined for the possibility of toxoplasmosis infection being associated with the clinical diagnosis and with the discharge status (alive vs. dead). Among 1056 hospitalized animals, 17 (20%) of 86 cats, 112 (14%) of 804 dogs, 34 (26%) of 133 horses and 6 (18%) of 33 cattle had serological evidence of infection with T. gondii. Only 22 (6%) of 342 young (median age = one year) stray dogs were seropositive. The difference in antibody prevalence between hospitalized and stray dogs was thought to be due to age and dietary factors. Of 249 dogs grouped by clinical diagnosis, there was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher prevalence of seropositives among dogs with diseases of the kidney or with adrenocortical hyperfunction than among dogs hospitalized for other diseases. Of 19 dogs with diseases of the kidney and 12 with adrenocortical hyperfunction 37% and 42%, respectively, were seropositive.. There was higher risk of being discharged from the hospital dead among seropositive dogs, cattle and horses than among seronegative animals of the same species. The exception was cats, where of 69 seronegative cats 29% were dead at discharge and where of 17 seropositive cats 18% were dead at discharge. The possible effects of stress due to hospitalization need further research. PMID:743598

Riemann, H P; Kaneko, J J; Haghighi, S; Behymer, D E; Franti, C E; Ruppanner, R

1978-01-01

25

Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs?  

PubMed Central

Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

2013-01-01

26

Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France.  

PubMed

In order to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) from radiographs that were submitted for authorative grading, and its changes over the time in 31 breeds of dogs in France, a 14 year-retrospective study was conducted. Significant differences were observed between breeds, with HD prevalence ranging from 59.7% (Cane Corso) to 3.9% (Siberian Husky). When comparing the 1993-1999 with the 2000-2006 period in 15 breeds, a significant decrease in HD prevalence was detected in Berger Picard, Bernese Mountain dog, Briard, Gordon Setter, White Swiss Sheepdog and Rottweiler. Modifications observed in the other breeds were not statistically significant. PMID:18288340

Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Viguier, E; Carozzo, C; Collard, F; Cachon, T; Maitre, P; Fau, D

2008-01-01

27

The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137

Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagne, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert

2011-01-01

28

Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in stray dogs and herbivores in Shiraz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and five stray male and female dogs in different age groups were autopsied and their small intestines examined for Echinococcus granulosus. Thirty eight dogs (36.19%) harbored two-to-several thousand E. granulosus in their intestinal content. The prevalence rate was higher in males (44.83%) than in females (25.53%).Livers and lungs of 3245 sheep, 2576 goats, 756 cattle and 25 buffaloes

D Mehrabani; A Oryan; S. M Sadjjadi

1999-01-01

29

Prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs and foxes from Jordan.  

PubMed

Necropsy of 340 stray and semi-stray dogs (Canis familiaris) and nine red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Jordan revealed that 239 dogs (70.3%) and all foxes were infected with at least one intestinal helminth species. No trematodes were found in the intestine of these hosts. The overall infection rates with cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalans in dogs were 66.8%, 4.4% and 2.9%, respectively. The following cestodes were identified: Echinococcus granulosus (9.4%), Taenia pisiformis (11.8%), T. hydatigena (7.4%), T. ovis (4.4%), T. multiceps (3.8%), T. taeniaeformis (2.9%), Dipylidium caninum (19.4%), Joyeuxiella (3.2%), Diplopylidium (2.4%), and Mesocestoides (0.9%). Other intestinal worms in dogs were Toxascaris (2.6%), Toxocara canis (1.2%), and Protospirura (0.6%) nematodes, and gigantorhynchiid acanthocephalans (2.9%). Intestinal helminths found in foxes included cestodes (D. caninum, Joyeuxiella, Diplopylidium, Mesocestoides), nematodes (Protospirura, Uncinaria stenocephala and Oxynema) and an acanthocephalan (Macracanthorhynchus). In both hosts, most helminths were recovered from the second intestinal segment of four equally divided segments. PMID:10540955

El-Shehabi, F S; Abdel-Hafez, S K; Kamhawi, S A

1999-11-01

30

A population prevalence study on influenza infection in dogs in Southern Italy.  

PubMed

Despite several data on influenza infection in dogs, the first natural outbreak of canine influenza virus, closely related to H3N8 equine subtype, dates back to 2004 in Florida. Subsequent studies highlighted the role of dogs in adaptation of H5N1 to mammals and the susceptibility of dogs to different subtypes of influenza. A prevalence study was carried out on 562 sera collected from pet and kennel dogs in the south of Italy. A c-ELISA test was employed and c-ELISA-positive, c-ELISA-doubtful and random c-ELISA-negative samples were also tested in subtype- specific HI test using H3N8 and H3N2 strains. c-ELISA detected a positivity of 3.56%. HI performed with the H3N8 revealed 2 positive samples and when performed with the H3N2, HI revealed 47 positive samples. c-ELISA proved to be a sensitive and specific technique. HI is a specific method only when the test antigen is homologous to the circulating virus and, because non-specific-hemagglutination inhibitors may be present in dog sera, false positives can result. The study emphasizes that due to their close contact with humans dogs must be a target for testing. Furthermore because it remains to be determined how long antibodies to influenza virus persist in canine sera, the observed prevalence might be underestimated. PMID:25180843

Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

2014-07-01

31

Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high  

E-print Network

Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high performance liquid of selamectin in dog plasma, using High-Per- formance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and its suitability was demonstrated by a pharmacokinetic study on a dog receiving the therapeutic dose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.  

PubMed

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

2014-01-01

33

Inter-dog aggression in a UK owner survey: prevalence, co-occurrence in different contexts and risk factors.  

PubMed

Aggression between dogs is common and can result in injury. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence, evaluate co-occurrence with human-directed aggression, and investigate potential risk factors, using a cross-sectional convenience sample of dog owners. Aggression (barking, lunging, growling or biting) towards unfamiliar dogs was reported to currently occur, by 22 per cent of owners, and towards other dogs in the household, by 8 per cent. A low level of concordance between dog and human-directed aggression suggested most dogs were not showing aggression in multiple contexts. Aggression towards other dogs in the household was associated with increasing dog age, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques, and attending ring-craft classes. Aggression towards other dogs on walks was associated with location of questionnaire distribution, owner age, age of dog, origin of dog, dog breed type, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques and attending obedience classes for more than four weeks. In both, the amount of variance explained by models was low (<15 per cent), suggesting that unmeasured factors mostly accounted for differences between groups. These results suggest general characteristics of dogs and owners which contribute to intraspecific aggression, but also highlight that these are relatively minor predictors. PMID:23193037

Casey, R A; Loftus, B; Bolster, C; Richards, G J; Blackwell, E J

2013-02-01

34

Prevalence of Dermatological Presentations of Canine Leishmaniasis in a Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Study of 100 Dogs  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study determined the prevalence of dermatological lesions associated with canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a nonendemic area in Italy. The medical records of 131 dogs with CanL were reviewed and, of these, 115/131 dogs (88%) had dermatological manifestations of which 100/131 dogs (76%) met the inclusion criteria. Sixty-two percent of dogs were male and 38% were female and the mean age was 6.4 years. Thirty-two percent of dogs were mixed breeds; the remainder represented a variety of pure breeds. In 79% of dogs dermatological signs occurred in association with systemic signs of CanL, whilst 21% of dogs had only dermatological manifestations. The most common dermatological manifestation was exfoliative dermatitis (74%), followed by ulcerative (18%) and nodular (11%) lesions. In 51% of dogs the lesions were localized mainly on the pinnae, head, and pressure points; in the remaining 49% lesions were generalized. The only statistically significant association was between Retriever breed and animals with only dermatological signs (P = 0.0034, OD 5.97, CI 0.996–37.933). In this study dermatological manifestations of CanL were very commonly reported, and their prevalence is similar to previous studies in endemic areas despite the fact that dogs living in nonendemic areas are not exposed to repeated infectious bites and continuous stimulation of the dermal immune system. PMID:24660088

Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Spada, Eva

2014-01-01

35

Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

36

[The prevalence of heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs of Curaçao].  

PubMed

In view of its distribution in (sub)tropical areas, heartworm in dogs is of increasing importance as an import disease, also in the Netherlands. The present study is particularly concerned with the prevalence of the asymptomatic forms of this disease in Curaçao. In this study 631 blood samples were tested. Sixty-six dogs (10 per cent) were found to be infected with Dirofilaria. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels were determined. Breed, age, sex and major symptoms were recorded. The prevalence of the worm in males (12.8 per cent) was significantly higher than it was in females (7.2 per cent). Of the infected animals, 39 per cent were asymptomatic carriers of the disease, two of them being about to be shipped to the Netherlands. Heartworm disease therefore is a real possibility in imported dogs in the Netherlands and this diagnosis should be considered in animals showing pulmonary and circulatory problems. The life cycle, therapy and prevention of Dirofilaria immitis are discussed. PMID:3175994

Hesselink, J W

1988-08-15

37

Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs  

PubMed Central

We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered. PMID:23820161

Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

2013-01-01

38

Current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs, cats and humans from the island of Gran Canaria, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The island of Gran Canaria is a hyperendemic area for canine dirofilariasis. The aim of the present study was to provide data on Dirofilaria immitis in dogs, cats, and humans on this island in 2010. The data confirms the prevalence in the overall canine population (19%), with a considerably higher prevalence (43%) in the autochthonous breed of Canarian Warren hound.

J. A. Montoya-Alonso; E. Carretón; J. A. Corbera; M. C. Juste; I. Mellado; R. Morchón; F. Simón

2011-01-01

39

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed by PCR in farmed red foxes, arctic foxes and raccoon dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids. PMID:22428309

Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, S?awomir

2012-01-01

40

Prevalence of immunity presumed using rabies vaccination history and household factors associated with vaccination status among domestic dogs in Japan.  

PubMed

Rabies was eliminated in Japan over 50 years ago; however, the recent increase in the movement of humans and animals across the world highlights the potential threat of disease reentry into the country. The immune status against rabies among the dog population in Japan is not well known; thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dogs with effective immunity from the vaccination history using a web-based survey. We found that 76.9% (95% confidence interval, 75.8-78.1) of dogs in this study population belonged to the population in which 90% were assumed to have the internationally accepted antibody titer. We showed that dogs taken less frequently for walks were less likely to be vaccinated. Additionally, the frequency of encounters with other dogs during walks and the number of individuals in households were associated with vaccination history. To our knowledge, this study is the first report estimating the prevalence of dogs in Japan with effective immunity against rabies. Further, we identified the population with low vaccination coverage as well as the heterogeneous characteristics of vaccination history among the dog population. These findings contribute to the implementation of an efficient strategy for improving the overall vaccination coverage in Japan and the development of a quantitative risk assessment of rabies. PMID:22996212

Hidano, Arata; Hayama, Yoko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

41

Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeco, Claudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

2013-01-01

42

Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian Cattle Dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD) occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Results Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded. Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696) was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ? 0.001). Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050). No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour. Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034) after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Conclusions Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to defects in molecular pigment pathways, the molecular control of embryonic melanoblast migration from ectoderm to skin differs from control of migration from ectoderm to cochlea. In Australian Cattle Dogs, CHSD may be more common in females. PMID:23107143

2012-01-01

43

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection of Dogs from an Urban Area of Brazil as Identified by Molecular Methods  

PubMed Central

Background Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and “in house”), and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n?=?1,213) animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n?=?296) and PCR-negative (n?=?917) for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. Principal Findings Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9%) were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7%) were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family incomedog staying predominantly in the backyard (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.1–4.1), and a lack of previous serological examination for VL (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.1–2.3). Conclusions PCR detected a high prevalence of L. infantum infection in dogs in an area under the Control Program of VL intervention. Socioeconomic variables, dog behavior and the knowledge of the owner regarding the vector were factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The absence of previous serological examination conducted by the control program was also associated with L. infantum infection. It is necessary to identify the risk factors associated with CVL to understand the expansion and urbanization of VL. PMID:21858243

Coura-Vital, Wendel; Marques, Marcos Jose; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leoncio; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Mariangela

2011-01-01

44

High anemia prevalence in western China.  

PubMed

We assessed the prevalence of anemia among schoolchildren in western China as determined by seven cross-sectional surveys involving 12,768 children aged 8-12 years. Subjects were selected randomly from 283 primary schools in 41 economically disadvantaged counties of Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires and hemoglobin levels were measured. The anemia prevalence was 34% using the WHO hemoglobin cutoff of < 120 g/l. Boarding students and girls were more likely to be anemic. The prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren was high. Iron deficiency is a significant nutrition issue in China. PMID:22299447

Luo, Renfu; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Miller, Grant; Rozelle, Scott; Yu, Elaine; Martorell, Reynaldo

2011-09-01

45

The Prevalence of Nine Genetic Disorders in a Dog Population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n?=?476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n?=?8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

2013-01-01

46

Consequences of a screening programme on the prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in the Australian Cattle Dog.  

PubMed

Genetic disease testing programmes are used in domestic animal breeds to guide selective breeding with the aim of reducing disease prevalence. We assessed the change in the prevalence of canine congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD) in litters of Australian Cattle Dogs following the introduction of a brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing programme. We studied 608 pups from 122 litters from 10 breeding kennels. Despite 10 years of testing (1998-2008), no substantial reduction in prevalence of CHSD was evident in these 10 breeding kennels. Even for the subset of litters in which both parents were BAER tested as normal hearing (305 pups from 58 litters), there was no evidence of substantial reduction in prevalence. Odds ratios for CHSD in pups for each extra year since testing in the kennel commenced were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.88-1.17) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.82-1.30) respectively for these populations. Amongst 284 dogs from 54 litters with extended pedigrees and both parents BAER-tested normal hearing, observed prevalences of CHSD were highest in pups with no BAER-tested normal grandparents (17% or 5/29) and lowest in pups with all four grandparents tested normal (0% or 0/9). In pups for which one, two and three grandparents tested negative, prevalences of CHSD were 12% (9/74), 9% (9/101) and 8% (6/71) respectively. Hence, testing programmes based on phenotypic screening may not lead to a substantial reduction in recessive genetic disease prevalence over the medium term, even when only tested normal parents are used. Exclusive breeding of litters in which both parents and all four grandparents are BAER-tested normal is expected to reduce CHSD prevalence in pups to the greatest extent over the long term. PMID:25286978

Sommerlad, S F; Morton, J M; Johnstone, I; O'Leary, C A; Seddon, J M

2014-12-01

47

A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli in dogs. PMID:23802858

Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

2014-06-01

48

Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse fecal bacterial and fungal communities in healthy dogs and cats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the fecal microbiota of 12 healthy pet dogs and 12 pet cats using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. A total of 120,406 pyrosequencing reads for bacteria (mean 5017) and 5359 sequences (one pool each for dogs and cats) for fungi were analyzed. Additionally, group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were constructed. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes in dogs and Actinobacteria in cats. The most prevalent bacterial class in dogs and cats was Clostridia, dominated by the genera Clostridium (clusters XIVa and XI) and Ruminococcus. At the genus level, 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in dogs and 113 OTUs in cats. Seventeen LAB and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were detected in canine feces. Ascomycota was the only fungal phylum detected in cats, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota were identified in dogs. Nacaseomyces was the most abundant fungal genus in dogs; Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were predominant in cats. At the genus level, 33 different fungal OTUs were observed in dogs and 17 OTUs in cats. In conclusion, this study revealed a highly diverse bacterial and fungal microbiota in canine and feline feces. PMID:21261668

Handl, Stefanie; Dowd, Scot E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

2011-05-01

49

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.  

PubMed

Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples. PMID:21247022

Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

2010-06-01

50

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Lanzhou, Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Northwest China. In the present study, the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Lanzhou, China was investigated using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Results In this survey, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28 of 259 (10.81%) pet dogs, with MAT titers of 1:20 in 14 dogs, 1:40 in nine, 1:80 in four, and 1:160 or higher in one dog. The prevalence ranged from 6.67% to 16.67% among dogs of different ages, with low rates in young pet dogs, and high rates in older pet dogs. The seroprevalence in dogs >3 years old was higher than that in dogs ?1 years old, but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). The seroprevalence in male dogs was 12.50% (17 of 136), and in female dogs it was 8.94% (11 of 123), but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). Conclusions A high prevalence of T. gondii infection was found in pet dogs in Lanzhou, Northwest China, which has implications for public health in this region. In order to reduce the risk of exposure to T. gondii, further measures and essential control strategies should be carried out rationally in this region. PMID:21542918

2011-01-01

51

Origin of high slow-wave frequency in the dog colon J. FIORAMONTI, L. BUENO, S. K. SARNA Y. RUCKEBUSCH  

E-print Network

Origin of high slow-wave frequency in the dog colon J. FIORAMONTI, L. BUENO, S. K. SARNA Y activities were simultaneously recorded in dogs under pentobarbital anaesthesia to study the temporal electrodes in dog, was an « artefact » of duodenal activity acting as an electric dipole and (ii

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

High prevalence of alcoholism in dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholism is one of the most common psychosocial disorders, affecting approximately 10% of the general population. The impact of alcoholism on the care of patients with other medical illnesses has not been addressed in many of these populations, including patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis. We set out to determine the prevalence of alcoholism in an urban hemodialysis

Aroti Hegde; Judith H. Veis; Aimee Seidman; Shazia Khan; Jack Moore

2000-01-01

53

Early high volume lung lavage for acute severe smoke inhalation injury in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and short?term results of early high volume lung lavage in the treatment of acute severe smoke inhalation injuries in dogs. A high?volume normal saline complex solution lavage in the left lung was performed 1 h subsequent to bilateral pulmonary acute severe sawdust smoke inhalation injury in dogs. Lavage of the right lung was conducted following an interval of 30 min or 4 h. The perfluorodecalin lavage was performed in dogs with unilateral pulmonary acute severe sawdust smoke inhalation injury. The present study identified that lavage with an interval of 4 h between two lungs was safer compared with a 30?min interval. Following lavage, the increase in the levels of free radical metabolites and inflammatory mediators in the lung homogenate was reduced. Acute severe smoke inhalation injury in one lung evidently caused a secondary injury to the other lung in the dogs. Perfluorodecalin lavage did not achieve the same effect in cleansing the lungs as the normal saline, but a greater comprehensive short?term outcome was obtained. These observations demonstrated that early high?volume lung lavage following severe smoke inhalation injury could relieve primary injuries and secondary local and general inflammatory reactions in dogs. An improved comprehensive short?term outcome was obtained in the perfluorodecalin?lavaged dogs. PMID:24366331

Nie, Fachuan; Su, Dong; Shi, Ying; Chen, Jinmei; Wang, Haihui; Qin, Wanxiang; Wang, Suxia; Chen, Yaohua

2014-03-01

54

Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control. PMID:16651867

Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

2006-06-01

55

Prevalence of the group 1 Dermatophagoides allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 in homes with no dogs, healthy dogs and Dermatophagoides-sensitized atopic dogs in Liverpool.  

PubMed

Dermatophagoides farinae is a frequent allergen in canine atopic dermatitis despite its reported scarcity in the UK, and the aim of this study was to determine whether dogs were uniquely exposed to this species. Der f 1 and Der p 1 in dust collected from living room carpets, bedroom carpets and dog beds of 13 houses with no dogs, 13 with healthy dogs, and 16 with Dermatophagoides-sensitized atopic dogs were quantified by ELISA. Der p 1 levels (microg g(-1) house dust) were significantly higher than Der f 1 in living rooms (Der p 1 median = 1.9, 95% CI = 2.05-6.32, n = 42; Der f 1 median = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.01-0.06, n = 42), bedrooms (Der p 1 median = 4.35, SD = 5.52; Der f 1 median = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.001-0.1, n = 42) and dog beds (Der p 1 median = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.4-8.1, n = 29; Der f 1 median = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04, n = 29) (P < 0.0001). Living rooms in houses without dogs had significantly greater Der p 1 levels (median = 7.0, 95% CI = 3.53-15.8, n = 13) than houses with healthy (median = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.44-3.49, n = 13) or atopic dogs (median = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-2.42, n = 16) (P = 0.0004). Environmental flea control in living rooms and washing dog beds was associated with significantly reduced Der p 1 levels. This confirms that D. pteronyssinus is common but D. farinae is rare in the sampling area. Apparent sensitization to D. farinae is probably due to cross-reaction. A combination of environmental measures could reduce allergen exposure. PMID:16101796

Raffan, Eleanor; Lawrence, Helen; Henderson, Thomas; Nelson, Sarah; Isherwood, Diana; McArdle, Claire; Nuttall, Tim

2005-08-01

56

Anisometropia Prevalence in a Highly Astigmatic School-Aged Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Methods Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1,041 Tohono O’odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Results Astigmatism ? 1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia ? 1.00 diopter (D) spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia ? 1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes ? 1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes ? 1.00 D for M and/or ? 0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference ? 1.41). Conclusions Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations. PMID:18594336

Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.

2008-01-01

57

High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.  

PubMed

The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

2013-01-01

58

Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina.  

PubMed

The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41-42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats. PMID:17032467

Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Lauricella, M A; Cardinal, M V; Kitron, U; Cohen, J E

2007-01-01

59

Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ? 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ? 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. PMID:22261239

Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

2012-05-25

60

Dogs and intestinal parasites: a public health problem.  

PubMed Central

The stools of 239 stray dogs were examined for intestinal parasites. Of the helminths found, Toxocara canis (43.5%), tapeworms (25.5%), Ascaris species (21.3%) and hookworms (12.5%) were the commonest. Of the protozoans found, Isospora species and Entamoeba coli were the most prevalent. An unusual feature of the present study was the finding of Ascaris species. The importance of the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs, the close contact of humans with dogs' excreta and the possible role of this environmental pollution in the spread of human disease are discussed. PMID:1125888

Seah, S. K.; Hucal, G.; Law, C.

1975-01-01

61

Infectiousness in a Cohort of Brazilian Dogs: Why Culling Fails to Control Visceral Leishmaniasis in Areas of High Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

sitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect currently infectious dogs was high (96%) but lower in the latent period (!63%), and specificity was low (24%). Mathematical mod- eling suggests that culling programs fail because of high incidence of infection and infectiousness, the insensitivity of the diagnostic test to detect infectious dogs, and time delays between diagnosis and culling.

Orin Courtenay; Christopher Dye

2002-01-01

62

Dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 avian influenza virus.  

PubMed

Replication of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in dogs may facilitate their adaptation in humans; however, the data to date on H5N1 influenza virus infection in dogs are conflicting. To elucidate the susceptibility of dogs to this pathogen, we infected two groups of 6 beagles with 10(6) 50% egg-infectious dose of H5N1 AIV A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/05 (BHG/QH/3/05) intranasally (i.n.) and intratracheally (i.t.), respectively. The dogs showed disease symptoms, including anorexia, fever, conjunctivitis, labored breathing and cough, and one i.t. inoculated animal died on day 4 post-infection. Virus shedding was detected from all 6 animals inoculated i.n. and one inoculated i.t. Virus replication was detected in all animals that were euthanized on day 3 or day 5 post-infection and in the animal that died on day 4 post-infection. Our results demonstrate that dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 AIV and may serve as an intermediate host to transfer this virus to humans. PMID:20580396

Chen, Ying; Zhong, Gongxun; Wang, Guojun; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhuo; Guan, Yuntao; Jiang, Yongping; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

2010-09-15

63

Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs (Canis familiaris) and triatomines during 2008 in a sanitary region of the State of Mexico, Mexico.  

PubMed

American trypanosomiasis is a public health problem in Latin America and southern parts of the United States. Infection in triatomines (vector) and domestic dogs (reservoir host) is a good indicator of Trypanosoma cruzi circulation and human risk of infection. The State of Mexico, Mexico, has been considered free of T. cruzi, and no detailed epidemiologic study has been conducted to assess the intricacies of the transmission cycle of the parasite in the region. Such studies would enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of T. cruzi infection in this geographic region and provide regional sanitary authorities with stronger fundamental knowledge for making decisions and allocating funds for Chagas disease control programs in the State of Mexico. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in dogs (seroprevalence) and triatomines (fecal parasites) in a previously identified, discrete endemic region of parasite circulation and to widen our studies in the Tejupilco Sanitary Region located in the southern part of the State of Mexico. Dog blood samples (n=102) were analyzed for the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies by two assays, namely indirect hemagglutination assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Triatomines (n=88) were collected and fecal aliquots were analyzed for the presence of parasites by light microscopy. Average seroprevalence in dogs in the Tejupilco Sanitary region was 24.5%, and the overall triatomine infection rate was 34.01%. Triatoma pallidipennis was the only triatomine species found in this region. Our data demonstrate that T. cruzi is actively circulating in the Tejupilco Sanitary Region and emphasize the requirement for epidemiologic surveillance programs throughout the putative endemic areas of the State of Mexico. PMID:20575648

Barbabosa-Pliego, Alberto; Gil, Pablo Campos; Hernández, Dora Olivares; Aparicio-Burgos, José E; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Ochoa-García, Laucel; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Estrada-Franco, José G; Garg, Nisha Jain; Chagoyán, Juan Carlos Vázquez

2011-02-01

64

High concentrations of glucose reduce the oxidative metabolism of dog neutrophils in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs are commonly affected by hyperglycemic conditions. Hyperglycemia compromises the immune response and favors bacterial infections; however, reports on the effects of glucose on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and apoptosis are conflicting in humans and rare in dogs. Considering the many complex factors that affect neutrophil oxidative metabolism in vivo, we investigated in vitro the specific effect of high concentrations of glucose on superoxide production and apoptosis rate in neutrophils from healthy dogs. Results The capacity of the neutrophils to reduce tetrazolium nitroblue decreased significantly in the higher concentration of glucose (15.13 ± 9.73% (8 mmol/L) versus 8.93 ± 5.71% (16 mmol/L)). However, there were no changes in tetrazolium nitroblue reduction at different glucose concentrations when the neutrophils were first activated with phorbol myristate acetate. High concentrations of glucose did not affect the viability and apoptosis rate of canine neutrophils either with or without prior camptothecin stimulation. This study provides the first evidence that high concentrations of glucose inhibit the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro in a manner similar to that which occurs in humans, and that the decrease in superoxide production did not increase the apoptosis rate. Conclusions A high concentration of glucose reduces the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro. It is likely that glucose at high concentrations rapidly affects membrane receptors responsible for the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils; therefore, the nonspecific immune response can be compromised in dogs with acute and chronic hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:23388121

2013-01-01

65

Modeling the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs for a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis abundance and prevalence data, for domestic dogs of Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, were fitted to mathematical models to evaluate transmission parameters. Abundance models, assuming the presence and absence of immunity, were fit for both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis using Bayesian priors, maximum likelihood, and Monte Carlo sampling techniques. When the

Christine M. Budke; Qiu Jiamin; Philip S. Craig; Paul R. Torgerson

2005-01-01

66

Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis from faecal samples of stray dogs in Hualien city of eastern Taiwan.  

PubMed

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea through waterborne transmission or fecal-oral infection. The cysts are chlorine-resistant and, therefore, can pollute drinking water and induce a pandemic disease. In this study, we aimed to detect G. duodenalis infection in stray dogs in Hualien, Taiwan. We collected faecal samples from 118 dogs and amplified DNA sequences of the ?-giardin gene by nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR). Eleven of the 118 faecal samples tested positive for the parasite. The genotype analysis of the 11 samples indicated that 7 samples belonged to assemblage C and four samples belonged to assemblage D. Our study provided a better understanding of the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in dogs from Hualien City, and human infection could not be induced by this zoonotic infection pathway in Hualien City. PMID:25134899

Tseng, Y C; Ho, G D; Chen T, T W; Huang, B F; Cheng, P C; Chen, J L; Peng, S Y

2014-06-01

67

High prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in pregnant Egyptian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically-transmitted cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH), is not fully understood. During outbreaks on the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere, HEV causes severe AVH with mortality rates around 20% during pregnancy. In Egypt, where prevalence of HEV antibodies (anti- HEV) in rural communities is very high, severe HEV-caused AVH in pregnant women

Sonia K. Stoszek; Mohamed Abdel-Hamid; A. Saleh; Shaker Narooz; Yousry Hawash; Fatma M. Shebl; Enas Kassem; Nabiel Mikhail; Ronald E. Engle; Mohamed Sayed; Soraya Sharaf; Alan D. Fix; Suzanne U. Emerson; Robert H. Purcell; G. Thomas Strickland

68

High prevalence of headaches in patients with epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the association between headaches and epilepsy. Methods Consecutive adult epileptic patients who went to the outpatient clinic of the Epilepsy Center of PLA General Hospital between February 01, 2012, and May 10, 2013, were recruited into this study. A total of 1109 patients with epilepsy completed a questionnaire regarding headaches. Results Overall, 60.1% of the patients (male: 57.2%; female: 63.8%) reported headaches within the last year. The age-weighted prevalence of interictal migraine was 11.7% (male 8.9%, female 15.3%), which is higher than that reported in a large population-based study (8.5%, male 5.4%, female 11.6%) using the same screening questions. The prevalence of postictal headaches was 34.1% (males 32.7%, females 35.2%), and the presence of preictal headaches was 4.5% (males 4.3%, females 5.2%). The prevalence of headache yesterday in the general population was 4.8% (male 3.0%, female 6.6%). Thus, the prevalence of headaches, including migraine, is higher in epileptic patients in China. Conclusions The high prevalence of postictal headaches confirms the frequent triggering of a headache by a seizure. A much lower frequency of preictal headaches, a condition in which the real triggering effect of the headache on the seizure might be difficult to prove. PMID:25366245

2014-01-01

69

Ownership of High-Risk ("Vicious") Dogs as a Marker for Deviant Behaviors: Implications for Risk Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status in settings…

Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Dates, Harold F.; Mahlman, Andrew R.

2006-01-01

70

Heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum Infection: Using Skin Parasite Burdens to Identify Highly Infectious Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. Tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential. Methods Parasite numbers were measured by qPCR in bone marrow and ear skin biopsies of 82 dogs and 34 crab-eating foxes collected during a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil, for which previous data was available on infectiousness (by xenodiagnosis) and severity of infection. Results Parasite numbers were highly aggregated both between samples and between individuals. In dogs, total parasite abundance and relative numbers in ear skin compared to bone marrow increased with the duration and severity of infection. Infectiousness to the sandfly vector was associated with high parasite numbers; parasite number in skin was the best predictor of being infectious. Crab-eating foxes, which typically present asymptomatic infection and are non-infectious, had parasite numbers comparable to those of non-infectious dogs. Conclusions Skin parasite number provides an indirect marker of infectiousness, and could allow targeted control particularly of highly infectious dogs. PMID:24416460

Calvo-Bado, Leo; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Quinnell, Rupert J.

2014-01-01

71

Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

2002-01-01

72

Prevalence of Rickettsia infection in dogs from the urban and rural areas of Monte Negro municipality, western Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the rickettsial infection among dogs living in the rural and urban areas of Monte Negro, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon. Canine sera were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using six rickettsial antigens: Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia felis. While the first three Rickettsia species are known to occur in the study site, the latter three species are known to occur in southeastern Brazil. For each serum, end point titer reacting with each Rickettsia antigen was determined. Serum showing for a Rickettsia species titer at least fourfold higher than that observed for any other Ricketttsia species was considered homologous to the first Rickettsia species or to a very closely related genotype. A total of 164 rural and 153 urban dogs were tested. Overall, 19 (11.6%) and 6 (3.9%) dogs from rural and urban areas, respectively, reacted positively to at least one Rickettsia species. In the rural area, three sera showed titers to R. parkeri at least four-fold higher than any of the other five antigens. These sera were considered to be homologous to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Using the same criteria, two rural sera were considered homologous to R. amblyommii, two other rural sera to R. rhipicephali, and one urban serum to R. parkeri. Because dogs living in the rural area of Monte Negro are commonly infested by the same tick species infesting humans, they indeed serve as sentinels for human rickettsial diseases. Thus, humans living in Monte Negro are likely to be infected by at least three Rickettsia species: R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, and R. rhipicephali. While R. parkeri is a known human pathogen, further studies are required to verify the potential role of R. amblyommii and R. rhipicephali as human pathogens. PMID:17627445

Labruna, Marcelo B; Horta, Maurício C; Aguiar, Daniel M; Cavalcante, Guacyara T; Pinter, Adriano; Gennari, Solange M; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A

2007-01-01

73

Prevalence and risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization in dogs and cats hospitalized in an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital- and antimicrobial-associated diarrhea in hospitalized humans however the role of C. difficile in diarrhea in dogs has not been defined. A prospective study of C. difficile colonization in dogs and cats was conducted in a veterinary teaching hospital intensive care unit (ICU). Rectal swabs were taken from patients upon admission to the ICU and every third day of hospitalization until discharge or death. C. difficile was isolated from 73/402 (18%) animals; 69% of isolates were toxigenic. Community-associated colonization was identified in 39/366 (11%) of animals that were sampled at the time of admission, while C. difficile was subsequently isolated from 27 of the remaining 327 (8.3%) animals that had a negative admission swab. C. difficile was isolated from seven other dogs during hospitalization, but the origin was unclear because the admission swab was not collected. Administration of antimicrobials prior to admission and administration of immunosuppressive drugs during hospitalization were risk factors for hospital-associated colonization (P=0.006, OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.4-10.8). Acquisition of C. difficile during hospitalization in the ICU was associated with the development of diarrhea (P=0.004). Two ribotypes, one toxigenic and one non-toxigenic, predominated. PMID:18164560

Clooten, Jennifer; Kruth, Stephen; Arroyo, Luis; Weese, J Scott

2008-05-25

74

High prevalence of Haemoglobin E in two populations in Assam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups in Assam (India) were examined. Among 80 Khasi (Bhoi subgroup), an austroasiatic tribal group, there were 41% HbE carriers; and in 82 Ahom, a group related to the Thai population, 58% of HbE carriers were found. This high prevalence of HbE in groups with ethnic relations to Southeast Asia supports the contention that the HbE gene was introduced

B. M. Das; M. R. Chakravartti; H. Delbrück; G. Flatz

1971-01-01

75

Prevalence and outcomes of sexual violence among high school students.  

PubMed

A cross sectional, school-based survey using self administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted in Addis Ababa and Western Shoa among high school students to determine the prevalence, and reported outcomes of sexual violence. A total of 1401 female students were involved in the study. The prevalence of completed rape and attempted rape among female students was 5% and 10% respectively. The age range of completed rape was between 12-23 years and 61/72 (85%) of the rape victims were under 18 years of age. No significant linear trend was observed among the different age intervals (Chi Square for linear trend = 1.18; p-value = 0.27). Of the total respondents 78%, believed that rape was a major problem. Sexual harassment was reported in 74% of female students. Among the seventy two girls who reported to be raped 17(24%) had vaginal discharge and 12(17%) became pregnant. Social isolation, fear and phobia, hopelessness and suicide attempt were reported in 33%, 19%, 22%, 6% of rape victims, respectively. It is concluded that the prevalence of sexual violence among high school students is a serious problem and concern. Awareness creation to adolescents and the family need to be introduced and schools should also devise appropriate sex education regarding damaging effect of rape and educate youth on sexuality and responsible sexual decision making. PMID:10214457

Mulugeta, E; Kassaye, M; Berhane, Y

1998-07-01

76

Association between passive smoking and atopic dermatitis in dogs.  

PubMed

Onset of atopic dermatitis and occurrence of related skin lesions are influenced by various environmental factors in humans, and companion animals. Several studies have demonstrated an association between passive smoking and the development of atopic dermatitis in children. This association has never been investigated in the dog to our knowledge. We enrolled 161 dogs seen at dermatology and vaccination consultations over a six-month period for this study. Dog owners were asked to complete a questionnaire, to evaluate the exposure of the dog to tobacco smoke. The atopic or non-atopic status of the dog was assessed on the basis of Favrot's criteria (history, clinical examination and cutaneous cytology for Malassezia). Analysis of the data for the 161 dogs enrolled revealed a significant association between high levels of passive exposure to tobacco smoke (cigarette consumption divided by the area of the home) and the presence of atopic dermatitis in the dogs (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.10-17.44; p=0.03; NNH (number needed to harm) 3, 95% CI 2-52). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis showed a slight, but non-significant association with breed predisposition. Dogs with high levels of exposure to tobacco smoke may have a higher risk of atopic dermatitis than non-exposed dogs. PMID:24491262

Ka, D; Marignac, G; Desquilbet, L; Freyburger, L; Hubert, B; Garelik, D; Perrot, S

2014-04-01

77

High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

2009-01-01

78

Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border  

PubMed Central

In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010–2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

2014-01-01

79

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed. PMID:16884021

Khan, R A; Evans, L

2006-06-01

80

Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28?s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95). Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49) followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85) and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84). Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR?=?4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31) and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR?=?0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43). Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions to combat hookworm in the country. PMID:22564445

2012-01-01

81

High Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Lactose Intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Acquired lactase deficiency is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms but its etiology remains unclear. Celiac disease could lead to lactase deficiency and is much more common than previously suspected. Several studies have highlighted the prevalence of lactose intolerance in celiac disease, but studies assessing the prevalence of celiac disease in lactose intolerance are lacking. We evaluated the prevalence

Veronica Ojetti; Gabriella Nucera; Alessio Migneco; Maurizio Gabrielli; Cristiano Lauritano; Silvio Danese; Maria Assunta Zocco; Enrico Celestino Nista; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonino De Lorenzo; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Antonio Gasbarrini

2005-01-01

82

Molecular detection and characterization of Cryptosporidium species in household dogs, pet shop puppies, and dogs kept in a school of veterinary nursing in Japan.  

PubMed

Members of Cryptosporidium species, which are protozoan parasites, are prevalent worldwide and can cause diarrhoea in both humans and animals, including dogs. In addition, the Cryptosporidium species harboured in dogs have the potential for zoonotic transmission. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species infection and perform molecular characterization of isolates in household dogs, pet shop puppies, and dogs kept in a school of veterinary nursing in Japan. Fresh faecal samples were collected once from 529 household dogs (aged from 2 months to 18 years old, from 9 veterinary clinics located in 6 different regions), 471 pet shop puppies (? 3 months old, from 4 pet shops located in 2 different regions), and 98 dogs (aged from 2 to 11 years old) kept in a veterinary nursing school. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was employed for the detection of Cryptosporidium species, and 111 random samples of PCR amplicons (approximately 500-bp) were sequenced for the molecular characterization of the isolates. The prevalences of Cryptosporidium species in household dogs, pet shop puppies, and veterinary nursing school dogs were 7.2%, 31.6%, and 18.4%, respectively. In household dogs, no significant correlation was observed between the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and the age (? 6 months vs. >6 months), living conditions (indoor vs. outdoor), faecal conditions (formed vs. unformed), and location of residence. In pet shop puppies, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species was not related to faecal condition; however, the prevalence significantly differed among the pet shops. All of the 111 sequence samples (26 from household dogs, 75 from pet shop puppies, and 10 from veterinary nursing school dogs) were identified as Cryptosporidium canis. The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium species infections in pet shop puppies and dogs of a veterinary nursing school in Japan. However, because Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most common causes of human infections, it is likely that the risk of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium species from dogs to humans is low. PMID:24461210

Itoh, Naoyuki; Oohashi, Yoshino; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichi; Saeki, Hideharu; Kanai, Kazutaka; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

2014-03-01

83

High prevalence of metabolic disturbances in patients with bipolar disorder in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBoth ethnicity and lifestyle may contribute to these abnormalities. High prevalences of obesity and metabolic disturbances in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have been reported in western countries. However, reports about the prevalences in Asian countries remain scant.

Hui Hua Chang; Chen Hsi Chou; Po See Chen; Po Wu Gean; Hui Chun Huang; Chia Yin Lin; Yen Kuang Yang; Ru Band Lu

2009-01-01

84

Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Junior High and Senior High School Students in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…

Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

2008-01-01

85

Identifying areas of high risk of human exposure to coccidioidomycosis in Texas using serology data from dogs.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever (VF) is an emerging soil-borne fungal zoonosis affecting humans and animals. Most non-human cases of VF are found in dogs, which we hypothesize may serve as sentinels for estimating the human exposure risk. The objective of this study is to use the spatial and temporal distribution and clusters of dogs seropositive for VF to define the geographic area in Texas where VF is endemic, and thus presents a higher risk of exposure to humans. The included specimens were seropositive dogs tested at a major diagnostic laboratory between 1999 and 2009. Data were aggregated by zip code and smoothed by empirical Bayesian estimation to develop an isopleth map of VF seropositive rates using kriging. Clusters of seropositive dogs were identified using the spatial scan test. Both the isopleth map and the scan test identified an area with a high rate of VF-seropositive dogs in the western and southwestern parts of Texas (relative risk = 31). This location overlapped an area that was previously identified as a potential endemic region based on human surveys. Together, these data suggest that dogs may serve as sentinels for estimating the risk of human exposure to VF. PMID:22856539

Gautam, R; Srinath, I; Clavijo, A; Szonyi, B; Bani-Yaghoub, M; Park, S; Ivanek, R

2013-03-01

86

High hunting costs make African wild dogs vulnerable to kleptoparasitism by hyaenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African wild dog Lycaon pictus is critically endangered, with only about 5,000 animals remaining in the wild. Across a range of habitats, there is a negative relationship between the densities of wild dogs and of the spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta. It has been suggested that this is because hyaenas act as `kleptoparasites' and steal food from dogs. We have

Martyn L. Gorman; Michael G. Mills; Jacobus P. Raath; John R. Speakman

1998-01-01

87

The effects of positioning, reason for screening and the referring veterinarian on prevalence estimates of canine hip dysplasia.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (HD) has been the subject of a number of published studies, estimates vary widely. This study evaluated several possible causes for these differences. Sixty Belgian, Dutch and German veterinarians were asked to submit all hip radiographs obtained for screening purposes (irrespective of HD status) over a 2-year period, resulting in a database of 583 dogs. Each set of radiographs was accompanied by information on the reason for screening (breeding soundness examination, clinical complaint, assistance dogs, or other reasons), and dog breed, date of birth and age. Dog positioning exerted an effect at multiple levels. The agreement among different observers regarding correct or incorrect positioning was limited and incorrect positioning itself reduced the inter-observer agreement for radiographic hip conformation. Dysplastic dogs were more commonly positioned incorrectly than non-dysplastic dogs. The clinical complaint population had a high prevalence of dysplastic dogs (>70%) compared with the breeding population (11%) and the assistance dogs (6%). There was a significantly lower prevalence of HD among cases referred by veterinarians who frequently submitted hip-extended radiographs for evaluation (P?=?0.002) compared to those who refer less frequently. However, this was likely to be selection bias, as radiographs that were from dogs suspected to be dysplastic were not submitted by frequent senders. The prevalence of dysplastic dogs varied widely between breeds (16.7-71.4%). Dogs diagnosed with dysplasia were significantly older than dogs considered healthy (P?=?0.001) and dogs classified as borderline dysplastic (P?=?0.035). Inter-observer agreement for hip conformation was moderately low, resulting in >7% variation in prevalence estimates for dysplasia. PMID:24986314

Broeckx, B J G; Verhoeven, G; Coopman, F; Van Haeringen, W; Bosmans, T; Gielen, I; Henckens, S; Saunders, J H; van Bree, H; Van Ryssen, B; Verbeke, V; Van Steendam, K; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Deforce, D

2014-09-01

88

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in the dog.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Study design: A retrospective radiographic cohort study. Objective: To determine the prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in a out-patient population of dogs… (more)

Kranenburg, Hendrik-jan

2008-01-01

89

Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

2014-01-01

90

Comparison of high-dose intermittent and low-dose continuous oral artemisinin in dogs with naturally occurring tumors.  

PubMed

To evaluate the clinical toxicity and activity of orally administered artemisinin in dogs with spontaneous tumors, 24 client-owned dogs were randomly divided into two groups and received either low-continuous dose (3 mg/kg q 24 hr) or high-dose intermittent (three doses of 45 mg/kg q 6 hr repeated q 1 wk) of artemisinin per os. Treatment was continued for 21 days. Dogs were evaluated weekly for clinical effect and at the end of the treatment for hematologic and biochemical adverse events. Whole blood concentrations of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after the first dose of artemisinin in three dogs in each group. Blood concentrations of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin were <0.1 ?M at all time points, and there was no difference in blood concentration between the two dosing groups. The most frequent adverse event was anorexia, which was observed in 11% of the low-dose group and 29% of the high-dose group. Oral artemisinin, both in low-dose continuous and high-dose intermittent, is well tolerated in dogs but results in low bioavailability. Parenteral administration should be considered for future studies. PMID:25251432

Hosoya, Kenji; Couto, C Guillermo; London, Cheryl A; Kisseberth, William C; Phelps, Mitchell A; Dalton, James T

2014-01-01

91

The high prevalence of pain in emergency medical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a widely held belief that pain is the number 1 complaint in emergency medical care, few studies have actually assessed the prevalence of pain in the emergency department (ED). We conducted an analysis of secondary data by using explicit data abstraction rules to determine the prevalence of pain in the ED and to classify the location, origin,

William H. Cordell; Kelly K. Keene; Beverly K. Giles; James B. Jones; James H. Jones; Edward J. Brizendine

2002-01-01

92

Liquid Drugs and High Dead Space Syringes May Keep HIV and HCV Prevalence High – A Comparison of Hungary and Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania

V. Anna Gyarmathy; Alan Neaigus; Nan Li; Eszter Ujhelyi; Irma Caplinskiene; Saulius Caplinskas; Carl A. Latkin

2010-01-01

93

POTENTIAL MOSQUITO (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) VECTORS OF DIROFILARIA IMMITIS (FILARIIDAE: ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN TWO URBAN AREAS OF KUALA LUMPUR AND ITS PREVALENCE IN STRAY DOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in the urban areas of Kuala Lumpur using CDC light trap, dog-baited trap and human landing collection to determine the vectors. Eleven species of mosquitoes were obtained, of which only Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus and Culex quinquefasciatus were in significant numbers. The predominant species was Ar. subalbatus in both the human landing and dog bait collection.

INDRA VYTHILINGAM; PATRICK MOOTO; JOHN JEFFERY; M. S. PARAMESWARAN

94

Prevalence of antibodies to tickborne encephalitis and West Nile flaviviruses and the clinical signs of tickborne encephalitis in dogs in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood sera from 151 dogs from areas of the Czech Republic endemic for human tickborne encephalitis (TBE) were examined for the presence of antibodies to TBE and West Nile (WN) flaviviruses by the haemagglutinationinhibition test. Antibodies to TBE virus at titres equal to or exceeding 40 were found in five dogs. Antibodies to WN virus were detected in only one

J. Klimeš; I. Literák; P. Schánilec; Z. Ju?icová; E. Trachta e Silva

2001-01-01

95

High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.  

PubMed

The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 ?m × 11.9 ?m, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. PMID:21074324

Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

2011-02-10

96

High laryngeal mask airway pressures resulting from nitrous oxide do not increase pharyngeal mucosal injury in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  During general anesthesia, nitrous oxide (N2O) diffuses rapidly into the air-filled laryngeal mask airway (LMA) cuff, increasing intracuff pressure. There is no clear\\u000a correlation between LMA intracuff pressure and pressure on the pharynx. We have studied the effects of high LMA intracuff\\u000a pressures secondary to N2O on the pharyngeal mucosa of dogs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixteen mongrel dogs were randomly allocated to two

Tânia Mara Vilela Abud; José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz; Regina Helena Garcia Martins; Elisa Aparecida Gregório; João Carlos Saldanha

2001-01-01

97

Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

2014-06-01

98

Tuberculosis in adolescents and young patients in high prevalence region  

PubMed Central

The study aims to determine what forms of tuberculosis (TB) are the most common in high prevalence region, establishes the drug sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the region, and reveals the key risk factors of the disease as well as assesses the health status of adolescents with tuberculosis. For 10 years, regional anti-tuberculosis hospital in Smolensk has been collecting data from all TB patients aged 14–34 years. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on specific radiological data and detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum or bronchial lavage fluid. In total, the study involved 129 TB cases in adolescents aged 14–17 and 420 TB cases in young people. Sixty-five adolescents had close family or periodic contact with TB patients (50.6%), but only eight out of 65 (12%) had received complete course of chemistry prevention. Sixty-two adolescents had social risk factors (48%). Those patients significantly more often had extended pulmonary TB (28.3% versus 16.7%), complicated (36.7% versus 16.9%), and destructive (41.7% versus 26.2%) cases. Eighty out of the 129 (62%) had one or more concomitant diseases; they had significantly higher rate of extended and complicated TB cases. Two hundred and fourteen out of the 420 young patients had drug resistance of M. tuberculosis. Resistant TB cases significantly more often developed in unemployed (83.2% versus 71.8%), heavy drinkers and smokers (59.3% versus 43.7%), and in ex-prisoners (26.6% versus 15%). In conclusion, a comprehensive approach to examination and treatment of adolescents with TB should be performed. History and clinical data can be beneficially used to predict of drug resistance before results of cultural investigation. PMID:24265913

Avdeeva, T.; Otvagin, I.; Myakisheva, T.; Rashkevich, E.

2012-01-01

99

Prairie dog care and husbandry.  

PubMed

The species of prairie dog most commonly found in the pet trade is the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus ludovicianus. These prairie dogs are active, playful, and strong rodents that can make wonderful, affectionate pets when they are properly socialized and given attention. However, with a life span of 8 to 12 years, prairie dogs require a lot of care and a long-term commitment. Prairie dogs live in colonies; thus, they are highly social animals. Potential owners should understand a prairie dog's need for attention before adopting one. PMID:15145390

Pilny, Anthony A; Hess, Laurie

2004-05-01

100

A possible predisposition to dilated cardiomyopathy in Huntaway dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To compare the prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in New Zealand Huntaway dogs with the prevalence of DCM in other breeds of dog.METHODS: The necropsy database at Massey University was used to identify cases of DCM diagnosed between January 1999 and March 2006. Dogs were considered to have DCM if echocardiographic, gross necropsy, or histological findings were consistent with

JS Munday; CB Dyer; AC Hartman; GMB Orbell

2006-01-01

101

Should obesity be blamed for the high prevalence rates of hypertension in black South African women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is highly prevalent in South Africa, resulting in high stroke mortality rates. Since obesity is very common among South African women, it is likely that obesity contributes to the hypertension prevalence. The aims were to determine whether black African women have higher blood pressures (BPs) than Caucasian women, and whether obesity is related to their cardiovascular risk. African (N=102)

A E Schutte; H W Huisman; J M Van Rooyen; R Schutte; L Malan; M Reimann; J H De Ridder; A van der Merwe; P E H Schwarz; N T Malan

2008-01-01

102

High prevalence of Human Herpesvirus 8 in schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Many studies have reported an association between Herpes family viruses and an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the role of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has never been investigated. This study aimed to assess HHV8 prevalence in schizophrenic patients as well as the possible association between HHV8 infection and schizophrenia clinical features. We consecutively enrolled 108 patients meeting fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria of schizophrenia and 108 age and sex matched controls. Data about a number of demographic characteristics and potential HHV8 risk factors of infection were collected. Standardized psychopathology measures, disease severity and functioning level were obtained using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and Global Assessment of functioning (GAF). The presence of anti-HHV8 antibodies was analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. A higher prevalence of HHV8 infection in schizophrenic patients than in controls was found. Marital status, having children, sexual behavior and risk factors of blood transmission were not associated with HHV8 prevalence. However, among schizophrenic patients, HHV8 prevalence was statically associated with positive symptoms. To our knowledge, this would be the first report of a possible role of HHV8 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To prove this hypothesis, further investigation of HHV8 in schizophrenia with larger samples is needed. PMID:24560611

Hannachi, Neila; El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Nakhli, Jaafar; Letaief, Leila; Gaabout, Samia; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel

2014-05-15

103

Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog  

PubMed Central

Background Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison's is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water Dog although Addison's is known to be prevalent in the breed. Results The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison's disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0.49 (± 0.16); there were no differences in risk for disease across sexes (p > 0.49). Further, the complex segregation analysis provides suggestive evidence that Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog is inherited under the control of a single, autosomal recessive locus. Conclusion The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison's. Though the confirmation of Addison's disease as an autosomal recessive disorder must wait until the gene is identified, breeders of these dogs may wish to keep the present findings in mind as they plan their breeding programs to select against producing affected dogs. PMID:16670022

Oberbauer, AM; Bell, JS; Belanger, JM; Famula, TR

2006-01-01

104

Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P?dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs. PMID:24980809

Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K

2014-09-01

105

An ultrastructural study on indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to mandible in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to mandible in dogs. Eighteen dogs aged 12-13 months were divided equally into six groups (n = 3 in each group) with random allocation, then a high-speed missile projectile (a ball bearing of stainless steel, phi6.0 mm, 0.88 g) was shot at right mandible body (the wound tract was below the fourth premolar, 1 cm or so to the root tips) of each dog, but the teeth were not wounded directly. The dogs were killed 6 h (n = 3), 24 h (n = 3), 3 days (n = 3), 7 days (n = 3), 2 weeks (n = 3) and 4 weeks (n = 3) after the wound, respectively; then ultrastructural change of dental pulp of the fourth premolar and the second premolar of right mandible, and the second premolar of left mandible was observed through transmission electron microscope. The results showed that mean initial velocity of projectiles was 778.0 +/- 33.2 m s(-1) and mean projection energy was 266.1 +/- 19.1 J, which were in conformity with parameters of gunshot wound. On the wound side, dental pulp of the fourth mandibular premolar was injured seriously and irreversible necrosis happened in the end; yet, dental pulp of the second mandibular premolar was injured less seriously, reversibly; on the opposite side, dental pulp of the second mandibular premolar was injured slightly and temporarily. It may be concluded that there are several characteristics in indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to dogs' mandible: the injured area is relatively extensive; traumatic degree decreases progressively and sharply with the distance to the wound tract increasing; ultrastructural change of nerval damage takes place in early stage after wound, etc. PMID:19021656

Ren, Changqun; Liu, Ruifeng; Tian, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Shuxia

2008-12-01

106

High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl\\u000a in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were\\u000a determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de Val?ncia, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Do?ana (Guadalquivir Marshes).\\u000a Lead pellet density

R. Mateo; J. Belliure; J. C. Dolz; J. M. Aguilar Serrano; R. Guitart

1998-01-01

107

Genetic convergence in the adaptation of dogs and humans to the high-altitude environment of the tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:25091388

Wang, Guo-Dong; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Zhai, Weiwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, He-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yan; Gao, Yun; Ge, Ri-Li; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2014-08-01

108

Generation of therapeutic antibody responses against IgE in dogs, an animal species with exceptionally high plasma IgE levels.  

PubMed

Allergic diseases are common in dogs and the involvement of IgE in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) and flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is documented. However, many dogs do not achieve sufficient control of their allergic disease, and there is a great need for new treatment strategies. In order to address this issue we first needed to obtain a better picture of IgE-levels in dogs and how plasma IgE-levels are affected by breed, age and health status. IgE is normally present at diminutive concentrations in sera and detection by diagnostic methods has been a technical challenge. Here, we present a new in vitro assay for determining absolute levels of total IgE in sera from dogs. In a panel of 76 adult dogs diagnosed either as healthy or suffering from atopic dermatitis, autoimmunity or infection by skin parasites, we show that levels of IgE range from 1 to 41 microg/ml. This is almost 100 times the level observed in non-atopic humans. However, these exceptionally high IgE-levels in the dogs could not be correlated to either breed or health status. To address the issue of novel treatment strategies, the possibility of reducing the IgE-levels in nine Beagle dogs by immunization with a new therapeutic vaccine was investigated. High levels of anti-IgE antibodies were induced in all dogs, and the IgE-levels were subsequently decreased by a mean of 65%. This shows that the allergy vaccine is potent enough to break the tolerance against IgE, even when the initial IgE-levels are as high as those observed in dogs. Thus, the vaccination treatment may have the potential to serve as a future therapy for dogs with atopic diseases. PMID:16169131

Ledin, Anna; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hillbertz, Nicolette Salmon; Hansson, Helene; Andersson, Göran; Hedhammar, Ake; Hellman, Lars

2006-01-01

109

Dog Age and Breeds Associated with High Plasma Cholesterol and Triglyceride Concentrations  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to set specific dog breed and sex standards for total cholesterol (T-Cho) and total triglyceride (T-TG) concentrations in dogs and to quantify the associations between dog age and concentrations of both lipids for different breeds. Increased age was associated with higher T-Cho and T-TG concentrations in all five breed groups (P<0.05); T-Cho concentrations increased by 62.5 mg/dl between 9 and 16 years of age, and T-TG concentrations increased by 4.8 mg/dl per year of age (P<0.05). Miniature Schnauzers had the highest T-Cho concentrations of the studied breeds, while Miniature Dachshunds had the lowest concentrations (P<0.05). Veterinarians should consider dog age and breed when they use the lipid concentrations for diagnostic purposes. PMID:24107429

USUI, Shiho; MIZOGUCHI, Yasushi; YASUDA, Hidemi; ARAI, Nobuaki; KOKETSU, Yuzo

2013-01-01

110

High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, P< 0.001) and final (19.2% vs. 10.2%, P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension was higher among football athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (?0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

2014-01-01

111

High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.  

PubMed

Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. PMID:24929882

Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

2014-10-01

112

High Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Children with Thyroid Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24741574

Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

113

Colorblind Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into dogs' ability (or inability) to see color. Learners conduct an experiment by first performing a control test and then experimenting to see if dogs are able to fetch colored balls amid a background of gray balls. Learners collect, record, and graph the data to draw conclusions about colorblindness in dogs. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Colorblind Dogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

114

Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu

Andrew A Adjei; Yao Tettey; John T Aviyase; Clement Adu-Gyamfi; Samuel Obed; Julius AA Mingle; Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi; Theophilus K Adiku

2009-01-01

115

Non-invasive measurement of the cardiovascular effects of chronic hypoxaemia on dogs living at moderately high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension is a well-recognised condition in dogs, and, among other mechanisms, is caused by hypoxia. In order to evaluate the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia on pulmonary arterial pressure in dogs, a colony of 19 clinically and biochemically healthy Greenland sled dogs living permanently at at least 2300 m above sea level (altitude dogs) and 10 clinically healthy Greenland

T. M. Glaus; K. Hauser; M. Hassig; B. Lipp; C. E. Reusch

2003-01-01

116

Epidemiological study and control trial of taeniid cestode infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5-10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

Guo, Zhihong; Li, Wei; Peng, Mao; Duo, Hong; Shen, Xiuying; Fu, Yong; Irie, Takao; Gan, Tiantian; Kirino, Yumi; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

2014-03-01

117

Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

2013-01-01

118

Dinoseb toxicosis in two dogs.  

PubMed

Two male English Setters were noticed to be breathing rapidly, hyperexcitable, and atactic after roaming a rural area for 2 hours. Both dogs' cost were stained with yellow liquid. One dog died while en route to the veterinarian. Treatment was begun for the surviving dog for what was initially diagnosed to be organophosphorus or carbamate insecticide toxicosis. Before the diagnosis could be confirmed, the second dog died. The yellow liquid on the dogs' skin was identified as dinoseb in high concentrations. Dinoseb is an acutely toxic, substituted dinitrophenolic herbicide believed to act as an uncoupler of electron transport from oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:2921205

Fikes, J D; Lovell, R A; Metzler, M; Buck, W B

1989-02-15

119

Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

2008-01-01

120

Prevalence of Refractive Errors among High School Students in Western Iran  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive errors among high school students. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we applied stratified cluster sampling on high school students of Aligoudarz, Western Iran. Examinations included visual acuity, non-cycloplegic refraction by autorefraction and fine tuning with retinoscopy. Myopia and hyperopia were defined as spherical equivalent of -0.5/+0.5 diopter (D) or worse, respectively; astigmatism was defined as cylindrical error >0.5 D and anisometropia as an interocular difference in spherical equivalent exceeding 1 D. Results Of 451 selected students, 438 participated in the study (response rate, 97.0%). Data from 434 subjects with mean age of 16±1.3 (range, 14 to 21) years including 212 (48.8%) male subjects was analyzed. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism was 29.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 25-33.6%], 21.7% (95%CI, 17.8-25.5%), and 20.7% (95%CI, 16.9-24.6%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia increased significantly with age [odds ratio (OR)=1.30, P=0.003] and was higher among boys (OR=3.10, P<0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia was significantly higher in girls (OR=0.49, P=0.003). The prevalence of astigmatism was 25.9% in boys and 15.8% in girls (OR=2.13, P=0.002). The overall prevalence of high myopia and high hyperopia were 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism was 14.5%, 4.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Overall, 4.6% (95%CI, 2.6-6.6%) of subjects were anisometropic. Conclusion More than half of high school students in Aligoudarz had at least one type of refractive error. Compared to similar studies, the prevalence of refractive errors was high in this age group.

Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Beiranvand, Asghar; Papi, Omid-Ali; Hoseini Yazdi, Hosein; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Norouzirad, Reza; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

2014-01-01

121

High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain  

PubMed

Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de València, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Doñana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de València): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones. PMID:9680527

Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart

1998-08-01

122

Dogs and Preventing Dog Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... how do you prevent one? Use Your Dog Manners Do you know what to do if a ... you? When we say to use your "dog manners," we don't mean you should eat off ... you can also have some equally good dog manners. That means taking certain steps every time you ...

123

High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection amongst Tibetans in Nepal.  

PubMed

Tibetans have been living in Nepal since 1959. Study of the prevalence of viral hepatitis among them showed that they have a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Prevalence of total HBV infection and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among them was 61% and 16% compared to 10.0% and 0.7% respectively among the Nepalese. The predominant HBsAg subtype among the Tibetans was 'ayw'. Perinatal and childhood transmission was found important in the spread of HBV infection among the Tibetans. PMID:12632970

Shrestha, S M; Takeda, N; Tsuda, F; Okamoto, H; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, V M

2002-01-01

124

Prevalence of substance use among Iranian high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study assessed the rate of substance use among Iranian high school students. Participants: 397 high school students (200 girls and 197 boys) were selected randomly and were assessed. Measurements: A confidential questionnaire was distributed, completed by the students, and collected in the same sessions in 2000. Results: The mean ages for high school girls and boys were 15.85

Jamshid Ahmadi; Mahsa Hasani

2003-01-01

125

A Comparative Chromosome Map of the Arctic Fox, Red Fox and Dog Defined by Chromosome Painting and High Resolution G-Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete set of paint probes, with each probe specific for a single type of dog chromosome, was generated by DOP-PCR amplification\\u000a of flow-sorted chromosomes. These probes have been assigned to high-resolution G-banded chromosomes of the dog and Arctic\\u000a fox by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. On the basis of these results we propose improved nomenclature for the G-banded karyotypes of the

A. S. Graphodatsky; F. Yang; P. C. M. O'Brien; N. Serdukova; B. S. Milne; V. Trifonov; M. A. Ferguson-Smith

2000-01-01

126

The prevalence and frequency of drug use among western australian metropolitan high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data pertaining to prevalence and frequency of drug use were obtained from 1,394 Western Australian metropolitan high school students using a self-report questionnaire. Alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, hallucinogens, and amphetamines were reported as the most prevalent substances, with over 50% of “current drug users” using alcohol and marijuana on a frequent basis (i.e., weekly to more than once per day). Significant

Peta Odgers; Stephen Houghton; Graham Douglas

1997-01-01

127

The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs  

PubMed Central

Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

2013-01-01

128

The serological and virological investigation of canine adenovirus infection on the dogs.  

PubMed

Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188-54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188-45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

2013-01-01

129

Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania. PMID:21996514

Bružinskait?-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šark?nas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

2012-01-01

130

Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities  

PubMed Central

This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

2011-01-01

131

Evaluation of a novel doppler index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance in Newfoundland dogs with familial prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A Doppler index of myocardial performance (IMP) has been recently proposed in human cardiology, which is calculated from the isovolumic contraction time (ICT), isovolumic relaxation time (IRT), and the ejection time (ET) using the following formula: (ICT+IRT)/ET. In this study, IMP was measured and evaluated in Newfoundland dogs categorized in four groups: Normal dogs (n = 31), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n = 34), depressed fractional shortening (dFS) (n = 27), and left ventricular enlargement (LVE) (n = 7). IMP was found to be independent of age, sex, body surface area, and the R-R interval in the Normal group. There were significant differences in IMP between the DCM group and the Normal and dFS groups (P < 0.05) and between Newfoundlands with overt vs. occult DCM. IMP is a Doppler index which appears to correlate with severity of disease and may be of use in the early diagnosis of affected dogs during screening for the presence of DCM. PMID:11954811

Lee, Byeong-Han; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; French, Anne T; Corcoran, Brendan M

2002-01-01

132

Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.  

PubMed

This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2010-03-01

133

The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods  

PubMed Central

Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems). Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n?=?133) owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n?=?54) reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n?=?36) reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired behaviours do not appear to distinguish between training methods. Rather, owner gender and attendance at training classes appear more important, although explaining a relatively small amount of variance between groups. More owners using reward based methods for recall / chasing report a successful outcome of training than those using e-collars. PMID:22748195

2012-01-01

134

Utilization of police dogs: a Turkish perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The use of canines in the gathering of evidence is a valuable tool for law enforcement to discover crime and criminals. Narcotics, explosives, cadaver detection, search and rescue, or patrol dogs are prevalently used by most police organizations for combatting crime. Police service dogs decrease the time required and increase success in crime detection. The purpose of this

S. Sebnem Ozcan; Hulki Akin; Hakan Bayram; Musa Bas; Ahmet Yildiz; Atalay Ozdemiroglu

2009-01-01

135

Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Use Among Illinois High School Students  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to quantify anabolic steroid use in Illinois, investigate student knowledge and perception of anabolic steroid use, and identify characteristics of the anabolic steroid user. We surveyed 3047 freshman and senior high school students from 38 high schools, randomly selected from three school enrollment sizes and five geographic locations, using a six-page anonymous questionnaire. Anabolic steroid use was reported by 58 (1.9%) of the participants, 44 of 1477 (3%) males and 14 of 1562 (0.9%) females. Thirty-four of 1679 (2%) freshman and 24 of 1366 (1.8%) seniors reported use. Anabolic steroids were used in all possible school enrollment sizes and geographic locations (matrix cells). Four (7%) of the users reported starting at age 10 or younger. A teacher/coach was reported as a primary source by 8 (14%) of the users, as well as identified by 11 (19%) of the users as the individual they knew using anabolic steroids. It appears that anabolic steroids are being introduced to students in elementary and junior high schools, and that teachers/coaches are actively involved in their use. PMID:16558283

Tuttle, Leslye D.; Gaa, Gregory L.; Griffith, Edwin H.; Cahill, Bernard R.

1994-01-01

136

Prevalence of Khat chewing in college and secondary (high) school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Khat is widely consumed among the youth of Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. However, its prevalence is not well documented. Objective This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of khat chewing among college and secondary school students in Jazan region. Methods The study was conducted in May 2006 in the colleges and secondary schools in Jazan region. A sample of 10,000 students aged between 15 and 25 years was randomly selected. Students in each year of study were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results The overall prevalence of khat chewing in all the studied population was 21.4% (colleges 15.2% versus schools 21.5%). There were 3.8% female khat chewers and 37.70% male Khat chewers. Significant differences were found between khat chewers according to age, gender and residence (p < 0.05). The prevalence was different in different colleges and in different provinces of Jazan region. Conclusion The prevalence of Khat chewing seems to be high among male students and not remarkable among female students. The use of Khat is significantly associated with age, gender, residence and school and college education (p < 0.05) among students of Jazan region. Strong measures need to be taken for greater awareness among school and college students to reduce its prevalence. PMID:19545389

Ageely, Hussein M

2009-01-01

137

The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods Incident and prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a Korean prospective observational cohort study. Incident HD patients were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD patients initiating HD. Prevalent HD patients were defined as patients who had been receiving HD for > 3 months. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Results This study included 1,165 incident and 1,641 prevalent HD patients. Following a median 24 months of follow-up, the mortality rates of the HF and low-flux (LF) groups did not significantly differ in the incident patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592 to 1.847; p = 0.878). In the prevalent patients, HF dialysis was associated with decreased mortality compared with LF dialysis (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.416 to 0.885; p = 0.009). Conclusions HF dialysis was associated with a decreased mortality rate in prevalent HD patients, but not in incident HD patients. PMID:25378976

Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo

2014-01-01

138

Efficient screening of the cystinuria-related C663T Slc3a1 nonsense mutation in Newfoundland dogs by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Cystinuria in Newfoundland dogs is a metabolic disease associated with a nonsense mutation in the exon 2 of the Slc3a1 gene. Similar to type I human cystinuria, heterozygote carriers are not affected by the disease and do not reveal differences in urinary concentration of dibasic amino acids when compared with normal dogs. However, through a recessive mode of inheritance, these dogs are able to transmit the disease to their offspring. Early detection of mutation carriers through cost-effective reliable methods is therefore essential for the implementation of breeding methods aimed at the eradication of the disease. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) is a recently developed technique for rapid and efficient screening of nucleotide polymorphisms in polymerase chain reaction-amplified products. This technique was used for the identification of the C663T Slc3a1 mutation in Portuguese Newfoundland dogs. Polymerase chain reaction products amplified from a region containing the C663T locus were subjected to DHPLC analysis, and results were double checked by DNA sequencing. Results showed the presence of the mutation in 6 of the 22 dogs tested. Urine biochemical parameters correlated well with the number of mutated Slc3a1 copies, and homozygotes for the C663T mutation were the only dogs diagnosed with cystinuria. Sequence analysis confirmed the DHPLC results, demonstrating that the technique could be a reliable alternative to sequencing for the rapid and cost-effective identification of mutations in canine breeds. PMID:16566266

Matos, Augusto José Ferreira; Mascarenhas, Cláudia; Magalhães, Paula; Pinto, Jorge Pereira

2006-01-01

139

High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival  

SciTech Connect

Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

1981-11-01

140

High HIV prevalence and diagnosis rates in New York City black men.  

PubMed

We sought to identify population and subpopulation disparities in rates of HIV diagnosis and prevalence among black males 13 years and older in New York City. We used population-based data from the New York City HIV/AIDS surveillance registry and US Census 2000 to calculate HIV prevalence in 2006 and HIV diagnosis rates in 2007. Black males were the largest demographic group of new HIV diagnoses (n = 1,161, 33%) and persons living with HIV/AIDS in New York City (n = 24,294, 29%) and had the highest diagnosis rates (1.7 per 1,000 population) and prevalence (3.7%). Prevalence and diagnosis rates among black males were higher in higher-poverty neighborhoods than in lower-poverty neighborhoods (p < 0.01). However, very high prevalence (19.3%) was found among black males in three adjacent Manhattan neighborhoods with relatively low poverty rates, and where overall diagnosis rates among black males (7.4 per 1,000) and proportions attributable to men who have sex with men (60.0%) were high. HIV-related disparities exist not only between black males and other groups but also within black males. Success addressing the citywide HIV epidemic will be linked to success in the various portions of this highly affected, heterogeneous population. PMID:20574776

Wiewel, Ellen W; Hanna, David B; Begier, Elizabeth M; Torian, Lucia V

2011-02-01

141

Morphometrics within dog breeds are highly reproducible and dispute Rensch's rule  

PubMed Central

Using 27 body measurements, we have identified 13 breed-defining metrics for 109 of 159 domestic dog breeds, most of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC). The data set included 1,155 dogs at least 1 year old (average 5.4 years), and for 53 breed populations, complete measurement data were collected from at least three males and three females. We demonstrate, first, that AKC breed standards are rigorously adhered to for most domestic breeds with little variation observed within breeds. Second, Rensch’s rule, which describes a scaling among taxa such that sexual dimorphism is greater among larger species if males are the larger sex, with less pronounced differences in male versus female body size in smaller species, is not maintained in domestic dog breeds because the proportional size difference between males and females of small and large breeds is essentially the same. Finally, principal components (PCs) analysis describes both the overall body size (PC1) and the shape (length versus width) of the skeleton (PC2). That the integrity of the data set is sufficiently rich to discern PCs has strong implications for mapping studies, suggesting that individual measurements may not be needed for genetic studies of morphologic traits, particularly in the case of breed-defining traits that are typically under strong selection. Rather, phenotypes derived from data sets such as these, collected at a fraction of the effort and cost, may be used to direct whole-genome association studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of fixed morphologic phenotypes defining distinct dog breeds. PMID:19020935

Sutter, Nathan B.; Mosher, Dana S.; Gray, Melissa M.

2009-01-01

142

Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

2014-01-01

143

An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs  

PubMed Central

An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw?=?1.16×10?10, Pgenome, corrected?=?0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3?-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5?-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3?-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species. PMID:25275565

Minor, Katie M.; Shelton, G. Diane; Patterson, Edward E.; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso

2014-01-01

144

An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs.  

PubMed

An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw?=?1.16×10-10, Pgenome, corrected?=?0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3'-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5'-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3'-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species. PMID:25275565

Ekenstedt, Kari J; Becker, Doreen; Minor, Katie M; Shelton, G Diane; Patterson, Edward E; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso; Drögemüller, Cord; Mickelson, James R

2014-10-01

145

[Mitochondrial DNA variation in Asian guardian dogs].  

PubMed

The hypervariable site of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region has been studied in several sheepdog breeds. The genetic diversity is high in the Central Asian guardian dog and the Northern Caucasian wolf dog (an aboriginal group of breeds) and low in the Caucasian guardian dog. Haplotypes of groups A, B, C, and E/W have been found in Central Asian guardian dogs; haplotypes of groups A and B, in Caucasian guardian dogs. There is evidence suggesting a gene flow from Scandinavian dog populations to the Northern Caucasus. The results of the analysis allow the Caucasian guardian dog, Northern Caucasian wolf dog, Central Asian guardian dog, and the Turkish breeds akbash and kangal to be combined into a single group with an extremely low degree of differentiation. PMID:16915922

Riabinina, O M

2006-07-01

146

Seroepidemiological evidence for a relationship between Neospora caninum infections in dogs and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs from dairy farms with a known prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in the cattle were examined for the presence of N. caninum antibodies using an ELISA. Data of farm dogs were compared with those of dogs examined at a university clinic, which originated mainly in urban areas. Of the 152 farm dogs, 36 (23.6%) were seropositive to N. caninum,

W Wouda; Th Dijkstra; A. M. H Kramer; C van Maanen; J. M. A Brinkhof

1999-01-01

147

The epidemiology of leprosy in a high prevalence village in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

In a village of about 1000 people in Papua New Guinea the prevalence of clinical leprosy was 8.6% compared to about 3% in surrounding villages. This exceptionally high prevalence could not be explained by recent introduction of the disease or by social factors. Dapsone-resistant disease and faulty compliance with treatment are considered to be contributory to persistent infectivity of old cases which, together with the presence of 20 previously undiagnosed cases, comprised a large infective source. Social ostracism of cases was not observed and the extensive social mixing of all ages would facilitate widespread dissemination of infection. A high prevalence, particularly in children, of elevated levels of IgM antibody to phenolic glycolipid-1 Mycobacterium leprae specific antigen suggests frequent subclinical infection. The greater prevalence of clinical leprosy following childhood in the village favours altered susceptibility following exposure in childhood. There was a higher prevalence of leprosy in close relatives of cases when compared with the same relatives of age and sex matched leprosy-free controls. The occurrence of familial clustering of leprosy in a hyperendemic area with intense transmission suggests that unidentified inherited factors influence susceptibility to clinical leprosy. It is suggested that the clustering of adverse inherited traits through intermarriage may explain this hyperendemic focus on leprosy. PMID:2603189

Bagshawe, A; de Burgh, S; Fung, S C; Chuah, J; Berry, G

1989-01-01

148

Evidence base for children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence and concentrated epidemic countries: applicability to programming guidance from high prevalence countries  

PubMed Central

As global commitment grows to protect and support children affected by HIV and AIDS, questions remain about how best to meet the needs of these children in low prevalence settings and whether information from high prevalence countries can appropriately guide programming in these settings. A 2007 search for the evidence in low prevalence settings on situational challenges of HIV and AIDS-affected children and interventions to address these challenges identified 413 documents. They were reviewed and judged for quality of documentation and scientific rigor. Information was compiled across eight types of challenges (health and health care, nutrition and food security, education, protection, placement, psychosocial development, socioeconomic status, and stigma/ discrimination); and also assessed was strength of evidence for situational and intervention findings. Results were compared to three programming principles drawn from research in high prevalence countries: family-centered preventive efforts, treatment, and care; family-focused support to ensure capacity to care for and protect these children; and sustaining economic livelihood of HIV and AIDS-affected households. Findings show that children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence settings face increased vulnerabilities similar to those in high prevalence settings. These findings support seeking and testing programmatic directions for interventions identified in high prevalence settings. However, low prevalence settings/countries are extremely diverse, and the strength of the evidence base among them was mixed (strong, moderate, and weak in study design and documentation), geographically limited, and had insufficient evidence on interventions to draw conclusions about how best to reduce additional vulnerabilities of affected children. Information on family, economic, sociocultural, and political factors within local contexts will be vital in the development of appropriate strategies to mitigate vulnerabilities. PMID:22380979

Franco, Lynne Miller; Burkhalter, Bart; de Wagt, Arjan; Jennings, Larissa; Kelley, Allison Gamble; Hammink, Marie-Eve

2009-01-01

149

Prairie Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie dogs are stocky burrowing rodents that live in colonies called “towns.” French explorers called them “little dogs” because of the barking noise they make. Their legs are short and muscular, adapted for digging. The tail and other extremities are short. Their hair is rather coarse with little underfur, and is sandy brown to cinnamon in color with grizzled black

Scott E. Hygnstrom; Dallas R. Virchow

1994-01-01

150

Identification of a novel Staphylococcus pseudintermedius exfoliative toxin gene and its prevalence in isolates from canines with pyoderma and healthy dogs.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins are involved in some cutaneous infections in mammals by targeting desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), a desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecule. Recently, an exfoliative toxin gene (exi) was identified in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from canine pyoderma. The aim of this study was to identify novel exfoliative toxin genes in S. pseudintermedius. Here, we describe a novel orf in the genome of S. pseudintermedius isolated from canine impetigo, whose deduced amino acid sequence was homologous to that of the SHETB exfoliative toxin from Staphylococcus hyicus (70.4%). The ORF recombinant protein caused skin exfoliation and abolished cell surface staining of Dsg1 in canine skin. Moreover, the ORF protein degraded the recombinant extracellular domains of canine Dsg1, but not Dsg3, in vitro. PCR analysis revealed that the orf was present in 23.2% (23/99) of S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with superficial pyoderma exhibiting various clinical phenotypes, while the occurrence in S. pseudintermedius isolates from healthy dogs was 6.1% (3/49). In summary, this newly found orf in S. pseudintermedius encodes a novel exfoliative toxin, which targets a cell-cell adhesion molecule in canine epidermis and might be involved in a broad spectrum of canine pyoderma. PMID:20875053

Iyori, Keita; Hisatsune, Junzo; Kawakami, Tetsuji; Shibata, Sanae; Murayama, Nobuo; Ide, Kaori; Nagata, Masahiko; Fukata, Tsuneo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sugai, Motoyuki; Nishifuji, Koji

2010-11-01

151

Hepatic lipase mutation may reduce vascular disease prevalence in hemodialysis patients with high CETP levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic lipase mutation may reduce vascular disease prevalence in hemodialysis patients with high CETP levels.BackgroundUremic dyslipidemia characterized by reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels is one of the major contributors to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Hepatic lipase (HL), together with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), may not only promote reverse cholesterol transport but also enhance

Hideki Kimura; Ryoichi Miyazaki; Toshio Imura; Shinya Masunaga; Satoru Suzuki; Fumitake Gejyo; Haruyoshi Yoshida

2003-01-01

152

High levels of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA determined by qPCR and infectiousness to Triatoma infestans support dogs and cats are major sources of parasites for domestic transmission.  

PubMed

The competence of reservoir hosts of vector-borne pathogens is directly linked to its capacity to infect the vector. Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, and exhibit a much higher infectiousness to triatomines than seropositive humans. We quantified the concentration of T. cruzi DNA in the peripheral blood of naturally-infected dogs and cats (a surrogate of intensity of parasitemia), and evaluated its association with infectiousness to the vector in a high-risk area of the Argentinean Chaco. To measure infectiousness, 44 infected dogs and 15 infected cats were each exposed to xenodiagnosis with 10-20 uninfected, laboratory-reared Triatoma infestans that blood-fed to repletion and were later individually examined for infection by optical microscopy. Parasite DNA concentration (expressed as equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL, Pe/mL) was estimated by real-time PCR amplification of the nuclear satellite DNA. Infectiousness increased steeply with parasite DNA concentration both in dogs and cats. Neither the median parasite load nor the mean infectiousness differed significantly between dogs (8.1Pe/mL and 48%) and cats (9.7Pe/mL and 44%), respectively. The infectiousness of dogs was positively and significantly associated with parasite load and an index of the host's body condition, but not with dog's age, parasite discrete typing unit and exposure to infected bugs in a random-effects multiple logistic regression model. Real-time PCR was more sensitive and less time-consuming than xenodiagnosis, and in conjunction with the body condition index, may be used to identify highly infectious hosts and implement novel control strategies. PMID:24732410

Enriquez, G F; Bua, J; Orozco, M M; Wirth, S; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V

2014-07-01

153

Prevalence of health risk behaviors among Asian American\\/Pacific Islander high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors among Asian American\\/Pacific Islander (AAPI) students and white, black, and Hispanic high school students in the United States.Methods: The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention produced nationally representative samples of students in grades 9 through 12 in

Jo Anne Grunbaum; Richard Lowry; Laura Kann; Beth Pateman

2000-01-01

154

Prevalence and Risk Factors of HPV Infection among High-Risk Rural and Urban Lithuanian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the prevalence, persistence and risk factors of high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among urban and rural women of reproductive age coming to consult a gynaecologist. Methods: A prospective cohort study in urban (Kaunas) and rural (Marijampole) regions of Lithuania. The data were collected in 8 healthcare institutions from women seeking consultation of gynaecologists using a questionnaire

Mindaugas Kliucinskas; Ruta J. Nadisauskiene; Meile Minkauskiene

2006-01-01

155

Prevalence of Overweight and Underweight among Iranian High-school Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight, desirable weight and underweight among high school students in Rasht (North Province of Iran). 1180 students (726 boys and 454 girls) were selected via cluster random sampling. Height and weight of subjects were measured by using standard apparatus. Body Mass Index (BMI) (weight\\/ height 2) was considered

Farhad Rahmani-Ni; Nader Rahnama; Effat Bambaeichi

2008-01-01

156

Analysis of lung cancer gender differences and age structure in the high prevalence areas of Xiamen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence rate and mortality of lung cancer continuously rise, and lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death deaths. Detecting the high prevalence areas of lung cancer can effectively provide clue for detecting its influential factors. Taking the incidence rate of lung cancer in Xiamen as an example, this paper adopted Moran's I and Getis's G

Cuiping Wang; Xinhu Li; Long Dai; Guoqin Zhang; Liling Gao; Qianjun Zhao

2011-01-01

157

A More Accurate Approach to Measuring the Prevalence of Sexual Harassment Among High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study surveyed the prevalence of sexual harassment among high school students. A total of 1,582 students from 18 schools completed a version of the American Association of University Women (1993) survey. Reported sexual harassment events were restricted to those that: a) had been experienced first-hand, b) had occurred within the preceding two weeks, and c) were reported by

Margaret Walsh; Jim Duffy; Joanne Gallagher-Duffy

2007-01-01

158

Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for

Gajendra Kumar Medhi; Jagadish Mahanta; Ramesh S. Paranjape; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Nabjyoti Laskar; P. Ngully

2011-01-01

159

Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for

Gajendra Kumar Medhi; Jagadish Mahanta; Ramesh S. Paranjape; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Nabjyoti Laskar; P. Ngully

2012-01-01

160

The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

2009-01-01

161

Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

2014-01-01

162

High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology  

E-print Network

+ subset over the last few decades [3,4], while the fraction attribu- table to the traditional risk factors of heavy tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption has fallen gradually [5]. HPV prevalence data from either the anal or oral site in men who have sex... within the community. It follows that post- treatment for cervical disease, a woman should not be declared “HPV negative” unless and until these other major sites have been tested. The high oral HPV prevalence in our population con- trasts to another...

Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

2011-11-02

163

High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended. PMID:21896173

2011-01-01

164

High prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a remote, undertreated population of Namibian pastoralists.  

PubMed

The highly remote pastoralist communities in Kaokoland, Namibia, have long been presumed to have high gonorrhoea prevalence. To estimate gonorrhoea prevalence and correlates of infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 446 adults across 28 rural villages. Gonorrhoea status was determined from urethral and vaginal swabs via qPCR assay. All participants answered a closed-ended interview about demographics, sexual behaviour and symptom history. Sixteen per cent of participants had high-level infections (?ID(50) dose) and 48% had low-level infections (prevalence than men of both high- and low-level infections. High-level infections were regionally and seasonally clustered, occurring in young adults in the Ehama region during the winter. Low-level infections were distributed homogenously across demographic characteristics, season, and region. All low-level infections and most high-level infections (men 78%, women 95%) were asymptomatic and left untreated. The epidemic-like nature of high-level gonorrhoea cases suggests that intervention efforts can be focused on seasons of high social activity. PMID:25267407

Hazel, A; Ponnaluri-Wears, S; Davis, G S; Low, B S; Foxman, B

2014-11-01

165

High prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among Chinese immigrants in New York City.  

PubMed

Asians have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, despite relatively low prevalence of obesity in this population. Asian American is a diverse population and there are yet limited data on the prevalence of diabetes among different Asian subgroups and existing studies are limited by small sample size. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in this population among Chinese Americans, the largest Asian subgroup in the US. Our study population consisted 2,071 individuals (52.8% women; mean age: 52.7 ± 13.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI): 23.9 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) living in New York City. Data on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric measurements and medical history is obtained during a 1 day clinic visit. In addition, a fasting blood sample was collected to perform measurements on plasma glucose and lipids. Diabetes was defined as self-reported treatment or a fasting glucose ?126 mg/dl) and IFG was defined as fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dl. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in this population was 8.6% and that of IFG was 34.6%. The prevalence of IFG/diabetes was high (38.3%) even among those with low BMI by Asian standards (<23.0 kg/m(2)) and showed a linear increasing trend with increasing waist circumference. These data suggest a high prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in Chinese immigrants even among individuals with normal BMI. Future studies should focus on evaluating the mechanisms of increased susceptibility of IFG and diabetes in this population. PMID:20533090

Rajpathak, Swapnil N; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

2011-02-01

166

Liquid Drugs and High Dead Space Syringes May Keep HIV and HCV Prevalence High - A Comparison of Hungary and Lithuania  

PubMed Central

Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania often injected opiates purchased in liquid form (‘shirka’), used and shared 2-piece syringes (vs. 1-piece syringes) disproportionately more often, were less likely to acquire their syringes from legal sources and had significantly more experience with injected and less experience with non-injected drugs. It may not be liquid drugs per se that contribute to a higher prevalence of HCV and/or HIV, but it is probably factors associated with the injecting of liquid drugs, such as the wide-spread use and sharing of potentially contaminated 2-piece syringes acquired often from non-legal sources, and syringe-mediated drug sharing with 2-piece syringes. Scaling up substitution therapy, especially heroin replacement, combined with reducing the supply of liquid drugs may decrease the prevalence of high-risk injecting behaviours related to the injecting of liquid drugs and drug injecting-related infections among IDUs in Lithuania. PMID:20798543

Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A.

2010-01-01

167

Prevention of endemic canine vector-borne diseases using imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% in young dogs: A longitudinal field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent and increasing in distribution worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted in southern Italy to determine the incidence of and protection against CVBD-causing pathogens in dogs treated with a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer). One hundred eleven autochthonous young dogs were divided into group A (n=63) and group B (n=48), both

D. Otranto; D. de Caprariis; R. P. Lia; V. Tarallo; V. Lorusso; G. Testini; F. Dantas-Torres; S. Latrofa; P. P. V. P. Diniz; N. Mencke; R. G. Maggi; E. Breitschwerdt; G. Capelli; D. Stanneck

2010-01-01

168

Survey of selected tick-borne diseases in dogs in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background Due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern Europe. Although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in Finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. We determined the antibody and DNA prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in Finland: Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and Bartonella. Methods Anti-Ap, ?Bb and –Ec antibodies were determined in 340 Finnish pet dogs and 50 healthy hunting dogs using the 4DX Snap®Test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs for the detection of Ap and Bartonella DNA were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to a vector borne agent. Results The overall seroprevalence was highest for Ap (5.3%), followed by Bb (2.9%), and Ec (0.3%). Seropositivities to Ap and Bb were significantly higher in the Åland Islands (p <0.001), with prevalence of Ap and Bb antibodies of 45 and 20%, respectively. In healthy hunting dogs, seropositivity rates of 4% (2/50) and 2% (1/50) were recorded for Ap and Bb, respectively. One client-owned dog and one hunting dog, both healthy, were infected with Ap as determined by PCR, while being seronegative. For Bartonella spp., none of the dogs tested was positive by PCR. Conclusions This study represents the first data of seroprevalence to tick borne diseases in the Finnish dog population. Our results indicate that dogs in Finland are exposed to vector borne diseases, with Ap being the most seroprevalent of the diseases tested, followed by Bb. Almost 50% of dogs living in Åland Islands were Ap seropositive. This finding suggests the possibility of a high incidence of Ap infection in humans in this region. Knowing the distribution of seroprevalence in dogs may help predict the pattern of a tick borne disease and may aid in diagnostic and prevention efforts. PMID:24957468

2014-01-01

169

Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

2008-01-01

170

[Catabolism of high-energy phosphates during the long-term preservation of explanted donor hearts in a dog model].  

PubMed

The catabolism of high-energy phosphates (HEP) during long-term preservation of donor hearts was investigated in mongrel dogs. Hearts were explanted after being randomly assigned to one of the following groups. Group I: normothermic ischaemic arrest (n = 6), group II: hypothermic ischaemic arrest (n = 6), group III: cardioplegic arrest with NIH cardioplegia (n = 6) and group IV: cardioplegic arrest with UW solution (n = 6). After explantation all hearts were stored cold for 24 hours, achieving a myocardial temperature of 0,5 degrees C. HEP content (ATP and creatine phosphate) and catabolites were determined from serial left ventricular biopsies taken before explantation and during cold storage. A significant decrease of HEP content was found in all groups. In group I and II a significant decrease of HEP was found after one hour of cold storage. After 4 and 8 hours cold storage ATP content was significantly higher in group II. Cardioplegic arrest of dog hearts resulted in a significantly delay of HEP depletion. In group III a significant decrease of ATP was only seen after 12 hours and in group IV already after 6 hours of cold storage. Hearts preserved with the newly developed UW solution showed significantly lower ATP values after 10, 12 and 24 hours than NIH preserved hearts. It is concluded that UW solution is less advantageous than NIH solution in terms of HEP preservation. PMID:2281851

Möllhoff, T; Sukehiro, S; Flameng, W; Van Aken, H

1990-12-01

171

High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis; Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions; P<0.05 was considered of statistical significance; descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages. Results A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40% and 82% among schools, with a median of 59.2%; the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2% high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old; hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P?0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program.

Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Ault, Steven K.; Castillo, Phillip; Serrano, Kenton; Troya, Guillermo

2014-01-01

172

A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. Methods The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Results Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. Conclusion This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran. PMID:23323098

Amoli, AA Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, GhR

2012-01-01

173

Dog Whisperer  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: As we mentioned in an earlier Postcard, dogs have only recently become favored pets rather than favorite meals here in China. And, if you needed further proof of this transformation, here it is: Cesar Millan has been tapped...

Hacker, Randi

2013-05-22

174

A quantitative risk assessment for the likelihood of introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain H5N1 into U.S. hunter retriever dogs.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain H5N1 has received great attention with regard to its potential spread to North America. This quantitative risk assessment, which is primarily based on wild bird carriage of HPAI from East Asia to Alaska, was conducted to assess the likelihood of a hunter retriever dog becoming infected after harvesting an infected waterfowl during the Alaskan hunting season. Using Monte Carlo Simulation with @Risk software, the expected probability of a hunter retriever dog becoming infected is 2.3 x 10(-8). This model can serve as a tool for decision makers in assessing the risk of HPAI strain H5N1 introduction into Alaska's hunter retriever dogs. PMID:20521718

Lane, C; Tameru, B; Nganwa, D; Habtemariam, T; Asseged, B; Robnett, V; Wilson, S

2010-03-01

175

Dog Bite Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive action. Your veterinarian can examine your dog to ... or one they know. Some owners actually promote aggression in their dogs or allow aggression to go ...

176

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korean Children: Inverse Relation to Socioeconomic Status Despite a Uniformly High Prevalence in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in US adults was shown to be inversely correlated with the socioeconomic status of the family during childhood, and it was suggested that this was additional evidence of transmission occurring in childhood. The present study of H. pylori infection was conducted in South Korea, which has emerged as a developed country in the last

Hoda M. Malaty; Jong G. Kim; Soon D. Kim; David Y. Graham

177

Prevalence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Among High Risk Human Groups  

PubMed Central

Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), an acute viral infection, is a zoonotic disease which is transmitted to humans by infected ticks, direct contact with fresh meat or blood of infected animals (usually domestic livestock), or direct contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person. Livestock handlers, skin processors, veterinary staff, livestock market workers, and other personnel engaged in jobs requiring some contact with animals and/or animal products are at high risk for CCHF. Most reported cases of this disease in Iran belong to butchers and slaughterhouse workers. Objectives: We aimed to study the prevalence of CCHF in slaughterhouse workers and livestock handlers who were admitted to Boo-ali Hospital for treatment of CCHF. Materials and Methods: We evaluated all patients’ files with confirmed CCHF admitted to Boo-ali Hospital in Zahedan, in southeastern part of Iran, during 1999-2011. Then, we examined the prevalence of disease among the high risk groups. Results: Out of 362 patients with CCHF (86% male, 14% female; with age range 12-78 years), 123 (34%) were slaughterhouse workers, 103 (28.5%) livestock handlers and farmers, 32 (9%) housewives, 7 (2%) students, 6 (1.9%) teachers, 4 (1.2%) military personnel, and other groups were workers with different employments. Conclusions: The present study showed that CCHF is highly prevalent in high risk occupational groups in Zahedan, Iran. Further surveillance, teaching and prevention programs are recommended. PMID:24971294

Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Metanat, Maliheh; Alavi-Naini, Roya

2014-01-01

178

Prevalence of health-related behaviors among alternative high school students as compared with students attending regular high schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To provide national data on health-risk behaviors of students attending alternative high schools and compare the prevalence of these risk behaviors with data from the 1997 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey.Methods: The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey uses a three-stage cluster sampling design. Data were collected from 8918 students in alternative high schools in 1998 (ALT-YRBS) and 16,262 students

Jo Anne Grunbaum; Richard Lowry; Laura Kann

2001-01-01

179

Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs < or = 6 months and dogs > 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dogs > 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100%; geometric mean, 2.5; range, 1-9). PMID:19690887

Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen

2009-11-01

180

High prevalence of campylobacter excretors among Liberian children related to environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Campylobacter was the bacterial pathogen most prevalent in 859 children, aged 6-59 months, examined in a house-to-house diarrhoea survey in two Liberian communities. 44.9% of the children from an urban slum and 28.4% from a rural area were excretors. Since the prevalence of diarrhoea was very high and consequently many convalescent carriers were found, it was not possible to evaluate the pathogenic role of campylobacter. The excretor rate increased with age and was significantly correlated to the use of supplementary feeding, inversely correlated to the quality of the water supply, and also associated with helminthic infestation. Results from re-examination of 172 children suggested a high intensity of transmission. The findings all indicate the existence of a heavy environmental contamination with campylobacter, probably of both human and animal faecal origin. PMID:3356221

Mølbak, K; Højlyng, N; Gaarslev, K

1988-04-01

181

High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological\\u000a mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current\\u000a treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may\\u000a present an alternative underlying mechanism, which

Carel Bron; Jan Dommerholt; Boudewijn Stegenga; Michel Wensing; Rob AB Oostendorp

2011-01-01

182

Tailoring screening protocols for perinatal depression: prevalence of high risk across obstetric services in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Given what appears to be an ever-increasing list of concerning consequences of perinatal depression, longitudinal studies have much to offer when considering the timing and efficacy of prevention and intervention strategies. The course of depressive symptomatology across the perinatal period at four obstetric services was investigated utilising Western Australian data collected as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program. Pregnant women completed one or two Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) assessments during pregnancy and a demographic and psychosocial risk factors questionnaire. One or two EPDS assessments were administered within 12 months postpartum. Prevalence of high risk scores across gestational ages ranged from 14% to 5% during pregnancy and 6% to 9% in the postnatal period. For women who were screened twice, the prevalence of high risk scores appeared earlier and decreased with advancing gestation (p = 0.026). The prevalence of postnatal high risk increased after 12 weeks postpartum (p = 0.029). Screening protocols for depressive symptomatology during pregnancy may need to be fine-tuned across individual hospitals, and take into account gestational ages, in order to be most effective. As depressive symptomatology persists postnatally, screening protocols may need to extend beyond 12 weeks postpartum. PMID:19221864

Brooks, Janette; Nathan, Elizabeth; Speelman, Craig; Swalm, Delphin; Jacques, Angela; Doherty, Dorota

2009-04-01

183

The high prevalence of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) in Escherichia coli causing neonatal septicemia.  

PubMed

Serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) are secreted proteins demonstrating diverse virulence functions. The distribution of SPATEs is studied among diarrheagenic and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. However, the contribution of SPATEs to the virulence of neonatal septicemic Escherichia coli (NSEC) has not yet been elucidated. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and phylogenetic distribution of different subtypes of SPATEs among NSEC. The presence of virulence factors and subtypes of SPATEs among different E. coli isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). E. coli phylogrouping was done by triplex PCR. Clonality of the isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The presence of SPATEs was significantly higher among the septicemic isolates (89 %) than the fecal (7.5 %) and environmental isolates (2.5 %). Vat (vacuolating autotransporter toxin) and Sat (secreted autotransporter toxin) were found to be the two most predominant SPATEs. The incidence of SPATEs was high in septicemic isolates of phylogroups A and B1 (87 %), lacking other virulence factors. The high prevalence of SPATEs in the non-B2 phylogroups of septicemic isolates in comparison with fecal and environmental isolates indicates an association of SPATEs with NSEC. The NSEC isolates were found to be clonally distinct, suggesting that the high prevalence of SPATEs was not due to clonal relatedness of the isolates. This study is the first to show the association of SPATEs with NSEC. The presence of SPATEs in the septicemic/NSEC isolates may be considered as the most discriminatory trait studied here. PMID:24924922

Tapader, R; Chatterjee, S; Singh, A K; Dayma, P; Haldar, S; Pal, A; Basu, S

2014-11-01

184

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Tick-borne Pathogens in Dogs and Ticks from Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi) collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%), Ehrlichia canis (12.7%), Rickettsia spp. (8.8%), Babesia rossi (6.6%), Anaplasma platys (6.6%), Babesia vogeli (0.6%) and Theileria sp. (0.6%) was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%), H. canis (21.1%), Rickettsia spp. (10.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3%) and A. platys (1.9%) was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents. PMID:23505591

Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Eyal, Osnat; Guthmann, Yifat; Harrus, Shimon

2013-01-01

185

Prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis is increased in high bone mass  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls. Design HBM cases came from the UK-based HBM study: HBM was defined by BMD Z-score. Unaffected relatives of index cases were recruited as family controls. Age-stratified random sampling was used to select further population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. Pelvic radiographs were pooled and assessed by a single observer blinded to case-control status. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Results 530 HBM hips in 272 cases (mean age 62.9 years, 74% female) and 1702 control hips in 863 controls (mean age 64.8 years, 84% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic OA, defined as Croft score ?3, was higher in cases compared with controls (20.0% vs 13.6%), with adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] 1.52 [1.09, 2.11], P = 0.013. Osteophytes (OR 2.12 [1.61, 2.79], P < 0.001) and subchondral sclerosis (OR 2.78 [1.49, 5.18], P = 0.001) were more prevalent in cases. However, no difference in the prevalence of joint space narrowing (JSN) was seen (OR 0.97 [0.72, 1.33], P = 0.869). Conclusions An increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA and osteophytosis was observed in HBM cases compared with controls, in keeping with a positive association between HBM and OA and suggesting that OA in HBM has a hypertrophic phenotype. PMID:24971870

Hardcastle, S.A.; Dieppe, P.; Gregson, C.L.; Hunter, D.; Thomas, G.E.R.; Arden, N.K.; Spector, T.D.; Hart, D.J.; Laugharne, M.J.; Clague, G.A.; Edwards, M.H.; Dennison, E.M.; Cooper, C.; Williams, M.; Davey Smith, G.; Tobias, J.H.

2014-01-01

186

Teacher Participation in Professional Activities and Job Satisfaction: Prevalence and Associative Relationship to Retention for High School Science Teachers  

E-print Network

In this dissertation, I used survey response data from 385 science teachers situated in 50 randomly selected Texas high schools to describe the prevalence of high school science teacher participation in professional activities and levels of job...

Bozeman, Todd Dane

2012-02-14

187

Canine hepacivirus and idiopathic hepatitis in dogs from a Dutch cohort.  

PubMed

Liver diseases are highly prevalent in the general dog population, though the etiology is often unknown. Recently a homolog of human hepatitis C virus was discovered in dogs with respiratory infections. Although this canine hepacivirus (CHV) was detectable in some liver samples, a clear link with liver disease has not been established. A recent study by Bexfield et al. showed that in a large cohort of dogs from the UK with idiopathic hepatitis, no evidence can be found for exposure to, or carrier state of CHV both in liver and in serum. The authors however state that 'the absence of CHV infection on dogs from the UK might not represent the global ecology of the virus'. We investigated CHV-infection in 267 liver biopsies from 120 dogs idiopathic hepatitis and 135 control animals, in a population from the Netherlands. Using a highly sensitive PCR assay for CHV-NS3, no CHV was detected in all 267 liver samples. Our data show that the lack of association between canine hepacivirus and chronic liver disease in dogs is not limited to the UK, but is also found in an independent cohort from the European continent. PMID:24903449

van der Laan, L J W; de Ruiter, P E; van Gils, I M; Fieten, H; Spee, B; Pan, Q; Rothuizen, J; Penning, L C

2014-12-01

188

SMALL MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH COLONIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS) IN THE SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS  

E-print Network

SMALL MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH COLONIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non colonias de perritos llaneros de cola negra (Cynomys ludovicianus) y a´reas similares sin perritos llaneros

Wallace, Mark C.

189

Students' Perceptions of a Highly Controversial yet Keystone Species, the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped that…

Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.

2008-01-01

190

High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population.  

PubMed

The nematode worm Spirocerca lupi has a cosmopolitan distribution and can cause the death of its final canid host, typically dogs. While its life cycle, which involves a coprophagous beetle intermediate host, a number of non-obligatory vertebrate paratenic hosts and a canid final host, is well understood, surprisingly little is known about its transmission dynamics and population genetic structure. Here we sequenced cox1 to quantify genetic variation and the factors that limit gene flow in a 300 km(2) area in South Africa. Three quarters of the genetic variation, was explained by differences between worms from the same host, whereas a quarter of the variation was explained by differences between worms from different hosts. With the help of a newly derived model we conclude that while the offspring from different infrapopulations mixes fairly frequently in new hosts, the level of admixture is not enough to homogenize the parasite populations among dogs. Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. PMID:22226763

de Waal, Pamela J; Gous, Annemarie; Clift, Sarah J; Greeff, Jaco M

2012-06-01

191

Characterization of Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis has not been assessed in companion animals in Trinidad and Tobago. This report details the first attempt to evaluate the potential zoonotic risk of G. duodenalis in dogs and identify assemblages of G. duodenalis found in dog populations on both islands. Fecal samples were collected from free-roaming dogs and dogs at the Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals from October 2010 to June 2011. A total of 168 samples were collected of which 104 samples were analyzed for the presence of G. duodenalis by PCR amplification of the ssu-rRNA gene with subsequent assemblage-typing. A subset of samples was also analyzed by ELISA. Twenty-six samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR for an overall prevalence of 25%. Four samples were identified as assemblage C (15.4%), 21 as assemblage D (80.8%), and one as assemblage E (3.8%). Puppies were four-times more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.73-12.2). There was a significant agreement between ELISA and PCR in the detection of the protozoa (?=0.67). We infer from our results that while the prevalence of G. duodenalis is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago, the zoonotic risk of infection in humans is low since neither assemblage A nor B was identified in the study population. PMID:23465438

Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Adesiyun, Abiodun A; Basu, Asoke; Georges, Karla A; Pierre, Theresa; Tilitz, Sophie; Wade, Susan E; Mohammed, Hussni O

2013-09-01

192

High prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus in a cohort of healthy young African female subjects  

PubMed Central

Objectives We measured the prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young female subjects recruited for a safety and immunogenicity trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in Tanzania. Methods Healthy HIV negative female subjects aged 10–25?years were enrolled and randomised (2:1) to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine or placebo (Al(OH)3 control). At enrolment, if sexually active, genital specimens were collected for HPV DNA, other reproductive tract infections and cervical cytology. Subjects were followed to 12?months when HPV testing was repeated. Results In total 334 participants were enrolled; 221 and 113 in vaccine and control arms, respectively. At enrolment, 74% of 142 sexually active subjects had HPV infection of whom 69% had >1 genotype. Prevalent infections were HPV-45 (16%), HPV-53 (14%), HPV-16 (13%) and HPV-58 (13%). Only age was associated with prevalent HPV infection at enrolment. Among 23 girls who reported age at first sex as 1?year younger than their current age, 15 (65.2%) had HPV infection. Of 187 genotype-specific infections at enrolment, 51 (27%) were present at 12?months. Overall, 67% of 97 sexually active participants with results at enrolment and 12?months had a new HPV genotype at follow-up. Among HPV uninfected female subjects at enrolment, the incidence of any HPV infection was 76 per 100 person-years. Conclusions Among young women in Tanzania, HPV is highly prevalent and acquired soon after sexual debut. Early HPV vaccination is highly recommended in this population. PMID:23486859

Watson-Jones, Deborah; Baisley, Kathy; Brown, Joelle; Kavishe, Bazil; Andreasen, Aura; Changalucha, John; Mayaud, Philippe; Kapiga, Saidi; Gumodoka, Balthazar; Hayes, Richard J; de Sanjose, Silvia

2013-01-01

193

Seroprevalence of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in urban and rural dogs in Turkey.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was investigated in stray urban dogs and shepherd and farm guard dogs from rural areas sampled from 10 provinces of Turkey. Sera from 855 dogs were examined for the presence of anti-B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Overall, 56 (6.6%) of the 855 dogs examined, including 16 (3%) of the 522 stray dogs and 40 (12%) of the 333 rural dogs, were seropositive. This is the first report on prevalence of antibodies to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in dogs in Turkey. PMID:20574140

Celebi, Bekir; Taylan Ozkan, Aysegul; Kilic, Selcuk; Akca, Atilla; Koenhemsi, Lora; Pasa, Serdar; Yildiz, Kader; Mamak, Nuri; Guzel, Murat

2010-11-01

194

Canine visceral leishmaniasis: performance of a rapid diagnostic test (Kalazar Detect) in dogs with and without signs of the disease.  

PubMed

Current visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control programs in Brazil include the infected dog elimination but, despite this strategy, the incidence of human VL is still increasing. One of the reasons is the long delay between sample collection, analysis, control implementation and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Due to the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs, the diagnosis of these animals is important considering their vector infection capacity. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis is essential for an efficient surveillance program. In this study we evaluated the performance of rK39 antigen in an immunochromatographic format to detect symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs and compared the results with those using a crude antigen ELISA. The sensitivity of rK39 dipstick and ELISA were 83% vs. 95%, respectively, while the specificity was both 100%. Our results also demonstrated that the dipstick test was able to detect infected dogs presenting different clinical forms. PMID:18565485

Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Moreira, Márcio Antônio Batistela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Dietze, Reynaldo

2008-08-01

195

High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

2013-04-01

196

Cephalic index and perceived dog trainability.  

PubMed

People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for running and brachycephalic breeds are more specialized for fighting. Dog breeds rated as highly trainable are instead mesocephalic, morphological generalists. Looking trainable in dogs may reflect differences in physical morphology. PMID:19683035

Helton, William S

2009-11-01

197

Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient. PMID:23148854

Watson, Penny

2012-08-01

198

Obesity in show dogs.  

PubMed

Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

Corbee, R J

2012-08-11

199

Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA). It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males) in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213). Mean SpO2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = ?0.929, P < 0.001). In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors associated with CMS. PMID:24872667

Sahota, Inderjeet Singh; Panwar, Nidhi Singh

2013-01-01

200

How can mathematical models advance tuberculosis control in high HIV prevalence settings?  

PubMed

Existing approaches to tuberculosis (TB) control have been no more than partially successful in areas with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. In the context of increasingly constrained resources, mathematical modelling can augment understanding and support policy for implementing those strategies that are most likely to bring public health and economic benefits. In this paper, we present an overview of past and recent contributions of TB modelling in this key area, and suggest a way forward through a modelling research agenda that supports a more effective response to the TB-HIV epidemic, based on expert discussions at a meeting convened by the TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium. The research agenda identified high-priority areas for future modelling efforts, including 1) the difficult diagnosis and high mortality of TB-HIV; 2) the high risk of disease progression; 3) TB health systems in high HIV prevalence settings; 4) uncertainty in the natural progression of TB-HIV; and 5) combined interventions for TB-HIV. Efficient and rapid progress towards completion of this modelling agenda will require co-ordination between the modelling community and key stakeholders, including advocates, health policy makers, donors and national or regional finance officials. A continuing dialogue will ensure that new results are effectively communicated and new policy-relevant questions are addressed swiftly. PMID:24903784

Houben, R M G J; Dowdy, D W; Vassall, A; Cohen, T; Nicol, M P; Granich, R M; Shea, J E; Eckhoff, P; Dye, C; Kimerling, M E; White, R G

2014-05-01

201

Prevalence of refractive errors in teenage high school students in Singapore.  

PubMed

We aimed to study the prevalence of refractive conditions in Singapore teenagers. Grade 9 and 10 students (n = 946) aged 15-19 years from two secondary schools in Singapore were recruited. The refractive errors of the students' eyes were measured using non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Sociodemographic data and information on risk factors for myopia (such as reading and writing) were also obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of refractive conditions was found to be: myopia [spherical equivalent (SE) at least -0.50 D] - 73.9%, hyperopia (SE at least +0.50 D) - 1.5%, astigmatism (cylinder at least -0.50 D) - 58.7% and anisometropia (SE difference at least 1.00 D) - 11.2%. After adjusting for age and gender, currently doing more than 20.5 h of reading and writing a week was found to be positively associated with myopia [odds ratio 1.12 (95% CI 1.04-1.20, p = 0.003)], as was reading and writing at a close distance and a better educational stream. The prevalence of myopia (73.9%) in Singapore teenagers is high. Current reading and writing habits, reading at close distances and a better educational stream are possible risk factors for myopia. PMID:14687201

Quek, Timothy P L; Chua, Choon Guan; Chong, Choon Seng; Chong, Jin Ho; Hey, Hwee Weng; Lee, June; Lim, Yee Fei; Saw, Seang-Mei

2004-01-01

202

Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms in Kosovo: a high risk for salmonella prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (D.g.) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of poultry and potential pathogen vector. The prevalence of D. g. and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. within mites on infested laying poultry farms were investigated in Kosovo. Findings In total, 14 populated layer farms located in the Southern Kosovo were assessed for D. g. presence. Another two farms in this region were investigated 6 months after depopulation. Investigated flocks were all maintained in cages, a common housing system in Kosovo. A total of eight farms were found to be infested with D. g. (50%) at varying levels, including the two depopulated farms. The detection of Salmonella spp. from D. g. was carried out using PCR. Out of the eight layer farms infested with D. g., Salmonella spp. was present in mites on three farms (37.5%). Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of D. g. in layer flocks in Kosovo and demonstrates the link between this mite and the presence of Salmonella spp. on infested farms. PMID:21762497

2011-01-01

203

High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

2012-01-01

204

High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, Joao Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Leticia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

205

High frequency of OPA1 mutations causing high ADOA prevalence in south-eastern Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

Optic atrophy type 1 (OPA1) gene mutation causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA, MIM #165500). Prevalence of ADOA ranges from 1:50,000 in most populations to 1:12,000 in Denmark. Seventy members of nine families were analysed for the presence of OPA1 gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. We identified three OPA1 gene mutations in 48 patients with variable signs of optic atrophy. Two mutations, c.784-21_784-22insAluYb8 and c.876_878delTGT, were found in two different families. The third mutation, c.869G>A, was found in 28 patients from seven families. The haplotype analysis data suggested that the c.869G>A mutation is a founder mutation. Our main result suggests a higher ADOA prevalence in south-eastern Sicily than previously found in Denmark. This is because of not only the founder effect but also to the presence of three different mutations in the geographical area of the study. Our hypothesis is that a combination of social pressure because of blindness and migration factors is involved. In fact, in Siracusa, a provincial capital in south-eastern Sicily, St. Lucy, the patron saint of the blind was born and died. PMID:21745197

Gallus, G N; Cardaioli, E; Rufa, A; Collura, M; Da Pozzo, P; Pretegiani, E; Tumino, M; Pavone, L; Federico, A

2012-09-01

206

Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.  

PubMed

Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon dog and the native red fox. PMID:24533328

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-12-01

207

Small area estimates reveal high cigarette smoking prevalence in low-income cities of Los Angeles county.  

PubMed

Los Angeles County has among the lowest smoking rates of large urban counties in the USA. Nevertheless, concerning disparities persist as high smoking prevalence is found among certain subgroups. We calculated adult smoking prevalence in the incorporated cities of Los Angeles County in order to identify cities with high smoking prevalence. The prevalence was estimated by a model-based small area estimation method with utilization of three data sources, including the 2007 Los Angeles County Health Survey, the 2000 Census, and the 2007 Los Angeles County Population Estimates and Projection System. Smoking prevalence varied considerably across cities, with a more than fourfold difference between the lowest (5.3%) and the highest prevalence (21.7%). Higher smoking prevalence was generally found in socioeconomically disadvantaged cities. The disparities identified here add another layer of data to our knowledge of the health inequities experienced by low-income urban communities and provide much sought data for local tobacco control. Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of providing credible local estimates of smoking prevalence using the model-based small area estimation method. PMID:21947903

Cui, Yan; Baldwin, Susie B; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret; Yu, Hongjian; Teutsch, Steven

2012-06-01

208

Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs in Sardinia Island (Italy).  

PubMed

A survey on Cercopithifilaria spp. was carried out on owned and kennelled dogs in Sardinia, Italy. A total of 180 dogs were sampled and tested by microscopic detection or PCR of dermal microfilariae in skin snip sediments. The overall prevalence for Cercopithifilaria spp. at both microscopy and molecular tests was 9.4 % (17/180), while 8.3 % (15/180) of dogs scored positive at microscopic detection of sediments only. Of the 225 microfilariae measured, 212 were identified as Cercopithifilaria bainae and the remaining as Cercopithifilaria sp. II. All samples were molecularly processed for specific amplification of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and ribosomal 12S gene fragments. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis of the cox1 and 12S sequences here obtained showed a high nucleotide similarity (99 and 100 %, respectively) with those of C. bainae available in GenBank. In particular, cox1 haplotype I (HI; n=14), haplotype HXVIII (n=2), and a new haplotype, named HXIX (n=1), differing for a single polymorphism from HI, were detected. This study reports data on the occurrence, distribution, and genetic makeup of C. bainae and Cercopithifilaria sp. II infesting dogs in Sardinia, suggesting that these filarioids are spread in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks occur. PMID:24271152

Solinas, C; Varcasia, A; Brianti, E; Giannetto, S; Pipia, A P; Columbano, N; Tosciri, G; Dantas-Torres, F; Garippa, G; Otranto, D; Scala, A

2014-02-01

209

High Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B Infection and Association with Underweight in Rwandan Children  

PubMed Central

Background Giardia duodenalis is highly endemic in East Africa but its effects on child health, particularly of submicroscopic infections, i.e., those below the threshold of microscopy, and of genetic subgroups (assemblages), are not well understood. We aimed at addressing these questions and at examining epidemiological characteristics of G. duodenalis in southern highland Rwanda. Methodology/Principal Findings In 583 children <5 years of age from communities and health facilities, intestinal parasites were assessed by triplicate light microscopy and by PCR assays, and G. duodenalis assemblages were genotyped. Cluster effects of villages were taken into account in statistical analysis. The prevalence of G. duodenalis as detected by microscopy was 19.8% but 60.1% including PCR results. Prevalence differed with residence, increased with age, and was reduced by breastfeeding. In 492 community children without, with submicroscopic and with microscopic infection, underweight (weight-for-age z-score prevalence of G. duodenalis in high-endemicity areas may be greatly underestimated by light microscopy, particularly when only single stool samples are analysed. Children with submicroscopic infections show limited overt manifestation, but constitute unrecognized reservoirs of transmission. The predominance of assemblage B in Rwanda may be involved in the seemingly unimposing manifestation of G. duodenalis infection. However, the association with impaired child growth points to its actual relevance. Longitudinal studies considering abundant submicroscopic infections are needed to clarify the actual contribution of G. duodenalis to morbidity in areas of high endemicity. PMID:22720102

Klotz, Christian; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Lyng, Michel; Musemakweri, Andre; Aebischer, Toni; Martus, Peter; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

2012-01-01

210

High prevalence and genetic diversity of Plasmodium malariae and no evidence of Plasmodium knowlesi in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of malaria remains high in parts of Bangladesh, there continues to be a substantial shortage of information regarding the less common malaria parasites such as Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. Recent studies indicate that P. malariae may be extremely rare, and so far, there are no data on the presence (or absence) of P. knowlesi in southeastern Bangladesh. Genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was performed to assess the presence and prevalence of P. malariae and P. knowlesi in 2,246 samples originating from asymptomatic and febrile participants of a cross-sectional and a febrile illnesses study in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in southeastern Bangladesh. P. malariae was detected in 60 samples (2.7%) corresponding to 8% of the 746 samples giving positive PCR results for Plasmodium sp., mainly because of the high prevalence (9.5%) among asymptomatic study participants testing positive for malaria. Symptomatic cases were more common (4.3% of all symptomatic malaria cases) during the dry season. Parasitemias were low (1,120-2,560/?l in symptomatic and 120-520/?l in asymptomatic carriers). Symptomatic patients presented mild to moderate symptoms like fever, chills, headache, dizziness, fatigue and myalgia.Although both the intermediate as well as the definite host are known to be endemic in southeastern Bangladesh, no evidence for the presence of P. knowlesi was found. We conclude that the role of P. malariae is highly underestimated in rural Bangladesh with major implications for malaria control and elimination strategies. PMID:24578257

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Harl, Josef; Starzengruber, Peter; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Bloeschl, Ingrid; Haque, Rashidul; Matt, Julia; Khan, Wasif Ali; Noedl, Harald

2014-04-01

211

Cloning Dogs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: For those of you who have put off cloning your favorite pet due to the exorbitant cost, good news! The process just got cheaper. A biotech company here in South Korea has discovered that stems cells from the fat tissue in a dog...

Hacker, Randi

2009-03-08

212

Dog Fights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

Taylor, Kelley R.

2010-01-01

213

Dog Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

214

Dog Breeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

215

Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Dipping and Chewing Behavior in a Group of Rural High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of smokeless tobacco use by students in a rural high school and their attitudes and beliefs concerning health-related outcomes of smokeless tobacco use. Results are discussed. (MT)

Marty, Phillip J.

1986-01-01

216

The prevalence and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in a high school sample.  

PubMed

This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity problem. Identity problem symptoms predicted psychological symptom scores beyond identity status, and identity status accounted for substantially less variance in psychological symptom severity when controlling for identity problem symptoms. Additional research on the relationship between identity problems and psychological adjustment is needed and greater attention to the role of identity issues in clinical practice is warranted. PMID:18784912

Berman, Steven L; Weems, Carl F; Petkus, Veronica F

2009-06-01

217

Prevalence and risk indicators of periodontal disease among high-school students in Tehran.  

PubMed

To identify the prevalence and risk indicators of periodontal disease in high-school students in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, the periodontal condition of 867 students aged 15-19 years was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). The results showed that 88.7% of these students had less than perfect periodontal health. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sex, parents' educational level, frequency of toothbrushing and flossing, preventive dental visits and presence of extracted teeth were significant risk indicators for periodontal disease. School-based oral health promotion and prevention programmes are needed. PMID:18557459

Kazemnejad, A; Zayeri, F; Rokn, A R; Kharazifard, M J

2008-01-01

218

Simultaneously High Prevalences of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections in a Population in Putian County, China  

PubMed Central

This study investigated a rare area of endemicity with a high prevalence of both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, in Putian County, China. Among 1,050 subjects, the overall prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity was 15.8%, and that of anti-HCV seropositivity was 28.9%. Intrafamilial viral transmission might be the major cause of the high prevalence of HBV infection in this region. However, HCV infection was shown to be associated with the use of inadequately sterilized medical equipment. PMID:22403430

Lu, Wen-Ping; Shi, Shuang

2012-01-01

219

Ask Dog Lady  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What to do with a problem dog? What is the best book on dog training? Would Tony Soprano benefit from owning a dog? How can you trust your dog walker with your dog? All these questions are addressed by the Dog Lady, who gives advice, as she says herself, on "dogs, love, and life." Always readable and often funny, the Dog Lady answers emails from viewers with questions about their canine pets. Users can read recent columns or review the "Best in Show" archive, a collection of the Dog Lady's most memorable advice. [CH

2003-01-01

220

Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in high prevalence-low resource settings.  

PubMed

Blood screening by NAT for major transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs) was originally intended to complement serology for detection of infected donations. Reports from developed countries showed limited marginal value to NAT blood screening in improving blood safety. Reports on NAT results from Europe indicated yield of 1:0.6 million donations for HBV, <1:M for HCV and HIV-1-related to low prevalence of TTI. In contrast, prevalence of TTI in resource-limited countries is almost always high. As a result, more incident cases can be expected among first-time blood donors. Most reports of NAT blood donation screening in these countries showed NAT confirmed yield as high as 1/2800 for HBV and 1/3100 blood donations for HCV as reported from Thailand and Egypt, respectively. The issues for low resource countries are mostly the high cost of NAT but also the requirements of staff qualification, adequate facilities, reagent procurement and maintenance of delicate equipment. Alternatives to commercial NAT are the use of combos antigen-antibody for HIV and HCV, anti-HBc for HBV and in-house NAT. Most of these alternatives have been reported but very few comparisons are available. Once yield data is available, models for estimation of feasibility and cost-effectiveness are proposed to help decision-making. PMID:20079664

El Ekiaby, Magdy; Lelie, Nico; Allain, Jean-Pierre

2010-01-01

221

High Prevalence of Malaria Parasitemia and Anemia among Hospitalized Children in Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda. Methods Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district, Uganda between May 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled and followed-up until discharge, death or referral. Data were collected on social-demographic characteristics, current and past illnesses and clinical signs and symptoms. Blood smears, hemoglobin (Hgb) levels and HIV testing were performed from finger/heel prick blood. The associations between malaria infection and other factors were estimated using log-binomial regression to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (aPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for clustering at health facilities. Results 2471 children were enrolled. The most common medical presentations were fever (96.2%), cough (61.7%), vomiting (44.2%), diarrhea (20.8%), and seizures (16.0%). The prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 54.6%. Children with malaria were more likely to present with a history of fever (aPRR 2.23; CI 1.18–4.24) and seizures (aPRR 1.12; CI 1.09–1.16). Confirmed malaria was significantly lower among girls than boys (aPRR 0.92; CI 0.91–0.93), HIV infected children (aPRR 0.60 CI 0.52–0.71), and children with diarrhea (aPRR 0.76; CI 0.65–0.90). The overall prevalence of anemia (Hgb<10 g/dl) was 56.3% and severe anemia (Hgb<6 g/dL) was 17.8%. Among children with severe anemia 76.8% had malaria parasitemia, of whom 93.1% received blood transfusion. Malaria associated mortality was 0.6%. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among inpatient children under five years. Malaria prevention is a priority in this population. PMID:24358185

Kiggundu, Valerian L.; O'Meara, Wendy P.; Musoke, Richard; Nalugoda, Fred K.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Baghendaghe, Enos; Lutalo, Tom; Achienge, Marion K.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Makumbi, Fred; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K.

2013-01-01

222

Prevalence of avian haematozoa in wild birds in a high-altitude forest in Japan.  

PubMed

The infection dynamics of avian haematozoa, which includes the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon, are complicated by a variety of environmental factors and host-parasite interactions. In Japan, the prevalence of haematozoa in wild birds has recently been determined in several local areas. However, no information on the annual prevalence of avian haematozoa in a single study site has been reported. Here, we investigated the long-term infection dynamics of haematozoa in wild birds inhabiting a mountain forest of Japan. Blood samples were collected from 415 wild birds captured in the Chichibu mountains in Saitama Prefecture at an altitude of 1650 m between 2007 and 2010. All obtained samples were examined for haematozoan infection using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cytochrome b (cytb) genes of haematozoa. A total of 62 out of 415 (14.9%) forest birds were PCR positive for haematozoa. Relatively high infection rates of Leucocytozoon were found among several bird species (Parus ater, 64.3%; Parus montanus, 81.8%) and may be due to the host preference of vector black flies and host nestling pattern in this forest. Phylogenetic analysis of amplified cytb sequences revealed for the first time that a variety of lineages of avian haematozoa are distributed among wild bird hosts in a high-altitude forest stand in Japan. Notably, significant seasonal changes of the prevalence of avian haematozoa were not observed; however, continuous investigation will likely provide detailed information on host-parasite interactions, including local environmental factors, that influence the dynamics of avian haematozoan infections. PMID:21831523

Imura, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuka; Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Ishida, Ken; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

2012-02-10

223

The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.  

PubMed

Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P ? 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P ? 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P ? 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P ? 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices. PMID:22323760

Huet, Catherine; Rosol, Renata; Egeland, Grace M

2012-03-01

224

High Blood Pressure in Panama: Prevalence, Sociodemographic and Biologic Profile, Treatment, and Control (STROBE).  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors.A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P???0.05 were used for the analysis.The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0-31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR?=?1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ?25.0?kg/m or a waist circumference >90?cm in men and >88?cm in women (P?high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles. PMID:25396327

Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J; Motta Borrel, Jorge A; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

2014-11-01

225

High prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli among children in rural Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Commensal bacteria represent an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Few community-based studies of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria have been conducted in Southeast Asia. We investigated the prevalence of resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in preschool children in rural Vietnam, and factors associated with carriage of resistant bacteria. Methods We tested isolates of E. coli from faecal samples of 818 children aged 6-60 months living in FilaBavi, a demographic surveillance site near Hanoi. Daily antibiotic use data was collected for participating children for three weeks prior to sampling and analysed with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics extracted from FilaBavi's re-census survey 2007. Descriptive statistics were generated, and a logistic regression model was used to identify contributions of the examined factors. Results High prevalences of resistance were found to tetracycline (74%), co-trimoxazole (68%), ampicillin (65%), chloramphenicol (40%), and nalidixic acid (27%). Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Sixty percent of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Recent sulphonamide use was associated with co-trimoxazole resistance [OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.7], and beta-lactam use with ampicillin resistance [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4]. Isolates from children aged 6-23 months were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4] and co-trimoxazole [OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0]. Associations were identified between geographical areas and tetracycline and ampicillin resistance. Conclusions We present high prevalence of carriage of commensal E. coli resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The identified associations with recent antibiotic use, age, and geographical location might contribute to our understanding of carriage of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. PMID:22512857

2012-01-01

226

Rodent and Flea Abundance Fail to Predict a Plague Epizootic in Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages. PMID:20158331

Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L.

2010-01-01

227

International web survey shows high prevalence of symptomatic testosterone deficiency in men  

PubMed Central

Introduction Though the clinical significance of testosterone deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent, its prevalence in the general population remains unrecognised. A large web-based survey was undertaken over 3 years to study the scale of this missed diagnosis. Methods An online questionnaire giving the symptoms characterising testosterone deficiency syndrome (Aging Male Symptoms – AMS – scale) was set up on three web sites, together with questions about possible contributory factors. Results. Of over 10,000 men, mainly from the UK and USA, who responded, 80% had moderate or severe scores likely to benefit from testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). The average age was 52, but with many in their 40s when the diagnosis of ‘late onset hypogonadism’ is not generally considered. Other possible contributory factors to the high testosterone deficiency scores reported were obesity (29%), alcohol (17.3%), testicular problems such as mumps orchitis (11.4%), prostate problems (5.6%), urinary infection (5.2%) and diabetes 5.7%. Conclusions In this self-selected large international sample of men, there was a very high prevalence of scores which if clinically relevant would warrant a therapeutic trial of testosterone treatment. This study suggests that there are large numbers of men in the community whose testosterone deficiency is neither being diagnosed nor treated. PMID:20828244

TRINICK, TOM R; FENELEY, MARK R; WELFORD, HUGH; CARRUTHERS, MALCOLM

2011-01-01

228

High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions  

PubMed Central

Background There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Eight hundred eleven (811) urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI); 52.6-59.4) Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6) and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2). More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9) were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0). Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2) infection rate. School age children (6-15 years) are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06). Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9). Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages. PMID:21299881

2011-01-01

229

High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byakangelicin after oral administration of Angelica dahurica extracts in mongrel dog plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin after oral administration of Angelica dahurica extracts in mongrel dog plasma. The coumarin components and the internal standard isopsoralen were extracted from plasma samples with the mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether and n-hexane (4:1, v\\/v). Chromatographic separation was performed on

Ying Xie; Yi Chen; Mei Lin; Jun Wen; Guorong Fan; Yutian Wu

2007-01-01

230

National Detector Dog Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Detector Dog Manual covers background information, procedures, health care, and training related to detector dog activities. The procedures have a national focus to guide detector dog activities, and they are supplemental to general operation...

2004-01-01

231

Dog Bite Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

232

High Prevalence of Skin Disorders among HTLV-1 Infected Individuals Independent of Clinical Status  

PubMed Central

Background Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection can increase the risk of developing skin disorders. This study evaluated the correlation between HTLV-1 proviral load and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count among HTLV-1 infected individuals, with or without skin disorders (SD) associated with HTLV-1 infection [SD-HTLV-1: xerosis/ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis or infective dermatitis associated to HTLV-1 (IDH)]. Methods A total of 193 HTLV-1-infected subjects underwent an interview, dermatological examination, initial HTLV-1 proviral load assay, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count, and lymphproliferation assay (LPA). Results A total of 147 patients had an abnormal skin condition; 116 (79%) of them also had SD-HTLV-1 and 21% had other dermatological diagnoses. The most prevalent SD-HTLV-1 was xerosis/acquired ichthyosis (48%), followed by seborrheic dermatitis (28%). Patients with SD-HTLV-1 were older (51 vs. 47 years), had a higher prevalence of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) (75%), and had an increased first HTLV-1 proviral load and basal LPA compared with patients without SD-HTLV-1. When excluding HAM/TSP patients, the first HTLV-1 proviral load of SD-HTLV-1 individuals remains higher than no SD-HTLV-1 patients. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of skin disorders (76%) among HTLV-1-infected individuals, regardless of clinical status, and 60% of these diseases are considered skin disease associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:24244779

Okajima, Renata; Oliveira, Augusto C. P.; Smid, Jerusa; Casseb, Jorge; Sanches, Jose Antonio

2013-01-01

233

Confirmation of occurrence of Babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Babesia infections in domestic dogs in South Africa was studied using reverse line blot hybridization and 18S sequence analysis. Babesia canis vogeli was confirmed for the first time in domestic dogs in South Africa. Out of a total of 297 blood samples collected from domestic dogs in Bloemfontein, East London, Johannesburg, Durban and from the Onderstepoort Veterinary

P. T Matjila; B. L Penzhorn; C. P. J Bekker; A. M Nijhof; F Jongejan

2004-01-01

234

Canine diabetes mellitus: can old dogs teach us new tricks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Diabetes is common in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 0.32% in the UK. Clinical signs, as in man, include polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss, associated with hyperglycaemia and glucosuria. Diabetes typically occurs in dogs between 5 and 12 years of age, and is uncommon under 3 years of age. Breeds predisposed to diabetes include the Samoyed, Tibetan Terrier and

B. Catchpole; J. M. Ristic; L. M. Fleeman; L. J. Davison

2005-01-01

235

Effects of low-fat high-fibre diet and mitratapide on body weight reduction, blood pressure and metabolic parameters in obese dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the impact on blood pressure and different metabolic parameters of a weight-loss program on obese dogs fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet and treated with and without mitratapide. The study sample consisted of 36 obese dogs, randomly assigned to a control group (n=17), which were fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet, and an intervention group (n=19), fed on the same diet and treated with mitratapide. Variables measured included body condition score, body weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures; total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels; alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, measured both at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the weight loss program (day 85). All the studied parameters had decreased in both groups at the end of the study; these being diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase, significantly lower in dogs treated with mitratapide. The use of mitrapide in addition to low-fat high-fibre diet does not seem to offer any further useful effect in the loss of weight during the treatment of canine obesity. On the other hand, mitratapide seems to present certain beneficial effects on pathologies associated with obesity, these being mainly related to blood pressure, lipids and hepatic parameters. PMID:24920548

Peña, Cristina; Suarez, Lourdes; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Juste, M Candelaria; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto

2014-10-01

236

Effects of Low-Fat High-Fibre Diet and Mitratapide on Body Weight Reduction, Blood Pressure and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Dogs  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare the impact on blood pressure and different metabolic parameters of a weight-loss program on obese dogs fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet and treated with and without mitratapide. The study sample consisted of 36 obese dogs, randomly assigned to a control group (n=17), which were fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet, and an intervention group (n=19), fed on the same diet and treated with mitratapide. Variables measured included body condition score, body weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures; total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels; alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, measured both at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the weight loss program (day 85). All the studied parameters had decreased in both groups at the end of the study; these being diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase, significantly lower in dogs treated with mitratapide. The use of mitrapide in addition to low-fat high-fibre diet does not seem to offer any further useful effect in the loss of weight during the treatment of canine obesity. On the other hand, mitratapide seems to present certain beneficial effects on pathologies associated with obesity, these being mainly related to blood pressure, lipids and hepatic parameters. PMID:24920548

PENA, Cristina; SUAREZ, Lourdes; BAUTISTA-CASTANO, Inmaculada; JUSTE, M. Candelaria; CARRETON, Elena; MONTOYA-ALONSO, Jose Alberto

2014-01-01

237

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Initiation of Smoking in Greek High-School Students  

PubMed Central

The smoking habits of 9,276 high-school students (15–18 years old) in six cities of Northern Greece were studied using a questionnaire in order to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for initiation of smoking. We observed that 29.6% of high-school students (32.6% of boys and 26.7% of girls) were current smokers. A percentage of 43.3% had started smoking before the age of 14. Reactive behaviour towards parents’ and teachers’ advice (40.2%) and the existence of smoking friends (40.1%) were the main reasons of initiation. A well-planned integrated anti-smoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. PMID:19440427

Sichletidis, Lazaros T.; Chloros, Diamantis A.; Tsiotsios, Anastasios I.; Spyratos, Dionisios G.

2009-01-01

238

PBS-Nova: Dogs And More Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website, designed to accompany a television Feature Program on the world of Dogs, asks "How and why did man's best friend evolve from wolves, and why are dogs so remarkably diverse today?" The site showcases a slide show on working dogs and an interactive matching game entitled, Dogs Around the World. Also included at this website are a Teacher's Guide, a Links and Books page, and an Inquiry Article about Dog diversity. Additionally, this site links to the TV program transcript and to a recent "washingtonpost.com discussion with biologist and dog expert Ray Coppinger."

239

Effects of high-volume, rapid-fluid therapy on cardiovascular function and hematological values during isoflurane-induced hypotension in healthy dogs  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the administration of a high volume of isotonic crystalloid at a rapid rate on cardiovascular function in normovolemic, isoflurane-anesthetized dogs during induced hypotension. Using a prospective study, 6 adult dogs were induced to general anesthesia and cardiovascular and hematological values were measured while the dogs were maintained at 3 hemodynamic states: first during light anesthesia with 1.3% end-tidal isoflurane (ETI); then during a hypotensive state induced by deep anesthesia with 3% ETI for 45 min while administered 1 mL/kg body weight (BW) per minute of isotonic fluids; and then decreased to 1.6% ETI while receiving 1 mL/kg BW per minute of fluids for 15 min. End-tidal isoflurane (ETI) at 3.0 ± 0.2% decreased arterial blood pressure (ABP), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume index (SVI), and increased stroke volume variation (SVV) and central venous pressure (CVP). Fluid administration during 3% ETI decreased only SVV and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), while CVP increased progressively. Decreasing ETI to 1.6 ± 0.1% returned ABP and SVI to baseline (ETI 1.3 ± 0.1%), while CI and heart rate increased and SVV decreased. There was significant progressive clinical hemodilution of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), and central-venous oxygen content (CcvO2). High-volume, rapid-rate administration of an isotonic crystalloid was ineffective in counteracting isoflurane-induced hypotension in normovolemic dogs at a deep plane of anesthesia. Cardiovascular function improved only when anesthetic depth was reduced. Excessive hemodilution and its adverse consequences should be considered when a high volume of crystalloid is administered at a rapid rate. PMID:23024452

Valverde, Alexander; Gianotti, Giacomo; Rioja-Garcia, Eva; Hathway, Amanda

2012-01-01

240

HIGH PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION AMONG THE ELDERLY IN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100) and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100) from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9). S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8), being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not. PMID:24037284

Naves, Maria Margarida; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2013-01-01

241

High prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural area in Mozambique.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) problem in a rural area of Mozambique. METHODS--A cross sectional study among pregnant women and patients presenting with genital complaints. Laboratory confirmation was done for gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection, active syphilis, trichomoniasis and HIV infection. SETTING--A primary health care setting in Vilanculos, Inhambane province, Mozambique. RESULTS--Evidence of one or more of the above STDs was found in 51% of 201 pregnant women, 56% of 85 women and 62% of 77 men with genital complaints. Neisseria gonorrhoea or Chlamydia trachomatis were found in 16% of pregnant women, 23% of female patients and 28% of male patients; genital ulcer disease was present in 6%, 28% and 36%, of respectively pregnant women, female and male patients. The prevalence of active syphilis was about the same in the three groups of study subjects, that is 15%. HIV infection was found in 4% of the male patients; no HIV infection could be detected in the female groups. CONCLUSION--STDs were a major health problem in this rural area in Mozambique. Though HIV infection was still low, the high prevalence of STDs indicates that the potential is there for an explosive spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:8282293

Vuylsteke, B; Bastos, R; Barreto, J; Crucitti, T; Folgosa, E; Mondlane, J; Dusauchoit, T; Piot, P; Laga, M

1993-01-01

242

Need for Nucleic Acid Testing in Countries with High Prevalence of Transfusion-Transmitted Infections  

PubMed Central

Introduction. In India, family/replacement donors still provide more than 45% of the collected blood. With increasing voluntary blood donation and the still-prevalent infectious diseases in donors, we need to augment transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) testing before use. Our study was aimed to know the seroprevalence of TTIs among the donors of Rajasthan and the need for newer technologies like nucleic acid testing (NAT). Materials and Methods. Enhanced chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECi) was used for detection of HBsAg, anti-HIV, and anti-HCV in donor serum. 50% of the blood units which were negative on ECi were randomly selected and subjected to NAT testing for HBV, HCV, and HIV. Results. The total seroprevalence of TTIs is 2.62%. Of the randomly selected donor units negative by ECi, 8 turned out to be reactive on NAT testing: 4 were voluntary and 4 were family/replacement donors. Combined NAT yield (NAT reactive/seronegative) for HIV, HCV, and HBV was 0.034% (1 in 2972 donations). All the 8 reactive samples were positive for HBV DNA. Conclusion. In countries with a high prevalence of TTIs like India there are likely to be a significant number of window period donations that can be identified by NAT which may be implemented in blood centers allover India with serological testing to provide safe blood and cost alone should not be a deterrent to the government and implementing agencies. PMID:23008779

Jain, Rohit; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Gupta, Gajendra Nath

2012-01-01

243

Prevalence and related risk factors of areca quid chewing among junior high students in eastern Taiwan.  

PubMed

Areca quid chewing is a serious problem in eastern Taiwan. The prevalence and related risk factors of areca quid chewing among junior high students were studied. Group 1 consisted of 896 non-aboriginal students and group 2 of 565 aboriginal students. The students were asked to fill out a questionnaire anonymously. Among the non-aboriginal students, 2.2% were found as current areca quid chewers, 16.4% had tried but not become regular users, and 2.2% had used it regularly and quit, whereas 9.7% of aboriginal students were current chewers, and 32.7% had tried it but had not become regular users, and 7.4% had used it regularly and quit. The prevalence of areca chewing is significantly different between boys and girls in the non-aboriginal group. A logistic regression analysis indicated that a non-aboriginal student who is a male, grows areca at home, is a tobacco smoker, an alcohol drinker, and has family members and close friends as chewers is more likely to chew areca quid than others. Aboriginal students who are chewers are likely to grow areca at home, are tobacco smokers and alcohol drinkers, and have family members and close friends as chewers. Based on the findings of the study, the need for a health promotion program was identified. Areca quid is not only detrimental to people's health, but also to the environment in which people live. PMID:12087476

Tsai, Y-F; Wong, T K S; Chen, S-C

2002-07-01

244

High prevalence of syphilis among street-based female sex workers in Nanchang, China  

PubMed Central

Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) play a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. Several studies reported that street-based FSWs have higher risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs. Therefore, street-based FSWs should be specifically targeted for HIV and STIs intervention programs. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence rates and risk factors of HIV and syphilis among FSWs in Nanchang, China. Materials and Methods: Using convenience sampling methods, 361 street-based FSWs were recruited from August 2011 to February 2012. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire on socioeconomic and sex behavioral information and were tested for HIV and syphilis. Risk for HIV and syphilis infection was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: No HIV infections were found. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 43.5%. Nearly 46.1% of street-based FSWs reported having education for no more than 6 years. Having reproductive tract infections at current visit, duration of sex work more than 5 years, indulgence in unprotected sex trade in the last time, unprotected sex trade in the last month, and unprotected sex with boyfriend or spouse in the last month were reported by 35.2%, 43.5%, 33.8%, 60.4%, and 93.1% street-based FSWs, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having reproductive tract infections at current visit [odds ratio (OR), 12.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.01-24.37], duration of sex work more than five years (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.40-7.54), and unprotected sex trade in the last month (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.22) were independently associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of syphilis among street-based FSWs is very high. Most street-based FSWs in our survey had low education, long experience of commercial sex, and high rate of inconsistent condom use. Comprehensive interventions targeting this high-risk group, especially scaling up screening and ensuring consistent use of condoms during sex are needed.

Tao, Xiao Hua; Jiang, Tao; Shao, Dan; Xue, Wei; Ye, Fa Shun; Wang, Ming; He, Mei Hua

2014-01-01

245

Echinococcus granulosus infection of farm dogs of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in sheepdogs was studied in 13 provinces of Iran, where 90% of the Iranian sheep and goat populations and, thus, sheepdogs\\u000a are found. Worms were found in 27.17% of 390 dogs successfully purged with 4?mg\\/kg arecoline hydrobromide. The highest prevalence\\u000a was detected in dogs from the rural areas of Isfahan (central part of

Ali Eslami; Seyed Hossein Hosseini

1998-01-01

246

Stray Dogs, Saints, and Saviors: Fighting for the Soul of America's Toughest High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book tells the real-life story of Locke High School. Locke High--originally known for its excellence--became one of the toughest, most dysfunctional schools in the nation. Then in 2007 teachers voted to bring in an upstart charter school organization called "Green Dot" to try and restore the Locke Saints' past glory. It was a brave and…

Russo, Alexander

2011-01-01

247

High-prevalence Borrelia miyamotoi infection among [corrected] wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Tennessee.  

PubMed

During spring and fall 2009, 60 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) harvested by Tennessee hunters were surveyed for Borrelia spp. by sampling their blood, tissue, and attached ticks. In both seasons, 70% of turkeys were infested with juvenile Amblyomma americanum; one spring turkey hosted an adult female Ixodes brunneus. Polymerase chain reaction assays followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 58% of the turkeys were positive for the spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, with tissue testing positive more frequently than blood (P = 0.015). Sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer indicated > or = 99% similarity to previously published sequences of the North American strain of this spirochete. Positive turkeys were present in both seasons and from all seven middle Tennessee counties sampled. No ticks from the turkeys tested positive for any Borrelia spp. This is the first report of B. miyamotoi in birds; the transmission pathways and epidemiological significance of this high-prevalence spirochetal infection remain uncertain. PMID:21175079

Scott, M C; Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Baker, E; Edwards, H; Crowder, C; Tsao, J I; Hickling, G J

2010-11-01

248

High prevalence of hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in Japan. We tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from 2010 to 2012. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 47 of the 113 wild boar serum samples (42%), and HEV RNA was detected in five samples (4%). Sequence analysis showed that the five HEV isolates belonged to genotype 4, forming a cluster with a previous isolate from a human hepatitis E case in this region in 2011. These results indicate that wild boar in this region are infected with potentially pathogenic HEV at a high prevalence. PMID:24506423

Hara, Yuka; Terada, Yutaka; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kazuo; Maeda, Ken

2014-04-01

249

Energy metabolism of Inuit sled dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored how seasonal changes in temperature, exercise and food supply affected energy metabolism and heart rate of Inuit\\u000a dogs in Greenland. Using open flow respirometry, doubly labeled water, and heart rate recording, we measured metabolic rates\\u000a of the same dogs at two different locations: at one location the dogs were fed with high energy food throughout the year while

Nadine Gerth; Paula Redman; John Speakman; Sue Jackson; J. Matthias Starck

2010-01-01

250

Bounding on Rough Terrain with the LittleDog Robot  

E-print Network

A motion planning algorithm is described for bounding over rough terrain with the LittleDog robot. Unlike walking gaits, bounding is highly dynamic and cannot be planned with quasi-steady approximations. LittleDog is modeled ...

Shkolnik, Alexander C.

251

Determination of Morphological, Biometric and Biochemical Susceptibilities in Healthy Eurasier Dogs with Suspected Inherited Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1–3 years old), adult males and adult females (4–8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the development of glaucoma. This cohort will be used as a sentinel for longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25380252

Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

2014-01-01

252

Multiple zoonotic parasites identified in dog feces collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal-a potential threat to human health.  

PubMed

Dogs play many roles and their presence within people's houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed. PMID:25257358

Mateus, Teresa Letra; Castro, António; Ribeiro, João Niza; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

2014-09-01

253

Multiple Zoonotic Parasites Identified in Dog Feces Collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal -- A Potential Threat to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Dogs play many roles and their presence within people’s houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed. PMID:25257358

Letra Mateus, Teresa; Castro, Antonio; Niza Ribeiro, Joao; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

2014-01-01

254

High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research  

PubMed Central

The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens’ needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public’s health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on CAM research should be established to investigate the identified gaps of knowledge and to address upcoming health care challenges. PMID:24499316

2014-01-01

255

Serological prevalence and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection among women in Santiago, Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology is a main factor for designing vaccination programs and surveillance strategies; nevertheless, there are few reports of HPV seroprevalence in the general population, especially in Latin America. This study aimed to describe high-risk HPV serological prevalence, persistence, and association with concurrent cervical infection, in Chilean women. Methods 1021 women from the general population, aged 15–85 years, were studied in 2001 of whom 600 were reexamined in 2006. The assessments at both time points included cervical HPV DNA testing, HPV antibody testing, cervical cytology and a sociodemographic/behavioral questionnaire. HPV DNA and antibodies against L1 protein of types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 were assessed by reverse line blot and multiplex serology, respectively. Results Seropositivity was high at both baseline (43.2%) and follow-up (50.2%) and increased with age (p?prevalences were 6.7% and 8.7%. DNA and seroprevalence were associated at baseline (p?=?0.01 for any HPV). Early age at first sexual intercourse and having had two or more sexual partners were independently associated with seropositivity. Most (82.0%) initially seropositive women remained seropositive at follow-up; 21.6% of initially seronegative women seroconverted, reaching 17.5% among women older than 60 years of age. ASCUS or worse cytology was correlated with HPV DNA positivity but not with HPV seropositivity. Conclusion HPV seroprevalence studies are a useful tool for learning about the dynamics of HPV infection in a community. This study contributes to understanding the natural history of HPV infection and provides a baseline assessment before the incorporation of HPV vaccination into a national program. PMID:24990706

2014-01-01

256

High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research.  

PubMed

The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens' needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public's health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on CAM research should be established to investigate the identified gaps of knowledge and to address upcoming health care challenges. PMID:24499316

Fischer, Felix H; Lewith, George; Witt, Claudia M; Linde, Klaus; von Ammon, Klaus; Cardini, Francesco; Falkenberg, Torkel; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Johannessen, Helle; Reiter, Bettina; Uehleke, Bernhard; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Brinkhaus, Benno

2014-01-01

257

High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia  

PubMed Central

Summary The HIV epidemic in Estonia is rapidly expanding, and injection drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group contributing to the expansion. A convenience sample of 159 IDUs visiting syringe-exchange programmes (SEPs) was selected to quantify the association of HIV-risk behaviours and blood-borne infections. A high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody (HBVcore), hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibodies (56, 85.1, 21.3, and 96.2%, respectively) was associated with high-risk injections, unsafe sexual behaviour and alcohol abuse. These findings emphasize the importance of evidence-based secondary prevention among the HIV-infected, especially given the uncertain sustainability of antiretroviral and substance abuse treatments. PMID:17326862

Uuskula, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; Heimer, Robert

2010-01-01

258

Babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in Central Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 2006–2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma\\/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled

Renata Welc-Fal?ciak; Anna Rodo; Edward Si?ski; Anna Bajer

2009-01-01

259

Vitamin E and exertional rhabdomyolysis during endurance sled dog racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in sled dogs, animals with high energy expenditures that consume high fat (60% of ingested calories) diets. Associations between pre-race plasma [vitamin E] and total antioxidant status (TAS) and risk of developing ER were examined in dogs competing in the 1998 Iditarod race. Pre-race blood samples were collected from 750 dogs and a second sample

Richard J Piercy; Kenneth W Hinchcliff; Paul S Morley; Robert A DiSilvestro; Gregory A Reinhart; Stuart L Nelson; Karin E Schmidt; A. Morrie Craig

2001-01-01

260

Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 1989.  

PubMed

In late November 1989, 1732 clinics and institutional veterinarians were sent a questionnaire to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis, and 51.7% responded. Of 247,716 dogs tested, 394 had D. immitis microfilariae and 51 were amicrofilaremic for a total of 445 cases and heartworm prevalence of 0.17%. Most (408) of these dogs had no preventive medication and the prevalence among dogs tested and unprotected was 1.01%. That prevalence was considerably higher in endemic areas. Thirty-seven dogs with heartworm had preventive medication. Heartworm was most frequent in companion dogs over three years of age maintained outdoors in rural areas. About 75% of the cases had never left Canada, 26% had clinical signs and 125 were not treated.Heartworm was reported from British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, but 383 cases were in Ontario. South-western Ontario was the primary focus of infection. There were 33 cases in Quebec and 24 in Manitoba, mainly found in and around Metropolitan Montreal and Winnipeg respectively. PMID:17423627

Slocombe, J O

1990-07-01

261

[Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs and livestock from Xinjiang production and construction corps].  

PubMed

The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs and livestock was investigated in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps by stratified random sampling. A total of 5 391 dog feces were detected by double antibody sandwich ELISA, and the positive rate of dog coproantigen was 0.69% (37/5 391). The livestock were subjected to necropsy, inspection and palpation. The prevalence of E. granulosus infection in livestock was 3.88% (431/11 122). PMID:25223066

Han, Fei; Wang, Bing-Quan; Wang, Li-Jie; Xiong, Jun; Xi, Yi; Wu, Li-Wen; Ma, Fu-Rong; Li, Fan-Ka

2014-06-01

262

High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries. PMID:24921627

Khieu, Virak; Schar, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-01-01

263

High prevalence of reversible airway obstruction in asbestos-exposed workers.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study of 97 male workers exposed to asbestos for 2-50 yr, data were collected on chest x-ray findings and lung function, including lung volumes, forced expiratory flow rates (i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1.0], forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity [FEF(25-75%)]), airway resistance (R(aw)), carbon monoxide (CO)-diffusing capacity, and the existence of airway obstruction reversible by a beta-adrenergic agonist (RAO). The authors performed multiple-regression analyses to correlate the variations in lung function data with age, smoking habits, duration of asbestos exposure, and time since last exposure. Occupational activities of subjects that might induce specific lung abnormalities were also considered. No significant decrease was seen in lung volumes or CO-diffusing capacity; however, a decrease in FEV1.0 and an increase in R(aw) were measured in 65% of the subjects, and an isolated decrease in FEF(25-75%) occurred in only 18%. There was no difference in lung-function data between subjects who had chest x-ray signs of abnormalities (n = 59) and those who did not (n = 38). A significant relationship was found between the decrease in FEV1.0 and age; however, no correlation was noted between altered lung function and cigarette smoking, duration of asbestos exposure, or time since last exposure. RAO prevalence was higher (34%) than previously reported (9%) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were not exposed to asbestos or outdoor pollution. The RAO prevalence in asbestos-exposed workers was nearly the same as that measured in COPD subjects who lived downtown and who were exposed to outdoor pollution (36%). The high RAO prevalence in asbestos-exposed workers was found in 43% of subjects who were exposed only to asbestos, and in 33% of subjects who were also exposed to air pollution due to their occupational activities. It is hoped that the observations in this study will encourage practitioners to check for RAO in asbestos workers who use inhaled bronchodilators. PMID:12641187

Delpierre, Stephane; Delvolgo-Gori, Marie Jose; Faucher, Marion; Jammes, Yves

2002-01-01

264

Toxic smoke inhalation in fire victim dogs.  

PubMed

Fifteen dogs were found dead in a house that was on fire. Several of these dogs were partially burned. Four dogs were submitted for postmortem examination, 2 of which were determined to have died prior to the fire. Of the 2 submitted fire fatalities, only 1 dog had burns on its body (dorsum and right side of body). Internally, both dogs had soot deposits mixed with mucus in the larynx, trachea, and primary bronchi. Microscopically, soot was identified within both airways and alveolar spaces. There were no macroscopic or microscopic indications of vital heat exposure. High levels of carboxyhemoglobin were detected in the 2 dogs tested. The findings in this case support the use of postmortem examination and toxicology testing to allow for determination of vital reaction to heat and fire fumes. PMID:24442575

Stern, A W; Lewis, R J; Thompson, K S

2014-11-01

265

Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities. PMID:23985326

Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

2013-11-01

266

A STUDY OF STRESS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN TENNESSEE: THE SOURCES, SYMPTOMS, PREVALENCE, AND COPING APPROACHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate stress among high school principals in Tennessee in regard to sources, symptoms, prevalence, and coping methods used to manage stress.^ All 338 high school principals in Tennessee were surveyed, and a response rate of 71 percent was achieved. The study examined and tested seven hypotheses. Chi-Square Analysis and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation coefficient

BASSAM RAMADAN SALEM

1986-01-01

267

Prevalence of Students with Symptoms of Depression among High School Students in a District of Western Turkey: An Epidemiological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…

Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal

2008-01-01

268

‘Status dogs’ and gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of the recent rapid growth in the ownership of ‘status dogs’ in the UK, and drawing upon research conducted in Britain and North America, this article considers the motivation of the dogs' owners, the relationship between the ownership of ‘status dogs’ and urban street gangs, and the social impact of these dogs.

Simon Harding

2010-01-01

269

Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

2013-11-01

270

Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344

Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

2014-01-01

271

Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n?=?15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n?=?10), Paraná (PR, n?=?4), São Paulo (SP, n?=?3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n?=?1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tania Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

2013-01-01

272

Clinical, serological, and molecular evidence of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs in Tunisia.  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey was conducted in five bioclimatic areas of Tunisia to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens, surrogate markers of the agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Among 286 collected sera, 54.2% and 25.2% were seropositive for E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, respectively, by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) test. Clinical and hematological tests were done only for 58 sick dogs from Tunis area. A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization was then used to identify isolated Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species infecting dogs (n = 228). Among them, only two dogs were infected by A. phagocytophilum; ten sample dogs were demonstrated infected by E. canis and ten infected by Ehrlichia sp., from which one dog showed a mixed infection with A. phagocytophilum and E. canis and one with A. phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia sp. RLB findings were confirmed by sequencing; BLAST search against GenBank revealed high similarity of the sequence of Ehrlichia sp. PCR/RLB amplicons with Anaplasma platys 16S rRNA partial sequence. PMID:19018569

M'ghirbi, Y; Ghorbel, A; Amouri, M; Nebaoui, A; Haddad, S; Bouattour, A

2009-03-01

273

High prevalence of chitotriosidase deficiency in Peruvian Amerindians exposed to chitin-bearing food and enteroparasites  

PubMed Central

The human genome encodes a gene for an enzymatically active chitinase (CHIT1) located in a single copy on Chromosome 1, which is highly expressed by activated macrophages and in other cells of the innate immune response. Several dysfunctional mutations are known in CHIT1, including a 24-bp duplication in Exon 10 causing catalytic deficiency. This duplication is a common variant conserved in many human populations, except in West and South Africans. Thus it has been proposed that human migration out of Africa and the consequent reduction of exposure to chitin from environmental factors may have enabled the conservation of dysfunctional mutations in human chitinases. Our data obtained from 85 indigenous Amerindians from Peru, representative of populations characterized by high prevalence of chitin-bearing enteroparasites and intense entomophagy, reveal a very high frequency of the 24-bp duplication (47.06%), and of other single nucleotide polymorphisms which are known to partially affect enzymatic activity (G102S: 42.7% and A442G/V: 25.5%). Our finding is in line with a founder effect, but appears to confute our previous hypothesis of a protective role against parasite infection and sustains the discussion on the redundancy of chitinolytic function. PMID:25256524

Manno, N.; Sherratt, S.; Boaretto, F.; Coico, F. Mejìa; Camus, C. Espinoza; Campos, C. Jara; Musumeci, S.; Battisti, A.; Quinnell, R.J.; León, J. Mostacero; Vazza, G.; Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Paoletti, M.G.; Falcone, F.H.

2014-01-01

274

High prevalence of chitotriosidase deficiency in Peruvian Amerindians exposed to chitin-bearing food and enteroparasites.  

PubMed

The human genome encodes a gene for an enzymatically active chitinase (CHIT1) located in a single copy on Chromosome 1, which is highly expressed by activated macrophages and in other cells of the innate immune response. Several dysfunctional mutations are known in CHIT1, including a 24-bp duplication in Exon 10 causing catalytic deficiency. This duplication is a common variant conserved in many human populations, except in West and South Africans. Thus it has been proposed that human migration out of Africa and the consequent reduction of exposure to chitin from environmental factors may have enabled the conservation of dysfunctional mutations in human chitinases. Our data obtained from 85 indigenous Amerindians from Peru, representative of populations characterized by high prevalence of chitin-bearing enteroparasites and intense entomophagy, reveal a very high frequency of the 24-bp duplication (47.06%), and of other single nucleotide polymorphisms which are known to partially affect enzymatic activity (G102S: 42.7% and A442G/V: 25.5%). Our finding is in line with a founder effect, but appears to confute our previous hypothesis of a protective role against parasite infection and sustains the discussion on the redundancy of chitinolytic function. PMID:25256524

Manno, N; Sherratt, S; Boaretto, F; Coico, F Mejìa; Camus, C Espinoza; Campos, C Jara; Musumeci, S; Battisti, A; Quinnell, R J; León, J Mostacero; Vazza, G; Mostacciuolo, M L; Paoletti, M G; Falcone, F H

2014-11-26

275

Prevalence and Genotyping of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer Samples from Punjab, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18) were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95) of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63) of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79) samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95) was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in Punjab, Pakistan is in line with the worldwide prevalence, but that the incidence of HPV16 and 18 co-infections in our cohort is higher than that previously reported. PMID:25036463

Siddiqa, Abida; Zainab, Maidah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Parish, Joanna L.

2014-01-01

276

Sustained high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Cambodia: high turnover seriously challenges the 100% condom use programme  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infection (STI) survey among FSWs. This paper presents the STI prevalence and related risk factors, and discusses prevalence trends in the context of the 100% CUP in Cambodia. Methods From March-May, 1079 FSWs from eight provinces consented to participate, provided specimens for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing, and were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with STIs. STI prevalence was compared with data from the 1996 and 2001 STI surveys. Results Most FSWs were young (55% aged 15–24) and new to sex work (60% had worked 12 ? months). Consistent condom use with clients was reported by 80% of FSWs, but only 38% of FSWs always used condoms with sweethearts or casual partners. Being new to sex work was the only factor significantly associated with "any STI" (OR = 2.1). Prevalence of syphiliwas 2.3%; chlamydia, 14.4%; gonorrhoea, 13.0%; and any STI, 24.4%. Prevalence of each STI in 2005 was significantly lower than in 1996, but essentially the same as prevalence observed in 2001. Conclusion New FSWs were found to have substantially higher prevalence than those with longer experience. The percent of FSWs who used condoms consistently was high with clients but remained low with non-paying sex partners. Because of the high turnover of FSWs, the prevention needs of new FSWs should be ascertained and addressed. Despite 100% CUP implementation, the prevalence of STIs among FSWs was the same in 2005 as it was in 2001. Limited coverage and weak implementation capacity of the programme along with questionable quality of the STI services are likely to have contributed to the sustained high prevalence. The programme should be carefully reviewed in terms of intensity, quality and coverage. PMID:19077261

Sopheab, Heng; Morineau, Guy; Neal, Joyce J; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Fylkesnes, Knut

2008-01-01

277

High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections in a Highland Area of Western Kenya: a Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Hypoendemic malaria transmission in western Kenya highlands is not expected to lead to rapid acquisition of immunity to malaria. However, the asymptomatic subpopulation may play a significant role as an infection reservoir that should be considered in malaria control programs. Determination of spatio-temporal dynamics of asymptomatic subpopulations provides an opportunity to estimate the epidemiological importance of this group to malaria transmission. Methods Monthly parasitological surveys were undertaken on a cohort of 246 children for 12 months. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence was analyzed by both microscopy and PCR, and infection durations were determined. Results Infection prevalence and duration (1–12 months) decreased with age and altitude. Prevalence among age groups 5–9 and 10–14 years was high (34.4% and 34.1%, respectively), but significantly lower in older children (9.1%). Prevalence decreased from (52.4%) at ~1,430 m to 23.3% at 1,580 m. Conclusions Prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was high, with PCR detecting a significantly higher number of infections than microscopy. Our results are consistent with gradual acquisition of immunity with age upon repeated infection, and also show that malaria transmission risk is highly heterogeneous in the highland area. The results provide strong support for targeted control. PMID:19476434

Baliraine, Frederick N.; Afrane, Yaw A.; Amenya, Dolphine A.; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Menge, David M.; Zhou, Goufa; Zhong, Daibin; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M.; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

2009-01-01

278

Study of obesity in dogs visiting veterinary practices in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

A total of 8268 dogs were surveyed in 11 veterinary practices in the United Kingdom during a period of six months in 1983. The primary purpose of the survey was to assess the level of obesity on a five point scale with properly identified criteria. Information on the clinical condition of each dog was also recorded as well as proportions of food types fed, particulars of breed, sex, age, sexual status and the dog's name. Results showed that 21.4 per cent of dogs in the survey were judged to be obese and 2.9 per cent gross; 1.9 per cent were judged as thin, 13.5 per cent lean and 60.3 per cent were optimum. Labradors were found to be the most likely breed to become obese. Neutered females were about twice as likely to be obese as entire females. The same trend was evident with neutered males. Circulatory problems were associated with dogs over 10 years old and those which were gross, rather than obese. A similar trend was discernable with articular/locomotor problems. Skin and reproductive problems showed little relationship with age or obesity. Neoplasia was much more prevalent in dogs over 10 years old but had little relationship with either sexual status or obesity rating. There was a high rate of usage of prepared food for all categories. The amount of fresh food fed decreased rapidly as the proportion of canned food increased, but the obese and non-obese dogs showed very little difference in the type of food fed. PMID:3716092

Edney, A T; Smith, P M

1986-04-01

279

On a Cercopithifilaria sp. transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus: a neglected, but widespread filarioid of dogs  

PubMed Central

Background This study was aimed at investigating the distribution of a Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 with dermal microfilariae recently identified in a dog from Sicily (Italy). A large epidemiological survey was conducted by examining skin samples (n = 917) and ticks (n = 890) collected from dogs at different time points in Italy, central Spain and eastern Greece. Results The overall prevalence of Cercopithifilaria sp. in the sampled animal populations was 13.9% and 10.5% by microscopy of skin sediments and by PCR on skin samples, respectively. Up to 21.6% and 45.5% of dogs in Spain were positive by microscopical examination and by PCR. Cumulative incidence rates ranging from 7.7% to 13.9% were estimated in dogs from two sites in Italy. A low level of agreement between the two diagnostic tests (microscopical examination and PCR) was recorded in sites where samples were processed in parallel. Infestation rate as determined by tick dissection (from 5.2% to 16.7%) was higher than that detected by PCR (from 0% to 3.9%); tick infestation was significantly associated with Cercopithifilaria sp. infestation in dogs from two out of four sites. Developing larvae found in ticks were morphometrically studied and as many as 1469 larvae were found in a single tick. Conclusions Our data suggest that, in addition to the most common species of filarioids known to infest dogs (i.e., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), Cercopithifilaria sp. with dermal microfilariae should be considered due to its widespread distribution in southern Europe and high frequency in tick-exposed dogs. PMID:22212459

2012-01-01

280

Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P?=?0.008), cholesterol (P?=?0.003), triglyceride (P?=?0.018), and fasting insulin (P?dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P?=?0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P?=?0.030) in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss. PMID:22929809

2012-01-01

281

Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

2014-01-01

282

High Prevalence of Precocious Puberty and Obesity in Childhood Narcolepsy with Cataplexy  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: We analyzed the potential predictive factors for precocious puberty, observed in some cases of childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) and for obesity, a much more common feature of NC, through a systematic assessment of pubertal staging, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic/endocrine biochemical analyses. Design: Cross-sectional on consecutive recruitment. Setting: Hospital sleep center and pediatric unit. Patients: Forty-three children and adolescents with NC versus 52 age-matched obese children as controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Patients underwent clinical interview, polysomnographic recordings, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 measurement, and human leukocyte antigen typing. Height, weight, arterial blood pressure, and Tanner pubertal stage were evaluated. Plasma lipid and glucose profiles were analyzed. When an altered pubertal development was clinically suspected, plasma concentrations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones were determined. Children with NC showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (74%) and a higher occurrence of precocious puberty (17%) than obese controls (1.9%). Isolated signs of accelerated pubertal development (thelarche, pubic hair, advanced bone age) were also present (41%). Precocious puberty was significantly predicted by a younger age at first NC symptom onset but not by overweight/obesity or other factors. In addition, overweight/obesity was predicted by younger age at diagnosis; additional predictors were found for overweight/obesity (short disease duration, younger age at weight gain and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), which did not include precocious puberty. NC symptoms, pubertal signs appearance, and body weight gain developed in close temporal sequence. Conclusions: NC occurring during prepubertal age is frequently accompanied by precocious puberty and overweight/obesity, suggesting an extended hypothalamic dysfunction. The severity of these comorbidities and the potential related risks require a multidiagnostic approach and a tailored therapeutic management. Citation: Poli F; Pizza F; Mignot E; Ferri R; Pagotto U; Taheri S; Finotti E; Bernardi F; Pirazzoli P; Cicognani A; Balsamo A; Nobili L; Bruni O; Plazzi G. High prevalence of precocious puberty and obesity in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy. SLEEP 2013;36(2):175–181. PMID:23372264

Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Mignot, Emmanuel; Ferri, Raffaele; Pagotto, Uberto; Taheri, Shahrad; Finotti, Elena; Bernardi, Filippo; Pirazzoli, Piero; Cicognani, Alessandro; Balsamo, Antonio; Nobili, Lino; Bruni, Oliviero; Plazzi, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

283

High prevalence of human cytomegalovirus in carotid atherosclerotic plaques obtained from Russian patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the role of this virus in CVD progression remains unclear. We aimed to examine the HCMV serostatus in Russian patients (n?=?90) who had undergone carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and controls (n?=?82) as well as to determine the prevalence of HCMV immediate early (IE) and late (LA) antigens in carotid atherosclerotic plaques obtained from 89 patients. In addition, we sought to determine whether HCMV infection was associated with inflammatory activity in the plaque by quantifying infiltrating CD3 and CD68 positive cells and 5-LO immunoreactivity. Methods HCMV serology was assessed with ELISA and immunohistochemistry staining was performed to detect HCMV antigens, CD3, CD68 and 5-LO reactivity. The Fisher’s exact test was used to compare i) seroprevalence of HCMV IgG between patients and controls and ii) HCMV-positive or –negative to that of CD3, CD68 and 5-LO immunoreactive cells in plaque samples. The student-t test was performed to connote the significance level of mean optical density between patients and controls. Results The seroprevalence for HCMV IgG was high in both patients and controls (99% and 98%, respectively). Controls had significantly higher IgG titers for HCMV compared with patients (p?=?0.0148). Strikingly, we found a high prevalence of HCMV antigens in atherosclerotic plaques; 57/89 (64%) and 47/87 (54%) were HCMV IE and LA positive, respectively. Most plaques had rather low HCMV reactivity with distinct areas of HCMV-positive cells mainly detected in shoulder regions of the plaques, but also in the area adjacent to the necrotic core and fibrous cap. In plaques, the cellular targets for HCMV infection appeared to be mainly macrophages/foam cells and smooth muscle cells. HCMV-positive plaques trended to be associated with increased numbers of CD68 positive macrophages and CD3 positive T cells, while 5-LO reactivity was high in both HCMV-positive and HCMV-negative plaques. Conclusions In Russian patients undergoing CEA, HCMV proteins are abundantly expressed in carotid plaques and may contribute to the inflammatory response in plaques via enhanced infiltration of CD68 and CD3 cells. PMID:24229441

2013-01-01

284

High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Hispanic adolescents: correlations with adipocytokines and markers of inflammation.  

PubMed

This study assessed the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adypocytokines in a Hispanic adolescent subgroup. A clinic-based sample of 101 Puerto Rican adolescents, 48 of whom were overweight or obese based on body mass index percentiles for age and sex, was recruited during 2010. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and blood drawing. Overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 16.8 % and increased to 37.5 % among overweight/obese youth. The overweight/obese group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher values for abdominal obesity measures, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin resistance, C peptide, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, fibrinogen, leptin, and IL-6 and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, and IGF-1. Total adiponectin significantly correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors independent of sex, Tanner stage, and adiposity. Altered cardiometabolic and adipocytokine profiles were present in this Hispanic subgroup, reinforcing the need to strengthen strategies addressing childhood obesity. PMID:23828626

Pérez, Cynthia M; Ortiz, Ana P; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Velázquez-Torres, Guermarie; Santiago, Damarys; Giovannetti, Katya; Bernabe, Raúl; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

2014-10-01

285

Sleep Disordered Breathing in a High-Risk Cohort Prevalence and Severity across Pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objective?The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in pregnancy among high-risk women. Study Design?This was a prospective, observational study. We recruited women with a body mass index (BMI)???30 kg/m(2), chronic hypertension, pregestational diabetes, history of preeclampsia, and/or a twin gestation. Objective assessment of SDB was completed between 6 and 20 weeks and again in the third trimester. SDB was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ?5, and further grouped into severity categories: mild (5-14.9), moderate (15-29.9) and severe (?30). Subjects who had a normal AHI at the baseline (AHI?high-risk women and new-onset SDB occurs in 20% of these women. PMID:24515622

Facco, Francesca L; Ouyang, David W; Zee, Phyllis C; Grobman, William A

2014-11-01

286

Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico  

PubMed Central

We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas. PMID:16704811

Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Barbabosa, Alberto; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C.; Martinez-Perez, Miguel A.; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen

2006-01-01

287

High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda  

PubMed Central

In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15–49 years. A populationbased HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5–20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0–19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5–26.3) (?2 =0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05). Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%), followed by prostitution (13.6%), alcoholism (10.1%), carelessness (10.1%), poverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm that HIV prevalence is still high in this community. In order to prevent new infections, the factors mentioned above need to be addressed, and we recommend that education aimed at changing individual behavior should be intensified in this community. PMID:24470893

Rubaihayo, John; Akib, Surat; Mughusu, Ezekiel; Abaasa, Andrew

2010-01-01

288

Primary ciliary dyskinesia in Newfoundland dogs.  

PubMed

Primary ciliary dyskinesia was diagnosed in three Newfoundland dogs with histories of chronic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia from an early age. Thoracic radiographs of two of them showed severe, dependent bronchopneumonia and right displacement of the cardiac apex but normal positioning of other organs. Histopathological examination of sections of lung from the other dog showed severe bronchopneumonia. A semen sample from one dog had a high percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal tails and poor progressive motility. Transmission electron microscopy of nasal brushings from all three dogs showed consistent ultrastructural defects in the cilia, including an absence of outer and inner dynein arms, disorganisation of peripheral doublets, occasional supernumerary doublets and singlets, and consistently disorganised basal bodies and foot processes; sections of trachea from one dog also had disorganised basal bodies. Pedigree analysis was consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance for the defect. One dog is still alive, one dog died aged five years two months, and one dog was euthanased aged nine months. This is the first time primary ciliary dyskinesia has been reported in Newfoundland dogs. PMID:10423815

Watson, P J; Herrtage, M E; Peacock, M A; Sargan, D R

1999-06-26

289

Isolation and characterisation of dog uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from the urine of dogs with urinary tract infections, were characterised with respect to the production of haemolysin and fimbriae. In contrast to healthy dogs, P. mirabilis was also isolated in high numbers from the faeces of dogs suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections. Production of fimbriae was demonstrated by electron microscopy and the presence of

Wim Gaastra; Robert A. A. van Oosterom; Eef W. J. Pieters; Hans E. N. Bergmans; Linda van Dijk; A. Agnes; H. M. ter Huurne

1996-01-01

290

Animal and human Staphylococcus aureus associated clonal lineages and high rate of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius novel lineages in Spanish kennel dogs: predominance of S. aureus ST398.  

PubMed

Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) are gaining interest to track the evolution of emerging methicillin-resistant strains in animals and humans. We focused on the characterization of the methicillin-susceptible coagulase-positive staphylococci (MSCoPS) recovered from nasal samples of 98 healthy kennel-dogs. Isolates were typed by spa, agr, MLST and SmaI/ApaI-PFGE. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles were investigated. Presence of the human-associated Immune-Evasion-Cluster (IEC) genes was analyzed in MSSA. Twenty-four MSSA, 16 MSSP and one MS Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans were obtained. Thirteen spa-types and 12 sequence-types (STs) were detected among MSSA, with ST398 predominance (7/24, 29.2%). MSSA isolates were enclosed within 6 clonal complexes (no. of isolates): CC5 (8), CC398 (7), CC88 (4), CC45 (2), CC133 (1), and CC22 (1), and one singleton. High clonal diversity was observed among MSSP, and 14 STs (10 of them new) were detected. Twelve (50%) MSSA and 12 (75%) MSSP isolates showed resistance to at least one of the tested antimicrobials, with low MSSA penicillin resistance (5 isolates) and high MSSP tetracycline resistance (9 isolates). MSSA isolates ST398, ST133, ST1 and ST2329[new] were susceptible to all antimicrobials and were the only ones lacking the scn, chp and/or sak IEC genes. High diversity of enterotoxin genes was detected among non-ST398/ST133 MSSA isolates. MSSP showed a more homogeneous virulence genes profile. Our results give evidence that dogs can be S. aureus carriers of not only typical human associated lineages but also lineages commonly detected among other animal species. Continue surveillance on CoPS in dogs is required to unveil their role in the dissemination of clones adapted to other animal species. PMID:23932077

Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

2013-10-25

291

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

292

Molecular Genetic Diversity of the Gyeongju Donggyeong Dog in Korea  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to analyze the genetic characteristics of the Donggyeong dog and establish parentage conservation systems for it by using 10 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). A total of 369 dogs from 12 dog breeds including the Donggyeong dog were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 10 with a mean value of 7.6 in the Donggyeong dog. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4706 to 0.9020 (mean 0.7657) and from 0.4303 to 0.8394 (mean 0.7266), respectively. The total exclusion probability of 10 microsatellite loci was 0.99955. Of the 10 microsatellite markers, the AHT121, AHTh260 and CXX279 markers had relatively high PIC values (?0.7). This study found that there were specific alleles, 116 allele at AHT121 in the Donggyeong dog when compared with other dog breeds. Also, the results showed two (Korean native dogs and the foreign dog breeds) distinct clusters. The closest distance (0.1184) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Jindo dog, and the longest distance (0.3435) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Bulgae. The Korean native dog breeds have comparatively near genetic distances between each other. PMID:25030603

LEE, Eun-Woo; CHOI, Seong-Kyoon; CHO, Gil-Jae

2014-01-01

293

High prevalence of food insecurity among HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART in a resource-rich setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Adults receiving HAART voluntarily enrolled into the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) cohort. Individual food insecurity was measured using a modified version of the Radimer\\/Cornell Questionnaire. We

A. Anema; S. D. Weiser; K. A. Fernandes; E. Ding; E. K. Brandson; A. Palmer; J. S. G. Montaner; R. S. Hogg

2011-01-01

294

Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic beverages might exert an effect on the premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily consumption of beverages that are high in caffeine (caffeine-containing coffee, tea and colas). The study was based on 853 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health and certain daily dietary practices; it was mailed to female university students in Oregon. An analysis of the data revealed that the consumption of chocolate, but not of other junk foods, was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe premenstrual symptoms. Likewise, the consumption of alcoholic beverages (all alcoholic beverages and beer only) was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe symptoms, as were both fruit juice and caffeine-free soda. None of the associations was substantially altered when the daily consumption of beverages high in caffeine content was controlled for. Taken together, these data suggest that the consumption of foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet is associated with prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome. PMID:2010896

Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

1991-02-01

295

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop-ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop- ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in many developed countries suggests that current control strategies are suboptimal. The increase tuberculosis. We describe and discuss a theoretical framework based upon mathematical transmission models

Blower, Sally

296

Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts

Phil WS Leung; William CW Wong; WQ Chen; Catherine SK Tang

2008-01-01

297

Aortic valve morphology definition with transthoracic combined with transesophageal echocardiography in a population with high prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the utility of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with second harmonic combined with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in defining aortic valve morphology in a subset of patients with a high prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve. Methods and Materials: Patients (n=174) with dilated aortic root were consecutively evaluated using, initially, TTE. The aortic valve structure was assigned as tricuspid, bicuspid or undefined.

Josep M. Alegret; Oscar Palazón; Ignasi Duran; Josep M. Vernis

2005-01-01

298

Prevalence of HPV High-Risk Genotypes in Three Cohorts of Women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30?S and 50?S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30?S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50?S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30?S and 50?S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study. PMID:24106609

Zohoncon, Theodora M.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Yonli, Albert T.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne M.R.; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A.; Simpore, Jacques

2013-01-01

299

High prevalence of both humoral and cellular immunity to Zaire ebolavirus among rural populations in Gabon.  

PubMed

To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in Gabon. Using a sensitive and specific ELISA method, we found a ZEBOV-specific IgG seroprevalence of 15.3% overall, the highest ever reported. The seroprevalence rate was significantly higher in forested areas (19.4%) than in other ecosystems, namely grassland (12.4%), savannah (10.5%), and lakeland (2.7%). No other risk factors for seropositivity were found. The specificity of anti-ZEBOV IgG was confirmed by Western blot in 138 individuals, and CD8 T cells from seven IgG+ individuals were shown to produce IFN-gamma after ZEBOV stimulation. Together, these findings show that a large fraction of the human population living in forested areas of Gabon has both humoral and cellular immunity to ZEBOV. In the absence of identified risk factors, the high prevalence of "immune" persons suggests a common source of human exposure such as fruits contaminated by bat saliva. These findings provide significant new insights into ZEBOV circulation and human exposure, and raise important questions as to the human pathogenicity of ZEBOV and the existence of natural protective immunization. PMID:20161740

Becquart, Pierre; Wauquier, Nadia; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Padilla, Cindy; Souris, Marc; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric M

2010-01-01

300

High prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune hypersensitization to multiple foods and strongly associated with atopy and esophageal remodeling. Objective We provide clinical and molecular evidence indicating a high prevalence of EoE in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders (CTDs). Methods We examined the rate of EoE among patients with CTDs and subsequently analyzed esophageal mRNA transcript profiles in patients with EoE with or without CTD features. Results We report a cohort of 42 patients with EoE with a CTD-like syndrome, representing 0.8% of patients with CTDs and 1.3% of patients with EoE within our hospital-wide electronic medical record database and our EoE research registry, respectively. An 8-fold risk of EoE in patients with CTDs (relative risk, 8.1; 95% confidence limit, 5.1-12.9; ?21 = 112.0; P < 10?3) was present compared with the general population. Esophageal transcript profiling identified a distinct subset of genes, including COL8A2, in patients with EoE and CTDs. Conclusion There is a remarkable association of EoE with CTDs and evidence for a differential expression of genes involved in connective tissue repair in this cohort. Thus, we propose stratification of patients with EoE and CTDs into a subset referred to as EoE-CTD. PMID:23608731

Abonia, J. Pablo; Wen, Ting; Stucke, Emily M.; Grotjan, Tommie; Griffith, Molly S.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Collins, Margaret H.; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; von Tiehl, Karl F.; Tinkle, Brad T.; Marsolo, Keith A.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2013-01-01

301

High prevalence of myocardial monoclonal antimyosin antibody uptake in patients with chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies were undertaken to assess the presence of myocardial uptake in patients with chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Three groups were studied: 17 patients with chronic (greater than 12 months) idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 12 patients with a large, poorly contracting left ventricle not due to dilated cardiomyopathy (control patients) and 8 normal individuals. The patients in the cardiomyopathy and control groups showed a similar degree of clinical and functional impairment. Imaging was undertaken 48 h after antimyosin injection. The heart/lung ratio of antimyosin uptake was used to assess the results. The mean ratio in the cardiomyopathy group was 1.83 +/- 0.36 (range 1.40 to 2.80), a value significantly higher than that obtained in the control patients without cardiomyopathy (mean 1.46 +/- 0.04, range 1.38 to 1.50) or normal subjects (mean 1.46 +/- 0.13, range 1.31 to 1.6) (p less than 0.01). No difference in the ratio was noted between the normal subjects and control patients. Abnormal antimyosin uptake was seen in 12 (70%) of the 17 patients with cardiomyopathy and in only 1 (8%) of the 12 control patients. Positive monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies are highly prevalent in chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Obrador, D.; Ballester, M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Pons-Llado, G.

1989-05-01

302

High Prevalence of Both Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Zaire ebolavirus among Rural Populations in Gabon  

PubMed Central

To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in Gabon. Using a sensitive and specific ELISA method, we found a ZEBOV-specific IgG seroprevalence of 15.3% overall, the highest ever reported. The seroprevalence rate was significantly higher in forested areas (19.4%) than in other ecosystems, namely grassland (12.4%), savannah (10.5%), and lakeland (2.7%). No other risk factors for seropositivity were found. The specificity of anti-ZEBOV IgG was confirmed by Western blot in 138 individuals, and CD8 T cells from seven IgG+ individuals were shown to produce IFN-? after ZEBOV stimulation. Together, these findings show that a large fraction of the human population living in forested areas of Gabon has both humoral and cellular immunity to ZEBOV. In the absence of identified risk factors, the high prevalence of “immune” persons suggests a common source of human exposure such as fruits contaminated by bat saliva. These findings provide significant new insights into ZEBOV circulation and human exposure, and raise important questions as to the human pathogenicity of ZEBOV and the existence of natural protective immunization. PMID:20161740

Mahlakoiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonne; Padilla, Cindy; Souris, Marc; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric M.

2010-01-01

303

Mathematical Modeling of the HIV/Kaposi's Sarcoma Coinfection Dynamics in Areas of High HIV Prevalence  

PubMed Central

We formulate a deterministic system of ordinary differential equations to quantify HAART treatment levels for patients co-infected with HIV and Kaposi's Sarcoma in a high HIV prevalence setting. A qualitative stability analysis of the equilibrium states is carried out and we find that the disease-free equilibrium is globally attracting whenever the reproductive number ? k < 1. A unique endemic equilibrium exists and is locally stable whenever ? k > 1. Therefore, reducing ? k to below unity should be the goal for disease eradication. Provision of HAART is shown to provide dual benefit of reducing HIV spread and the risk of acquiring another fatal disease for HIV/AIDS patients. By providing treatment to 10% of the HIV population, about 87% of the AIDS population acquire protection against coinfection with HIV and Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS). Most sub-Sahara African countries already have programmes in place to screen HIV. Our recommendation is that these programmes should be expanded to include testing for HHV-8 and KS counseling. PMID:24348744

Lungu, E.; Massaro, T. J.; Ndelwa, E.; Ainea, N.; Chibaya, S.; Malunguza, N. J.

2013-01-01

304

High Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.1). To study whether an increased body mass index (BMI) could be responsible for symptoms of an eating disorder, we also compared patients with BMI-matched controls, using the SCAN as well as the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Setting: University hospital. Patients and participants: Patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy (n = 60) were recruited from specialized sleep centers. Healthy controls (n = 120) were drawn from a population study previously performed in the Netherlands. Separately, 32 BMI-matched controls were recruited. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In total, 23.3% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for a clinical eating disorder, as opposed to none of the control subjects. Most of these were classified as Eating Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified, with an incomplete form of binge eating disorder. On the symptom level, half of the patients reported a persistent craving for food, as well as binge eating. Twenty-five percent of patients even reported binging twice a week or more often. When compared with BMI-matched controls, the significant increases persisted in symptoms of eating disorders among patients with narcolepsy. Except for a higher level of interference in daily activities due to eating problems in patients using antidepressants, medication use did not influence our findings. Conclusions: The majority of patients with narcolepsy experience a number of symptoms of eating disorders, with an irresistible craving for food and binge eating as the most prominent features. Eating disorder symptomatology interfered with daily activities. These findings justify more attention for eating disorders in the treatment of patients with narcolepsy. Citation: Droogleever Fortuyn HA; Swinkels S; Buitelaar J; Renier WO; Furer JW; Rijnders CA; Hodiamont PP; Overeem S. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study. SLEEP 2008;31(3):335-341. PMID:18363309

Fortuyn, Hal A. Droogleever; Swinkels, Sofie; Buitelaar, Jan; Renier, Wily O.; Furer, Joop W.; Rijnders, Cees A.; Hodiamont, Paul P.; Overeem, Sabastiaan

2008-01-01

305

High Prevalence of Self-Reported Depressive Mood during the Winter Season among Swedish Senior High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: There are few studies regarding the prevalence of seasonal variation in mood among children and adolescents. The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported depressive mood during the winter season among Swedish adolescents and to investigate gender differences. Another aim was to analyze the factor…

Rastad, Cecilia; Ulfberg, Jan; Sjoden, Per-Olow

2006-01-01

306

High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo.  

PubMed

The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-03-01

307

Low prevalence of rotavirus and high prevalence of norovirus in hospital and community wastewater after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these data with pre-vaccination data. The major finding was the low prevalence of RV compared to NoV in all sampling points (11% vs 44%, p<0.05), and that RV concentration was lower as compared to NoV. RV was observed mainly during the rainy season (July-September), and the majority of all RV detected (6/9) belonged to subgroup (SG) I. The partial VP7-gene obtained from one RV positive sample was similar (99% nt identity) to a G6 VP7-gene of bovine origin and similar to the corresponding gene of the vaccine strain (98%). Furthermore RV G-types 2 and 4 were found in the incoming wastewater. NoV strains were detected throughout the year, of which a majority (20/21) were of genotype GII.4. We conclude that the introduction of RV vaccination reduced the transmission of RV in the community in Nicaragua. However, the burden of diarrhea in the country remains high, and the high prevalence of NoVs in hospital and municipal wastewater is noteworthy. This study highlights the need for further assessment of NoV following RV vaccine introduction. PMID:22016794

Bucardo, Filemón; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

2011-01-01

308

Time Trends and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs: Analysis of Veterinary Medical Data Base Records (1970–1999)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to identify recent trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs and to identify host risk factors. Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) electronic records of 6860 dogs with a diagnosis of DM (VMDB code 870178500) between 1970 and 1999 were evaluated to determine time trends. Records of 6707 dogs with DM and

L. Guptill; L. Glickman; N. Glickman

2003-01-01

309

High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: implications for transmission and control.  

PubMed

Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented high prevalence of S. japonicum in humans. PMID:23029571

Gordon, Catherine A; Acosta, Luz P; Gray, Darren J; Olveda, Remigo M; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Ross, Allen G; McManus, Donald P

2012-01-01

310

The Prevalence of Exposure to Domestic Violence Among High School Students in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms. PMID:24719707

Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe

2014-01-01

311

An initiation-promotion model of tumour prevalence from high-charge and energy radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A repair/misrepair kinetic model for multiple radiation-induced lesions (mutation inactivation) is coupled to a two-mutation model of initiation-promotion in tissue to provide a parametric description of tumour prevalence in the mouse Harderian gland from high-energy and charge radiations. Track-structure effects are considered using an action-cross section model. Dose-response curves are described for gamma rays and relativistic ions, and good agreement with experiment is found. The effects of nuclear fragmentation are also considered for high-energy proton and alpha-particle exposures. The model described provides a parametric description of age-dependent cancer induction for a wide range of radiation fields. Radiosensitivity parameters found in the model for an initiation mutation (sigma 0 = 7.6 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 148.0 Gy) are somewhat different than previously observed for neoplastic transformation of C3H10T1/2 cell cultures (sigma 0 = 0.7 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 117.0 Gy). We consider the two hypotheses that radiation acts solely as an initiator or as both initiator and promoter and make model calculations for fractionation exposures from gamma rays and relativistic Fe ions. For fractionated Fe exposures, an inverse-dose-rate effect is provided by a promotion hypothesis with an increase of 30% or more, dependent on the dose level and fractionation schedule, using a mutation rate for promotion similar to that of single-gene mutations.

Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

1994-01-01

312

High prevalence of chronic non-communicable conditions among adult refugees: implications for practice and policy.  

PubMed

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2012-10-01

313

High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy  

PubMed Central

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2013-01-01

314

Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.  

PubMed

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

2011-01-01

315

Phenotypic and functional characterization of a CD4+ CD25high FOXP3high regulatory T-cell population in the dog  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about regulatory T (Treg) cells and their functional responses in dogs. We have used the cross-reactive anti-mouse/rat Foxp3 antibody clone FJK-16s to identify a population of canine CD4+ FOXP3high T cells in both the peripheral blood (PB) and popliteal lymph node (LN). FOXP3+ cells in both PB and LN yielded positive staining with the newly developed anti-murine/human Helios antibody clone 22F6, consistent with the notion that they were naturally occurring Treg cells. Stimulation of mononuclear cells of LN origin with concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro yielded increased proportions and median fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 expression by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Removal of the Con A and continued culture disclosed a CD4+ FOXP3high population, distinct from the CD4+ FOXP3intermediate T cells; very few CD8+ FOXP3high T cells were observed, though CD8+ FOXP3intermediate cells were present in equal abundance to CD4+ FOXP3intermediate cells. The CD4+ FOXP3high T cells were thought to represent activated Treg cells, in contrast to the FOXP3intermediate cells, which were thought to be a more heterogeneous population comprising predominantly activated conventional T cells. Co-staining with interferon-? (IFN-?) supported this notion, because the FOXP3high T cells were almost exclusively IFN-??, whereas the FOXP3intermediate cells expressed a more heterogeneous IFN-? phenotype. Following activation of mononuclear cells with Con A and interleukin-2, the 5% of CD4+ T cells showing the highest CD25 expression (CD4+ CD25high) were enriched in cells expressing FOXP3. These cells were anergic in vitro, in contrast to the 20% of CD4+ T cells with the lowest CD25 expression (CD4+ CD25?), which proliferated readily. The CD4+ CD25high FOXP3high T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of responder CD4+ T cells in vitro, in contrast to the CD4+ CD25? cells, which showed no regulatory properties. PMID:20880379

Pinheiro, Dammy; Singh, Yogesh; Grant, Charlotte R; Appleton, Richard C; Sacchini, Flavio; Walker, Kate R L; Chadbourne, Alden H; Palmer, Charlotte A; Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Ian; Williamson, Lina; Cunningham, Fiona; Garden, Oliver A

2011-01-01

316

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study  

PubMed Central

Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1) and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5) dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6), E. canis (OR = 4.1) and D. immitis (OR = 2.4) were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in place to protect dogs and limit the risk of transmission of vector-borne agents to humans. This study is expected to give veterinary and public health authorities an increased awareness about CVBDs in Portugal and to serve as a reference for future investigations and control actions. PMID:22452990

2012-01-01

317

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma. Gambogic acid was used as an internal standard (IS). After a simple liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate, the analyte and internal standard were separated on an Acquity BEH C18 (100?×?2.1?mm, 1.7?µm; Waters ) column at a flow rate of 0.2?mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-methanol (10:90, v/v) as mobile phase. Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring mode with the transitions m/z 631.3???507.3 and m/z 629.1???573.2 was used to quantify gambogenic acid and the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 5-1000?ng/mL, with a coefficient of determination (r) of 0.999 and good calculated accuracy and precision. The low limit of quantification was 5?ng/mL. The intra-and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were <15%. The methodology recoveries were more than 66.63%. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after intravenous injection administration of gambogenic acid in dogs at a dose of 1?mg/kg. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24802389

Chen, Jin Pei; Wang, Dian Lei; Yang, Li Li; Wang, Chen Yin; Wang, Shan Shan

2014-12-01

318

Spirometric tests to assess the prevalence of childhood asthma at Portuguese rural areas: influence of exposure to high ozone levels.  

PubMed

The study here reported aimed to: i) evaluate the prevalence of childhood asthma at a Portuguese rural area with high ozone concentrations through lung function tests, validating the previously estimated one assessed through questionnaires (similar to those of the ISAAC); ii) compare the achieved prevalence with the one reported at an unexposed area (with low ozone concentrations), aiming to evaluate the influence of exposure to high ozone levels; and iii) determine potential risk factors. Ninety-five of the original 478 children that completed the questionnaires, mentioned to have at least one of asthma symptoms (wheeze, dyspnea or cough) and were therefore evaluated by spirometry. FEV(1) was in average 89.7% for asthmatics and 102.8% for non-asthmatics. For the studied sample the risk was higher for girls with a tendency to be higher from 8 to 10 years old. Lifetime prevalence of childhood asthma at the exposed area was 9.2%. Children living at the exposed area had 3 times higher risk of having asthma than those living at the unexposed area. Considering that ozone concentrations were the main difference between both areas, it can be suggested that ozone pollution increased asthma prevalence. Nevertheless, it should be remarked that further studies should be done to confirm these results. PMID:21176965

Sousa, S I V; Ferraz, C; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Vaz, L G; Pereira, M C

2011-02-01

319

Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda.  

PubMed

Standard therapy for malaria in Uganda changed from chloroquine to chloroquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2000, and artemether-lumefantrine in 2004, although implementation of each change was slow. Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms are associated with alterations in drug sensitivity. We followed the prevalence of drug resistance-mediating P. falciparum polymorphisms in 982 samples from Tororo, a region of high transmission intensity, collected from three successive treatment trials conducted during 2003-2012, excluding samples with known recent prior treatment. Considering transporter mutations, prevalence of the mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, and pfmdr1 1246Y alleles decreased over time. Considering antifolate mutations, the prevalence of pfdhfr 51I, 59R, and 108N, and pfdhps 437G and 540E were consistently high; pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G were uncommon, but most prevalent during 2008-2010. Our data suggest sequential selective pressures as different treatments were implemented, and they highlight the importance of genetic surveillance as treatment policies change over time. PMID:24799371

Mbogo, George W; Nankoberanyi, Sheila; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Baliraine, Frederick N; Nsobya, Samuel L; Conrad, Melissa D; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Kamya, Moses; Tappero, Jordan; Staedke, Sarah G; Dorsey, Grant; Greenhouse, Bryan; Rosenthal, Philip J

2014-07-01

320

Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Livestock in China: High Prevalence and Zoonotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Despite many recent advances in genotype characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi worldwide and the exploration of the extent of cross-species transmission of microsporidiosis between humans and animals, the epidemiology of this neglected disease in China is poorly understood. In this study, a very high prevalence (60.3%; 94/156) of E. bieneusi infections in farmed pigs in Jilin province was detected by PCR of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). DNA sequence analysis of 88 E. bieneusi–positive specimens identified 12 distinct genotypes (11 known: CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EbpA, EbpB, EbpC, EbpD, EBITS3, G, and Henan-I; one novel: CS-9). Frequent appearance of mixed genotype infections was seen in the study animals. Weaned (74.6%; 53/71) or pre-weaned (68.8%; 22/32) pigs have infection rates significantly higher than growing pigs (35.8%; 19/53) (p<0.01). Likewise, E. bieneusi was detected in 2 of 45 sheep fecal specimens (4.4%) in Heilongjiang province, belonging to the known genotype BEB6. Genotypes EbpA, EbpC, EbpD, and Henan-I examined herein have been documented in the cases of human infections and BEB6, EbpA, EbpC, and EbpD in wastewater in central China. Infections of EbpA and EbpC in humans were also reported in other areas of the world. The other known genotypes (CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EBITS3, EbpB, and G) and the new genotype CS-9 were genetically clustered into a group of existing E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential. Thus, pigs could be a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China. PMID:24845247

Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Li, Weizhi; Yang, Jinping; Song, Mingxin; Diao, Ruinan; Jia, Honglin; Lu, Yixin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua

2014-01-01

321

[Biology of aggression in dogs].  

PubMed

The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds. PMID:11314475

Feddersen-Petersen, D U

2001-03-01

322

Dog epilepsy gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have now identified a genetic mutation responsible for epilepsy in dogs. Further research on dogs with this mutation might help researchers better understand how to treat or prevent seizures in humans with Lafora disease, according to the authors.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-01-07

323

Rethinking Mandatory HIV Testing During Pregnancy in Areas With High HIV Prevalence Rates: Ethical and Policy Issues  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051

Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita

2007-01-01

324

High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined. PMID:9452292

Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

1998-01-01

325

Increased expression of gallbladder cholecystokinin: a receptor in prairie dogs fed a high-cholesterol diet and its dissociation with decreased contractility in response to cholecystokinin.  

PubMed

A series of our studies have shown that formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile in patients with cholesterol gallstone disease is causatively related to decreased gallbladder contractility and mucin hypersecretion by the gallbladder. Supersaturated bile may modify the composition of gallbladder membranes so that the transduction of smooth muscle regulatory signals is impaired, and it may enhance the inflammation-induced mucin secretion by the gallbladder. To achieve a better understanding of the mechanism by which supersaturated bile impairs the contractility, we studied changes in the expression levels of gallbladder cholecystokinin (CCK-A) receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in prairie dogs fed a high-cholesterol diet. Levels of pathobiological determinants in arachidonate metabolism which are important for mucin secretion were also measured in their bile. Adult male prairie dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a semisynthetic diet (SSD) or an SSD plus 1.2% cholesterol (a high-cholesterol diet) for 2-, 4-, and 6-week periods. The contractile force in response to CCK-octapeptide (CCK-8) was measured by using gallbladder muscle strips. The mRNA levels of the CCK-A receptor were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Parallel to the increase in the cholesterol saturation index, the contractile responses to CCK-8 decreased in the animals fed a high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks and markedly decreased in the animals with gallstone formation. However, in contrast to the decreased contractility, the steady-state mRNA levels of the gallbladder CCK-A receptor were significantly increased in the animals fed a high-cholesterol diet in comparison with the corresponding control animals. In the bile, a high-cholesterol diet caused an increase in the proportion of arachidonyl-phosphatidylcholine species, where phospholipase A(2) activity, prostaglandin E(2), and mucin concentrations were increased parallel to the feeding period. Up-regulation of the CCK-A receptor mRNA in the gallbladder of animals fed a high-cholesterol diet associated with decreased contractility may be due to an impairment of CCK signaling related to increased membrane cholesterol contents and its related reaction of biological compensation in order to increase the receptor concentration. The results of the present study suggest that in prairie dogs fed a high-cholesterol diet both a decrease in gallbladder contractility related to impairment of CCK signaling and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-induced mucosal inflammation in the gallbladder with associated biliary alterations favoring cholesterol crystal formation pathogenetically contribute to the formation of cholesterol gallstones. PMID:12032489

Kano, Masahito; Shoda, Junichi; Satoh, Susumu; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Abei, Masato; Tanaka, Naomi

2002-05-01

326

Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.  

PubMed

Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population. PMID:23438265

Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

2013-06-01

327

High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data  

PubMed Central

To date, hundreds of variants in 13 genes have been associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). The prevalence of LQTS is estimated to be between 1:2000 and 1:5000. The knowledge of genetic variation in the general population has until recently been limited, but newly published data from NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) has provided important knowledge on this topic. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants in ESP (5400 individuals), in order to identify possible false-positive LQTS variants. With this aim, we performed a search for previously published LQTS-associated variants in ESP. In addition, a PolyPhen-2 prediction was conducted, and the four most prevalent LQTS-associated variants with significant functional effects present in ESP were genotyped in a second control population. We identified 33 missense variants previously associated with LQTS in ESP. These 33 variants affected 173 alleles and this corresponded to a LQTS prevalence of 1:31 in the ESP population. PolyPhen-2 predicted 30% of the 33 variants present in ESP to be benign compared with 13% among LQTS-associated variants not present in ESP (P=0.019). Genotyping of the four variants KCNH2 P347S; SCN5A: S216L, V1951L; and CAV3 T78M in the control population (n=704) revealed prevalences comparable to those of ESP. Thus, we identified a much higher prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants than expected in exome data from population studies. Great caution regarding the possible disease causation of some of these variants has to be taken, especially when used for risk stratification in family members. PMID:22378279

Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Hauns?, Stig; Nielsen, Jonas B; Olesen, Morten S

2012-01-01

328

The High Prevalence of Symptomatic Degenerative Lumbar Osteoarthritis in Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45 years. Lumbar osteoarthritis is epidemic in Beijing and will become a more severe problem in aging society. Different populations have different features that require targeted interventions. Level of Evidence: 2 PMID:24825154

Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao

2014-01-01

329

High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Iran: a large population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health threat, associated with an alarming increase in morbidity and mortality.\\u000a The importance is the worldwide increase in its incidence and prevalence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this cross-sectional study, we estimate the prevalence and determine the associated factors of chronic kidney disease in\\u000a a representative sample of 10063 participants aged over 20 years, in Tehran,

Farhad Hosseinpanah; Farshad Kasraei; Amir A Nassiri; Fereidoun Azizi

2009-01-01

330

Hyperthermia in running sled dogs.  

PubMed

Hyperthermia, as measured by increase in rectal temperature, was studied in a group of 22 adult mongrel sled dogs that had been selectively bred for high-speed (up to 33 km/h) races 16-50 km in distance. Under normal working conditions, rectal temperature in the sled dogs increased significantly during initial 15-20 min of run (gathered gallop) after which temperature usually stabilized or decreased slightly. Amount of increase in rectal temperature was correlated directly with ambient temperature but not with speed or distance. Significant differences in degree of hyperthermia were found among dogs but these differences were not correlated with such factors as sex, size, coat color, weight, or genetic history. Training was found to significantly diminish amount of increase in rectal temperature during work. Data from the present study were compared to those of other laboratory investigations and relationships of heat storage and radiative surface area to body weight are discussed. PMID:7263406

Phillips, C J; Coppinger, R P; Schimel, D S

1981-07-01

331

High Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Insufficient Case Detection in Two Communities in the Western Cape, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB) for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. Aims To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. Methods In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction) trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT) and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. Results In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25–41/1000) and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5–13/1000). In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17–32/1000) and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6–15/1000). In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19–30%). Discussion In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence. PMID:23560039

Claassens, Mareli; van Schalkwyk, Cari; den Haan, Leonie; Floyd, Sian; Dunbar, Rory; van Helden, Paul; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Ayles, Helen; Borgdorff, Martien; Enarson, Donald; Beyers, Nulda

2013-01-01

332

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma in two dogs.  

PubMed

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) of the spleen and jejunum was diagnosed in 2 dogs. As an extremely uncommon type of tumor that has proven difficult to treat, ESOS is associated with high rate of local recurrence and metastatic disease. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma principally affects older dogs, has no apparent breed predilection, and may develop more frequently in males. The cause of ESOS is unknown, but may involve malignant metaplasia of pluripotential mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. Macroscopically, ESOS usually is observed as a hard mass and may appear similar to calcified hematoma or myositis ossificans. The classic radiographic appearance of ESOS is a soft tissue mass with focal mineralization and without adjacent bone involvement. PMID:2722641

Schena, C J; Stickle, R L; Dunstan, R W; Trapp, A L; Reimann, K A; White, J V; Killingsworth, C R; Hauptman, J G

1989-05-15

333

Sight in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

I THINK Mr. Kingsley rather underrates the exercise of the organs of vision by the dog when, in comparing it with the horse, he writes,-`` The dog, who has smelt everything, but looked at very little.'' Now it is true that the dog does not look about him when on his travels, in the popular sense, by turning his head

J. Hopkins Walters

1873-01-01

334

Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.  

PubMed

Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca. PMID:9177091

Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

1997-06-24

335

Radiologically isolated syndrome: an uncommon finding at a university clinic in a high-prevalence region for multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The improved availability of MRI in medicine has led to an increase in incidental findings. Unexpected brain MRI findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) without typical symptoms of MS were recently defined as radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). The prevalence of RIS is uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RIS at a university hospital in a region with a high prevalence for MS and describe the long-term prognosis of the identified patients. Design Retrospective cohort study conducted in 2012. Setting All brain MRI examinations performed at Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden during 2001 were retrospectively screened by a single rater for findings fulfilling the Okuda criteria. The sample year was chosen in order to establish the long-term prognosis of the patients identified. The examinations of interest were re-evaluated according to the Barkhof criteria by a neuroradiologist with long experience in MS. Participants In total 2105 individuals were included in the study. Ages ranged from 0 to 90?years with a median age of 48?years. Only one patient with RIS was identified, equivalent to a prevalence of 0.05% in the studied population, or 0.15% among patients aged 15–40?years. The patient with RIS developed symptoms consistent with MS within 3?months accompanied with radiological progression and was diagnosed with MS. Conclusions RIS, according to present criteria, is an uncommon finding in a tertiary hospital setting in a high-prevalence region for MS where awareness and clinical suspicion of MS is common. In order to study the prognosis of RIS, multicentre studies, or case–control studies are recommended. PMID:24189079

Granberg, Tobias; Martola, Juha; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Fredrikson, Sten

2013-01-01

336

Risk factors for development of chronic superficial keratitis in dogs.  

PubMed

Proportional hospital accession ratios for chronic superficial keratitis (CSK) of dogs were determined for 16 US veterinary teaching hospitals participating in the Veterinary Medical Data Base between Jan 1, 1976 and Dec 31, 1991. The prevalence of CSK was significantly correlated (r = 0.90) with altitude of residence, but not with latitude, longitude, mean annual solar radiation, or mean annual relative humidity. Medical records of dogs with (n = 595) and without (n = 72,877) CSK examined at the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between Jan 1, 1976 and Oct 28, 1991 were also reviewed. Belgian Tervuren, German Shepherd Dogs, Border Collies, Greyhounds, Siberian Huskies, and Australian Shepherds were disproportionately affected. Dogs between 4 and 7 years old were 2.36 times more likely to develop lesions than were dogs < 4 years old (P < 0.05). Among dogs < 4 years old, spayed females, sexually intact males, and castrated males were more likely to develop the condition (P < 0.05) than were sexually intact females. Altitude of residence was a significant risk factor in the development of CSK among dogs in Colorado. Dogs living at altitudes > 7,000 ft above sea level were 7.75 times more likely to develop lesions than were dogs living at elevations between 3,000 and 5,000 ft. PMID:8050943

Chavkin, M J; Roberts, S M; Salman, M D; Severin, G A; Scholten, N J

1994-05-15

337

Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high-quality senior dog diets.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets contained 20% milt meal (MM), pink salmon hydrolysate (PSH) and white fish meal (WFM) added at the expense of poultry by-product meal. Concentrations of lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD21 cell-surface markers and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured. Gene expression of cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Major compositional differences were noted among fish substrates but apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients and immune indices were not affected by treatment. Fish protein substrates were found to be effective substitutes for poultry by-product meal, providing diets of high nutritive value for senior dogs. PMID:18492029

Zinn, K E; Hernot, D C; Fastinger, N D; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Bechtel, P J; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

2009-08-01

338

High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and hospital records of children diagnosed with drug-resistant TB were reviewed, including clinical and radiological outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) was performed using the automated liquid broth MGIT™ 960 method. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed using the MGIT™ 960 method for both first and second-line anti-TB drugs. Results 1317 children were treated for tuberculosis in 2008 between the two hospitals where the study was conducted. Drug susceptibility testing was undertaken in 148 (72.5%) of the 204 children who had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. The prevalence of isoniazid-resistance was 14.2% (n = 21) (95%CI, 9.0-20.9%) and the prevalence of MDR-TB 8.8% (n = 13) (95%CI, 4.8-14.6%). The prevalence of HIV co-infection was 52.1% in children with drug susceptible-TB and 53.9% in children with MDR-TB. Ten (76.9%) of the 13 children with MDR-TB received appropriate treatment and four (30.8%) died at a median of 2.8 months (range 0.1-4.0 months) after the date of tuberculosis investigation. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children in Johannesburg in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV co-infection, although no association between HIV infection and MDR-TB was found in this study. Routine HIV and drug-susceptibility testing is warranted to optimize the management of childhood tuberculosis in settings such as ours. PMID:21269475

2011-01-01

339

High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality. PMID:24809062

Golob, Barbara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko

2014-01-01

340

Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in a High HIV Prevalence Population Provided with Enhanced Diagnosis of Symptomatic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDirectly observed treatment short course (DOTS), the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB) transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We

Elizabeth L. Corbett; Tsitsi Bandason; Yin Bun Cheung; Shungu Munyati; Peter Godfrey-Faussett; Richard Hayes; Gavin Churchyard; Anthony Butterworth; Peter Mason

2007-01-01

341

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among High-risk Women in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Remnant specimen from 1,215 women screening for chlamydia/gonorrhea at four different venue types (STD clinics, home-test kit users, juvenile and adult detention) in Los Angeles, CA, were tested for T. vaginalis. Prevalence of T. vaginalis varied by screening population and concurrent chlamydia or gonorrhea was independently associated with T. vaginalis. PMID:24275733

Javanbakht, Marjan; Stirland, Ali; Stahlman, Shauna; Smith, Lisa V.; Chien, Michael; Torres, Ruel; Guerry, Sarah

2014-01-01

342

High prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in Konya, a central Anatolian city in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, diabetes and the relationship between adiposity and carbohydrate metabolism, by age and gender in Konya, a city in central Anatolia. Methods: A cross-sectional population based survey was performed. One month before the field survey a media campaign was started in each district by

Volkan D. Yumuk; Husrev Hatemi; Tunc Tarakci; Nurettin Uyar; Nurten Turan; Nazif Bagriacik; Ali Ipbuker

2005-01-01

343

High Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus Among Injection Drug Users in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constant increase in the number of drug users and rapidly spread of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users result in a serious public health problem in China. To investigate HCV prevalence among drug users\\u000a in Zhenjiang city, Jiangsu, China, 207 drug users from Zhenjiang were enrolled in this study during 2009 and the

Nana Wu; Qinjuan Ge; Qingchuan Feng; Jun Zhang; Xiaoxia Liu; Caihong Sun; Yongkang Xu; Guangli He; Chiyu Zhang

344

High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.1). To study whether an increased body mass index (BMI) could be responsible for symptoms of

H. A. Fortuyn; S. Swinkels; J. K. Buitelaar; W. O. Renier; J. W. Furer; C. A. Rijnders; P. P. Hodiamont; S. Overeem

2008-01-01

345

First evidence and molecular characterization of Babesia vogeli in naturally infected dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in southern France.  

PubMed

Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of animals and humans caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera Babesia and Theileria. In France canine babesiosis has a high prevalence with Babesia canis thought to be the main aetiological agent of the disease. Babesia vogeli has already been reported to occur in Europe and in other countries around the Mediterranean Sea. The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the main known vector of B. vogeli, occurs in southern France. However, only one case of a B. vogeli infected dog has been reported to date in France. To gain further insight into the prevalence of Babesia and Theileria infections in dogs and ticks of the R. sanguineus complex, a study was conducted in a veterinary practice in the south of France from January to September 2010. Twelve bloods from dogs and 36 R. sanguineus ticks were analyzed using PCR and sequencing. For the analysis of ticks, a new primer was designed to specifically amplify the B. vogeli 18S rRNA gene. Four dogs (33.3%) and 8 ticks (22.2%) were found to be infected with B. vogeli. This approach has thus revealed for the first time a cluster of cases of canine babesiosis caused by B. vogeli in France and highlights the need to systematically screen for pathogens potentially responsible for canine babesiosis at the species level using suitable molecular tools. PMID:22342131

René, M; Chêne, J; Beaufils, J P; Valiente Moro, C; Bourdoiseau, G; Mavingui, P; Chabanne, L

2012-07-01

346

High rates of substance use in French youths 13/7/07 High prevalence rates of tobacco, alcohol and drug use in adolescents and  

E-print Network

High rates of substance use in French youths 13/7/07 1 High prevalence rates of tobacco, alcohol;33(1):122-33" DOI : 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.09.009 #12;High rates of substance use in French youths 13/7/07 2 Abstract Background: Rates of substance use among adolescents have increased in the 1990s, however little is known

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.  

PubMed

We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

2014-01-01

348

Increasing Physical Activity of High Intensity to Reduce the Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Improve Public Health  

PubMed Central

High incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases, increasing obesity and inactivity as well as rising health expenditure represent a set of developments that cannot be considered sustainable, and will have dire long-term consequences given the increasing proportion of elderly people in our society. Based on a review of the experiences from previous large scale population-based prevention programs and the documented effects of increased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on chronic diseases and its risk factors, we argue that increased physical activity, especially vigorous physical activity, is a major way to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases and improve public health. We conclude that a coordinated population-based intervention program for improved health through increased physical activity in the entire population, with a special focus on high intensity exercise, urgently needs to be implemented nationally and internationally. PMID:23459225

Rehn, Tommy Aune; Winett, Richard A; Wisl?ff, Ulrik; Rognmo, ?ivind

2013-01-01

349

Prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in humans living in municipalities with high and low broiler density.  

PubMed

Prevalence of, and risk factors for, carriage of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae were determined for 1025 Dutch adults in municipalities with either high or low broiler densities. Overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 5.1%. The hypothesis that individuals in areas with high broiler densities are at greater risk for ESBL carriage was rejected, as the risk was lower (OR = 0.45; p 0.009) for these individuals. Owning a horse increased the risk (OR = 4.69; p ?0.0001), but horse owners often owned multiple species of companion animals. Routes of transmission from animals to humans in the community, and the role of poultry in this process, remain to be elucidated. PMID:23397953

Huijbers, P M C; de Kraker, M; Graat, E A M; van Hoek, A H A M; van Santen, M G; de Jong, M C M; van Duijkeren, E; de Greeff, S C

2013-06-01

350

Ecological analysis of the association between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women enrolled in sentinel surveillance in four southern India states  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous at the district level in the four Southern states of India most affected by the epidemic and where transmission is mainly heterosexual. The authors carried out an ecological study of the relationship between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women (ANC HIV prevalence).MethodsThe data used in this study included: ANC HIV prevalence

Michel Alary; A A Jayachandran; Catherine M Lowndes; Jan Bradley; Eric Demers; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar

2010-01-01

351

Adolescent Psychopathology: I. Prevalence and Incidence of Depression and Other DSM–III–R Disorders in High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected on the point and lifetime prevalences, 1-year incidence, and comorbidity of depression with other disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [3rd ed., rev.]) in a randomly selected sample (n = 1,710) of high school students at point of entry and at 1-year follow-up (n = 1,508). The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age

Peter M. Lewinsohn; Hyman Hops; Robert E. Roberts; John R. Seeley; Judy A. Andrews

1993-01-01

352

High prevalence of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA in actinic keratoses of the immunocompetent population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin cancers in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent populations are associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis human papillomavirus (EV-HPV) DNA. However, little is known about the prevalence of EV-HPVs in actinic keratoses in immunocompetent individuals. Actinic keratoses from 114 patients were classified as low-grade ( n=76) or high-grade ( n=38) according to the extent of histological atypia. HPV DNA was amplified from 54

Herbert Pfister; Pawel G. Fuchs; Slawomir Majewski; Stefania Jablonska; Iwona Pniewska; Magdalena Malejczyk

2003-01-01

353

Prevalence, attitudes and knowledge of high school pupils towards drugs and other addictions: implications for school health education in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifteen high school pupils from Holon (a city in the center of Israel) participated in a study about the prevalence, knowledge and attitudes of these pupils towards drugs and other addictions (cigarettes and alcohol). Their mean age was 16.13 (±1.59) years; 43.9% were boys and 56.1% were girls. A total of 1.6% of the pupils regularly used

U Brook; R Feigin; M Sherer; D Geva

2001-01-01

354

High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks. PMID:21665537

Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godi?; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

2011-09-01

355

Assessment of hereditary retinal degeneration in the English springer spaniel dog and disease relationship to an RPGRIP1 mutation.  

PubMed

Intensive breeding and selection on desired traits have produced high rates of inherited diseases in dogs. Hereditary retinal degeneration, often called progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), is prevalent in dogs with disease entities comparable to human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Recent molecular studies in the English Springer Spaniel (ESS) dog have shown that PRA cases are often homozygous for a mutation in the RPGRIP1 gene, the defect also causing human RP, LCA, and cone rod dystrophies. The present study characterizes the disease in a group of affected ESS in USA, using clinical, functional, and morphological studies. An objective evaluation of retinal function using electroretinography (ERG) is further performed in a masked fashion in a group of American ESS dogs, with the examiner masked to the genetic status of the dogs. Only 4 of 6 homozygous animals showed clinical signs of disease, emphasizing the need and importance for more precise studies on the clinical expression of molecular defects before utilizing animal models for translational research, such as when using stem cells for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22550515

Narfström, Kristina; Jeong, Manbok; Hyman, Jennifer; Madsen, Richard W; Bergström, Tomas F

2012-01-01

356

Assessment of Hereditary Retinal Degeneration in the English Springer Spaniel Dog and Disease Relationship to an RPGRIP1 Mutation  

PubMed Central

Intensive breeding and selection on desired traits have produced high rates of inherited diseases in dogs. Hereditary retinal degeneration, often called progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), is prevalent in dogs with disease entities comparable to human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Recent molecular studies in the English Springer Spaniel (ESS) dog have shown that PRA cases are often homozygous for a mutation in the RPGRIP1 gene, the defect also causing human RP, LCA, and cone rod dystrophies. The present study characterizes the disease in a group of affected ESS in USA, using clinical, functional, and morphological studies. An objective evaluation of retinal function using electroretinography (ERG) is further performed in a masked fashion in a group of American ESS dogs, with the examiner masked to the genetic status of the dogs. Only 4 of 6 homozygous animals showed clinical signs of disease, emphasizing the need and importance for more precise studies on the clinical expression of molecular defects before utilizing animal models for translational research, such as when using stem cells for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22550515

Narfstrom, Kristina; Jeong, Manbok; Hyman, Jennifer; Madsen, Richard W.; Bergstrom, Tomas F.

2012-01-01

357

AFRICAN WILD DOGS (LYCAON PICTUS) ENDANGERED BY A CANINE DISTEMPER EPIZOOTIC AMONG DOMESTIC DOGS NEAR THE MASAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE, KENYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study of canine distemper (CD) among domestic dogs on Maasai communal land to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya was conducted from 1989 to 1991. Prevalence of antibodies to CD was very low among domestic dogs in 1989 and 1990 (4%, n = 49; and 1%, n = 119, respectively) and no African wild

Kathleen A. Alexander; Max J. G. AppeI

358

High Prevalence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Viruses among Female Commercial Sex Workers Residing in Surabaya, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and have an impact on the Indonesian economy. In addition, the rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. Commercial sex plays a significant role in the spread of HIV; therefore, in order to reveal the current HIV prevalence rate among commercial sex workers (CSWs), we conducted an epidemiological study on HIV infection among CSWs residing in Surabaya, the capital of East Java province of Indonesia with large communities of CSWs. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of HIV infection among 200 CSWs was studied. In addition, the subtype of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and the prevalence of other blood-borne viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C (GBV-C), were studied. The prevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV antibodies and anti-GBV-C antibodies were 11%, 64%, 4%, 0.5% and 0% among CSWs involved in this study, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE viral gene fragments were detected in most HIV-positive samples. In addition, most CSWs showed low awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and had unprotected sex with their clients. Conclusions/Significance The HIV prevalence rate among CSWs was significantly higher than that among the general population in Indonesia (0.2–0.4%). In addition, CSWs were at a high risk of exposure to HBV, although chronic HBV infection was less frequently established. Our results suggest the necessity of efficient prevention programs for HIV and other blood-borne viral infections among CSWs in Surabaya, Indonesia. PMID:24367533

Sukartiningrum, Septhia Dwi; Arfijanto, M. Vitanata; Utsumi, Takako; Normalina, Irine; Handajani, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Rusli, Musofa; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Nasronudin; Kameoka, Masanori

2013-01-01

359

Incidence of canine Babesia gibsoni infection and subclinical infection among Tosa dogs in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

To identify the incidence of Babesia gibsoni (B. gibsoni) in Aomori Prefecture, northeastern Japan, dogs with acute B. gibsoni infection were investigated at the Animal Teaching Hospital, Kitasato University, between April 2002 and March 2003. Eighteen dogs with acute B. gibsoni infection were recognized; they were all male dogs of the fighting dog breed Tosa. Their platelet counts were below normal and their packed cell volumes (PCVs) were at various levels. We collected blood samples from 141 Tosa dogs from Aomori Prefecture and used polymerase chain reaction assay to investigate the incidence of subclinical B. gibsoni infection. We also looked into the serological abnormalities associated with thrombocytopenia or anemia in subclinical infection. Forty-one of 87 dogs (47.1%) with histories of dog fighting, and one dog of 54 without a history of dog fighting were positive for B. gibsoni; that is, 42 of 141 dogs (29.8%) showed a positive result. The mean platelet counts of dogs with subclinical infection were significantly lower and levels of anti-platelet IgG were significantly higher than levels for dogs without infection. Anti-erythrocyte membrane IgG levels were significantly higher in dogs with subclinical infections, although mean PCVs were not significantly different. Tosa dogs from Aomori Prefecture, Japan, were highly infected with B. gibsoni subclinically and this pathogen might be successfully transmitted during dog fighting. Dogs with subclinical infections were at risk of chronic thrombocytopenia, which may be due to autoimmune mechanisms. PMID:15353837

Matsuu, Aya; Kawabe, Akemi; Koshida, Yushi; Ikadai, Hiromi; Okano, Shozo; Higuchi, Seiichi

2004-08-01

360

Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs: unusually located and unusual findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, blood, serum biochemistry, and parasitological assessments were performed on four hospitalized dogs, not in good\\u000a general condition, in a study carried out to determine the prevalence of general parasitic infections. Hematological and biochemical\\u000a parameters and electrocardiographic recording of the animals were determined during the general clinical examinations. Four\\u000a dogs were indicated to have been infected with Dirofilaria immitis by

Feride Kircali Sevimli; Esma Kozan; Aziz Bülbül; Fatih Mehmet Birdane; Mustafa Köse; Alper Sevimli

2007-01-01

361

Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs  

PubMed Central

To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11–16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vila, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

2014-01-01

362

Peripheral administration of pancreatic polypeptide inhibits components of food-intake behavior in dogs.  

PubMed

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) belongs to the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides and is released from pancreatic F cells postprandially. PP functions as a peptide hormone and has been associated with decreased food intake in humans and rodents. Our study describes the effects of PP on feeding behavior in dogs, whose mammalian order (Carnivora) is more distantly related to primates and rodents than these are to each other. Furthermore, obesity is becoming more prevalent in dogs which makes knowledge about their appetite regulation highly relevant. Repeated peripheral administration of physiological doses of PP (three injections of 30 pmol/kg each that were administered within 30 min) to six male beagle dogs prolonged the median time spent eating three servings of food by 19% but resulted in no reduction of food intake. In addition, PP decreased the duration of food-seeking behavior after the first serving by 71%. Thus, a physiological dose of PP seems to decrease both the appetitive and the consummatory drive in dogs. PMID:20338207

Akerberg, Helena; Meyerson, Bengt; Sallander, Marie; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Hedhammar, Ake; Larhammar, Dan

2010-06-01

363

Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs. PMID:19111990

Bruzinskaite, R; Sark?nas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

2009-03-23

364

Prevalence and risk factors of gallstone disease in a high altitude Saudi population.  

PubMed

To study the prevalence of gallstone disease and related risk factors in a Saudi Arabian population a cross-sectional community-based study was made of 291 people from Abha district, Asir region. A structured interview collected background data and all participants had upper abdominal ultrasonography to detect gallstones. The overall prevalence of gallstone disease was 11.7%. Using logistic regression multivariate analysis, the following were significant risk factors for gallstone disease: female sex, family history of gallstone disease and past history of pancreatitis. Age, education, blood pressure, smoking, coffee intake, overweight, diabetes mellitus, number of pregnancies and use of oral contraceptives were not significant risk factors. Discriminant analysis of symptoms showed that only right hypochondrium pain was significantly associated with gallstone disease. PMID:17955761

Abu-Eshy, S A; Mahfouz, A A; Badr, A; El Gamal, M N; Al-Shehri, M Y; Salati, M I; Rabie, M E

2007-01-01

365

High prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in ice hockey players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of asthma was studied in a ice hockey team compared with both a floor ball team and the Swiss population. Lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, asthma symptoms and exercise-induced asthma were measured in a cross-sectional prospective study. A positive response to the methacholine bronchial provocation test was found in 34.6% of the ice hockey players and 20.8%

J. D. Leuppi; M. Kuhn; C. Comminot; W. H. Reinhart

1998-01-01

366

High HIV prevalence and risk factors among injection drug users in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2003–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine HIV prevalence and potential associations with sociodemographic and behavioral factors among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.Methods: Subjects in this cross-sectional study provided sociodemographic and risk behavior data and were tested for HIV antibody with a saliva-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by saliva-based Western blot confirmation.Results: Among the 701 IDU subjects enrolled, 209 (29.8%) were

Jose L. Sanchez; Catherine S. Todd; Christian T. Bautista; Boulos A. E. Botros; Mumtoz M. Khakimov; Guzal M. Giyasova; Shavkat K. Yakubov; Mukhabat A. Abdulaeva; Maghdi D. Saad; Ross R. Graham; Jean K. Carr; Kenneth C. Earhart

2006-01-01

367

High prevalence of Dopaminergic Premonitory Symptoms in migraine patients with Restless Legs Syndrome: a pathogenetic link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the prevalence of Dopaminergic Premonitory Symptoms (DPS) in migraine patients with Restless Legs Syndrome\\u000a (RLS), we chose migraine patients from a large Italian clinical headache population previously investigated for an association\\u000a between primary headaches and RLS. We evaluated a total sample of 164 patients with migraine, in particular 114 with migraine\\u000a without aura (MO), 10 with

Daniela Cologno; Giulio Cicarelli; Vittorio Petretta; Florindo d’Onofrio; Gennaro Bussone

2008-01-01

368

High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: \\u000aTo study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. \\u000aDesign: \\u000aWe performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.1). To study whether an increased body mass index (BMI) could be responsible for symptoms of

H. A. Droogleever Fortuyn; S. H. N. Swinkels; J. K. Buitelaar; W. O. Renier; J. W. Furer; C. A. T. H. Rijnders; P. P. G. Hodiamont; S. Overeem

2008-01-01

369

High prevalence of low HDL cholesterol concentrations and mixed hyperlipidemia in a Mexican nationwide survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of lipid abnormalities revealed in a survey done in 417 Mexican cities is described. Information was obtained on 15,607 subjects, aged 20 to 69 years. In this re- port, only samples obtained after a 9- to 12-h fast were in- cluded (2,256 cases: 953 men and 1,303 women). The popula- tion is representative of Mexican urban adults. Mean

Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas; Gustavo Olaiz; Victoria Valles; Juan Manuel Ríos Torres; Francisco J. Gómez Pérez; Juan A. Rull; Rosalba Rojas; Aurora Franco; Jaime Sepulveda

370

Parents' concerns about children are highly prevalent but often not confirmed by child doctors and nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence in the general population of parents' concerns about the development of their child, to identify groups at risk and to assess the association between parents' concerns and professional judgement. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data on a Dutch nationally representative sample of children aged 14 months, 3 3\\/4, 5–6 and

Sijmen A. Reijneveld; Gea de Meer; Carin H. Wiefferink; Matty R. Crone

2008-01-01

371

High Prevalence of Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in Patients With Juvenile Venous Thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the prevalence of hyperhomocyst- (e)inemia before and 4 hours after a methionine load (3.8 g\\/m2) in 80 patients (25 men and 55 women) who had had at least one verified episode of venous thromboembolism before the age of 40 years and in 51 healthy control subjects. No patient had any of the hemostatic abnormalities known to be associated

Cristina R. Falcon; Marco Cattaneo; Daniela Panzeri; Ida Martinelli; Pier Mannuccio Mannucci

372

High prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among veterans in the urban midwest.  

PubMed

Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality within the Veterans Health care Administration, its prevalence and recognition are not known. We measured airflow limitation and diagnosed COPD at the Cincinnati Veteran's Administration Medical Center. Participants were 326 outpatients who performed spirometry and completed questionnaires. Health care-provider-diagnosis and self-diagnosis of COPD were compared with COPD defined by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7 (fixed ratio) and (FEV1/FVC)/lower limit of normal (LLN) < 1.0. COPD prevalence was 43% (95% confidence interval: 36.9, 48.1) by fixed ratio and 33% (95% confidence interval: 27.2, 36.8) by LLN. Eighteen percent of the patients had health care-provider-recorded and 23% had self-reported diagnoses of COPD. Positive predictive values for the diagnosis of COPD were 79% and 64% for healthcare providers versus 68% and 62% for patients; negative predictive values were 64% and 74% for healthcare providers versus 64% and 76% for patients (fixed ratio and LLN, respectively). COPD prevalence is higher among Cincinnati veterans than among general U.S. population. COPD is under-recognized by both health care providers and veterans. PMID:21634301

Murphy, Daniel E; Chaudhry, Zeshan; Almoosa, Khalid F; Panos, Ralph J

2011-05-01

373

Occurrence of different Canine distemper virus lineages in Italian dogs.  

PubMed

This study describes the sequence analysis of the H gene of 7 Canine distemper virus (CDV) strains identified in dogs in Italy between years 2002-2012. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CDV strains belonged to 2 clusters: 6 viruses were identified as Arctic-like lineage and 1 as Europe 1 lineage. These data show a considerable prevalence of Arctic-like-CDVs in the analysed dogs. The dogs and the 3 viruses more recently identified showed 4 distinctive amino acid mutations compared to all other Arctic CDVs. PMID:25273966

Balboni, Andrea; De Lorenzo Dandola, Giorgia; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Prosperi, Santino; Battilani, Mara

2014-01-01

374

High prevalence of Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink on a remote Danish island.  

PubMed

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains. PMID:22493130

Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Harslund, Jakob; Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Hammer, Anne Sofie

2012-04-01

375

Levels of C-Reactive Protein Associated with High and Very High Cardiovascular Risk Are Prevalent in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveC-reactive protein (CRP) levels>3 mg\\/L and>10 mg\\/L are associated with high and very high cardiovascular risk, respectively, in the general population. Because rheumatoid arthritis (RA) confers excess cardiovascular mortality, we determined the prevalence of these CRP levels among RA patients stratified on the basis of their RA disease activity.MethodsWe evaluated physician and patient global assessments of disease activity, tender and

Jonathan Graf; Rebecca Scherzer; Carl Grunfeld; John Imboden; Adrian V. Hernandez

2009-01-01

376

High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Eastern European and West African women immigrants in South Italy.  

PubMed

Surveillance of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution in migrant women from middle and low-income countries to developed countries is limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the spectrum of HPV genotypes and prevalence of cervical abnormalities in women emigrated mainly from Eastern Europe and West Africa and living in Southern Italy. The study included 233 migrant and 98 Italian-born women who self-referred to two gynecological outpatient clinics in the Campania region. Cervical specimens were subjected to cytological examination and viral testing by broad spectrum PCR. The prevalence rates of HPV infection were 57.9% and 94.1% among migrant and 19.4% and 88.5% among Italian women with normal and abnormal cytology respectively. HPV infection was detected in 56.1% of Southern and Eastern European, 62.5% of Central and South American, 55.5% of West African, and 73.3% of Southern Asian women with normal cervix. Among the 140 HPV-positive migrants, a total of 28 mucosal HPV genotypes were identified of which 11 types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58), epidemiological classified as carcinogenic to humans (group 1), accounted for 73.4% of all infections. As expected, HPV16 was the most common viral type in all groups with frequency rates ranging from 12.5% in African to 30.1% in Eastern and Southern European women. In conclusion, the estimated prevalence of HPV infection among migrant women is very high, probably reflecting either lifestyle or high incidence of HPV in their country of origin. The implementation of vaccination strategies and cervical cancer surveillance are critical for women in this risk group. PMID:21917007

Tornesello, Maria Lina; Cassese, Rosaria; De Rosa, Nicoletta; Buonaguro, Luigi; Masucci, Anna; Vallefuoco, Gabriele; Palmieri, Stefano; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Piccoli, Roberto; Buonaguro, Franco M

2011-10-01

377

High prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease in arabic villages in northern Israel: impact of gender and education.  

PubMed

The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been well been studied in Arab populations. In a door-to-door study of all residents aged ? 65 years in Wadi-Ara, an Arab community in northern Israel, we estimated the prevalence of AD, MCI, and the risk of conversion to AD. Subjects were classified as cognitively normal, MCI, AD, or other based on neurological and cognitive examination (in Arabic). MCI subjects were re-examined (interval ? 1 year) to determine conversion to AD and contributions of age, gender, and education to the probability of conversion. Of the 944 participants (96.6% of those approached; 49.4% men), 92 (9.8%) had AD. An unusually high prevalence of MCI (n = 303, 32.1%) was observed. Since the majority of women (77.2%) had no schooling, we estimated the effect of gender on the risk of AD and MCI among subjects without schooling and of school years among men. Among subjects with no schooling (n = 452), age (p = 0.02) and female gender (p < 0.0001) were significant predictors of AD, whereas risk of MCI increased only with age (p = 0.0001). Among men (n = 318), age increased the risk (p < 0.0001), school years reduced the risk of AD (p = 0.039) and similarly for MCI [age (p = 0.0001); school years (p = 0.0007)]. Age (p = 0.013), but not gender or school years, was a significant predictor of conversion from MCI to AD (annual rate 5.7%). The prevalence of MCI and AD are unusually high in Wadi Ara, while the rate of conversion from MCI to AD is low. Yet unidentified genetic factors might underlie this observation. PMID:22233764

Afgin, Anne E; Massarwa, Magda; Schechtman, Edna; Israeli-Korn, Simon D; Strugatsky, Rosa; Abuful, Amin; Farrer, Lindsay A; Friedland, Robert P; Inzelberg, Rivka

2012-01-01

378

Dog and cat bites.  

PubMed

Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites. PMID:25250997

Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

2014-08-15

379

Salmonellae and Campylobacters in Household and Stray Dogs in Northern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectal swabs were collected from 437 household and 491 stray dogs in northern Taiwan from May 2003 to June 2005 to investigate\\u000a the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of salmonellae and campylobacters. The results revealed that 2.1% of household\\u000a dogs and 6.3% of stray dogs were positive for salmonellae, with Salmonella Duesseldorf being the most dominant serotype in both. Additionally, 2.7%

H.-J. Tsai; H.-C. Huang; C.-M. Lin; Y.-Y. Lien; C.-H. Chou

2007-01-01

380

Factors associated with the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs living around Atlantic Forest fragments.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

2014-01-01

381

High prevalence of central hypothyroidism in adult patients with ?-thalassemia major.  

PubMed

The commonest form of thyroid dysfunction seen in subjects with TM is primary hypothyroidism due to abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Central hypothyroidism (CH) has been reported as an uncommon clinical entity in TM patients although the anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical oxidative stresses. Diagnosis is usually made on a biochemical basis showing low circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone associated with an inappropriately low TSH levels. The diagnosis is not clinically obvious and a basal normal TSH level does not exclude the diagnosis of CH. Therefore, it is important that clinicians accurately interpret thyroid function tests. In TM patients, CH prevalence differs at different ages is unknown and it is not easy to diagnose because most of the symptoms of symptoms of CH are non specific and are frequently attributed to anaemia or other associated complications . We performed a cross-sectional analysis on a large database using the clinical records of our TM patients to explore the prevalence of CH in prepubertal (<11 years: 25 patients; 13 males) peripubertal (between 11 and 16 years: 9 patients; 3 males), and pubertal TM subjects (>16 years: 305 patients; 164 males). Central hypothyroidism was present in 26 (7,6%) TM patients. Their mean age was 29.9 ± 8.4 years, 14 (53.8%) were males and 12 (46.1%) were females. The prevalence of CH was 6% in patients with a chronological age below 21 years and 7.9% in those above 21 years. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of CH through accurate interpretation of thyroid function tests. We recommend L-thyroxine therapy if the level of FT4 is consistently low provided that the patient has normal cortisol levels. PMID:24099820

De Sanctis, V; Soliman, A; Candini, G; Campisi, S; Anastasi, S; Iassin, M

2013-09-01

382

High Prevalence of qnr Genes in Commensal Enterobacteria from Healthy Children in Peru and Bolivia? †  

PubMed Central

A remarkable prevalence of qnrB (54%) and, at a lower level, of qnrS (14%) was discovered in pools of commensal enterobacteria from 310 healthy children living in Peru and Bolivia, using a metagenomic approach. Analysis of randomly selected enterobacterial pools revealed that qnrB was mainly carried by Escherichia coli and qnrS by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Investigation of 11 qnrB-positive isolates and 9 qnrS-positive isolates revealed the presence of plasmid-borne qnrB19 (n = 8), qnrB2 (n = 2), qnrB10 (n = 1), and qnrS1 (n = 9) genes. PMID:19364872

Pallecchi, Lucia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Sennati, Samanta; Gamboa, Herlan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Rossolini, Gian Maria

2009-01-01

383

Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey  

PubMed Central

Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children. PMID:18823544

Leung, Phil WS; Wong, William CW; Chen, WQ; Tang, Catherine SK

2008-01-01

384

Promoting Declines in the Prevalence of Late-Life Disability: Comparisons of Three Potentially High-Impact Interventions  

PubMed Central

Although the prevalence of late-life disability has been declining, how best to promote further reductions remains unclear. This article develops and then demonstrates an approach for comparing the effects of interventions on the prevalence of late-life disability. We review evidence for three potentially high-impact strategies: physical activity, depression screening and treatment, and fall prevention. Because of the large population at risk for falling, the demonstrated efficacy of multi-component interventions in preventing falls, and the strong links between falls and disability, we conclude that, in the short run, multi-component fall-prevention efforts would likely have a higher impact than either physical activity or depression screening and treatment. However, longer-term comparisons cannot be made based on the current literature and may differ from short-run conclusions, since increases in longevity may temper the influences of these interventions on prevalence. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term outcomes of interventions, including effects on length and quality of life. PMID:16953808

Freedman, Vicki A; Hodgson, Nancy; Lynn, Joanne; Spillman, Brenda C; Waidmann, Timothy; Wilkinson, Anne M; Wolf, Douglas A

2006-01-01

385

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Water Buffaloes in the Philippines Assessed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Difficulty in controlling human Schistosoma japonicum infection is partly attributed to the presence of non-human definitive hosts. Water buffaloes are a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans in China. However, in the Philippines, reports based on microscopic examination of buffalo stool identified a low prevalence of S. japonicum, and mathematical models using these data concluded that water buffaloes are not a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans. We collected stool from 81 buffaloes in Macanip, Leyte, the Philippines, and assayed for S. japonicum infection by the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory technique, the Kato-Katz technique, miracidia hatching, and a highly validated real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence defined by each assay was 3.7%, 3.7%, 0%, and 51.5% respectively. Our results demonstrate that microscopic-based techniques dramatically underestimate the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes in the Philippines and warrant reexamination of the role of bovines in transmission of S. japonicum to humans in the Philippines. PMID:20348514

Wu, Hai-Wei; Qin, Yuan-Fang; Chu, Kai; Meng, Rui; Liu, Yun; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Ji, Min-Jun; Fernandez, Tomas; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.

2010-01-01

386

Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal atrophy in Bhutan, a country with a high prevalence of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Recently, serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies and pepsinogen (PG) have been used for gastric cancer screening. The incidence of gastric cancer in Bhutan is reported to be quite high compared with that in neighbouring countries. In this study, 381 subjects from three areas of Bhutan were assessed for gastric mucosal atrophy and serological parameters. Anti-H. pylori IgG, PG I, PG II and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antibodies were measured using ELISA. Subjects were classified into four groups according to H. pylori and PG seropositivity: Group A (H. pylori-negative/PG-negative), Group B (H. pylori-positive/PG-negative), Group C (H. pylori-positive/PG-positive) and Group D (H. pylori-negative/PG-positive). The prevalence of H. pylori in the 381 subjects was 71.1% (271/381), with high infection rates found in rural areas. The PG I/II ratio was significantly inversely correlated with the atrophy score in the antrum and the corpus (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the PG status was significantly associated with the presence of atrophy in the corpus. The prevalence of the PG-positive statu