Sample records for dogs high prevalence

  1. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modif...

  2. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    PubMed Central

    Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2008-01-01

    Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases. PMID:19068110

  3. Neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Akhtar, Masood; Ayaz, Mazhar; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Ashraf, Kamran; Ali, Asif; Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Khalid, Abdur Rauf; Lindsay, David S

    2014-08-29

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. Vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. A N. caninum competitive ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 different living conditions. Samples from 138 dogs living on 24 dairies with a prevalence (0-70%) of anti-N. caninum antibodies in the cattle, 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, 76 from pet dogs exhibiting neurological signs, and 92 stray dogs were examined. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was 23.5% (95% CI = ± 2.99) in the 600 dogs. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed between the 4 different populations of dogs. The number of N. caninum positive samples were: 51 (36.9%, 95% CI = ± 3.09) of 138 dogs from dairies, 31 (10.5%, 95% CI = ± 6.38) of 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, disorders, 22 (28.9%, 95% CI = ± 6.70) of 76 pet dogs with neurological signs, and 37 (40.2%, 95% CI = ± 2.83) of 92 stray dogs. Seropositivity to N. caninum in dogs from dairies was associated with a high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the cattle. At the 3 dairies where no dogs were present, the seroprevalence to N. caninum in the cattle was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the 21 dairies where dogs were present. Seroprevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male dogs (97 of 366; 26.5%, 95% CI = ± 3.40) than in female dogs (44 of 234; 18.8%, 95% CI = ± 5.65). Seroprevalence in dogs increased with age suggesting postnatal exposure to N. caninum infection however, this increase was not significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was not significantly (P>0.05) different in dogs based on breed. These findings suggest a relationship between N. caninum infection of dogs from dairies and cattle on these dairies. However, further research is required to determine what is the most important way dogs acquire infection and how to prevent dogs from shedding oocysts. PMID:24957000

  4. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. PMID:23867013

  5. High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

  6. High prevalence of Yersinia pestis in black-tailed prairie dog colonies during an apparent enzootic phase of sylvatic plague

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Hanson; Hugh B. Britten; Marco Restani; Leigh R. Washburn

    2007-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was introduced into North America over 100 years ago. The disease causes high mortality and extirpations in black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), which is of conservation concern because prairie dogs provide habitat for the critically endangered black-footed ferret\\u000a (Mustela nigripes). Our goal was to help elucidate the mechanism Y. pestis uses to persist in prairie ecosystems during

  7. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Wang; Rebecca Ruch-Gallie; Valeria Scorza; Philip Lin; Michael R. Lappin

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in

  8. An investigation into the prevalence of dog bites to primary school children in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Georges, Karla; Adesiyun, Abiodun

    2008-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of dog bites to primary school children between the ages of 8–12 years using a semi-structured interview process. With the increase in the pet population and popularity of dangerous breeds of dog and a high stray dog population combined with a dearth of information on the risk of dog attacks to children in Trinidad, a semi-structured interview process was used to determine risk factors associated with dog attacks. Methods A questionnaire survey of 1109 primary school children between the ages of 8–12 years was conducted in Trinidad from November 2002 to September 2003. The survey was conducted to determine the risk factors such as age, gender, size of dog and relationship of dog and victim, in dog bite incidents. The chi-square statistic and odds ratios were used to estimate risk factors for a bite incident. Results Twenty-eight percent of children were bitten at least once by a dog. Gender (male) and owning a dog were statistically significant risk factors (p = 0.003 and 0.008 respectively, ?2 df, 95% confidence). Most attacks occurred outside of the home (58.0%) followed by the victims' home (42.0%) and were by a dog known but not owned (54.6%) by the victim. Many victims (33.0%) were bitten without having any interaction with the dog and the majority (61.9%) of victims did not receive professional medical assistance. Overall, the lower leg or foot was most often injured (39.3%). Conclusion A public educational campaign is needed on responsible pet ownership. In addition, children must be taught effective ways of avoiding attacks or reducing injury in the event of a dog attack. The Dangerous dogs Act 2000 must be proclaimed in parliament by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to exert more pressure on pet owners to safeguard the public from the menace of dog attacks. PMID:18321375

  9. A study of the prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting kennelled dogs.

    PubMed

    Scaramozzino, Paola; Di Cave, David; Berrilli, Federica; D'Orazi, Carlo; Spaziani, Alessandra; Mazzanti, Sabrina; Scholl, Francesco; De Liberato, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite of animals that is zoonotic. Given the capacity of this organism to spread via the faecal-oral route, animals held in overcrowded and unhygienic conditions are at high risk of infection. Faecal samples from dogs in three kennels in Rome were examined by microscopy and PCR for G. duodenalis, and the prevalence data generated were correlated with variables such as kennel identity, age of dog, length of time the dog had been kennelled and clinical signs. The overall prevalence of the parasite in the faecal samples was 20.5% and was higher in samples from the largest kennel, which had the greatest turnover of dogs, and in faecal samples from younger animals. Giardia cysts were found more frequently in diarrhoeic animals but were also found in dogs with no clinical signs. Although the finding that the majority of isolates were dog-specific rather than zoonotic genotypes suggests that the zoonotic risk from this pathogen is less than previously thought, the higher prevalence of infection in younger dogs may pose a specific public health issue as such animals are more frequently re-homed with families. PMID:18715807

  10. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) ?-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. PMID:21890275

  11. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirit Tzipory; P. Cynda Crawford; Julie K. Levy

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing,

  12. High prevalence and variability of CTX-M-15-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli observed in stray dogs in rural Angola.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Kubelova, Michaela; Mazancova, Jana; Dolejska, Monika; Literak, Ivan; Cizek, Alois

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area. PMID:24568119

  13. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among dogs and their owners

    PubMed Central

    BOOST, M. V.; O'DONOGHUE, M. M.; JAMES, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Case reports have indicated transmission of Staphylococcus aureus between humans and pets. We investigated associations between level of contact between dog and owner, and S. aureus colonization. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus was determined for 830 dogs and 736 owners. Relatedness of isolates was investigated using antibiograms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Associations between carriage and demographics or amount of contact between owners and dogs were documented. S. aureus was isolated in 24% of humans and 8·8% of dogs. Antibiotic resistance was significantly more common in canine isolates. Of 17 owner/dog colonized pairs, six were indistinguishable by PFGE. Colonization of dogs was not associated with close human contact, but was strongly associated with health-care occupations (OR 3·29, 95% CI 1·49–7·26, P=0·002). In outbreak situations health-care workers' pets should be considered as a source of S. aureus. High rates of resistance indicate increased monitoring of antibiotic use in veterinary practice is needed. PMID:17678561

  14. Increased prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in Bernese Mountain Dogs: a possible breed predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2007-01-01

    Background Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. Results 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs and 62 control dogs (large breed dogs with long hair) were included. All dogs were considered healthy according to a questionnaire filled out by the owner, complete blood count, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture. Bernese Mountain Dogs and control dogs were kept in similar environments. Seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by ELISA and Western blot and was 58% in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to 15% in control dogs. This difference was significant. Neither antibodies against leptospires nor vaccination or hair coat color influenced the results. Conclusion The cause of the considerably higher prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain Dogs and it's consequences are not known. A breed predisposition can be suspected. PMID:17626630

  15. Deafness prevalence and pigmentation and gender associations in dog breeds at risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Strain

    2004-01-01

    Hearing function was tested in dogs from breeds at risk for pigment-associated congenital sensorineural deafness – Dalmatian, English setter (ES), English cocker spaniel (ECS), bull terrier (BT), Australian cattle dog (ACD), whippet, Catahoula leopard dog, and Jack Russell terrier. Deafness prevalence was highest in Dalmatians and lowest in ECS. Phenotype correlation studies were performed in breeds with >100 brainstem auditory

  16. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  17. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida.

    PubMed

    Tzipory, Nirit; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K

    2010-07-15

    Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing, greyhound kennels and animal shelters, was compared to dogs residing in low-intensity housing, private homes. Serum was collected from a cross-section of 1500 adult dogs from Florida, including 500 pet dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, 500 racing greyhounds, and 500 dogs residing in animal shelters. Serum was tested for D. immitis antigen, E. canis antibodies, and B. burgdorferi antibodies by ELISA. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher (14.6%) in shelter dogs and in pet dogs (1.4%) than in racing greyhounds (0.2%) (P<0.04). There were no significant differences in the seroprevalence of E. canis (0.4-1.6%) or B. burgdorferi (0-0.8%) among the groups. There was no association of sex or age with D. immitis infection, but pit bull type dogs were more than twice as likely to be infected than other breeds (P=0.003). Evidence for vector-borne infections, particularly D. immitis, was found in dogs throughout the state. The prevalence was greatest for D. immitis infection in shelter dogs, likely due to lack of preventive medications prior to impoundment. Although heartworm infection is considered to be a treatable condition, insufficient resources in shelters may lead to euthanasia of infected dogs that would otherwise be considered adoptable. PMID:20399018

  18. Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.

    PubMed

    Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. PMID:25046431

  19. Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Carla; Cortes, Helder; Brancal, Hugo; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Pimenta, Paulo; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6%) and hunting dogs (1.7%). The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs. PMID:24972327

  20. Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Cortes, Helder; Brancal, Hugo; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Pimenta, Paulo; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6%) and hunting dogs (1.7%). The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs. PMID:24972327

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  2. The prevalence of cardiomyopathy in the Irish wolfhound: a clinical study of 500 dogs.

    PubMed

    Vollmar, A C

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiomyopathy in Irish wolfhounds was evaluated by retrospective review of the results of cardiovascular examinations carried out in 500 dogs presented for veterinary services at the author's practice. Abnormalities were found in 209 (41.8%) of the dogs examined. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was diagnosed in 121 (24.2%) of the dogs and was accompanied by atrial fibrillation in 106 dogs. Seventeen dogs were suffering from advanced congestive heart failure (CHF), and 55 dogs were suffering from mild to moderate CHF as a result of DCM. Congestive heart failure was most commonly characterized by mild to severe pleural effusion due to right-sided heart failure in addition to pulmonary edema. Rhythm disturbances without evidence of DCM were detected in 48 dogs. Forty dogs had echocardiographic abnormalities without signs of DCM. Soft to moderate mitral regurgitations were diagnosed in 13 (2.6%) of these 40 dogs examined. In 39 dogs that died as a result of DCM, the median survival time from the time of diagnosis was 5.1 months, and in 59 dogs with DCM that are still alive, the median survival time is 15.7 months. PMID:10730622

  3. PRAIRIE DOGS AS ECOSYSTEM REGULATORS ON THE NORTHERN HIGH PLAINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Uresk

    The increase in prairie dog populations on the northern High Plains has emphasized the need for additional information on cattle-prairie dog forage relationships. To obtain information on cattle-prairie dog forage relationships, 4 treatments were evaluated over 4 growing seasons. These treatments were: 1) no grazing (prairie dogs eliminated and cattle excluded), 2) grazing by prairie dogs, 3) grazing by cattle

  4. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Doherty, Paul F; Gage, Kenneth L; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Long, Dustin H; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

  5. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs?

    PubMed Central

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

  6. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F., Jr.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  7. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagné, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137

  8. Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  9. Prevalence of endoparasites in stray and fostered dogs and cats in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Becker, A-C; Rohen, M; Epe, C; Schnieder, T

    2012-08-01

    To get an overview of the current state of endoparasite prevalences in stray and not well-cared dogs and cats, faecal samples of 445 stray and foster dogs and 837 stray and foster cats were collected at their arrival at animal shelters in Lower Saxony (Germany). They were investigated for infections with endoparasites by the use of sedimentation-flotation method. Additionally, 341 canine and 584 feline samples were investigated by IDEXX SNAP® Giardia test. Stages of endoparasites were found coproscopically in 9.4 % (n?=?42) of the canine samples, 4.0 % were positive for Toxocara canis, 0.9 % for hookworms, 0.4 % for Toxascaris leonina and 0.2 % for Hammondia-like oocysts. Giardia-coproantigen was detected in 11.4 % of the canine samples. In cats, 33.6 % (n?=?281) were coproscopically positive for helminths and/or protozoa. Toxocara cati was found in 27.1 %, Isospora spp. in 7.5 %, Capillaria spp. 5.0 %, Taeniidae in 2.0 %, hookworms in 1.1 %, Giardia sp. in 0.7 %, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in 1.0 % and Toxoplasma-like oocysts in 0.1 %. Coproantigen specific for Giardia sp. was detected in 6.8 % of the feline samples. Dogs and cats up to 1 year of age were more frequently infected with endoparasites than animals over 1 year of age (p?dogs and cats, respectively (p?dogs or cats older than 1 year were significantly more frequently infected with endoparasites than dropped off animals of the same age group (p?high efficacy and no suspected anthelmintic resistance was found. However, endoparasite-infected stray and free-roaming cats and dogs may contribute considerably to the contamination of public parks, playgrounds and sandpits with zoonotic parasites and therefore have to be considered a public health problem. PMID:22526289

  10. Prevalence of perioperative arrhythmias in 50 young, healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Duerr, Felix M.; Carr, Anthony P.; Duke, Tanya; Shmon, Cindy L.; Monnet, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the type and frequency of cardiac dysrhythmias occurring after routine ovariohysterectomy or orchidectomy in young, healthy dogs by using 2 anesthetic protocols (group I: propofol and isoflurane; group II: thiopental and halothane). Fifty dogs under 2 years of age, judged to be clinically normal by physical examination and standard electrocardiography, were evaluated by using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. The most common dysrhythmias in the postoperative period were 2nd degree atrioventricular block (44%), ventricular premature complexes (44%), and atrial premature complexes (32%). For study purposes, more than 100 ventricular or atrial premature complexes per 24 hours, or any occurrence of R-on-T phenomenon, ventricular or atrial tachycardia were classified as clinically significant arrhythmias. Significant arrhythmias were observed in 9 dogs in the postoperative period, 5 of which were in group I and 4 in group II. All of these dogs were under 1 year of age. The R-on-T phenomenon occurred in 4 dogs in group II and 1 dog in group I. Results from this study show that significant arrhythmias, including R-on-T phenomenon, can occur in the perioperative period in young, healthy dogs undergoing routine surgeries with both protocols used. PMID:17334031

  11. Prevalence of trypanosome infections in dogs from Chagas disease endemic regions in Panama, Central America.

    PubMed

    Pineda, V; Saldaña, A; Monfante, I; Santamaría, A; Gottdenker, N L; Yabsley, M J; Rapoport, G; Calzada, J E

    2011-06-10

    The prevalence of canine trypanosomosis was investigated in two Chagas disease endemic rural communities located in the central region of Panama. Serologic tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection revealed a prevalence of 11.1%. Hemocultures coupled with PCR analysis demonstrated a Trypanosoma rangeli infection rate of 5.1%. An overall trypanosome infection index of 16.2% (16/99) was detected in this canine population. One dog had a mixed infection of T. cruzi and T. rangeli. Six of the trypanosome-infected dogs belong to people who were diagnosed of Chagas disease. We conclude that dogs from this rural area of Panama are frequently infected with trypanosomes transmitted by the sylvatic vector, Rhodnius pallescens, and suggest that dogs are important in the peridomestic transmission cycle of trypanosomes as reservoirs and hosts. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21273002

  12. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in stray dogs and herbivores in Shiraz, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Mehrabani; A Oryan; S. M Sadjjadi

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and five stray male and female dogs in different age groups were autopsied and their small intestines examined for Echinococcus granulosus. Thirty eight dogs (36.19%) harbored two-to-several thousand E. granulosus in their intestinal content. The prevalence rate was higher in males (44.83%) than in females (25.53%).Livers and lungs of 3245 sheep, 2576 goats, 756 cattle and 25 buffaloes

  13. Prevalence of owner-reported behaviours in dogs separated from the litter at two different ages.

    PubMed

    Pierantoni, L; Albertini, M; Pirrone, F

    2011-10-29

    The present study examined the prevalence of behaviours in dogs separated from the litter for adoption at different ages. Seventy adult dogs separated from their dam and littermates and adopted between the ages of 30 and 40 days were compared with 70 adult dogs that had been taken from the litter for adoption at two months. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire eliciting information on whether their dog exhibited potentially problematic behaviours when in its usual environment. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the age at which the dog was separated from the litter might predispose it to developing undesirable behaviours. The odds of displaying destructiveness, excessive barking, fearfulness on walks, reactivity to noises, toy possessiveness, food possessiveness and attention-seeking were significantly greater for the dogs that had been removed from the litter earlier during the socialisation period. In addition, dogs purchased from a pet shop at 30 to 40 days of age were reported to exhibit some of the listed behaviours with a significantly higher frequency than dogs purchased from a pet shop at two months. No significant differences were observed with dogs obtained from other types of sources. The dogs in the youngest age group (18 to 36 months) had a higher probability of displaying destructiveness and tail chasing. These findings indicate that, compared with dogs that remained with their social group for 60 days, dogs that had been separated from the litter earlier were more likely to exhibit potentially problematic behaviours, especially if they came from a pet shop. PMID:21865608

  14. Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. McGreevy; P. C. Thomson; C. Pride; A. Fawcett; T. Grassi; B. Jones

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by veterinary practices across Australia, and to determine the risk factors involved; 1700 practices were asked to complete a veterinarian opinion survey, and of the 428 practices that responded, 178 were selected to complete an RSPCA Australia Pet Obesity Questionnaire, together with additional practices selected by Australian

  15. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Pet Dogs in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei-Feng; Yan, Wen-Chao; Wang, Tian-Qi; Zhai, Kai; Han, Li-Fang; Lv, Chao-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Henan Province, Central China was investigated. A total of 125 blood samples were collected from pet dogs during April to June 2013, and all samples were examined by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA) and nested PCR. The overall T. gondii prevalence in pet dogs was 24.0% (30/125), with 20.8% (26/125) in IHA and 10.4% (13/125) in PCR, respectively. No statistical associations were found between animal gender and age and the prevalence of T. gondii infection. Thirteen positive DNA samples were genotyped using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, (3’+5’) SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Of these, only 2 samples were genotyped with complete data for all loci, and a novel genotype (type III at SAG3 and GRA6 loci, and type I at other loci) was identified. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in dogs in China. PMID:25748720

  16. Prevalence of antibody against rabies among confined, free-roaming and stray dogs in a transit city of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olugasa, Babasola O; Aiyedun, Julius O; Emikpe, Benjamin O

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of anti-glycoprotein antibodies against rabies virus is studied in the sera of confined, free-roaming and stray dogs in Ilorin, the capital city of Kwara State, Nigeria. A quantitative indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (i-ELISA) was used to detect rabies virus anti-glycoprotein antibodies in sera from 116 confined, 61 free-roaming, and 13 stray dogs. The sera were collected between June and December 2008 from apparently healthy dogs. Of these 190 dogs, 81 (42.6%), consisting of 57 confined (49.1%), 23 free-roaming (37.7%) and 1 stray (7.7%), had antibody titres that exceeded the positive threshold of 0.5 equivalent units (eu)/ml against rabies, while 109 (57.4%) presented titres that were below the threshold. Prevalence of rabies anti-glycoprotein antibody was higher in the confined dogs compared to free-roaming and stray dogs. Our results indicated low anti-rabies sero-prevalence (42.6%) in the dog population of Ilorin, a transit city that lies between northern and southern Nigeria. This is the first community-based prevalence report on the anti-rabies serological profile of dogs in Nigeria. The need for primary and booster mass vaccination of dogs and the impact of these findings on rabies control in Nigeria are discussed. PMID:22194227

  17. Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high performance liquid of selamectin in dog plasma, using High-Per- formance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and its suitability was demonstrated by a pharmacokinetic study on a dog receiving the therapeutic dose

  18. Prevalence of the generalist flea Pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, USA: the importance of considering imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Antolin, Michael F; Long, Dustin H; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-04-01

    If a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. We fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (Siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) during June-August 2012 in the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico, USA. With the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: Oropsylla hirusta (a prairie dog specialist) and Pulex simulans (a generalist). Detection probability was <100% for both species and about 21% lower for P. simulans. Pulex simulans may be especially difficult to detect because it is about half the size of O. hirusta. Monthly occupancy (prevalence) for P. simulans was estimated at 24% (June, 95% confidence interval?=?19-30), 39% (July, 32-47), and 56% (August, 49-64) in new prairie dog colonies, and 43% (32-54), 61% (49-71), and 79% (70-87) in old colonies. These results suggest P. simulans can attain high prevalence on prairie dogs, especially in old colonies. If P. simulans is highly prevalent on prairie dogs, it may serve as a "bridge vector" between Cynomys and other mammalian hosts of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, and even function as a reservoir of Y. pestis between outbreaks. PMID:25588009

  19. Combined prevalence of inherited skeletal disorders in dog breeds in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Coopman, F; Broeckx, B; Verelst, E; Deforce, D; Saunders, J; Duchateau, L; Verhoeven, G

    2014-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD), canine elbow dysplasia (CED), and humeral head osteochondrosis (HHOC) are inherited traits with uneven incidence in dog breeds. Knowledge of the combined prevalence of these three disorders is necessary to estimate the effect of the currently applied breeding strategies, in order to improve the genetic health of the population. Official screening results of the Belgian National Committee for Inherited Skeletal Disorders (NCSID) revealed that an average of 31.8% (CHD, CED, or both; n = 1273 dogs) and 47.2% (CHD, CED, HHOC, or a combination of these three diseases; n = 250 dogs) of dogs are mildly to severely affected by at least one skeletal disorder. According to the current breeding recommendations in some dog breeds in Belgium, these animals should be restricted (mild signs) or excluded (moderate to severe signs) from breeding. The introduction of genetic parameters, such as estimated breeding values, might create a better approach to gradually reduce the incidence of these complex inherited joint disorders, without compromising genetic population health. PMID:25078710

  20. Prevalence and molecular epidemiological data on Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Northeastern States of India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

  1. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

  2. Time series analysis of the prevalence of endoparasitic infections in cats and dogs presented to a veterinary teaching hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Nolan; Gary Smith

    1995-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasitic infections of cats and dogs presented to the small animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania was measured between 1984 and 1991. Two thousand feline and 8077 canine fecal samples were examined along with 6830 canine blood samples. The overall mean monthly prevalence of feline infections was 16% for ascarids, 0.9% for hookworms, 4.0%

  3. Prevalence of canine enteric coronavirus in a cross-sectional survey of dogs presenting at veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Stavisky, J; Pinchbeck, G L; German, A J; Dawson, S; Gaskell, R M; Ryvar, R; Radford, A D

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of canine enteric coronavirus (CECoV) in the general dog population, faecal samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study of 249 dogs presenting for any reason at veterinary practices randomly selected from across the UK. Demographic and clinical data was obtained for each of the samples, including signalment, number of dogs in the household, reason for visiting the practice, and any recent history of diarrhoea. The samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of both type I and type II CECoV. Seven samples were positive (three from dogs in the same household), a prevalence of 2.8% (95% confidence intervals 1.1-5.7). Phylogenetic analysis of partial M gene sequences revealed that all seven positive samples grouped with type I CECoV, the first report of this virus in the UK. None of the positive dogs presented for gastrointestinal disease. Interestingly five of the positive dogs from three separate households were aged over 6 years, suggesting that older dogs may play an important role in the persistence of CECoV in such populations. PMID:19647379

  4. Prevalence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Dogs Living in an Area of Canine Leishmaniasis Endemicity Using PCR on Several Tissues and Serology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAIA SOLANO-GALLEGO; PERE MORELL; MARGARITA ARBOIX; JORDI ALBEROLA; LLUIS FERRER

    2001-01-01

    We studied and compared the prevalence of Leishmania infection and the seroprevalence and the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. One hundred dogs living on the island of Mallorca (Spain) were studied. In this study, we clinically examined each dog for the presence of symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis, determined the titer of anti-Leishmania antibodies,

  5. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  6. Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian Cattle Dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD) occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Results Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded. Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696) was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ? 0.001). Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050). No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour. Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034) after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Conclusions Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to defects in molecular pigment pathways, the molecular control of embryonic melanoblast migration from ectoderm to skin differs from control of migration from ectoderm to cochlea. In Australian Cattle Dogs, CHSD may be more common in females. PMID:23107143

  7. Prevalence of Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs in Chapare, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Parrado, Rudy; Rojas, Ernesto; Delgado, Raúl; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Reithinger, Richard; Garcia, Ana Lineth

    2011-04-19

    Data on Leishmania spp. infection in dogs in Bolivia is scarce. Dogs from an area where 90% of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases are due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were screened for Leishmania infection using established enzyme-linked immunosorbent antibody test (ELISA) protocols. Although none of the 51 dogs surveyed had clinical lesions indicative of CL, 6 out of 51 (11.8%) sampled dogs tested positive by ELISA. PMID:21146310

  8. The prevalence of nine genetic disorders in a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Bart J G; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E C; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H; Soetaert, Sandra S A; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n = 476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n = 8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  9. The Prevalence of Nine Genetic Disorders in a Dog Population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n?=?476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n?=?8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  10. Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic parasites: prevalence in adult dogs from the southern part of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Peralta-Abarca, Gustavo E; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario N

    2005-07-15

    The protozoan Giardia intestinalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite. It produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. There is growing evidence that dogs could be reservoirs and play an important role in transmission. In Mexico, there are few data on the frequency of G. intestinalis. Therefore, we studied the small intestine of stray dogs, euthanazed at the "Culhuacan" Control Canine Centre, towards the end of 1997 and during the summer of 1998. We microscopically analysed intestinal contents and mucus samples taken every 3cm. During the cold season (winter), parasites were not found in 38/100 dogs, in contrast to 8/100 through the warm season. We found that 42/100 in winter and 51/100 in summer harboured G. intestinalis. To our knowledge, these G. intestinalis frequencies are the highest found in adult dogs worldwide. The results showed a rise in Ancylostoma spp. from 23/100 to 67/100 during the cold and warm seasons. Toxocara canis frequencies varied between 12/100 and 18/100, respectively. The data suggest that the probability of infection is higher during the hottest months compared to the coldest months of the year. Both puppies and adult dogs are highly infected. Dogs are reservoirs for zoonotic parasites; for this reason, it is imperative for humans to avoid fecal contamination in streets, public gardens and parks. PMID:15927399

  11. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  12. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in cats and dogs in Heilongjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Jinping; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Siwen; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-15

    This study investigated 319 fecal specimens of cats (n=52) and dogs (n=267) from Heilongjiang province, China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene identified C. felis and C. parvum in one cat each (3.8%) and C. canis and C. ubiquitum in 6 dogs (2.2%). Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and phylogenetic analysis characterized zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, NED1, and NED2 and host-adapted ones NED3, NED4, and PtEb IX in 18 dogs (6.7%) and human-pathogenic genotypes D and IV in 3 cats (5.8%). Genotyping based on the hypermutation of G. duodenalis triosephosphate isomerase gene (TPI) facilitated identification of assemblage F in a cat (1.9%) and assemblages C and E in 12 dogs (4.5%). Subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates were determined by measuring the diversity of both TPI nucleotide and amino acid sequences. C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV, and G. duodenalis assemblage C identified herein have been documented in human infections in China. C. canis, C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, and E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV carried by cats or dogs also existed in wastewater in China. The finding suggested pet animals could be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis and potential sources of water contamination in China. PMID:25665462

  13. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli in dogs. PMID:23802858

  14. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-09-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P?dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks. PMID:23812601

  15. Risk factors associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in a metapopulation of black-tailed prairie dogs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Arteaga, Ana; Atilano, Daniel; Ayanegui, Alejandra; Ceballos, Gerardo; Suzán, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of infectious diseases of wildlife has grown in recent decades and now focuses on understanding host-parasite dynamics and factors involved in disease occurrence. The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a useful species for this type of investigation because it lives in heterogeneous landscapes where human activities take place, and its populations are structured as a metapopulation. Our goal was to determine if colony area, density, and proximity to human settlements are associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in black-tailed prairie dogs of northwestern Chihuahua State, Mexico. We captured 266 prairie dogs in 11 colonies in 2009 and analyzed 248 serum samples with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody to any of the 12 pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans. Serologically positive test results for only serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Celledoni, and Tarassovi were considered for statistical analysis. Almost 80% of sera were positive for at least one pathogenic serovar (MAT titer ?1?80). The highest recorded antibody prevalences were to serovars Bratislava and Canicola. Correlation analysis showed a negative relationship between L. interrogans antibody prevalence and colony area (r?=?-0.125, P<0.005), suggesting that animals living in larger colonies were at a lower risk than those in smaller colonies. The correlation between the serovar Canicola and distance was negative (r?=?-0.171, P<0.007), and this relationship may be explained by the presence of domestic dogs associated with human dwellings. This is the first study of Leptospira spp. antibody prevalence in prairie dogs, and it provides valuable insights into the dynamics of leptospirosis in threatened wildlife species. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of Leptospira serovars in metapopulations of prairie dogs and other domestic and wild mammals in grassland communities. PMID:25380365

  16. Preliminary Investigation of the Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Giardia intestinalis in Dogs in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Szénási; S. Marton; I. Kucsera; B. Tánczos; K. Horváth; E. Orosz; Z. Lukács; Z. Szeidemann

    2007-01-01

    In the genus Giardia (G.) intestinalis is the only species found in humans as well as in other mammals, including domestic and farm animals. Molecular characterisation\\u000a of strains isolated from different hosts revealed the existence of sevenmajor genotypic assemblages. Assemblage A and B isolates\\u000a have been recovered from a broad range of hosts, including humans, livestock, cats, dogs, beavers and

  17. High prevalence of autoantibodies among Danish centenarians.

    PubMed

    Andersen-Ranberg, K; HØier-Madsen, M; Wiik, A; Jeune, B; Hegedus, L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of organ and nonorgan specific autoantibodies in relation to disability and comorbidity in an unselected population of centenarians. A population-based survey of all persons living in Denmark who celebrated their 100th birthday during the period 1 April 1995 to 31 May 1996, a total of 276 persons, was undertaken. Participants underwent an interview, a physical examination and blood sampling. Organ specific autoantibodies (Tg-ab, TPO-ab, PCA-ab) and nonorgan specific autoantibodies (ANA, IgM RF, IgA RF, MPO-ab, c-ANCA, p-ANCA, oxLDL-ab, IgM ACA, IgG ACA, PR3-ANCA, histone-ab, SSA-ab, SSB-ab, Mit-ab) were measured, and comorbidity and disability (Katz Index of ADL) were registered. In all, 207 (75.0%) of 276 eligible subjects participated, and 148 agreed to blood tests. A large majority (79.3%) had at least one autoantibody detected. Organ specific autoantibodies were present in 32.1% of the centenarians. The high level of autoantibodies did not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. While nonorgan specific autoantibodies were equally represented in less-disabled/disabled subjects as well as in subjects with low/high comorbidity, significantly fewer subjects with organ specific autoantibodies were found among less-disabled subjects or subjects with low comorbidity. Autoantibodies (both nonorgan and organ specific) are common in an unselected population of centenarians of today, but do not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. Non-organ specific autoantibodies are evenly distributed irrespective of the level of disability or comorbidity, suggesting underlying, undiagnosed pathological processes which may be part of the processes involved in frailty. PMID:15373919

  18. High prevalence of autoantibodies among Danish centenarians

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN-RANBERG, K; HØIER-MADSEN, M; WIIK, A; JEUNE, B; HEGEDÜS, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of organ and nonorgan specific autoantibodies in relation to disability and comorbidity in an unselected population of centenarians. A population-based survey of all persons living in Denmark who celebrated their 100th birthday during the period 1 April 1995 to 31 May 1996, a total of 276 persons, was undertaken. Participants underwent an interview, a physical examination and blood sampling. Organ specific autoantibodies (Tg-ab, TPO-ab, PCA-ab) and nonorgan specific autoantibodies (ANA, IgM RF, IgA RF, MPO-ab, c-ANCA, p-ANCA, oxLDL-ab, IgM ACA, IgG ACA, PR3-ANCA, histone-ab, SSA-ab, SSB-ab, Mit-ab) were measured, and comorbidity and disability (Katz Index of ADL) were registered. In all, 207 (75·0%) of 276 eligible subjects participated, and 148 agreed to blood tests. A large majority (79·3%) had at least one autoantibody detected. Organ specific autoantibodies were present in 32·1% of the centenarians. The high level of autoantibodies did not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. While nonorgan specific autoantibodies were equally represented in less-disabled/disabled subjects as well as in subjects with low/high comorbidity, significantly fewer subjects with organ specific autoantibodies were found among less-disabled subjects or subjects with low comorbidity. Autoantibodies (both nonorgan and organ specific) are common in an unselected population of centenarians of today, but do not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. Non-organ specific autoantibodies are evenly distributed irrespective of the level of disability or comorbidity, suggesting underlying, undiagnosed pathological processes which may be part of the processes involved in frailty. PMID:15373919

  19. An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Habluetzel, A; Traldi, G; Ruggieri, S; Attili, A R; Scuppa, P; Marchetti, R; Menghini, G; Esposito, F

    2003-05-01

    The human risk of infection with larvae of Toxocara canis was estimated in people from the Marche region of Italy. This region includes both urban and rural areas and its inhabitants frequently keep dogs for company, hunting, as guardians or shepherds. T. canis infection was diagnosed in 33.6% out of 295 dogs examined. Nearly half of the dogs (48.4%) living in rural areas were found T. canis positive, compared to about one-quarter of the dogs (26.2%) from urban areas. Analysis by provenance and role revealed the highest infection rate in rural hunting dogs (64.7%) and the lowest in urban companion dogs (22.1%). According to questionnaire data, the peridomestic environment, i.e. gardens and dog pens, is the most important defecation site in both rural and urban areas. Since over 40% of the dogs who defecate in dog pens are infected and 24% of urban and 47% of rural dogs who leave their droppings in the house surroundings harbour the parasite, it is clear that these environments may constitute sites of zoonotic risk. Our analysis of soil samples from 60 farms confirmed the high contamination level, revealing positive soil samples in more than half of the farms. Substantial egg contamination was also found in urban areas, as 3/6 parks examined were Toxocara spp. positive. Finally, our serological findings indicate that human infection actually occurs in the area: 7 out of 428 adults examined (1.6%) had very high levels of antibodies to T. canis antigen, suggesting a previous contact with the Larva migrans of the nematode. PMID:12719139

  20. Prevalence of and risk factors for increased serum levels of allergen-specific IgE in a population of Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Annelin A; Dolva, Frederik L; Nødtvedt, Ane; Sævik, Bente K

    2014-12-01

    BackgroundThe importance of different allergens in association with IgE production and canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) has been poorly studied and few studies exist on factors influencing allergen-specific IgE antibodies in serum. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of elevated IgE levels to different environmental allergens in Norwegian dogs with a suspicion of CAD. The secondary aim was to identify risk factors associated with elevated serum levels of allergen-specific IgE.ResultsThe study sample consisted of serum from 1313 dogs of 161 different breeds. All samples were submitted for serologic IgE-testing (Fc epsilon R1 alpha-based ELISA) based on suspicion of CAD. Overall, 84.3% of the dogs had elevated IgE levels to one or more of the allergen(s). The predominant allergens amongst the positive results were the indoor allergens (Acarus siro 84.0%, Dermatophagoides farinae 80.2%, Tyrophagus putrescentiae 79.9%). Sheep sorrel was the most commonly encountered outdoor allergen (40.0%). Only 2.6% of the dogs with elevated IgE levels were positive to flea saliva.The test results varied significantly depending on when the serum samples were taken. Samples taken during summer and autumn more often came out positive than samples taken during winter and spring. Geographical variations were also demonstrated. A greater proportion of females than males had positive test results, and more females than males tested positive to outdoor allergens. The mean age was significantly higher in the dogs testing positive than amongst the dogs testing negative. The allergen-specific IgE levels varied with breed. The boxer was the only breed with a significantly higher proportion of positive test results compared to the other breeds. Boxers also had a higher prevalence of elevated IgE levels to outdoor allergens, whereas the Rottweiler had a higher prevalence of elevated IgE levels to indoor allergens compared to the other breeds.ConclusionsIgE hypersensitivity was most often associated with indoor allergens. Outdoor allergens were of minor importance and IgE reactivity to flea saliva was rare. Breed differences in allergen-specific IgE levels were identified. Season of sampling, and the dogs¿ geographical localisation, sex and age also affected the results of the IgE analysis. PMID:25475748

  1. Prevalence of computed tomographic subchondral bone lesions in the scapulohumeral joint of 32 immature dogs with thoracic limb lameness.

    PubMed

    Lande, Rachel; Reese, Shona L; Cuddy, Laura C; Berry, Clifford R; Pozzi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondrosis is a common developmental abnormality affecting the subchondral bone of immature, large breed dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe CT lesions detected in scapulohumeral joints of 32 immature dogs undergoing CT for thoracic limb lameness. Eight dogs (14 scapulohumeral joints) had arthroscopy following imaging. Thirteen dogs (19 scapulohumeral joints) were found to have CT lesions, including 10 dogs (16 scapulohumeral joints) with subchondral bone lesions and 3 dogs with enthesopathy of the supraspinatus tendon. In one dog, subchondral bone lesions appeared as large oval defects within the mid-aspect of the glenoid cavities, bilaterally. These lesions resembled osseous cyst-like lesions commonly identified in the horse. This is the first report of such a presentation of a subchondral bone lesion in the glenoid cavity of a dog. In all dogs, small, focal, round or linear lucent defects were visible within the cortical bone at the junction of the greater tubercle and intertubercular groove. These structures were thought to represent vascular channels. Findings from this study support the use of CT as an adjunct modality for the identification and characterization of scapulohumeral subchondral bone lesions in immature dogs with thoracic limb lameness. PMID:24033788

  2. The influence of high intensity white noise of free 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels in dogs 

    E-print Network

    Thalken, Charles Edward

    1970-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF HIGH INTENSITY WHITE NOISE ON FREE 17-HYDROXYCORTICOSTEROID LEVELS IN DOGS A Thesis by CHARLES EDWARD THALKEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1970 Ma)or Sub)ect: Laboratory Animal Medicine THE INFLUENCE OF HIGH INTENSITY WHITE NOISE ON FREE 17-HYDROXYCORTICOSTEROID LEVELS IN DOGS A Thesis by CHARLES EDWARD THALKEN Approved as to style and content by...

  3. Assessment of prevalence and distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in Manitoba, Canada, in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Yunik, Matthew E M; Galloway, Terry D; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the distribution and prevalence of the spotted fever group rickettsiae in Canada. We conducted active surveillance for tick-associated rickettsiae in 10 localities in Manitoba. A total of 1044 adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected and screened for spotted fever group rickettsiae. Rickettsia montanensis was the only species of rickettsia detected. The mean prevalence of infection was 9.8% (range, 0.00-21.74% among localities). The proportion of infected male and female ticks was not significantly different; however, tick populations near the northern limit of D. variabilis distribution in Manitoba had a lower prevalence of infection compared to tick populations from more southern localities in the province. PMID:25700040

  4. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  5. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

  6. MHC variability supports dog domestication from a large number of wolves: high diversity in Asia.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P

    2013-01-01

    The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA-DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA-DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392

  7. High intravascular tissue factor expression in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Piek; B. Brinkhof; E. Teske; J. Rothuizen; A. Dekker; L. C. Penning

    2011-01-01

    A high mortality occurs in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) during the first 2 weeks after the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response and coagulation abnormalities in dogs with IMHA in relation to the prognosis and to establish the contribution of whole blood tissue factor (TF) and IL-8 gene expressions.Gene expressions in

  8. Seasonality and prevalence rates of Steinina sp. (Eugregarinorida: Actinocephalidae) in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) from dogs captured in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Avelar, Daniel M; Linardi, Pedro M

    2008-11-01

    In total, 1500 specimens (448 males and 1052 females) of the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) were collected over a period of a year from 150 dogs captured by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microscopic examination of the dissected fleas revealed that 180 fleas were infected with a species of gregarine that was subsequently identified as a member of the genus Steinina. The relative abundances, prevalence rates, and seasonal variation of the different developmental stages of this endoparasite in C. felis felis were determined. Both gamonts and gametocysts presented significant seasonal variation. PMID:19058639

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Highly Prevalent Amyloid A Amyloidosis Endemic to Endangered Island Foxes

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Patricia M.; Imai, Denise M.; Clifford, Deana L.; Ghassemian, Majid; Sasik, Roman; Chang, Aaron N.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Coppinger, Judith; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer; Munson, Linda; Sigurdson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA). Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34%) in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%), spleen (58%), oral cavity (45%), and vasculature (44%) and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-? chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ?0.05). Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins. PMID:25429466

  10. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence survey of asymptomatic dogs in an endemic area of northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Barati, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Zarei, Zabiholah

    2015-06-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health problem that is endemic in tropical and sub tropical countries and is fatal in humans and dogs. In addition to symptomatic dogs, asymptomatic ones seem as source of Leishmania infantum infection. Thus surveillance and control programs of reservoir hosts are essential. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in asymptomatic domestic dogs from in an endemic area of north west, Iran. A cross sectional study was carried out in Meshkin-Shahr district during 2011-2012. Blood samples collected from 508 asymptomatic domestic dogs were tested by direct agglutination test. In this study 508 dogs (397 males and 111 females, mean age, 3.24 years) from western and eastern parts of the Meshkin-Shahr were examined. A total of 508 dogs examined 119 dogs (23.4 %) had antibodies (titers of ?1:320) against L. infantum. Statistically significance was occurred between male (25.4 %) and female (16.2) sero-prevalence (P = 0.042). No statistically significance was observed between age groups (P = 0.22). Compared with previous studies it seems to increase sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in the studied areas caused by ecological changes. High proportion of asymptomatic but seropositive dogs emphasizes the importance of dogs without clinical signs in the epidemiology of zoonotic leishmaniasis. Thus, the necessity of using serological tests in asymptomatic dogs is recommended for disease control strategy. PMID:26064004

  11. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  12. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs (Canis familiaris) and triatomines during 2008 in a sanitary region of the State of Mexico, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barbabosa-Pliego, Alberto; Gil, Pablo Campos; Hernández, Dora Olivares; Aparicio-Burgos, José E; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Ochoa-García, Laucel; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Estrada-Franco, José G; Garg, Nisha Jain; Chagoyán, Juan Carlos Vázquez

    2011-02-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a public health problem in Latin America and southern parts of the United States. Infection in triatomines (vector) and domestic dogs (reservoir host) is a good indicator of Trypanosoma cruzi circulation and human risk of infection. The State of Mexico, Mexico, has been considered free of T. cruzi, and no detailed epidemiologic study has been conducted to assess the intricacies of the transmission cycle of the parasite in the region. Such studies would enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of T. cruzi infection in this geographic region and provide regional sanitary authorities with stronger fundamental knowledge for making decisions and allocating funds for Chagas disease control programs in the State of Mexico. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in dogs (seroprevalence) and triatomines (fecal parasites) in a previously identified, discrete endemic region of parasite circulation and to widen our studies in the Tejupilco Sanitary Region located in the southern part of the State of Mexico. Dog blood samples (n=102) were analyzed for the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies by two assays, namely indirect hemagglutination assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Triatomines (n=88) were collected and fecal aliquots were analyzed for the presence of parasites by light microscopy. Average seroprevalence in dogs in the Tejupilco Sanitary region was 24.5%, and the overall triatomine infection rate was 34.01%. Triatoma pallidipennis was the only triatomine species found in this region. Our data demonstrate that T. cruzi is actively circulating in the Tejupilco Sanitary Region and emphasize the requirement for epidemiologic surveillance programs throughout the putative endemic areas of the State of Mexico. PMID:20575648

  13. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in stray and household dogs in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Chen, Yi-Zhou; Lin, Rui-Qing; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Li, Shou-Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-06-01

    The frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray and household dogs in Guangzhou, China was examined by ELISA on serum samples from 150 animals (36 strays and 114 from households) and the overall prevalence was 21.3%. The extent of infection in stray dogs (33.3%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in household dogs (17.5%). Infection in male and female dogs of both groups was not significantly different (P >or= 0.05), i.e., 31.8% versus 35.7% for male and female in stray dogs, and 14.5% versus 22.2% in household dogs. The results of the present investigation indicate that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs was high in Guangzhou, especially in strays. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in both stray and household dogs. PMID:20020807

  14. Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis from faecal samples of stray dogs in Hualien city of eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Y C; Ho, G D; Chen T, T W; Huang, B F; Cheng, P C; Chen, J L; Peng, S Y

    2014-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea through waterborne transmission or fecal-oral infection. The cysts are chlorine-resistant and, therefore, can pollute drinking water and induce a pandemic disease. In this study, we aimed to detect G. duodenalis infection in stray dogs in Hualien, Taiwan. We collected faecal samples from 118 dogs and amplified DNA sequences of the ?-giardin gene by nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR). Eleven of the 118 faecal samples tested positive for the parasite. The genotype analysis of the 11 samples indicated that 7 samples belonged to assemblage C and four samples belonged to assemblage D. Our study provided a better understanding of the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in dogs from Hualien City, and human infection could not be induced by this zoonotic infection pathway in Hualien City. PMID:25134899

  15. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts. PMID:18605787

  16. Modeling the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs for a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Budke; Qiu Jiamin; Philip S. Craig; Paul R. Torgerson

    2005-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis abundance and prevalence data, for domestic dogs of Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, were fitted to mathematical models to evaluate transmission parameters. Abundance models, assuming the presence and absence of immunity, were fit for both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis using Bayesian priors, maximum likelihood, and Monte Carlo sampling techniques. When the

  17. The prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of stray and refuge dogs in four locations in India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Pednekar, Riddhi P; Cuttell, Leigh; Porter, Ronald B; Abd Megat Rani, Puteri Azaziah; Gatne, Mukulesh L

    2014-09-15

    A gastrointestinal parasite survey of 411 stray and refuge dogs sampled from four geographical and climactically distinct locations in India revealed these animals to represent a significant source of environmental contamination for parasites that pose a zoonotic risk to the public. Hookworms were the most commonly identified parasite in dogs in Sikkim (71.3%), Mumbai (48.8%) and Delhi (39.1%). In Ladakh, which experiences harsh extremes in climate, a competitive advantage was observed for parasites such as Sarcocystis spp. (44.2%), Taenia hydatigena (30.3%) and Echinococcus granulosus (2.3%) that utilise intermediate hosts for the completion of their life cycle. PCR identified Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum to occur sympatrically, either as single or mixed infections in Sikkim (Northeast) and Mumbai (West). In Delhi, A. caninum was the only species identified in dogs, probably owing to its ability to evade unfavourable climatic conditions by undergoing arrested development in host tissue. The expansion of the known distribution of A. ceylanicum to the west, as far as Mumbai, justifies the renewed interest in this emerging zoonosis and advocates for its surveillance in future human parasite surveys. Of interest was the absence of Trichuris vulpis in dogs, in support of previous canine surveys in India. This study advocates the continuation of birth control programmes in stray dogs that will undoubtedly have spill-over effects on reducing the levels of environmental contamination with parasite stages. In particular, owners of pet animals exposed to these environments must be extra vigilant in ensuring their animals are regularly dewormed and maintaining strict standards of household and personal hygiene. PMID:25139393

  18. High Occupancy of Stream Salamanders Despite High Ranavirus Prevalence in a Southern Appalachians Watershed

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA Abstract: The interactive effects of environmental, Eurycea, Gyrinophilus, occupancy, monitoring, disease surveillance INTRODUCTION Two emerging pathogensHigh Occupancy of Stream Salamanders Despite High Ranavirus Prevalence in a Southern Appalachians

  19. Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

    2015-03-01

    Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was signi?cantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans. PMID:24280028

  20. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  1. Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

  2. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n?=?100; shelter-housed dogs, n?=?50; dogs from breeding kennels, n?=?21) and 102 cats (household pets, n?=?52; shelter-housed cats, n?=?21; free-roaming cats n?=?29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n?=?29) of dogs and 14.7% (n?=?15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P?=?0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. PMID:25951986

  3. High Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Lactose Intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Ojetti; Gabriella Nucera; Alessio Migneco; Maurizio Gabrielli; Cristiano Lauritano; Silvio Danese; Maria Assunta Zocco; Enrico Celestino Nista; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonino De Lorenzo; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Antonio Gasbarrini

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Acquired lactase deficiency is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms but its etiology remains unclear. Celiac disease could lead to lactase deficiency and is much more common than previously suspected. Several studies have highlighted the prevalence of lactose intolerance in celiac disease, but studies assessing the prevalence of celiac disease in lactose intolerance are lacking. We evaluated the prevalence

  4. High cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-10 attained by AAV in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pleticha, J; Malkmus, S A; Heilmann, L F; Veesart, S L; Rezek, R; Xu, Q; Yaksh, T L; Beutler, A S

    2015-02-01

    Intrathecal (IT) gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) may be clinically promising as a treatment for chronic pain if it can produce sufficiently high levels of a transgene product in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although this strategy was developed in rodents, no studies investigating CSF levels of an analgesic or antiallodynic protein delivered by IT AAV have been performed in large animals. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an antiallodynic cytokine for which target therapeutic levels have been established in rats. The present study tested IT AAV8 encoding either human IL-10 (hIL-10) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a dog model of IT drug delivery. AAV8/hIL-10 at a dose of 3.5 × 10(12) genome copies induced high hIL-10 levels in the CSF, exceeding the target concentration previously found to be antiallodynic in rodents by >1000-fold. AAV8/EGFP targeted the primary sensory and motor neurons and the meninges. hIL-10, a xenogeneic protein in dogs, induced anti-hIL-10 antibodies detectable in the CSF and serum of dogs. The high hIL-10 levels demonstrate the efficacy of AAV for delivery of secreted transgenes into the IT space of large animals, suggesting a strong case for further development toward clinical testing. PMID:25354684

  5. Whole-genome sequencing of six dog breeds from continuous altitudes reveals adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Gou, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Ze; Yan, Dawei; Yang, Shuli; Jia, Jia; Kong, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zehui; Lu, Shaoxiong; Lian, Linsheng; Wu, Changxin; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Guozhi; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Qiang; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Baohong; Wei, Dongkai; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianfa; Yan, Yulin; Zhao, Guiying; Dong, Xinxing; Li, Mingli; Deng, Weidong; Leng, Jing; Wei, Chaochun; Wang, Chuan; Mao, Huaming; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Guohui; Li, Yixue

    2014-08-01

    The hypoxic environment imposes severe selective pressure on species living at high altitude. To understand the genetic bases of adaptation to high altitude in dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 60 dogs including five breeds living at continuous altitudes along the Tibetan Plateau from 800 to 5100 m as well as one European breed. More than 150× sequencing coverage for each breed provides us with a comprehensive assessment of the genetic polymorphisms of the dogs, including Tibetan Mastiffs. Comparison of the breeds from different altitudes reveals strong signals of population differentiation at the locus of hypoxia-related genes including endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1) and beta hemoglobin cluster. Notably, four novel nonsynonymous mutations specific to high-altitude dogs are identified at EPAS1, one of which occurred at a quite conserved site in the PAS domain. The association testing between EPAS1 genotypes and blood-related phenotypes on additional high-altitude dogs reveals that the homozygous mutation is associated with decreased blood flow resistance, which may help to improve hemorheologic fitness. Interestingly, EPAS1 was also identified as a selective target in Tibetan highlanders, though no amino acid changes were found. Thus, our results not only indicate parallel evolution of humans and dogs in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, but also provide a new opportunity to study the role of EPAS1 in the adaptive processes. PMID:24721644

  6. Whole-genome sequencing of six dog breeds from continuous altitudes reveals adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Ze; Yan, Dawei; Yang, Shuli; Jia, Jia; Kong, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zehui; Lu, Shaoxiong; Lian, Linsheng; Wu, Changxin; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Guozhi; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Qiang; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Baohong; Wei, Dongkai; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianfa; Yan, Yulin; Zhao, Guiying; Dong, Xinxing; Li, Mingli; Deng, Weidong; Leng, Jing; Wei, Chaochun; Wang, Chuan; Mao, Huaming; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Guohui; Li, Yixue

    2014-01-01

    The hypoxic environment imposes severe selective pressure on species living at high altitude. To understand the genetic bases of adaptation to high altitude in dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 60 dogs including five breeds living at continuous altitudes along the Tibetan Plateau from 800 to 5100 m as well as one European breed. More than 150× sequencing coverage for each breed provides us with a comprehensive assessment of the genetic polymorphisms of the dogs, including Tibetan Mastiffs. Comparison of the breeds from different altitudes reveals strong signals of population differentiation at the locus of hypoxia-related genes including endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1) and beta hemoglobin cluster. Notably, four novel nonsynonymous mutations specific to high-altitude dogs are identified at EPAS1, one of which occurred at a quite conserved site in the PAS domain. The association testing between EPAS1 genotypes and blood-related phenotypes on additional high-altitude dogs reveals that the homozygous mutation is associated with decreased blood flow resistance, which may help to improve hemorheologic fitness. Interestingly, EPAS1 was also identified as a selective target in Tibetan highlanders, though no amino acid changes were found. Thus, our results not only indicate parallel evolution of humans and dogs in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, but also provide a new opportunity to study the role of EPAS1 in the adaptive processes. PMID:24721644

  7. Relationship between paraoxonase 1 activity and high density lipoprotein concentration during naturally occurring babesiosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Kuleš, J; Rafaj, R Bari?; Mrljak, V; Lauzi, S; Giordano, A; Paltrinieri, S

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a negative acute phase protein bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL) and during the acute phase response (APR) protects HDL from peroxidation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between PON1 and HDL in canine babesiosis, a disease characterized by oxidative damages and by an APR. PON1, HDL and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood collected from 15 controls and 29 dogs with babesiosis sampled at admission, and on days 1 and 7 after treatment. At admission, PON1 and HDL were significantly lower in affected dogs. HDL concentration increased at day 1 while PON1 increased and CRP decreased at day 7. This suggests that the decrease of PON1 at admission is in part due to an increased consumption, the decreased HDL may depend on lipid peroxidation and its rapid increase after treatment may depend on the antioxidant activity of PON1. PMID:25104322

  8. High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

  9. An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Habluetzel; G. Traldi; S. Ruggieri; A. R. Attili; P. Scuppa; R. Marchetti; G. Menghini; F. Esposito

    2003-01-01

    The human risk of infection with larvae of Toxocara canis was estimated in people from the Marche region of Italy. This region includes both urban and rural areas and its inhabitants frequently keep dogs for company, hunting, as guardians or shepherds. T. canis infection was diagnosed in 33.6% out of 295 dogs examined. Nearly half of the dogs (48.4%) living

  10. Serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs) comprise illnesses caused by a spectrum of pathogens that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Some dogs have persistent infections without apparent clinical, hematological or biochemical abnormalities, whereas other dogs develop acute illnesses, persistent subclinical infections, or chronic debilitating diseases. The primary objective of this study was to screen healthy dogs for serological and molecular evidence of regionally important CVBDs. Methods Clinically healthy dogs (n?=?118), comprising three different groups: Gp I blood donor candidates (n?=?47), Gp II healthy dog volunteers (n?=?50), and Gp III stray dogs (n?=?21) were included in the study. Serum and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anti-coagulated blood specimens collected from each dog were tested for CVBD pathogens. Results Of the 118 dogs tested, 97 (82%) dogs had been exposed to or were infected with one or more CVBD pathogens. By IFA testing, 9% of Gp I, 42% of Gp II and 19% of Gp III dogs were seroreactive to one or more CVBD pathogens. Using the SNAP 4DX® assay, Gp I dogs were seronegative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) antibodies and D. immitis antigen. In Gp II, 8 dogs were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive, 2 were infected with D. immitis and 1 was B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) seroreactive. In Gp III, 6 dogs were infected with D. immitis and 4 were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive. Using the BAPGM diagnostic platform, Bartonella DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from 19% of Gp I, 20% of Gp II and 10% of Gp III dogs. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, 6% of Gps I and II and 19% of Gp III dogs were infected with other CVBD pathogens. Conclusion The development and validation of specific diagnostic testing modalities has facilitated more accurate detection of CVBDs. Once identified, exposure to vectors should be limited and flea and tick prevention enforced. PMID:24655461

  11. Heterogeneity of dog interstitial fluid (peripheral lymph) high density lipoproteins: implications for a role in reverse cholesterol transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Dory; L. M. Boquet; R. L. Hamilton; C. H. Sloop; P. S. Roheim

    The heterogeneity of dog interstitial fluid (peripheral lymph) high density lipoprotein (HDL) was investigated and compared to plasma HDL. Interstitial fluid and plasma HDL of normal and cholesterol-fed dogs was subfractionated by ultra- centrifugation and affinity and molecular weight sieving chro- matography. Both plasma (P) and interstitial fluid (L) HDL can be subfractionated into a larger fraction (P-I and L-I)

  12. Non-pet dogs as sentinels and potential synanthropic reservoirs of tick-borne and zoonotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Dénes, Béla; Meli, Marina L; Tánczos, Balázs; Fekete, Lilla; Gyuranecz, Miklós; de la Fuente, José; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-12-27

    Blood samples were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs (apparently healthy) in southern Hungary to screen for the presence of emerging tick-borne pathogens. Based on real-time PCR results, 14 dogs (11%) had single or dual haemoplasma infection, and a same number of samples were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In one sample Coxiella burnetii was molecularly identified, and 20.3% of dogs seroconverted to the Q fever agent. Rickettsaemia (sensu stricto) was also detected in one animal. This is the first molecular evidence of autochthonous infection of dogs with the above pathogens in Hungary. The relatively high prevalence of haemoplasma and anaplasma infection among non-pet dogs is suggestive of a prolonged carrier status and bacteraemia of these animals rendering them epidemiologically significant as potential reservoirs and sentinels for tick-borne infections. PMID:24021884

  13. Distribution and intensity of Echinococcus granulosus infections in dogs in Moroto District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Inangolet, Francis O; Biffa, Demelash; Opuda-Asibo, John; Oloya, James; Skjerve, Eystein

    2010-10-01

    This study was carried out during August 2007-March 2008 in pastoral areas of Moroto District, Uganda. It investigated the distribution and infection intensity of Echinococcus granulosus in the dog population and involved the postmortem examination of 327 dogs (106 domesticated; 80 semi-domesticated, and 141 strays; comprised of 163 females and 164 males). The overall prevalence of E. granulosus was 66.3% (95% CI=60.8-71.4) with parasite burdens of 6-5,213 among the infected dogs. The prevalence of E. granulosus was primarily associated with the season. While the dogs were more likely to have high parasite burdens during the rainy as opposed to the dry season, the parasite burden of E. granulosus infection was also highly associated with age and husbandry. Young dogs were at greater risk of carrying a heavy burden of E. granulosus infection than adults. Likewise, stray dogs were more likely to have a heavy parasite burden. As the study documented a high prevalence and intensity of E. granulosus infection in the dog population in Moroto District of Uganda, further studies need to be carried out in human and intermediate hosts to elucidate the cycle of transmission that could help to design appropriate controlling measures. PMID:20393798

  14. Identifying areas of high risk of human exposure to coccidioidomycosis in Texas using serology data from dogs.

    PubMed

    Gautam, R; Srinath, I; Clavijo, A; Szonyi, B; Bani-Yaghoub, M; Park, S; Ivanek, R

    2013-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever (VF) is an emerging soil-borne fungal zoonosis affecting humans and animals. Most non-human cases of VF are found in dogs, which we hypothesize may serve as sentinels for estimating the human exposure risk. The objective of this study is to use the spatial and temporal distribution and clusters of dogs seropositive for VF to define the geographic area in Texas where VF is endemic, and thus presents a higher risk of exposure to humans. The included specimens were seropositive dogs tested at a major diagnostic laboratory between 1999 and 2009. Data were aggregated by zip code and smoothed by empirical Bayesian estimation to develop an isopleth map of VF seropositive rates using kriging. Clusters of seropositive dogs were identified using the spatial scan test. Both the isopleth map and the scan test identified an area with a high rate of VF-seropositive dogs in the western and southwestern parts of Texas (relative risk = 31). This location overlapped an area that was previously identified as a potential endemic region based on human surveys. Together, these data suggest that dogs may serve as sentinels for estimating the risk of human exposure to VF. PMID:22856539

  15. Genomic characterization and high prevalence of bocaviruses in swine.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tongling; Lan, Daoliang; Li, Linlin; Wang, Chunmei; Cui, Li; Zhang, Wen; Hua, Xiuguo; Zhu, Caixia; Zhao, Wei; Delwart, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Using random PCR amplification followed by plasmid subcloning and DNA sequencing, we detected bocavirus related sequences in 9 out of 17 porcine stool samples. Using primer walking, we sequenced the nearly complete genomes of two highly divergent bocaviruses we provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 isolate H18 (PBoV1-H18) and porcine bocavirus 2 isolate A6 (PBoV2-A6) which differed by 51.8% in their NS1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PBoV1-H18 was very closely related to a ?2 Kb central region of a porcine bocavirus-like virus (PBo-LikeV) from Sweden described in 2009. PBoV2-A6 was very closely related to the porcine bocavirus genomes PBoV-1 and PBoV2 from China described in 2010. Among 340 fecal samples collected from different age, asymptomatic swine in five Chinese provinces, the prevalence of PBoV1-H18 and PBoV2-A6 related viruses were 45-75% and 55-70% respectively, with 30-47% of pigs co-infected. PBoV1-A6 related strains were highly conserved, while PBoV2-H18 related strains were more diverse, grouping into two genotypes corresponding to the previously described PBoV1 and PBoV2. Together with the recently described partial bocavirus genomes labeled V6 and V7, a total of three major porcine bocavirus clades have therefore been described to date. Further studies will be required to elucidate the possible pathogenic impact of these diverse bocaviruses either alone or in combination with other porcine viruses. PMID:21525999

  16. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2011-02-10

    The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 ?m × 11.9 ?m, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. PMID:21074324

  17. Severe canine influenza in dogs correlates with hyperchemokinemia and high viral load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Na Lee; Hyun-Jeong Lee; Dong-Hun Lee; Jung-Hyun Kim; Hee-Myung Park; Sang-Soep Nahm; Joong-Bok Lee; Seung-Yong Park; In-Soo Choi; Chang-Seon Song

    2011-01-01

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute respiratory disease in dogs. To better understand the mechanism(s) responsible for the virulence of the virus, we conducted immunological, virological, clinical, and histopathological analyses in CIV-infected dogs. CIV replicated efficiently in the respiratory system of dogs and caused severe respiratory disease. Notably, the infection induced the marked elevation and

  18. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  19. Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

    2014-06-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

  20. Low prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Jilin, Henan and Anhui Provinces of the People’s Republic of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are consider...

  1. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from the domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies revealed high genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Tiwari, K; Chikweto, A; Deallie, C; Sharma, R; Thomas, D; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

    2013-11-01

    Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat a variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 249 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 89 (35.7%) of 249 were seropositive with titers of 25 in seven dogs, 50 in 22 dogs, 100 in 22 dogs, 200 or higher in 38 dogs. Hearts of 76 seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 12 dogs; these isolates were designated TgDogGr1 to TgDogGr12. These isolates were further propagated in cell culture and DNA isolated from cell culture derived tachyzoites of 12 isolates was genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The results revealed six genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #1, #2, #3, #7, #13 and #224, with 1, 6, 1, 2, 1 and 1 isolates, respectively. The result supports previous findings that T. gondii population genetics is highly diverse in Grenada. PMID:24041485

  2. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Deeg; R. Storb; P. L. Weiden; D. Schumacher; H. Shulman; T. Graham; E. D. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy\\/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day.

  3. The Prevalence of Depression in a High School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Brian; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined prevalence of depression in nonclinical adolescent population (n=2,698) in Canadian city. Administered Beck Depression Inventory to students in three secondary schools. Found significant main effects of age and gender. Found relatively low rates of severe or moderate depression in this population. Contrasted those with no or mild…

  4. High prevalence of Human Herpesvirus 8 in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hannachi, Neila; El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Nakhli, Jaafar; Letaief, Leila; Gaabout, Samia; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel

    2014-05-15

    Many studies have reported an association between Herpes family viruses and an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the role of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has never been investigated. This study aimed to assess HHV8 prevalence in schizophrenic patients as well as the possible association between HHV8 infection and schizophrenia clinical features. We consecutively enrolled 108 patients meeting fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria of schizophrenia and 108 age and sex matched controls. Data about a number of demographic characteristics and potential HHV8 risk factors of infection were collected. Standardized psychopathology measures, disease severity and functioning level were obtained using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and Global Assessment of functioning (GAF). The presence of anti-HHV8 antibodies was analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. A higher prevalence of HHV8 infection in schizophrenic patients than in controls was found. Marital status, having children, sexual behavior and risk factors of blood transmission were not associated with HHV8 prevalence. However, among schizophrenic patients, HHV8 prevalence was statically associated with positive symptoms. To our knowledge, this would be the first report of a possible role of HHV8 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To prove this hypothesis, further investigation of HHV8 in schizophrenia with larger samples is needed. PMID:24560611

  5. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in dogs: is high seroprevalence indicative of a reservoir role?

    PubMed

    Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; González, Kadir; Rigg, Chystrie; Pineda, Vanessa; Santamaría, Ana María; Rodríguez, Indra; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Laurenti, Marcia D; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-08-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. parasites. We did our research in Panamá, at a village that has undergone significant ecosystem level transformations. We found an ACL seroprevalence of 47% among dogs, and their exposure was positively associated with dog age and abundance of sand fly vectors in the houses of dog owners. Using mathematical models, which were fitted to data on the proportion of positive tests as function of dog age, we estimated a basic reproductive number (R 0 ± s.e.) of 1·22 ± 0·09 that indicates the disease is endemically established in the dogs. Nevertheless, this information by itself is insufficient to incriminate dogs as ACL reservoirs, given the inability to find parasites (or their DNA) in seropositive dogs and previously reported failures to experimentally infect vectors feeding on dogs with ACL parasites. PMID:25990429

  6. Helminth infection in southern Laos: high prevalence and low awareness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helminthiasis is a public health concern in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos). This study aimed to understand helminth infection and associated risk factors in relation to existing local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding worm infections in endemic communities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 randomly selected villages in Saravane district, Southern Laos. Two stool samples obtained from 574 members (aged ?2 years) of selected households were examined using the Kato Katz method. Household heads (n?=?130) were interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and direct observations were performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict infection. Content analysis was conducted for qualitative data. Results The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia sp. was 88.7%, 86.6%, 32.9%, 9.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Most individuals were co-infected with O. viverrini and hookworm. More men had multiple helminth infections than did women. Only one-third of household heads had heard about liver fluke before, of which 59.2% associated it with eating raw fish dish. Among the soil-transmitted helminths, roundworm was the most well known (70.8%) but was attributed to raw food consumption (91.3%). Eating raw fish was a common practice (75.4%); few households possessed a latrine (16.1%); less than half of the study participants mentioned health benefits from latrine use and personal hygiene. Focus group discussion participants had a low level of awareness of worm infections; more men liked eating raw fish than did women; some disliked using latrines because they were not used to it and because of their bad smell. Poor personal and village hygiene practices were observed. Conclusions This study highlights a high helminth infection rate and poor community awareness of worm infections and associated risk factors. Only a sound awareness of worm infection and the underlying risk factors may prevent infection and re-infection after treatment. PMID:24499584

  7. High prevalence of NTDs in Shanxi Province: A combined epidemiological approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Gu; Liangming Lin; Xiaoying Zheng; Ting Zhang; Xinming Song; Jinfeng Wang; Xinhu Li; Peizhen Li; Gong Chen; Jilei Wu; Lihua Wu; Jufen Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shanxi Province has historically reported a high prevalence of NTDs. In order to establish baseline rates for NTDs and discuss the risk factors associated with sociodemographic, maternal characteris- tics, and geographic factors, we performed the present study using an approach combining population and hospital-based methodologies. METHODS: We used v2 and Fisher's exact tests to evaluate variation in the prevalence

  8. Conversion between renin and high-molecular-weight renin in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Funakawa, S; Funae, Y; Yamamoto, K

    1978-01-01

    Two forms of renin, one of mol.wt. 43,000 and the other 60,000, were found in the dog kidney. Conversion between the two forms of renin was reversible at neutral pH. Though the molecular weight of renin in kidney-cortex homogenate was 43,000, it was completely converted into high-molecular-weight renin in the presence of substances that react with thiol groups. On the contrary, stored renin in the granules was the form of normal size (mol. wt. 43,000) regardless of the absence or presence of such substances. The present experiments indicated that renin is stored in the granules as the form of normal size and might be converted into high-molecular-weight renin when it is released from the granules and attached to some substance in the soluble fraction of renal-cortical tissue. PMID:747665

  9. Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto®) in slow release collars to control ticks and fleas in highly infested dog communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dog communities living in kennels are at high risk of being infected by ticks and fleas. In spite of the indubitable efficacy of several topical ectoparasiticides registered for the control of ectoparasites in dogs, the short period of action and the price of these products limit their use in dog communities. This paper reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars to cure dogs highly infested with ectoparasites and to prevent infestations for 8 months in a refuge with a history of unsuccessful environmental treatments. Methods A total of 82 dogs were collared with slow release collars containing a formulation of imidacloprid 10% / flumethrin 4.5%. Dogs were followed-up for ectoparasite presence after 2, 7 and 14 days and thereafter biweekly up to 90 days. Furthermore, dogs were examined for ectoparasites whilst replacing collars 8 months after their application. Results At the time of treatment 79 (96.3%) out of 82 included dogs were heavily infested by ticks and 53 (68.8%) out of the 77 combed dogs were infested by fleas. Tick infested dogs had an estimated mean intensity of 46.9 (± 65.7), while flea infested animals had a load between 20 and 50 fleas. In addition, some of the flea infested dogs (18.9%) were presenting signs of flea allergic dermatitis (FAD). Two days after treatment, 49 (60.5%) and 9 (11.7%) dogs were still infested by live ticks and fleas, respectively. However, the mean intensity of ticks decreased to 3.5 (± 4.3) with a reduction of 92.5%. Except for sporadic cases, no attached ectoparasites were found on dogs from the day 14 visit until the end of the investigation. Cases of FAD resolved without any other treatment within 30 days. Conclusions Ticks and fleas represent a constant hazard for dog populations. Therefore, in particular settings, such as dog refuges, sustainable and long-term strategies to control ectoparasite infestations are needed. Based on the observed evidence of efficacy, long-term duration and safety, the imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars can be regarded as an efficacious and sustainable means for ectoparasite control and for treatment of FAD in high-risk dog communities. PMID:23866926

  10. High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mateo; J. Belliure; J. C. Dolz; J. M. Aguilar Serrano; R. Guitart

    1998-01-01

    .   Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl\\u000a in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were\\u000a determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de Val?ncia, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Do?ana (Guadalquivir Marshes).\\u000a Lead pellet density

  11. High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Mdivani, Nino; Zangaladze, Ekaterina; Volkova, Natalia; Kourbatova, Ekaterina; Jibuti, Thea; Shubladze, Natalia; Kutateladze, Tamar; Khechinashvili, George; del Rio, Carlos; Salakaia, Archil; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) has emerged as a serious public health problem in the country of Georgia. However, there have been little or no data on rates and risk factors for drug resistant TB including multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB in Georgia. Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors for drug resistant TB. Methodology A cross-sectional prospective survey of patients with suspected pulmonary TB was carried out at four sentinel sites (Tbilisi, Zugdidi, Kutaisi, and Batumi) in Georgia to in 2001-2004. Results Among 1,422 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, 996 (70.0%) of 1,422 patients were culture positive; 931 (93.5%) of 996 had drug susceptibility testing performed. Overall, 64% of patients (48.3% of new and 85.3% of retreatment cases) had positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to ?1 first line antituberculosis drugs. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB was 28.1% (10.5% of newly diagnosed patients and 53.1% of retreatment cases). In multivariate analysis, risk factors for MDR-TB included: being a retreatment case (prevalence ratio [PR]=5.28, 95% CI 3.95-7.07); history of injection drug use (PR=1.59, 95% CI 1.21-2.09); and female gender (PR=1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.65). Conclusion MDR-TB has emerged as a serious public health problem in Georgia and will greatly impact TB control strategies. PMID:18514008

  12. Prairie dog care and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Pilny, Anthony A; Hess, Laurie

    2004-05-01

    The species of prairie dog most commonly found in the pet trade is the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus ludovicianus. These prairie dogs are active, playful, and strong rodents that can make wonderful, affectionate pets when they are properly socialized and given attention. However, with a life span of 8 to 12 years, prairie dogs require a lot of care and a long-term commitment. Prairie dogs live in colonies; thus, they are highly social animals. Potential owners should understand a prairie dog's need for attention before adopting one. PMID:15145390

  13. Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K

    2014-09-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P?dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs. PMID:24980809

  14. Kennel enrichment: exercise and socialization of dogs.

    PubMed

    Coppinger, R; Zuccotti, J

    1999-01-01

    In the last 50 years, there has been a growing need for storage and management systems for the production and maintenance of large numbers of dogs. Unwanted dogs and strays, detained in kennels, stay for various lengths of time. Large kennels also produce dogs for sale as companion animals, for the service dog industry (police and guide dogs), for biomedical research, and for use by dog food companies. Across the United States, literally tens of thousands of dogs are born in kennels and spend their lives in kennels. The laboratory dog, the kennel dog, the service dog, and the companion dog are in an evolutionary transition period, accompanied by concomitant adaptation to stresses signaled by a high frequency of genetic disease and behavioral abnormalities. For kennel enrichment programs, such as socialization and exercise, the modern kenneled dog is a genetically moving target. Specific recommendations apply neither to all breeds nor to the variations within a single breed. PMID:16363933

  15. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855

  16. High prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine bocaviruses in pigs in the USA, and identification of multiple novel porcine bocaviruses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Hou; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Gerber, Priscilla F; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-02-01

    Viruses in the genus Bocavirus are associated with respiratory and enteric disease in dogs and cattle. In addition, novel porcine bocaviruses (PBoVs) have been identified in domestic and wild pigs in recent years, but are of unknown relevance to date. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence ra tes and genetic diversity of PBoVs in pigs in the USA. Using newly established multiplex real-time PCR assays, 385 lung, lymph node, serum and faecal samples from pigs with various disease conditions were investigated. A high PBoV prevalence rate ranging from 21.3 to 50.8 % was identified in the investigated samples and often two or more PBoV species were detected in the same sample. Cloning and sequencing analysis of the partial non-structural protein NS1 and the capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 of DNA samples positive for PBoV groups 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 16) and 3 (n = 42), including subgroups 3A, 3B or 3C, revealed a high genetic diversity especially for the PBoV G3 VP2 gene, whereas the PBoV group 1 VP1 gene displayed a low nucleotide polymorphism. Using primer walking, 18 partial or nearly complete genomes of PBoVs were obtained and six of the 18 nearly complete genomes represented novel PBoV species. Recombination analysis using partial NS1, VP1 and VP2 genes and the nearly complete genomes indicated possible recombination events within and between PBoVs. Further studies will be required to reveal the possible pathogenic role of these diverse PBoVs. PMID:24243729

  17. High Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Children with Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24741574

  18. High prevalence of parotideal abnormalities among HCV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, Bruno; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Gussio, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Several salivary diseases, such as Sjogren syndrome (SS), chronic lymphocytic sialadenitis and parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, may occur in the setting of HCV infection. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of parotid abnormalities in a cohort of 310 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) attending the Unit of Infectious Diseases of the Garibaldi Nesima Hospital of Catania. Our control group consisted of 188 patients with chronic HBV infection. We found that the prevalence of parotideal diseases was significantly higher among HCV-infected patients in comparison with HBV-infected (17% vs. 1%). Indeed, 53 CHC subjects had parotideal abnormalities: 24 patients (45.3%) had lymphoepithelial cysts of the salivary gland, six patients (11.3%) had a benign tumour, six patients (11.3%) had granulomatous lesions, 12 patients (22.7%) had Sjogren's syndrome and four patients (7.5%) were diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic sialadenitis. Finally, one patient (1.9%) had parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In conclusion, parotideal abnormalities are common among HCV-infected individuals and targeted diagnostic protocols may help identify parotid involvement in this population of subjects. PMID:24651088

  19. High Prevalence of the Thermolabile Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Variant in Mexico: A Country with a Very High Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvaldo M. Mutchinick; Mar??a A. López; Leonora Luna; Jonathan Waxman; Victoria E. Babinsky

    1999-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are highly prevalent in the Mexican population. According to data from the Registry and Epidemiological Surveillance of External Congenital Malformations (RYVEMCE), at least 1 in 250 conceptions that reach 20 weeks of pregnancy or more has a NTD. This number is three to four times higher than that observed in other related ethnic groups. A common

  20. [Analysis of genetic variation in dogs (American Pit Bull Terrier breed) with high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, L N; Guliakova, O G; Malienko, V A; Mel'nichuk, S D; Spiridonov, V G

    2010-01-01

    The level of gene polymorphism of 10 microsatellite loci in 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs which have a high value of the percentage of blood and inbreeding coefficient achieved 43.8% was studied. The excess of heterozigosity over expected for this level of inbreeding coefficient was established. Suggestion that the high level of heterozigosity is the result of the selection against homozygotes was made. PMID:20722281

  1. Genetic Convergence in the Adaptation of Dogs and Humans to the High-Altitude Environment of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Zhai, Weiwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, He-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yan; Gao, Yun; Ge, Ri-Li; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:25091388

  2. Genetic convergence in the adaptation of dogs and humans to the high-altitude environment of the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Zhai, Weiwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, He-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yan; Gao, Yun; Ge, Ri-Li; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:25091388

  3. A retrospective review of treatment and response of high-risk mast cell tumours in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Van Lelyveld, S; Warland, J; Dobson, J M; Foale, R D

    2014-09-15

    This retrospective case series evaluates survival outcome of 94 dogs with high metastatic risk mast cell tumours (MCT). Patients were treated with a cytotoxic chemotherapy protocol or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor masitinib, in the presence of gross disease or as an adjunct to surgical resection of the primary tumour. In patients presenting with metastatic disease, surgical resection of the primary tumour with adjunctive therapy with any chemotherapy incurred a significant survival advantage [median survival time (MST): 278 days] compared to patients receiving chemotherapy without surgical excision of the primary tumour (MST: 91 days, P < 0.0001). Patients with a surgically excised Patnaik grade II tumour and high Ki-67 in the absence of metastatic disease treated with vinblastine and prednisolone showed a significantly longer survival (MST: 1946 days) than those treated with masitinib (MST: 369 days, P = 0.0037). Further prospective case-controlled clinical trials of high-risk MCTs are required to make precise evidence-based treatment decisions for individual patients. PMID:25223579

  4. Breed, gender and age pattern of diagnosis for veterinary care in insured dogs in Japan during fiscal year 2010.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mai; Hasegawa, A; Hosoi, Y; Sugiura, K

    2015-04-01

    We calculated the annual prevalence of diseases of 18 diagnostic categories in the insured dog population in Japan, using data from 299,555 dogs insured between April 2010 and March 2011. The prevalence was highest for dermatological disorders (22.6% for females and 23.3% for males), followed by otic diseases (16.4% for females and 17.2% for males) and digestive system disorders (15.7% for females and 16.4% for males). The prevalence of cardiovascular, urinary, neoplasia and endocrine disorders, increased with age; infectious diseases and injuries showed a high prevalence at young ages, and the prevalence of musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders showed a bimodal peak at young and old ages. A large variation in prevalence was observed between breeds for dermatological, otic, digestive, ophthalmological and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25746927

  5. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

  6. High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain

    PubMed

    Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart

    1998-08-01

    Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de València, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Doñana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de València): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones. PMID:9680527

  7. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of <11th grade, and had ?2 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ?11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ?10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes. PMID:25724537

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Feng-Cai; Miao, Qiang; Liu, Zi-Li; Li, Bi-Feng; Lv, Rui-Qing; Du, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-10-18

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, P<0.01) at risk of acquiring the infection compared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing dog diseases. PMID:24141059

  9. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  10. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Cully, Jack F

    2008-07-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. PMID:18689663

  11. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. PMID:25686382

  12. Analysis of genetic variability in American Pit Bull Terrier breed of dogs with a high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Shinkarenko; O. G. Guliakova; V. A. Malienko; S. D. Melnychuk; V. G. Spyrydonov

    2010-01-01

    The level of DNA polymorphism in 10 microsatellite loci of 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs with high percentage of blood\\u000a and inbreeding coefficients of up to 43.8% was studied. The observed heterozygosity was higher than expected for this inbreeding\\u000a level. The presence of a selection mechanism that prevents gametes from fusing to form a homozygosity genotype is suggested.

  13. High Prevalence of Early Chronic Kidney Disease in High Risk Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Temimovic, Ramajana; Rasic, Senija; Muslimovic, Alma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of early stages of renal disease in hypertensive and diabetic outpatients without previously diagnosed renal damages. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we studied a random sample of outpatients with essential hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 in the general practice ambulance of city Sarajevo. Renal function was evaluated by using MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) equation and with measurement of renal biomarkers. K/DOQI classification was used to define the stages of CKD. Results: The study included 200 patients, of whom 75 (37.5%) were females, mean age of 54.81 ± 6.1 years, and 125 (62.5%) male, mean age 52.46 ± 8.2 years. More than half of respondents (54.0%) were hypertensive during the follow up period. Early CKD was detected in 52% respondents. Higher prevalence of early CKD was verified in the group of patients who had hypertension associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (59.6% vs. 47.2% in hypertension group vs. 54,0% in diabetic group, p<0.05). Significant negative correlation was found between estimated glomerular filtration rate and presence of albuminuria (p<0.001), duration of hypertension (p=0.003), duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p=0.021), stages of hypertension (p=0.012), female gender (p<0.001) and older age of subjects (p=0.040). Conclusion: Our results confirmed high prevalence of CKD and the importance of early detection of CKD in high risk groups of patients in order to prevent the progression of the same. Prevention of chronic kidney disease in our country is still not carried out satisfactorily. Required is a much greater collaboration between primary care health givers and nephrologists. PMID:26005380

  14. [High prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Devera, Rodolfo; Blanco, Ytalia; Cabello, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal coccidioses caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, and Cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitoses of major medical importance, but many epidemiological aspects of these infections are still unknown in Bolívar State, Venezuela. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and especially of intestinal coccidiosis, an indigenous population in San Antonio de Morichal was evaluated from July 2003 to April 2004. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were preserved in potassium dichromate 2.5% and examined by the formalin-ether concentration method and Kinyoun staining. Of the 160 indigenous people examined, 92.5% (148 cases) were infected. Entamoeba coli (58.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (38.8%), and Giardia lamblia (18.8%) were the most prevalent intestinal parasites. Coccidiosis prevalence was 13.1%, and cyclosporiasis was the most prevalent with 11.9% (19 cases). One subject with C. parvum oocysts and another with I. belli oocysts were diagnosed. There was no difference according to sex (p > 0.05) and age (chi2 = 5.6; f.g. = 6) among individuals infected with C. cayetanensis. Of these, two cases had only diarrhea. In conclusion, a high prevalence of intestinal coccidiosis infection was found among indigenous people from this community, with C. cayetanensis as the most prevalent infection. PMID:16410862

  15. Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

    2011-08-01

    This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

  16. Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

  17. Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by a coproantigen sandwich ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prathapan Rema Prathiush; Placid Eugene D'Souza; Ananda K. Javare Gowda

    Echinococcosis is a near-cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the adult or larval stages of tapeworms belonging to the genus echinococcus . Cystic echinococcosis in food animals is highly prevalent in India in general and in the Karnataka state in particular. A sandwich ELISA was standardized and evaluated in field conditions for coproantigen detection of echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs. Field fecal

  18. Identification of a new copper metabolism gene by positional cloning in a purebred dog population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart van de Sluis; Jan Rothuizen; Peter L. Pearson; Bernard A. van Oost; Cisca Wijmenga

    2002-01-01

    Domesticated animal species such as dogs and cats, with their many different characteristics and breed-specific diseases, and their close relationship and shared environment with humans, are a potentially rich source for the identification of the genetic contribution to human biology and disease. Copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers is a genetic disease occurring with a high prevalence worldwide and is unique

  19. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Gabonese Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias P. Dal-Bianco; Kai B. Köster; Ulrich D. Kombila; Jürgen F. J. Kun; Martin P. Grobusch; Ghyslain Mombo Ngoma; Pierre B. Matsiegui; Christian Supan; Carmen L. Ospina Salazar; Michel A. Missinou; Saadou Issifou; Bertrand Lell; Peter Kremsner

    Abstract. Plasmodium falciparum, the most common malarial parasite in sub-Saharan Africa, accounts for a high number of deaths in children less than five years of age. In malaria-endemic countries with stable transmission, semi- immunity is usually acquired after childhood. For adults, severe malaria is rare. Infected adults have either uncompli- cated malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia. During a period of one

  20. Dogs mean arterial pressure and heart rate responses during high propofol plasma concentrations estimated by a pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aura; Ribeiro, Lénio M; Bressan, Nadja; Oliveira, Pedro; Ferreira, David A; Antunes, Luís M

    2011-10-01

    Propofol total intravenous anesthesia should provide stability of the cardiovascular system. In this study, mean arterial pressure and heart rate were evaluated in eight healthy dogs anesthetized with increasing rates of propofol. The cerebral state index (CSI) was studied as an additional parameter. Although the estimated propofol plasma concentration reached a maximal value of 15.3 ?g ml(-1), no hypotension or bradycardia were observed. Exploration of each animal's data revealed high inter-individual variability regarding mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Considering the logarithmic of the concentration, a moderate depressant effect of propofol on mean arterial pressure was revealed in five dogs but the effect was not followed on heart rate. PMID:21276995

  1. Genomic Characterization and High Prevalence of Bocaviruses in Swine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongling Shan; Daoliang Lan; Linlin Li; Chunmei Wang; Li Cui; Wen Zhang; Xiuguo Hua; Caixia Zhu; Wei Zhao; Eric Delwart; Daniel G. Bausch

    2011-01-01

    Using random PCR amplification followed by plasmid subcloning and DNA sequencing, we detected bocavirus related sequences in 9 out of 17 porcine stool samples. Using primer walking, we sequenced the nearly complete genomes of two highly divergent bocaviruses we provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 isolate H18 (PBoV1-H18) and porcine bocavirus 2 isolate A6 (PBoV2-A6) which differed by 51.8% in their

  2. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

  3. Dogs and Preventing Dog Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... just the way it should — with happy kids, happy dogs, and no dog bites! Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD Date reviewed: May 2015 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Staying Safe Around Animals Dog Videos My Pet Died - How Can I Feel Better? ...

  4. Dog bites: Bacteriology, management, and prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrick M. Abrahamian

    2000-01-01

    Dog bites are among the most frequent causes of nonfatal injuries in the United States. Most dog bites involve children and\\u000a young adults. Infected wounds are polymicrobial in nature; the most prevalent organisms are Pasteurella, streptococci, staphylococci, and Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, and Porphyromonas species. Musculoskeletal and neurovascular injuries, as well as systemic infections, can be complications of dog-bite wounds.\\u000a Treatment includes

  5. Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India.

    PubMed

    Belsare, A V; Vanak, A T; Gompper, M E

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing concern that free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) populations may serve as reservoirs of pathogens which may be transmitted to wildlife. We documented the prevalence of antibodies to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), in free-ranging dog and sympatric Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) populations in and around the Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary, in Maharashtra, central India. A total of 219 dogs and 33 foxes were sampled during the study period. Ninety-three percentage of dogs and 87% of foxes were exposed to one or more of the three pathogens. Exposure rates in dogs were high: >88% for CPV, >72% for CDV and 71% for CAV. A large proportion of adult dogs had antibodies against these pathogens due to seroconversion following earlier natural infection. The high prevalence of exposure to these pathogens across the sampling sessions, significantly higher exposure rates of adults compared with juveniles, and seroconversion in some unvaccinated dogs documented during the study period suggests that these pathogens are enzootic. The prevalence of exposure to CPV, CDV and CAV in foxes was 48%, 18% and 52%, respectively. Further, a high rate of mortality was documented in foxes with serologic evidence of ongoing CDV infection. Dogs could be playing a role in the maintenance and transmission of these pathogens in the fox population, but our findings show that most dogs in the population are immune to these pathogens by virtue of earlier natural infection, and therefore, these individuals make little current or future contribution to viral maintenance. Vaccination of this cohort will neither greatly improve their collective immune status nor contribute to herd immunity. Our findings have potentially important implications for dog disease control programmes that propose using canine vaccination as a tool for conservation management of wild carnivore populations. PMID:25135467

  6. Utilization of police dogs: a Turkish perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sebnem Ozcan; Hulki Akin; Hakan Bayram; Musa Bas; Ahmet Yildiz; Atalay Ozdemiroglu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The use of canines in the gathering of evidence is a valuable tool for law enforcement to discover crime and criminals. Narcotics, explosives, cadaver detection, search and rescue, or patrol dogs are prevalently used by most police organizations for combatting crime. Police service dogs decrease the time required and increase success in crime detection. The purpose of this

  7. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  8. DogsDogsDogsDogsDogsDogs Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    Extension Service, West Lafayette, IN 47907 Animal Sciences AS-562-W Benefits of Castration in Male DogsBenefits of Castration in Male Dogs J. Belen and C.M. Brady, Purdue Department of Animal SciencesJ. Belen and C.M. Brady commonly known as castration (Johnston, 1991). This surgery is generally performed in male dogs for three

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in Taiwanese high-tech industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Cheng, Jung-Feng; Lai, Yu-Min

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In light of the increasing number of high-tech industry workers and the differences in their working conditions compared to those of the general population, the health status of these workers merits serious attention. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlates among Taiwanese high-tech industry workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 4,666 workers who participated in labor health examinations at a hospital in southern Taiwan in 2008. Participants with metabolic syndrome were defined using the criteria proposed by the Taiwan National Department of Health in 2007. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.2%, and the prevalence was higher in men than in women (14.0% vs. 2.3%, p<0.01). Male gender, advanced age, elevated white blood count, and elevated levels of blood biochemistry markers, such as alanine aminotransferase and uric acid, can independently predict metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-tech industry workers is lower than in the general population. Our study's findings may facilitate early health assessments and the provision of proper workplace health promotion programs to reduce the risks faced by high-risk workers. PMID:22179154

  10. The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

  11. Systemic, but not pulmonary, hemodynamics are depressed during combined high thoraco-cervical epidural and general anesthesia in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadahisa Funayama; Sumihisa Aida; Takashi Matsukawa; Kazuo Okada; Teruo Kumazawa

    2003-01-01

    Purpose  An epidural block is frequently combined with general anesthesia. Both systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics may be affected\\u000a by high epidural anesthesia and the combined general anesthetic. These effects were investigated in a canine model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics during a combined high thoraco-cervical epidural and general anesthesia were studied in\\u000a dogs; the animals were anesthetized with propofol, 10 mg·kg?1·hr?1, or

  12. Airborne fungi in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.

    Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 ?m were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 ?m were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.

  13. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Myopia in High-School Students in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jia Li; Luo, Yan Xia; Liu, Li Juan; Li, Xia; Gao, Qi; Zhu, Hui Ping; He, Yan; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiu Hua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate prevalence and associated factors for myopia in high school students in Beijing. Methods Grade 10 and 11 high school students were randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Beijing. The students underwent non-cylcoplegic auto-refractometry and an interview. Results Out of 4798 eligible students, 4677 (93.4%) students (mean age:16.9±0.7years;range:16–18 years) participated. Mean refractive error of right eyes and left eyes was ?2.78±2.29 diopters and ?2.59±2.50 diopters, respectively. Prevalence of myopia (defined as ? ?1.00 diopters in the worse eye) was 80.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 79.6–81.8%). Out of 3773 students with myopia, 1525 (40.4%) wore glasses daily. In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher prevalence of myopia was associated with female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 1.31;95%CI:1.11–1.55), Han ethnicity (OR = 1.64;95%CI:1.28–2.11), attending key schools (OR = 1.48;95%CI:1.24,1.77), higher family income (OR = 1.37;95%CI:1.09–1.71), longer time spent for near work (OR = 1.43;95%CI:1.06–1.93), shorter near work distance (OR = 1.87;95%CI:1.55–2.26), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.16–1.70), and parental myopia (OR = 2.28;95%CI:1.80–2.87). The interaction between distance from near work and time spent for near work was statistically (P = 0.03) significant. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of high myopia (?-6.0 diopters) was associated with studying in key schools (OR = 1.38;95%CI:1.05,1.81), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.09,1.79), and a higher number of myopic parents (OR = 2.66;95%CI:2.08,3.40). Conclusions A prevalence of about 80% for myopia and a prevalence of about 10% for high myopia in students aged 16 to 18 years and attending classes of grade 10 and 11 in a Chinese metropolitan region is another example of the high prevalence of moderate and high myopia in metropolitan areas of China. With this young myopic generation getting older, myopia as cause for visual impairment and blindness may further increase in importance. Future studies may address whether active rests during studying with looking into the distance are preventive against myopia development or progression. PMID:25803875

  14. Seroepidemiological evidence for a relationship between Neospora caninum infections in dogs and cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Wouda; Th Dijkstra; A. M. H Kramer; C van Maanen; J. M. A Brinkhof

    1999-01-01

    Dogs from dairy farms with a known prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in the cattle were examined for the presence of N. caninum antibodies using an ELISA. Data of farm dogs were compared with those of dogs examined at a university clinic, which originated mainly in urban areas. Of the 152 farm dogs, 36 (23.6%) were seropositive to N. caninum,

  15. Effectiveness of breeding guidelines for reducing the prevalence of syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Knowler, S P; McFadyen, A K; Rusbridge, C

    Several toy breed dogs are predisposed to syringomyelia (SM), a spinal cord disorder, characterised by fluid-filled cavitation. SM is a complex trait with a moderately high heritability. Selective breeding against SM is confounded by its complex inheritance, its late onset nature and high prevalence in some breeds. This study investigated the early outcome of existing SM breeding guidelines. Six hundred and forty-three dogs, 550 Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) and 93 Griffon Bruxellois (GB), were identified as having either one (454 dogs) or both parents (189 dogs) with MRI-determined SM status. Offspring without SM were more common when the parents were both clear of SM (SM-free; CKCS 70 per cent, GB 73 per cent). Conversely, offspring with SM were more likely when both parents had SM (SM-affected; CKCS 92 per cent, GB 100 per cent). A mating of one SM-free parent with an SM-affected parent was risky for SM affectedness with 77 per cent of CKCS and 46 per cent of GB offspring being SM-affected. It is recommended that all breeding dogs from breeds susceptible to SM be MRI screened; that the SM status at five years old is established; and all results submitted to a central database that can be used by dog breeders to better enable mate selection based on estimated breeding values. PMID:21998144

  16. Prevalence and Characterization of High Histamine-Producing Bacteria in Gulf of Mexico Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Bowers, John C; Benner, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in detection and enumeration of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) have created powerful molecular-based tools to better understand the presence of spoilage bacteria and conditions, resulting in increased risk of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. We examined 235 scombrotoxin-forming fish from the Gulf of Mexico for the presence of high HPB. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was the most prevalent HPB (49%), followed by Morganella morganii (14%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4%), and Raoultella planticola (3%). The growth characteristics and histamine production capabilities of the two most prevalent HPB were further examined. M. morganii and P. damselae had optimum growth at 35°C and 30 to 35°C and 0 to 2% and 1 to 3% NaCl, respectively. P. damselae produced significantly (P < 0.001) higher histamine than M. morganii in inoculated mahimahi and Spanish mackerel incubated at 30°C for 24 h, but histamine production was not significantly different between the two HPB in inoculated tuna, possibly due to differences in muscle composition and salt content. Results in this study showed that P. damselae was the most prevalent high HPB in Gulf of Mexico fish. In addition, previously reported results using the traditional Niven's method may underreport the prevalence of P. damselae. Molecular-based methods should be used in addition to culture-based methods to enhance detection and enumeration of HPB. PMID:26197285

  17. High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Ault, Steven K.; Castillo, Phillip; Serrano, Kenton; Troya, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis; Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions; P<0.05 was considered of statistical significance; descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages. Results A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40% and 82% among schools, with a median of 59.2%; the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2% high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old; hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P?0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program. PMID:25182717

  18. High Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus Among Injection Drug Users in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nana; Ge, Qinjuan; Feng, Qingchuan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Caihong; Xu, Yongkang; He, Guangli; Zhang, Chiyu

    2011-12-01

    The constant increase in the number of drug users and rapidly spread of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users result in a serious public health problem in China. To investigate HCV prevalence among drug users in Zhenjiang city, Jiangsu, China, 207 drug users from Zhenjiang were enrolled in this study during 2009 and the prevalence of HCV, HIV and syphilis infection were detected. HCV prevalence among injection drug users (IDUs) was 81.6%, significantly higher than that (22.9%) among oral drug users (P < 0.001), suggesting a strong association of HCV infection with injection drug use (IDU). Most drug users were more than 25 years old (89.2%), single (60.5%, including single and divorced/widowed), and had a history of drug abuse over 6 years (92.9%). HCV prevalence among drug users with middle (72.6%) or high (83.8%) school diplomas was significantly higher than that among those with lower (46.9%) education level (P = 0.007). HCV prevalence among IDUs did not obviously change along with the increase in duration of drug use and in frequency of injection per day, suggesting less association of HCV infection with both variables. These results suggest that most Chinese addicts might start drug use after their middle/high school education. To reduce drug use and to prevent HIV and HCV transmission via IDU, large-scale drug prevention educations should be urgently conducted in all China's middle and high schools. PMID:23637507

  19. An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Katie M.; Shelton, G. Diane; Patterson, Edward E.; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso

    2014-01-01

    An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw?=?1.16×10?10, Pgenome, corrected?=?0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3?-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5?-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3?-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species. PMID:25275565

  20. Morphometrics within dog breeds are highly reproducible and dispute Rensch’s rule

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Mosher, Dana S.; Gray, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Using 27 body measurements, we have identified 13 breed-defining metrics for 109 of 159 domestic dog breeds, most of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC). The data set included 1,155 dogs at least 1 year old (average 5.4 years), and for 53 breed populations, complete measurement data were collected from at least three males and three females. We demonstrate, first, that AKC breed standards are rigorously adhered to for most domestic breeds with little variation observed within breeds. Second, Rensch’s rule, which describes a scaling among taxa such that sexual dimorphism is greater among larger species if males are the larger sex, with less pronounced differences in male versus female body size in smaller species, is not maintained in domestic dog breeds because the proportional size difference between males and females of small and large breeds is essentially the same. Finally, principal components (PCs) analysis describes both the overall body size (PC1) and the shape (length versus width) of the skeleton (PC2). That the integrity of the data set is sufficiently rich to discern PCs has strong implications for mapping studies, suggesting that individual measurements may not be needed for genetic studies of morphologic traits, particularly in the case of breed-defining traits that are typically under strong selection. Rather, phenotypes derived from data sets such as these, collected at a fraction of the effort and cost, may be used to direct whole-genome association studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of fixed morphologic phenotypes defining distinct dog breeds. PMID:19020935

  1. The Gunnison's prairie dog structures a high desert grassland landscape as a keystone engineer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Bangert; C. N. Slobodchikoff

    2000-01-01

    The influence of landscape spatial structure on ecological processes has recently received much attention. Comparisons are made here between the spatial structure of grasslands, and active and extirpated Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni Hollister) towns at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, U.S.A. The spatial structure of bare ground was quatified using a box-counting technique to extract landscape fractal dimensions,

  2. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with Brugada syndrome in new exome data.

    PubMed

    Risgaard, B; Jabbari, R; Refsgaard, L; Holst, A G; Haunsø, S; Sadjadieh, A; Winkel, B G; Olesen, M S; Tfelt-Hansen, J

    2013-11-01

    More than 300 variants in 12 genes have been associated with Brugada syndrome (BrS) which has a prevalence ranging between 1:2000 and 1:100,000. Until recently, there has been little knowledge regarding the distribution of genetic variations in the general population. This problem was partly solved, when exome data from the NHLI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) was published. In this study, we aimed to report the prevalence of previously BrS-associated variants in the ESP population. We performed a search in ESP for variants previously associated with BrS. In addition, four variants in ESP were genotyped in a second Danish control population (n?=?536) with available electrocardiograms. In ESP, we identified 38 of 355 (10%) variants, distributed on 272 heterozygote carriers and two homozygote carriers. The genes investigated were on average screened in 6258 individuals. This corresponds to a surprisingly high genotype prevalence of 1:23 (274:6258). Genotyping the four common ESP-derived variants CACNA2D1 S709N, SCN5A F2004L, CACNB2 S143F, and CACNB2 T450I in the Danish controls, we found a genotype prevalence comparable with that found in ESP. We suggest that exome data are used in research, as an additive tool to predict the pathogenicity of variants in patients suspected for BrS. PMID:23414114

  3. Teacher Participation in Professional Activities and Job Satisfaction: Prevalence and Associative Relationship to Retention for High School Science Teachers 

    E-print Network

    Bozeman, Todd Dane

    2012-02-14

    In this dissertation, I used survey response data from 385 science teachers situated in 50 randomly selected Texas high schools to describe the prevalence of high school science teacher participation in professional activities and levels of job...

  4. Prevalence of driving distractions among high school student drivers in three Canadian cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Oda; A Macpherson; T Middaugh-Bonney; M Brussoni; S Piedt; I Pike

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionMotor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and hospitalisation for Canadian youth. Graduated Drivers Licensing have been implemented in several Canadian provinces.PurposeTo assess the prevalence of compliance with rules and driving distractions among high school students in three Canadian cities (Halifax, Barrie and Vancouver) representing different geographic, socioeconomic and jurisdictional settings.MethodsObservations were made at schools in the three

  5. Common Predictors of Excessive Adiposity in Children from a Region with High Prevalence of Overweight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Basaldúa; Erwin Chiquete

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To identify risk factors other than energy intake or expenditure that can predict adiposity and overweight in children from a region with high prevalence of obesity. Methods: We studied 551 children aged 6–12 years (50.5% girls) from a city in the North of Mexico. Tetrapolar bioimpedance was used to assess body fat content. Overweight was estimated by analysis of

  6. Tuberculin skin testing underestimates a high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Sester; Urban Sester; Peter Clauer; Gunnar Heine; Ulrich Mack; Thomas Moll; Gerhard W. Sybrecht; Ajit Lalvani; Hans Köhler

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing underestimates a high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundIdentification of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in hemodialysis patients is hampered by reduced sensitivity of the established tuberculin skin test. We investigated whether in vitro quantitation of purified protein derivative (PPD)–specific T cells using a rapid 6-hour assay may represent an alternative approach for detecting latent infection.MethodsOne

  7. An investigation on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in Swedish dogs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae cause a broad spectrum of diseases in a wide range of hosts, including man, other mammals, and birds. Upper respiratory and genital diseases are common clinical problems caused by Chlamydiaceae. Very little is known about chlamydial infections in dogs. Few clinical reports on natural disease in dogs describe mainly conjunctival and upper respiratory signs, and the role of Chlamydiaceae in genital disease is unclear. The present study aimed at studying the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in healthy dogs and in dogs with genital or upper respiratory disease, including conjunctivitis. Methods A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydiaceae was used to detect any chlamydial species within this family. Swab samples from the conjunctiva and the mucosal membranes of the oropharynx, rectum and genital tract were taken from 79 dogs: 27 clinically healthy dogs, 25 dogs with clinical signs from the genital tract and 28 dogs with conjunctivitis. There were 52 female and 27 male dogs. From 7 of the male dogs, additional semen samples were analysed. Results No Chlamydiaceae were detected from any dog. Conclusions Although the number of dogs that was included is limited, the results suggest that cases of Chlamydiaceae in dogs probably are related to infection from other species, and that dogs in general do not harbour Chlamydiaceae. Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae do not seem to be of major importance for genital or ocular disease in Swedish dogs. PMID:21078208

  8. Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ?600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

  9. ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR AGONISTIC AUTOANTIBODY IS HIGHLY PREVALENT IN PREECLAMPSIA: CORRELATION WITH DISEASE SEVERITY

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Athar H; Irani, Roxanna A; Blackwell, Sean C; Ramin, Susan M; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a syndrome affecting 5% of pregnancies characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The condition is often accompanied by the presence of a circulating maternal autoantibody, the angiotensin II type I receptor agonistic autoantibody (AT1-AA). However, the prevalence of AT1-AA in preeclampsia remains unknown and the correlation of AT1-AA titers to the severity of the disease remains undetermined. We used a sensitive and high throughput luciferase bioassay to detect AT1-AA levels in the serum of 30 normal, 37 preeclamptic (10 mild and 27 severe) and 23 gestational hypertensive (GH) individuals. Here we report that AT1-AA is highly prevalent in preeclampsia (~95%). Next, by comparing the levels of AT1-AA among women with mild and severe preeclampsia, we found that the titer of AT1-AA is proportional to the severity of the disease. Intriguingly, among severe preeclamptic patients, we discovered that the titer of AT1-AA is significantly correlated with the clinical features of preeclampsia: systolic blood pressure (r=0.56), proteinuria (r=0.70) and sFlt-1 level (r=0.71), respectively. Notably, only AT1-AA but not sFlt-1 levels are elevated in GH patients. These data serve as compelling clinical evidence that AT1-AA is highly prevalent in preeclampsia and its titer is strongly correlated to the severity of the disease. PMID:19996068

  10. High HIV sero-prevalence among students of institutions of higher education in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emeka-Nwabunnia, Ijeoma; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okey; Ogbulie, Tochukwu Ekwutosi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs) as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods A total of 9?709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 19-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 2012. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91%) is non-significantly (P>0.1) lower than that of females (4.31%). Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.

  11. High daily doses of benzodiazepines among Quebec seniors: prevalence and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Mary Y; Wolfson, Christina; Moride, Yola; Monette, Johanne

    2001-01-01

    Background Use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines is generally contraindicated for seniors. While both patient and physician factors may influence the use of high daily doses, previous research on the effect of patient factors has been extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the one year prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines, and examine physician and patient correlates of such use among Quebec community-dwelling seniors. Methods Patient information for 1423 community-dwelling Quebec seniors who participated in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was linked to provincial health insurance administrative data bases containing detailed information on prescriptions received and prescribers. Results The standardized one year period prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines was 7.9%. Use of high daily doses was more frequent among younger seniors and those who had reported anxiety during the previous year. Patients without cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from general practitioners, while those with cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from specialists. Conclusion High dose prescribing appears to be related to both patient and physician factors. PMID:11741508

  12. Where there's smoke, there's fire: high prevalence of smoking among some sub-populations and recommendations for intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMANDA BAKER; ROWENA G. IVERS; JENNY BOWMAN; TONY BUTLER; FRANCES J. KAY-LAMBKIN; PAULA WYE; RAOUL A. WALSH; LISA JACKSON PULVER; ROBYN RICHMOND; JOSEPHINE BELCHER; KAY WILHELM; ALEX WODAK

    2006-01-01

    In Australia, the prevalence of smoking is higher among certain sub-populations compared to the general population. These sub- populations include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, as well as people with mental and substance use disorders and prisoners. The aims of this paper are to: describe the high prevalence of smoking among these

  13. High Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in a Riparian Population in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2012-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (<20 years) than in the adult population (>20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection. PMID:22711932

  14. High Prevalence of Arcobacter Carriage in Older Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fera, Maria Teresa; Russo, Giuseppina T.; Di Benedetto, Antonino; La Camera, Erminia; Orlando, Angelo; Giandalia, Annalisa; Ruffa, Vincenzo F.; Lanza, Giulia; Lentini, Valeria; Perdichizzi, Giuseppa; Cucinotta, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Arcobacters are potential pathogens related to diarrheic infections and, rarely, septicaemia. This study evaluated the prevalence of arcobacters in stool samples of subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 61) type 2 diabetes by using cultural and molecular techniques. Three Arcobacter positive cultures were found, all among diabetic subjects, whereas molecular analysis showed a carriage rate of 79% and 26.2% in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (P < .001), respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that type 2 diabetes (? = 1.913; 95%CI: 2.378–19.285; P < .0001) and age (? = 1.744; 95%CI: 2.077–15.766; P = .001) were the only factors independently associated with arcobacters colonization in this population. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of arcobacters colonization in type 2 diabetic and older subjects. The clinical significance and the potential health risk associated with these emerging species remain to be determined. PMID:20508853

  15. Echinococcosis in Dogs in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. SVOBODOVÁ; B. LENSKÁ

    2002-01-01

    Svobodová V., B. Lenská: Echinococcosis in Dogs in the Czech Republic. Acta Vet. Brno 2002, 71: 347-350. In central Europe, foxes are principal definitive hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis. However, dogs may become definitive hosts too, and due to close contact with humans they may be the source of infection. We examined samples of dog faeces from the areas with high

  16. Unreported dog bites in children.

    PubMed

    Beck, A M; Jones, B A

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, more than 3,200 Pennsylvania children, ages 4 to 18 years, were surveyed about their dog bite histories and attitudes toward animals. Dog bites were much more common than previously reported: 45 percent of children had been bitten during their lifetimes, and 15.5 percent had been bitten in 1980, more than 36 times the rate reported to health authorities. In 1980, the highest bite rate occurred among children 7-12 years old (20 percent). Children were bitten more frequently by the dogs owned by their neighbors, followed by their own dogs, than by strays or by dogs whose owners were not known. Boys were bitten twice as frequently as girls by neighbors' dogs and strays; the bite rates from family dogs were identical in boys and girls. Despite the high bite rates, being bitten was not significantly associated, in most groups of children studied, with a dislike of dogs. These positive attitudes toward dogs may lead to inadequate precautions against bites and to biases in the reporting of bites to health authorities. PMID:3923540

  17. Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Inderjeet Singh; Panwar, Nidhi Singh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA). It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males) in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213). Mean SpO2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = ?0.929, P < 0.001). In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors associated with CMS. PMID:24872667

  18. How can mathematical models advance tuberculosis control in high HIV prevalence settings?

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, D. W.; Vassall, A.; Cohen, T.; Nicol, M. P.; Granich, R. M.; Shea, J. E.; Eckhoff, P.; Dye, C.; Kimerling, M. E.; White, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Existing approaches to tuberculosis (TB) control have been no more than partially successful in areas with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. In the context of increasingly constrained resources, mathematical modelling can augment understanding and support policy for implementing those strategies that are most likely to bring public health and economic benefits. In this paper, we present an overview of past and recent contributions of TB modelling in this key area, and suggest a way forward through a modelling research agenda that supports a more effective response to the TB-HIV epidemic, based on expert discussions at a meeting convened by the TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium. The research agenda identified high-priority areas for future modelling efforts, including 1) the difficult diagnosis and high mortality of TB-HIV; 2) the high risk of disease progression; 3) TB health systems in high HIV prevalence settings; 4) uncertainty in the natural progression of TB-HIV; and 5) combined interventions for TB-HIV. Efficient and rapid progress towards completion of this modelling agenda will require co-ordination between the modelling community and key stakeholders, including advocates, health policy makers, donors and national or regional finance officials. A continuing dialogue will ensure that new results are effectively communicated and new policy-relevant questions are addressed swiftly. PMID:24903784

  19. High prevalence of multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thummeepak, Rapee; Leerach, Nontapat; Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Tangchaisuriya, Udomsak; Thanwisai, Aunchalee; Sitthisak, Sutthirat

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is an emerging health problem worldwide. The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae is increasing, and nasal colonization of S. pneumoniae in children increases the risk of pneumococcal infection. In this study, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasal colonization was studied in Thai children from three different districts. S. pneumoniae nasal colonization was found in 38 of 237 subjects (16.0%). The carriage rate indicated higher rates in two rural districts (18.2% and 29.8%) than in the urban district (2.8%). The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined using the disk diffusion method. Prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. pneumoniae (MDR-SP) was 31.6%. Resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was found for ampicillin (5.3%), azithromycin (26.3%), cefepime (2.6%), chloramphenicol (18.4%), clindamycin (18.4%), erythromycin (21.1%), oxacillin (44.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (78.9%) and tetracycline (15.8%). All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was used to compare genetic diversity of the S. pneumoniae isolates. PFGE demonstrated the variation in genotypes of S. pneumoniae from different areas. High prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. pneumoniae nasal colonization in healthy Thai children was indicated. Effective strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics are therefore needed in the community. PMID:25541228

  20. High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia

    PubMed Central

    Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

  1. Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms in Kosovo: a high risk for salmonella prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (D.g.) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of poultry and potential pathogen vector. The prevalence of D. g. and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. within mites on infested laying poultry farms were investigated in Kosovo. Findings In total, 14 populated layer farms located in the Southern Kosovo were assessed for D. g. presence. Another two farms in this region were investigated 6 months after depopulation. Investigated flocks were all maintained in cages, a common housing system in Kosovo. A total of eight farms were found to be infested with D. g. (50%) at varying levels, including the two depopulated farms. The detection of Salmonella spp. from D. g. was carried out using PCR. Out of the eight layer farms infested with D. g., Salmonella spp. was present in mites on three farms (37.5%). Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of D. g. in layer flocks in Kosovo and demonstrates the link between this mite and the presence of Salmonella spp. on infested farms. PMID:21762497

  2. Dog Bite Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive action. Your veterinarian can examine your dog to ... or one they know. Some owners actually promote aggression in their dogs or allow aggression to go ...

  3. Dog Whisperer

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-05-22

    Broadcast Transcript: As we mentioned in an earlier Postcard, dogs have only recently become favored pets rather than favorite meals here in China. And, if you needed further proof of this transformation, here it is: Cesar Millan has been tapped...

  4. Dog Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Dog Bites - This page has been removed Recommend on ... file RIS file Page last reviewed: February 5, 2015 Page last updated: February 5, 2015 Content source: ...

  5. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among policemen in Puducherry, South India

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Jayalakshmy; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Premarajan, Kariyarath Cheriyath; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha; Thangaraj, Susila; Chinnakali, Palanivel

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HT) are common diseases in adulthood, pre-disposing to many cardiovascular complications, posing a major public health challenge. Few studies have reported increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and type 2 diabetes in policemen. Hence, this study aims to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, HT, smoking, alcohol intake, and obesity among policemen. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008–2009 among 256 policemen in Puducherry, South India. Policemen were selected by simple random sampling. Socio-demographic details and some of the risk factors such as alcohol intake and smoking history were obtained using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Presence of stress was measured using the professional life stress score questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured by standard methods. Fasting blood sugar was estimated using a glucometer. Serum cholesterol was also measured. Lipid profile was measured for a randomly chosen subgroup of 50 participants. Results Mean age of study participants was 40.9 years (SD ± 10.9). Out of the study subjects, 23% (n = 60) were known diabetic and 16.8% (n = 43) were known hypertensive. Prevalence of diabetes among study participants was 33.6% (CI: 27.8%–39.6%). Prevalence of HT among study participants was 30.5% (CI: 24.9%–36.5%). Seventy percent (n = 178) had at least moderate range of stress in their life related to their profession and 4% (n = 11) had stress as a “problem” in their life. Conclusions Burden of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and HT was high among police personnel of Puducherry. PMID:24027367

  6. Dog Tents 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    EVALUATION OF THE RABIES IMMUNE STATUS OF STRAY DOGS IN BEAUMONT AND PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS A Thesis by JAMES LEONIDAS MASSEY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Epidemiology EVALUATION OF THE RABIES IMMUNE STATUS OF STRAY DOGS IN BEAUMONT AND PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS A Thesis by JAMES LEONIDAS MASSEY, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Mem...

  7. Stray dogs of northern Jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens.

    PubMed

    Qablan, Moneeb Ahmad; Kubelová, Michaela; Siroký, Pavel; Modrý, David; Amr, Zuhair Sami

    2012-07-01

    Dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several hemopathogens including zoonotic agents and can serve as readily available source of nutrition for many blood-feeding arthropods. Three hemopathogens had been detected for the first time in Jordan. The PCR prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis, and piroplasmid DNA were 39.5%, 28.9%, and 7.9% (n=38) respectively. Sequencing of amplicons of PCR with universal primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasmids shows the highest similarity to equine piroplasmids species Theileria equi from two dogs and Babesia caballi from a single dog. Ticks of two genera Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis, were detected in this study (n=268). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most abundant species (95.1%, n=255), followed by Haemaphysalis erinacei (3%, n=8) and Haemaphysalis parva (1.9%, n=5). The two Haemaphysalis species were detected for the first time from dogs in Jordan. Regarding its high prevalence, we expect R. sanguineus being a possible vector of detected pathogens. PMID:22434363

  8. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: performance of a rapid diagnostic test (Kalazar Detect) in dogs with and without signs of the disease.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Moreira, Márcio Antônio Batistela; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2008-08-01

    Current visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control programs in Brazil include the infected dog elimination but, despite this strategy, the incidence of human VL is still increasing. One of the reasons is the long delay between sample collection, analysis, control implementation and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Due to the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs, the diagnosis of these animals is important considering their vector infection capacity. Hence, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis is essential for an efficient surveillance program. In this study we evaluated the performance of rK39 antigen in an immunochromatographic format to detect symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs and compared the results with those using a crude antigen ELISA. The sensitivity of rK39 dipstick and ELISA were 83% vs. 95%, respectively, while the specificity was both 100%. Our results also demonstrated that the dipstick test was able to detect infected dogs presenting different clinical forms. PMID:18565485

  9. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations. PMID:24107268

  10. Ancient wolf genome reveals an early divergence of domestic dog ancestors and admixture into high-latitude breeds.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Ersmark, Erik; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love

    2015-06-01

    The origin of domestic dogs is poorly understood [1-15], with suggested evidence of dog-like features in fossils that predate the Last Glacial Maximum [6, 9, 10, 14, 16] conflicting with genetic estimates of a more recent divergence between dogs and worldwide wolf populations [13, 15, 17-19]. Here, we present a draft genome sequence from a 35,000-year-old wolf from the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia. We find that this individual belonged to a population that diverged from the common ancestor of present-day wolves and dogs very close in time to the appearance of the domestic dog lineage. We use the directly dated ancient wolf genome to recalibrate the molecular timescale of wolves and dogs and find that the mutation rate is substantially slower than assumed by most previous studies, suggesting that the ancestors of dogs were separated from present-day wolves before the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find evidence of introgression from the archaic Taimyr wolf lineage into present-day dog breeds from northeast Siberia and Greenland, contributing between 1.4% and 27.3% of their ancestry. This demonstrates that the ancestry of present-day dogs is derived from multiple regional wolf populations. PMID:26004765

  11. High Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B Infection and Association with Underweight in Rwandan Children

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Christian; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Lyng, Michel; Musemakweri, Andre; Aebischer, Toni; Martus, Peter; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is highly endemic in East Africa but its effects on child health, particularly of submicroscopic infections, i.e., those below the threshold of microscopy, and of genetic subgroups (assemblages), are not well understood. We aimed at addressing these questions and at examining epidemiological characteristics of G. duodenalis in southern highland Rwanda. Methodology/Principal Findings In 583 children <5 years of age from communities and health facilities, intestinal parasites were assessed by triplicate light microscopy and by PCR assays, and G. duodenalis assemblages were genotyped. Cluster effects of villages were taken into account in statistical analysis. The prevalence of G. duodenalis as detected by microscopy was 19.8% but 60.1% including PCR results. Prevalence differed with residence, increased with age, and was reduced by breastfeeding. In 492 community children without, with submicroscopic and with microscopic infection, underweight (weight-for-age z-score prevalence of G. duodenalis in high-endemicity areas may be greatly underestimated by light microscopy, particularly when only single stool samples are analysed. Children with submicroscopic infections show limited overt manifestation, but constitute unrecognized reservoirs of transmission. The predominance of assemblage B in Rwanda may be involved in the seemingly unimposing manifestation of G. duodenalis infection. However, the association with impaired child growth points to its actual relevance. Longitudinal studies considering abundant submicroscopic infections are needed to clarify the actual contribution of G. duodenalis to morbidity in areas of high endemicity. PMID:22720102

  12. Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

    2013-01-01

    Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

  13. High prevalence of a novel porcine bocavirus in weanling piglets with respiratory tract symptoms in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaolun ZhaiCheng; Cheng Yue; Zuzhang Wei; Jinxue Long; Duoliang Ran; Tao Lin; Yu Deng; Lv Huang; Lichang Sun; Haihong Zheng; Fei Gao; Hao Zheng; Shengnan Chen; Shishan Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the first evidence of infection by a novel porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in Chinese swine herds. The PCR detection\\u000a results showed that PBoV was significantly more prevalent in weanling piglets (69.7%, 69\\/99) with respiratory tract symptoms\\u000a than that in other samples (0–13.6%) (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis showed that the partial VP1\\/2 genes were highly conserved (99–100% identity), and only

  14. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Persistent High Incidence Area of Gastric Carcinoma in Yangzhong City.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yangchun; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wu, Junbei; Su, Jing; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection in areas with high prevalence of gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China. Methods. A prospective epidemiologic survey of H. pylori infection was accomplished in a natural population of 5417 individuals in Yangzhong city. Questionnaires and 13C-urea breath test for H. pylori infection were performed. Results. Among 5417 subjects who completed questionnaires and 13C-urea breath test, 3435 (63.41%) were H. pylori positive. The prevalence reached a peak at the age of 30-39 years (90.82%). There was significant difference between sexes and women had a higher infection rate than men. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was also associated with eating kipper food and fried food. No association between H. pylori prevalence and smoking or drinking was found. Compared to healthy individuals, people with dyspeptic diseases (peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis) presented a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, age and history of peptic ulcer and gastroenteritis were the independent predictors for H. pylori infection. Conclusions. Yangzhong city had a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and was related to several risk factors. The underlying mechanisms are needed to be further investigated. PMID:24550981

  15. High prevalence of human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a study in paired samples.

    PubMed

    Vaiphei, K; Kochhar, R; Bhardawaj, S; Dutta, U; Singh, K

    2013-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the common cancers with a poor prognosis. Incidences of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection range from 0 to 67% in different parts of the world. It has been frequently associated with high-risk HPV genotypes 16 and 18. The present study analyzes the prevalence of HPV infection in ESCC tumor and adjoining mucosa. Fresh tissue samples were obtained from ESCC tumor (group I) and adjoining mucosa (group II). Aliquots of DNA extracts were used. There were 23 patients with paired samples, 19 (83%) were male. HPV was positive in 20/23 (87%). Mean age of HPV positive in group I was 56.63 ± 6.96 and in group II 54.31 ± 7.13 years (P > 0.05). Majority had more than one viral type. HPV52 was the most common observed in 14 (61%) males and two (9%) females. Other common viruses were HPV55, 39, and 59. Smoking had a significant association with viral positivity. p63 and p16 oncoproteins correlated with degree of tumor differentiation but not with viral status. We documented high prevalence of high-risk HPV in ESCC. Our observations support the concept of persistent infection by an oncogenic HPV in cancer development. Our study highlights importance of documenting viral genotype in a defined geographic area. PMID:22676445

  16. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon dog and the native red fox. PMID:24533328

  17. The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

    PubMed

    Huet, Catherine; Rosol, Renata; Egeland, Grace M

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P ? 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P ? 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P ? 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P ? 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices. PMID:22323760

  18. High prevalence and low awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Pandey, R M; Misra, A; Agrawal, A; Misra, P; Dey, S; Rao, S; Menon, V U; Kamalamma, N; Vasantha Devi, K P; Revathi, K; Vikram, N K; Sharma, V; Guptha, S

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is an important public health problem in India. To determine its prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among women, we performed a nationwide study. Population-based studies among women aged 35-70 years were performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4608 (rural 2604 and urban 2004) of the targeted 8000 (57%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity, anthropometry and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Descriptive statistics are reported. Logistic regression was performed to determine the association of hypertension and its awareness, treatment and control with socioeconomic factors. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (known or BP?140/?90 mm?Hg) was observed in 1672 women (39.2%) (rural 746, 31.5%; urban 926, 48.2%). Significant determinants of hypertension were urban location, greater literacy, high dietary fat, low fibre intake, obesity and truncal obesity (P<0.01). Hypertension awareness was noted in 727 women (42.8%), more in urban (529, 56.8%) than in rural (198, 24.6%). Of these, 38.6% of the women were on treatment (urban 35.7, rural 46.5) and of those treated, controlled blood pressure (<140 and <90 mm?Hg) was observed in 21.5% (urban 28.3 vs 10.2). Among hypertensive subjects, treatment was noted in 18.3% (rural 13.1, urban 22.5) and control in 3.9% (rural 1.3, urban 5.9). A significant determinant of low awareness, treatment and control was rural location (multivariate-adjusted P<0.05). There is a high prevalence of hypertension in middle-aged Asian Indian women. Very low awareness, treatment and control status are observed. PMID:21881598

  19. Detection and genotyping of canine coronavirus RNA in diarrheic dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Ohinata, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Hara, Motonobu

    2011-04-01

    To clarify the prevalence of canine coronavirus (CCoV) infection in Japan, faecal samples from 109 dogs with diarrhoea were examined for CCoV RNA together with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) DNA. The detection rates of CCoV and CPV-2 for dogs aged less than 1 year were 66.3% and 43.8%, while those for dogs aged 1 year or older were 6.9% and 10.3%, respectively, which were significantly different (p<0.0001 and p=0.0003, respectively), indicating not CPV-2 but CCoV is an important diarrhoea-causing organism in juvenile dogs. Among the CCoV-positive dogs, 65.5% and 72.7% showed to be positive for CCoV types I and II, respectively, and simultaneous detection rate of both types was high at 40.0%. Furthermore, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-like CCoV RNA was detected from 8 dogs. These findings indicate that CCoV type I and TGEV-like CCoV are already circulating in Japan, though no reports have been presented to date. PMID:20557915

  20. Hepatitis E virus serosurvey among pet dogs and cats in several developed cities in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huanbin; Chen, Jidang; Xie, Jiexiong; Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

    2014-01-01

    Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257

  1. Extremely low prevalence of epinephrine autoinjectors in high-risk food-allergic adolescents in Dutch high schools.

    PubMed

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; Doriene van Ginkel, C; Roerdink, Emmy M; Kroeze, Maartje A J M; Stel, Ashling A; van der Meulen, Gerbrich N; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of probable food allergy in adolescents aged 11-20 and to examine the frequency of epinephrine autoinjector (EAI) ownership among high-risk individuals. Adolescents were screened followed by a more detailed telephone questionnaire inquiring about suspected food(s), symptoms, diagnosis, and use of an EAI. The participating adolescents were classified as probably or unlikely to be food-allergic. The need for an EAI was assessed. In total, 2284 adolescents completed the screening questionnaire, of which 396 indicated food to be a problem and 168 agreed to be interviewed. Forty-eight adolescents were classified as probably food-allergic, of which eight were not aware of their food allergy. Twenty-three adolescents were considered candidates for an EAI, whereas only two of them had been prescribed this medication. The calculated questionnaire-based prevalence of EAI need was 3.0% (minimal prevalence at least 1.0%), whereas the EAI ownership was 0.09%. In conclusion, we found an alarming under prescription of EAIs in school-going adolescents. PMID:21535178

  2. SMALL MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH COLONIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS) IN THE SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    SMALL MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH COLONIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non colonias de perritos llaneros de cola negra (Cynomys ludovicianus) y a´reas similares sin perritos llaneros

  3. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction–positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study. PMID:21976578

  4. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Eight hundred eleven (811) urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI); 52.6-59.4) Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6) and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2). More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9) were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0). Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2) infection rate. School age children (6-15 years) are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06). Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9). Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages. PMID:21299881

  5. Comparative map between the domestic pig and dog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Biltueva; F. Yang; N. V. Vorobieva; A. S. Graphodatsky

    2004-01-01

    Cross-species chromosome painting with probes derived from flow-sorted dog and human chromosomes was used to construct a high-resolution comparative map for the pig. In total 98 conserved autosomal segments between pig and dog were detected by probes specific for the 38 autosomes and X Chromosome of the dog. Further integration of our results with the published human–dog and cat–dog comparative

  6. High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Pamela J; Gous, Annemarie; Clift, Sarah J; Greeff, Jaco M

    2012-06-01

    The nematode worm Spirocerca lupi has a cosmopolitan distribution and can cause the death of its final canid host, typically dogs. While its life cycle, which involves a coprophagous beetle intermediate host, a number of non-obligatory vertebrate paratenic hosts and a canid final host, is well understood, surprisingly little is known about its transmission dynamics and population genetic structure. Here we sequenced cox1 to quantify genetic variation and the factors that limit gene flow in a 300 km(2) area in South Africa. Three quarters of the genetic variation, was explained by differences between worms from the same host, whereas a quarter of the variation was explained by differences between worms from different hosts. With the help of a newly derived model we conclude that while the offspring from different infrapopulations mixes fairly frequently in new hosts, the level of admixture is not enough to homogenize the parasite populations among dogs. Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. PMID:22226763

  7. Total body vascular capacitance changes during high intracranial pressure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stein, P M; MacAnespie, C L; Rothe, C F

    1983-12-01

    The active capacitance response to increased intracranial pressure (Pic) was studied in nine chloralose-anesthetized dogs. The vena cavae were cannulated and drained into a reservoir as blood was pumped at a constant flow (Q) into the right atrium. Central blood volume was determined as Q times the mean transit time of dye from the right atrium to the aortic root. Arterial compliance (Ca) was determined from the monoexponential decay of systemic arterial pressure (SAP) during vagal cardiac arrest to compute changes in arterial volume (delta SAP X Ca). Atropine was administered to prevent bradycardia and dangerous, constant cardiac output-induced increases in pulmonary arterial (PAP) and right and left atrial pressures. Blood volume shifts indicative of active venoconstriction, included changes in reservoir, central, and arterial volumes during Pic of 100-200 mmHg. Raised Pic, after atropine, induced a tachycardia, increased systemic and pulmonary resistances, and increased SAP and PAP. Venoconstriction caused marked blood shifts between 125 and 200 mmHg Pic. The extrapolated response threshold was about 112 mmHg. In the most sensitive range, venoconstriction amounted to 3.9 ml X kg-1 per 25-mmHg change in Pic. These results indicate that intense active capacitance vessel constriction is an important part of cardiovascular hemostasis during rapidly increased intracranial pressure. PMID:6660316

  8. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. High prevalence in the St. Louis area determined by direct population screening.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E K; Miletich, J P; Pierce, J A; Sherman, L A; Endicott, S K; Broze, G J; Campbell, E J

    1989-10-01

    Considerable attention has been focused upon alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency because of the insights into the pathogenesis of human pulmonary emphysema that may derive from study of deficient subjects, and because of evolving therapeutic strategies that may slow the progression of lung disease in affected persons. We have applied an automated immunoassay for alpha-1-antitrypsin to plasma samples from 20,000 blood donors. Seven PI Z antitrypsin-deficient persons were identified and confirmed; this is more than twice the number predicted from previous estimates of the Z allele frequency in the St. Louis area. Five of the subjects were further evaluated. We anticipate that this assay, if utilized to screen large populations, could identify many alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient persons for study of the natural history of lung and liver disease associated with the deficiency. These subjects would be potential candidates for early intervention strategies to prevent the development of lung disease. The surprisingly high prevalence of deficient persons indicates that direct screening is the best method for prevalence estimation of genetic disorders. PMID:2679271

  9. Tuberculin skin test and isoniazid prophylaxis among health care workers in high tuberculosis prevalence areas.

    PubMed

    Khawcharoenporn, T; Apisarnthanarak, A; Sungkanuparph, S; Woeltje, K F; Fraser, V J

    2011-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is an important tool for the detection of latent tuberculosis (TB) and the identification of health care workers (HCWs) who require chemoprophylaxis. Although TST is inexpensive, easily available and the preferred test in most TB-prevalent settings, it has recognised limitations, including subjective interpretation, false positivity, cross reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria, administration errors and the requirement for two visits. Given these limitations and the unavailability of better screening tests in resource-limited settings, the acceptance rate for chemoprophylaxis among HCWs has remained low. Furthermore, chemoprophylaxis in these settings is complicated by the high rate of drug-resistant TB, potential adverse reactions, prescription of chemoprophylaxis in undiagnosed active TB patients and the unavailability of follow-up systems provided by occupational health programmes. In the present article, we provide our viewpoint and a practical approach along with existing evidence supporting or discouraging the use of TST and isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for TB screening and management among HCWs in TB-prevalent settings. PMID:21276291

  10. Rodent and flea abundance fail to predict a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L

    2010-01-01

    Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages. PMID:20158331

  11. Rickettsia infection in dogs and Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum ticks, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Tomassone, Laura; Conte, Valeria; Parrilla, Guillermo; De Meneghi, Daniele

    2010-12-01

    Only few published data are available on ticks and tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in Bolivia. To evaluate rickettsial seroprevalence and infection in dogs and ticks, during February-April 2007, we collected whole blood, sera, and ticks from dogs living in the rural, peri-urban, and urban areas of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Dog sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect IgG antibodies against Rickettsia rickettsii and 68.2% of samples were found to be positive (n?=?30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.4-81.4). Blood samples and ticks were tested using polymerase chain reaction to detect spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. One blood sample was positive for Rickettsia parkeri (2.3%; 95% CI: 0.06-12.3). Ticks were collected from 10 dogs and were identified as Amblyomma tigrinum (n?=?44) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n?=?1). All A. tigrinum ticks were collected from resident dogs from the rural areas of Cochabamba, whereas R. sanguineus was from a dog originating from Santa Cruz. Of 42 DNA samples extracted from ticks, 23 (54.8%; 95% CI: 38.7-70.1) were polymerase chain reaction positive for Rickettsia spp. Sequencing analysis identified 22 samples as R. parkeri and one as Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Positive ticks (all A. tigrinum) were collected from six dogs, all of which were seropositive. This is the first report of SFG rickettsiae in A. tigrinum, suggesting that this tick-like others species in the Amblyomma maculatum group--may play a role in the biological cycle of Ri. parkeri. The high infection prevalence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks and the even higher seroprevalence in dogs suggest an active circulation of agents of rickettsiosis in the study area, although there are no confirmed cases of infection in humans. Our study supports the use of canine serology as risk indicator for SF rickettsioses. PMID:20426684

  12. Ask Dog Lady

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What to do with a problem dog? What is the best book on dog training? Would Tony Soprano benefit from owning a dog? How can you trust your dog walker with your dog? All these questions are addressed by the Dog Lady, who gives advice, as she says herself, on "dogs, love, and life." Always readable and often funny, the Dog Lady answers emails from viewers with questions about their canine pets. Users can read recent columns or review the "Best in Show" archive, a collection of the Dog Lady's most memorable advice. [CH

  13. Cloning Dogs

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-03-08

    Broadcast Transcript: For those of you who have put off cloning your favorite pet due to the exorbitant cost, good news! The process just got cheaper. A biotech company here in South Korea has discovered that stems cells from the fat tissue in a dog...

  14. High Prevalence of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Among Ethiopian Flower Farm Workers.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Vegard Mjelde; Nigatu, Amare Workiye; Zeleke, Zeyede Kebede; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-07-01

    The flower industry is among the most important export industries in Ethiopia, employing more than 50,000 workers. The working conditions and health status among workers in Ethiopian flower industry are not documented. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted among 213 flower industry workers from 3 flower farms and 60 control workers from supermarkets from February to March 2012. A walk-through survey was also performed on the 3 flower farms. Interviewed flower farm workers have high prevalences of respiratory and dermal symptoms, which are rarely reported among controls. Female workers inside the greenhouses on the 3 flower farms have significantly more respiratory and dermal symptoms than workers outside the greenhouse, also when adjusting for age and education. Limited access to personal protection equipment (PPE) and unsafe pesticide routines are documented. This study indicates that working in these flower greenhouses might be associated with adverse health effects. PMID:24428185

  15. Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers show high prevalence of resistance towards macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cauwerts, K; Pasmans, F; Devriese, L A; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2006-04-01

    Eighty-seven Lactobacillus strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were identified to species level and tested for susceptibility to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics. Five different Lactobacillus species were identified as being predominantly present in the cloacae of broilers: Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillu sreuteri. Acquired resistance prevalence to macrolides and lincosamides was very high in the investigated lactobacilli: 89% of the strains were resistant to either or both lincosamide and macrolide class antibiotics. The vast majority of these resistant strains (96%) displayed constitutive resistance. More than one-half of the macrolide and/or lincosamide resistant strains carried an erm(B), erm(C), mef(A), lnu(A) gene or a combination of these genes. PMID:16595310

  16. High prevalence of a novel porcine bocavirus in weanling piglets with respiratory tract symptoms in China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shaolun; Yue, Cheng; Wei, Zuzhang; Long, Jinxue; Ran, Duoliang; Lin, Tao; Deng, Yu; Huang, Lv; Sun, Lichang; Zheng, Haihong; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Hao; Chen, Shengnan; Yuan, Shishan

    2010-08-01

    This study presents the first evidence of infection by a novel porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in Chinese swine herds. The PCR detection results showed that PBoV was significantly more prevalent in weanling piglets (69.7%, 69/99) with respiratory tract symptoms than that in other samples (0-13.6%) (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis showed that the partial VP1/2 genes were highly conserved (99-100% identity), and only five frequent nucleotide mutation positions existed in Chinese PBoV strains. These data indicate that PBoV might be an emerging virus for swine respiratory tract diseases. This study could help us to better understand the epidemiology of PBoV. PMID:20495986

  17. High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens’ needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public’s health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on CAM research should be established to investigate the identified gaps of knowledge and to address upcoming health care challenges. PMID:24499316

  18. Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

  19. To Unfold a Hidden Epidemic: Prevalence of Child Maltreatment and Its Health Implications among High School Students in Guangzhou, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, William C. W.; Leung, Phil W. S.; Tang, Catherine S. K.; Chen, Wei-Qing; Lee, Albert; Ling, Davina C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment as perpetrated by parents, its associated health outcomes, and its resilient factors among high school students in China. Methods: A multi-level stratified random school-based survey was conducted in 2005. Twenty four high schools were randomly chosen from eight districts in…

  20. Prevalence of Students with Symptoms of Depression among High School Students in a District of Western Turkey: An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal

    2008-01-01

    Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…

  1. Prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in certain areas of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K Lakshmi; Kondaiah, P M; Rayulu, V C; Srilatha, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A total of 937 dogs were screened for Trypanosoma evansi infection by wet blood film, blood smear staining techniques and micro haematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). In the present study, 2.28 % of male dogs and 2.40 % of female dogs were found positive by MHCT method. The findings indicated that there was no effect of T. evansi infection on sex of dogs. Higher prevalence of T. evansi infection was observed in Mongrel than in Pomeranian, Cross breeds, German Shepherd, Doberman and Labrador breeds. Age wise prevalence of T. evansi infection in dogs revealed that younger ones, below the 2 years age group recorded the highest prevalence than the above the 2 years age group dogs. PMID:26064007

  2. Echinococcus granulosus infection of farm dogs of Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Eslami; Seyed Hossein Hosseini

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in sheepdogs was studied in 13 provinces of Iran, where 90% of the Iranian sheep and goat populations and, thus, sheepdogs\\u000a are found. Worms were found in 27.17% of 390 dogs successfully purged with 4?mg\\/kg arecoline hydrobromide. The highest prevalence\\u000a was detected in dogs from the rural areas of Isfahan (central part of

  3. Gray Foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a Potential Reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-Like Bacterium and Domestic Dogs as Part of a Sentinel System for Surveillance of Zoonotic Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Northern California?

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Jennifer B.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Brown, Richard N.; Theis, Jerold H.; Foley, Janet E.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2007-01-01

    Two species of Bartonella, a novel Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, were isolated from rural dogs and gray foxes in northern California. A novel B. clarridgeiae-like species was isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 182 dogs and 22 (42%) of 53 gray foxes, while B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was isolated from 1 dog (0.5%) and 5 gray foxes (9.4%). PCR and DNA sequence analyses of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region suggested that strains infecting dogs and gray foxes were identical. Fifty-four dogs (29%) and 48 gray foxes (89%) had reciprocal titers of antibodies against Bartonella spp. of ?64. The high prevalence of bacteremia and seroreactivity to Bartonella spp. in gray foxes suggests that they may act as a reservoir species for the B. clarridgeiae-like species in this region. Domestic dogs were also tested for other arthropod-borne infectious agents. Fifty-one dogs (28%) were positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, seventy-four (40%) were seroreactive to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and five (2.7%) were seropositive for Yersinia pestis. Fourteen dogs (7.6%) were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the association of Bartonella antibody titer categories with potential risk factors and the presence of other vector-borne agents in domestic dogs. Older dogs were more likely to be seroreactive to Bartonella spp. There was no association between the exposure of dogs to Bartonella and the exposure of dogs to A. phagocytophilum in this study. PMID:17553970

  4. High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries. PMID:24921627

  5. Very high prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Bukharian Jewish immigrants to Israel.

    PubMed

    Glikberg, F; Brawer-Ostrovsky, J; Ackerman, Z

    1997-01-01

    In Israel, the reported prevalence of hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection among blood donors is 0.44%. As we found a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis-B virus (HBV) and HCV infection in Jewish immigrants from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (Bukharian Jews) among our general patient population, we determined the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among "healthy" Bukharian Jewish immigrants by screening for HBV and HCV markers and risk factors in a population of Bukharian Jews in north Jerusalem. A total of 27 (26.5%) of 102 patients were anti-HCV positive (by ELISA and confirmation tests). The HCV positive patients were older and had a higher rate of liver enzyme abnormalities than were the HCV-negative patients (56.5 +/- 2.3 versus 47.6 +/- 1.8, p = 0.003; and 14 of 27 versus 7 of 75, p < 0.01, respectively). HCV-positive patients with liver enzyme abnormalities were younger than HCV-positive patients without liver enzyme abnormalities (52.5 +/- 3.0 versus 62.8 +/- 2.8, p = 0.02). Sixteen patients (15.7%) were hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, and only two of these HBsAg carriers had liver enzyme abnormalities. None of the HCV-positive patients were HBsAg carriers (0 of 27 among HCV-positive patients versus 16 of 75 among HCV-negative patients, p = 0.0055). Past infection with HBV was found in 67 examinees (66%) (45 of 75 HCV-negative patients and 22 of 27 HCV-positive patients, p = 0.058). However, similar proportions of patients from both groups had past and present exposure to HBV [61 (81.3%) of 75 among HCV-negative patients versus 22 (81.5%) of 27 among HCV-positive patients]. Only 14 patients (13.7%) had no exposure to either HCV or HBV. Possible risk factors were use of nondisposable needles during mass vaccination in the U.S.S.R. or possible intrafamilial spread. The study concluded that immigrant Jews from former Asiatic U.S.S.R. republics have the highest rate of HCV positivity ever reported, and many of them have past and present HBV infection. Measures to prevent intrafamilial transmission of both viruses should be instituted. PMID:9013347

  6. Multiple zoonotic parasites identified in dog feces collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal-a potential threat to human health.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Teresa Letra; Castro, António; Ribeiro, João Niza; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2014-09-01

    Dogs play many roles and their presence within people's houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed. PMID:25257358

  7. Quantitative determination of a nonpeptide antithrombotic in dog plasma by microbore high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry utilizing pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Simpson

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed and is described for the quantitative determination of a nonpeptide antithrombotic in dog plasma.\\u000a The assay employs reversed phase microbore high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry\\u000a utilizing pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization. The analyte and internal standard are isolated from the plasma matrix\\u000a by solid-phase extraction. The mass spectrometer is operated in the

  8. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ?2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region. PMID:21902571

  9. Fatal venlafaxine poisonings are associated with a high prevalence of drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Launiainen, Terhi; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-05-01

    Venlafaxine (VEN) is an antidepressant found to possess a higher fatal toxicity index (FTI, i.e., deaths in proportion to consumption) than other newer antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The aim of this study was to elucidate using post-mortem cases whether the apparent high toxicity of VEN is associated with adverse drug interactions, pharmacogenetic factors and/or the manner of death. Within a 2-year period, a comprehensive post-mortem database and death certificates were searched for cases with laboratory findings of VEN, findings of other drugs, associated background information and the cause and manner of death. In 123 cases, the concentrations of VEN and its two metabolites, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (O-VEN) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine (N-VEN), and the CYP2D6 genotype were determined in post-mortem blood. The median concentrations of VEN, O-VEN and N-VEN were 560, 420 and 49 µg/l, respectively. A prominent feature of the VEN-positive cases was the high abundance of interacting drugs (46%), being more common with higher VEN concentrations. Compared to other common antidepressants, VEN-positive cases showed the highest suicide frequency, but also the proportion of suicidal VEN poisonings of all suicides was substantially higher than that of mirtazapine or SSRIs. Relative CYP2D6 activity did not predispose to high VEN concentrations, and the frequency of the extreme phenotypes followed the general population. In conclusion, the high suicide potential of VEN in combination with the high prevalence of drugs causing adverse interactions could be the reason for the observed high FTI. PMID:20432045

  10. Prevalence of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS children in highly active antiretroviral therapy era. A literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Octavio; Castillo, Nydia

    2015-08-01

    SummaryHighly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the morbidity and mortality related to HIV infection, including oral opportunistic infections. This paper offers an analysis of the scientific literature on the epidemiological aspects of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive children in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. An electronic databases search was made covering the highly active antiretroviral therapy era (1998 onwards). The terms used were oral lesions, oral candidiasis and their combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy and HIV/AIDS children. The following data were collected from each paper: year and country in which the investigation was conducted, antiretroviral treatment, oral candidiasis prevalence and diagnostic parameters (clinical or microbiological). Prevalence of oral candidiasis varied from 2.9% in American HIV-positive children undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy to 88% in Chilean HIV-positive children without antiretroviral therapy. With respect to geographical location and antiretroviral treatment, higher oral candidiasis prevalence in HIV-positive children on combination antiretroviral therapy/antiretroviral therapy was reported in African children (79.1%) followed by 45.9% reported in Hindu children. In HIV-positive Chilean children on no antiretroviral therapy, high oral candidiasis prevalence was reported (88%) followed by Nigerian children (80%). Oral candidiasis is still frequent in HIV-positive children in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era irrespective of geographical location, race and use of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25156369

  11. A serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in dogs in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AL Harland; NJ Cave; BR Jones; J Benschop; JJ Donald; AC Midwinter; RA Squires; JM Collins-Emerson

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of titres to four endemic leptospiral serovars in dog sera from the lower half of the North Island, and the South Island of New Zealand submitted to diagnostic laboratories, and to explore the association between the prevalence of seropositive samples to leptospirosis and breed group, age group and sex.METHODS: Serum samples from 655 dogs residing

  12. Determination of Morphological, Biometric and Biochemical Susceptibilities in Healthy Eurasier Dogs with Suspected Inherited Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1–3 years old), adult males and adult females (4–8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the development of glaucoma. This cohort will be used as a sentinel for longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25380252

  13. High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in tsunami-flooded shelters established after the great East-Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinsaku; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Muneichi; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in disaster shelters has been reported in the aftermath of earthquakes in Japan. Calf DVT was examined using sonography in the shelters after the Great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. By the end of July 2011, 701 out of 8,630 evacuees suspected with calf DVT, judged by inspections or medical interviews, were examined in 32 shelters, and 190 evacuees were confirmed to have calf DVT. The prevalence of DVT was 2.20%, which was 200 times higher than the usual incidence in Japan. The DVT prevalence seemed to decrease with time. By the end of May, a significantly higher prevalence of DVT was found in tsunami-flooded shelters (109 of 3,871 evacuees; 2.82%) than in non-flooded shelters (53 of 3,155 evacuees; 1.68%). After June, its prevalence was still higher (18/541; 3.33%) in tsunami-flooded shelters than in non-flooded shelters (10/1063; 0.94%). The cause of the high prevalence of DVT was supposed to be dehydration due to the delay in supplying drinking water, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by the evacuees because of a shortage of clean water to wash their hands. Dehydration was especially noticed in women because they restricted themselves of water intake to avoid using unsanitary toilet facilities. Moreover, crowded shelters restricted the mobility of elderly people, which would exacerbate the prevalence of DVT. Those deteriorated and crowded shelters were observed in tsunami-flooded areas. Therefore, long-term shelters should not be set up in flooded areas after tsunami. PMID:22728376

  14. PBS-Nova: Dogs And More Dogs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Nova website, designed to accompany a television Feature Program on the world of Dogs, asks "How and why did man's best friend evolve from wolves, and why are dogs so remarkably diverse today?" The site showcases a slide show on working dogs and an interactive matching game entitled, Dogs Around the World. Also included at this website are a Teacher's Guide, a Links and Books page, and an Inquiry Article about Dog diversity. Additionally, this site links to the TV program transcript and to a recent "washingtonpost.com discussion with biologist and dog expert Ray Coppinger."

  15. Prevalence of avian haematozoa in wild birds in a high-altitude forest in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Imura; Yuka Suzuki; Hiroko Ejiri; Yukita Sato; Ken Ishida; Daisuke Sumiyama; Koichi Murata; Masayoshi Yukawa

    The infection dynamics of avian haematozoa, which includes the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon, are complicated by a variety of environmental factors and host-parasite interactions. In Japan, the prevalence of haematozoa in wild birds has recently been determined in several local areas. However, no information on the annual prevalence of avian haematozoa in a single study site has been reported.

  16. Effects of high-volume, rapid-fluid therapy on cardiovascular function and hematological values during isoflurane-induced hypotension in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Alexander; Gianotti, Giacomo; Rioja-Garcia, Eva; Hathway, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the administration of a high volume of isotonic crystalloid at a rapid rate on cardiovascular function in normovolemic, isoflurane-anesthetized dogs during induced hypotension. Using a prospective study, 6 adult dogs were induced to general anesthesia and cardiovascular and hematological values were measured while the dogs were maintained at 3 hemodynamic states: first during light anesthesia with 1.3% end-tidal isoflurane (ETI); then during a hypotensive state induced by deep anesthesia with 3% ETI for 45 min while administered 1 mL/kg body weight (BW) per minute of isotonic fluids; and then decreased to 1.6% ETI while receiving 1 mL/kg BW per minute of fluids for 15 min. End-tidal isoflurane (ETI) at 3.0 ± 0.2% decreased arterial blood pressure (ABP), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume index (SVI), and increased stroke volume variation (SVV) and central venous pressure (CVP). Fluid administration during 3% ETI decreased only SVV and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), while CVP increased progressively. Decreasing ETI to 1.6 ± 0.1% returned ABP and SVI to baseline (ETI 1.3 ± 0.1%), while CI and heart rate increased and SVV decreased. There was significant progressive clinical hemodilution of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), and central-venous oxygen content (CcvO2). High-volume, rapid-rate administration of an isotonic crystalloid was ineffective in counteracting isoflurane-induced hypotension in normovolemic dogs at a deep plane of anesthesia. Cardiovascular function improved only when anesthetic depth was reduced. Excessive hemodilution and its adverse consequences should be considered when a high volume of crystalloid is administered at a rapid rate. PMID:23024452

  17. High prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA detected in cervical swabs from women in southern Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chong, P P; Asyikin, N; Rusinahayati, M; Halimatun, S; Rozita, R; Ng, C K; Hamilton, W H Wan; Tan, B C; Noraihan, N; Rohani, A; Faezah, H; Latiffah, L; Maha, A; Sabariah, A R

    2010-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to play an important role in the genesis of cervical cancer. Since new screening and prevention strategies, namely improved HPV testing and HPV vaccination have been aggressively promoted recently, it is crucial to investigate the HPV distribution in Malaysia in order to maximize their cost-effectiveness. This study was therefore conducted to assess the HPV type distribution in the most populous region, the state of Selangor. A total of 200 cervical swab samples were collected in two health-screening campaigns, and also from women attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in several hospitals in Selangor. DNA extraction was performed and HPV DNA was detected via nested PCR using MY09/MY11 as outer primers and GP5+/GP6+ as inner primers which target the L1 gene of the viral genome. The purified PCR products were subjected to automated DNA sequencing to determine the HPV genotype. Out of 180 ?-globin positive samples, 84 (46.7%) were positive for HPV DNA. The most common HPV type found was high-risk oncogenic type 16 (40%), followed by HPV type 18 (3.3%), HPV 33 (1.7%), HPV 31 (0.6%), and low-risk HPV 87 (0.6%). Our study confirmed that nested PCR method is highly sensitive in detecting HPV DNA even in low risk patients. Since a relatively high prevalence rate of HPV infection was found in this population, prompt healthcare policy changes to bring about implementation of early HPV vaccination program is desirable to prevent a high incidence of cervical cancer. PMID:21338211

  18. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  19. [Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs and livestock from Xinjiang production and construction corps].

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Wang, Bing-Quan; Wang, Li-Jie; Xiong, Jun; Xi, Yi; Wu, Li-Wen; Ma, Fu-Rong; Li, Fan-Ka

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs and livestock was investigated in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps by stratified random sampling. A total of 5 391 dog feces were detected by double antibody sandwich ELISA, and the positive rate of dog coproantigen was 0.69% (37/5 391). The livestock were subjected to necropsy, inspection and palpation. The prevalence of E. granulosus infection in livestock was 3.88% (431/11 122). PMID:25223066

  20. Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Neighborhood Characteristics of Dog Walkers

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Karen J.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Conway, Terry L.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Cain, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined how demographics, physical activity, weight status, and neighborhood characteristics varied among households with and without dogs. Method Participants aged 20 to 65 years (N = 2199, 52% male, 75% white, Mean age = 45) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods in the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions during 2002 – 2005. Dog ownership, dog walking, education, height, weight, and family income were self-reported. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by 7-day accelerometry. Results Dog walking was associated with a higher proportion of participants who met national recommendations for MVPA (53%) when compared to those who had but did not walk their dog (33%) and to non-dog owners (46%). There were significantly fewer obese dog walkers (17%) when compared to both owners who did not walk their dogs (28%) and non-owners (22%). Dog owners who walked their dogs were more likely to live in high-walkable neighborhoods when compared to dog owners who did not walk their dogs. Conclusion Dog walking may promote physical activity and contribute to weight control. Dog walking appears to be a mechanism by which residents of high-walkable neighborhoods obtain their physical activity. PMID:18572234

  1. High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rubaihayo, John; Akib, Surat; Mughusu, Ezekiel; Abaasa, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A populationbased HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3) (?(2) =0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05). Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%), followed by prostitution (13.6%), alcoholism (10.1%), carelessness (10.1%), poverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm that HIV prevalence is still high in this community. In order to prevent new infections, the factors mentioned above need to be addressed, and we recommend that education aimed at changing individual behavior should be intensified in this community. PMID:24470893

  2. Prevalence and correlates of sunscreen use among US high school students.

    PubMed

    Hall, H I; Jones, S E; Saraiya, M

    2001-11-01

    Sun exposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of skin cancer later in life. To determine the prevalence and correlates of sunscreen use among US high school students, researchers assessed data on sunscreen use, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors obtained from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). This survey used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 (N = 15,349). Overall, 13.3% (95% confidence interval, +/- 1.3) of students used sunscreen always or most of the time (i.e., frequent use). Frequent sunscreen use was lower among males (8.6%, +/- 1.2) than females (18.1%, +/- 1.9) and among Blacks (4.8%, +/- 1.7) and Hispanics (10.8%, +/- 2.8) than Whites (16.5%, +/- 1.9). Frequent sunscreen use decreased with age. Infrequent use of sunscreen was associated with other risky health behaviors, such as driving after drinking or riding in a car with a drinking driver, smoking cigarettes, being sexually active, and being physically inactive. Results indicate a need for health education interventions addressing sunscreen use that target high school students. PMID:11794273

  3. Extremely high prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Murmansk, Russia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, J; Marjamäki, M; Haanperä-Heikkinen, M; Marttila, H; Endourova, L B; Presnova, S E; Mathys, V; Bifani, P; Ruohonen, R; Viljanen, M K; Soini, H

    2011-09-01

    Drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the Murmansk region was investigated in a 2-year, population-based surveillance of the civilian population. During 2003 and 2004, isolates from all culture-positive cases were collected (n = 1,226). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) was extremely high, as 114 out of 439 new cases (26.0%), and 574 out of 787 previously treated cases (72.9%) were resistant to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). Spoligotyping of the primary MDR-TB isolates revealed that most isolates grouped to the Beijing SIT1 genotype (n = 91, 79.8%). Isolates of this genotype were further analyzed by IS6110 RFLP. Sequencing of gene targets associated with INH and RIF resistance further showed that the MDR-TB strains are highly homogeneous as 78% of the MDR, SIT1 strains had the same resistance-conferring mutations. The genetic homogeneity of the MDR-TB strains indicates that they are actively transmitted in Murmansk. PMID:21394425

  4. A comparative study of hematological parameters of ? and ? thalassemias in a high prevalence zone: Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Syed Riaz; Al Dahmash, Badr Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Saudi Arabia falls in the high prevalent zone of ?? and ? thalassemias. Early screening for the type of thalassemia is essential for further investigations and management. The study was carried out to differentiate the type of thalassemia based on red cell indices and other hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 991 clinically suspected cases of thalassemias in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The hematological parameters were studied on Coulter STKS. Cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed on all the blood samples. Gene deletion studies were carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique using the restriction endonucleases Bam HI. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 11.5 version. RESULTS: The hemoglobin electrophoresis and gene studies revealed that there were 406 (40.96%) and 59 (5.95 %) cases of ? thalassemia trait and ? thalassemia major respectively including adults and children. 426 cases of various deletion forms of ? thalassemias were seen. Microcytosis was a common feature in ? thalassemias trait and (-?/-?) and (--/??) types of ? thalassemias. MCH was a more significant distinguishing feature among thalassemias. ? thalassemia major and ? thalassemia (-?/??) had almost normal hematological parameters. CONCLUSION: MCV and RBC counts are not statistically significant features for discriminating between ? and ? thalassemias. There is need for development of a discrimination index to differentiate between ? and ? thalassemias traits on the lines of discriminatory Indices available for distinguishing ? thalassemias trait from iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22345994

  5. Subsite Distribution of Gastric Cancer in an Area of High Prevalence—Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bafandeh, Yousef; Farhang, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine subsites of gastric cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran—a high incidence region for gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Data were collected from 2002 through 2007 from patients who sought treatment for gastrointestinal symptoms or signs at a university clinic and subsequently underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Results Cancer was diagnosed and histologically confirmed in 362 patients (352 adenocarcinomas). The mean age of the patients was 64.57 ± 11.32 (range, 16–94 years) and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. The gastric cardia was involved in 40.3% of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, while the gastric fundus was involved in 3.7%, the gastric body in 49.1%, and the gastric antrum in 24.1% of patients. Complete evaluation for metastasis was possible in 144 patients; 61 were free of metastasis, and most of these patients underwent surgical therapy. Cardia involvement was not associated with the sex or age of patients. Conclusions Noncardia gastric cancer is still more frequent in East Azerbaijan, which is likely due to the very high prevalence of infection with Helicobacter pylori. The low rate of cancer involving the fundus is a target for further research on the etiology of gastric cancer. PMID:19542688

  6. Not Just "A Walking the Dog": Dog Walking and Pet Play and Their Association With Recommended Physical Activity Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Karen E; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Trapp, Georgina S A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose . To examine the role of pet play and dog walking in children's and adolescents' leisure time, and the relationship between these activities and physical activity. Design . The study design was observational. Setting . The study setting was metropolitan Perth and nonmetropolitan regions in Western Australia. Subjects . The study included 1097 primary school (mean age, 10.1 years; SD, 1.6 years) and 657 secondary school (mean age, 14.0 years; SD, 1.3 years) students. Measures . Validated measures of total physical activity, dog walking, and pet play activity (prevalence and time) were calculated. Analysis . Generalized linear models tested for differences between proportions, while adjusting for socioeconomic status, age, and school-level clustering. Results . Approximately one third of primary school and one quarter of secondary school students reported that they walked the dog at least once in the last week. Pet play was the most common play activity for primary and secondary school girls, and the second and third most popular play activity for secondary and primary school boys, respectively. Secondary school students who walked the dog or played with pets spent an average of 1 hour per week on each activity, and they were significantly more likely (p < .005) to meet national physical activity recommendations than secondary school students not reporting these activities. Conclusion . Given the significant proportion of young people who frequently engage in dog walking and pet play, and the high level of pet ownership in many Western countries, promotion of these activities to support young people's health is warranted. PMID:25162325

  7. Bounding on Rough Terrain with the LittleDog Robot

    E-print Network

    Shkolnik, Alexander C.

    A motion planning algorithm is described for bounding over rough terrain with the LittleDog robot. Unlike walking gaits, bounding is highly dynamic and cannot be planned with quasi-steady approximations. LittleDog is modeled ...

  8. Vaccinate Puppies Against Parvovirus Before They Meet Other Dogs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccinate Puppies Against Parvovirus Before They Meet Other Dogs Highly contagious virus can cause serious illness, even ... fully vaccinated against parvovirus before going to the dog park or anywhere else your pup might encounter ...

  9. Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 1989

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. Owen D.

    1990-01-01

    In late November 1989, 1732 clinics and institutional veterinarians were sent a questionnaire to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis, and 51.7% responded. Of 247,716 dogs tested, 394 had D. immitis microfilariae and 51 were amicrofilaremic for a total of 445 cases and heartworm prevalence of 0.17%. Most (408) of these dogs had no preventive medication and the prevalence among dogs tested and unprotected was 1.01%. That prevalence was considerably higher in endemic areas. Thirty-seven dogs with heartworm had preventive medication. Heartworm was most frequent in companion dogs over three years of age maintained outdoors in rural areas. About 75% of the cases had never left Canada, 26% had clinical signs and 125 were not treated. Heartworm was reported from British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, but 383 cases were in Ontario. South-western Ontario was the primary focus of infection. There were 33 cases in Quebec and 24 in Manitoba, mainly found in and around Metropolitan Montreal and Winnipeg respectively. PMID:17423627

  10. Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

    2013-11-01

    In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

  11. High Prevalence of the EBER Variant EB-8m in Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhi-chao; Luo, Bing; Chen, Jian-ning; Chao, Yan; Shao, Chun-kui; Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are the most highly expressed transcripts in all EBV-associated tumors and are involved in both lymphoid and epithelioid carcinogenesis. Our previous study on Chinese isolates from non-endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) identified new EBER variants (EB-8m and EB-10m) which were less common but relatively more frequent in NPC cases than healthy donors. In the present study, we determined the EBER variants in NPC cases and healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of NPC within China and compared the EBER variants, in relation to the genotypes at BamHI F region (prototype F and f variant), between population groups and between two areas. According to the phylogenetic tree, four EBER variants (EB-6m, EB-8m, EB-10m and B95-8) were identified. EB-6m was dominant in all population groups except for endemic NPC group, in which EB-8m was dominant. EB-8m was more common in endemic NPC cases (82.0%, 41/50) than non-endemic NPC cases (33.7%, 32/95) (p<0.0001), and it was also more frequent in healthy donors from endemic area (32.4%, 24/74) than healthy donors from non-endemic area (1.1%, 1/92) (p<0.0001). More importantly, the EB-8m was more prevalent in NPC cases than healthy donors in both areas (p<0.0001). The f variant, which has been suggested to associate with endemic NPC, demonstrated preferential linkage with EB-8m in endemic isolates, however, the EB-8m variant seemed to be more specific to NPC isolates than f variant. These results reveal high prevalence of EBER EB-8m variant in endemic NPC cases, suggesting an association between NPC development and EBV isolates carrying EB-8m variant. Our finding identified a small healthy population group that shares the same viral strain which predominates in NPC cases. It could be interesting to carry extensive cohort studies following these individuals to evaluate the risk to develop NPC. PMID:25807550

  12. High prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacterial uropathogens from Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases and people of all age-groups and geographical locations are affected. The impact of disease is even worst in low-resource developing countries due to unaware of the UTIs caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and the possibility of transfer of MDR traits between them. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MDR bacterial isolates from UTI patients, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the conjugational transfer of multidrug resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Results Two hundred and nineteen bacterial isolates were recovered from 710 urine samples at Kathmandu Model hospital during the study period. All samples and isolates were investigated by standard laboratory procedures. Among the significant bacterial growth (30.8%, 219 isolates), 41.1% isolates were MDR. The most prevailing organism, E. coli (81.3%, 178 isolates) was 38.2% MDR, whereas second most common organism, Citrobacter spp. (5%, 11 isolates) was found 72.7% MDR. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) production was detected in 55.2% of a subset of MDR E. coli isolates. Among the 29 MDR E. coli isolates, plasmids of size ranging 2-51 kb were obtained with different 15 profiles. The most common plasmid of size 32 kb was detected in all of the plasmid-harbored E. coli strains. The majority of E. coli isolates investigated for the multidrug resistance transfer were able to transfer plasmid-mediated MDR phenotypes along with ESBL pattern with a frequency ranging from 0.3 × 10-7 to 1.5 × 10-7 to an E. coli HB101 recipient strain by conjugation. Most of the donor and recipient strain showed high levels of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for commonly-used antibiotics. Conclusions The high prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacterial uropathogens was observed. Particularly, resistance patterns were alarmingly higher for amoxycillin, co-trimoxazole, flouroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, which necessitate the re-evaluation of first and second line therapies for UTI. In addition, conjugational co-transfer of MDR phenotypes with ESBL-positive phenotypes was observed in MDR E. coli. PMID:22260454

  13. Small mammals associated with colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Southern High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruett, A.L.; Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Ray, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    We compared diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non-colony sites. Of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in our study area, >80 were on slopes of playa lakes; thus, we used sites of colonies and non-colonies that were on slopes of playa lakes. We trapped small mammals on 29 pairs of sites. Overall abundance did not differ between types of sites, but some taxa exhibited associations with colonies (Onychomys leucogaster) or non-colonies (Chaetodipus hispidus, Reithrodontomys, Sigmodon hispidus). Diversity and evenness of small mammals did not differ between colonies and non-colonies in 2002, but were higher on non-colonies in 2003. Although we may not have detected some rare or infrequently occurring species, our data reveal differences in diversity and evenness of more common species among the types of sites. Prairie dogs are touted as a keystone species with their colonies associated with a greater faunal diversity than adjacent lands. Our findings contradict several studies reporting greater diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of prairie dogs. We suggest that additional research across a wider landscape and incorporating landscape variables beyond the immediate trapping plot may further elucidate interspecific associations between black-tailed prairie dogs and species of small rodents.

  14. Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi; Simonetta Bisanzi; Irene Paganini; Angela Di Iasi; Claudio Angeloni; Aurora Scalisi; Rosalba Macis; Maria Teresa Pini; Francesco Chini; Francesca Maria Carozzi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. METHODS: Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes.

  15. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  16. High prevalence of food insecurity among HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART in a resource-rich setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anema; S. D. Weiser; K. A. Fernandes; E. Ding; E. K. Brandson; A. Palmer; J. S. G. Montaner; R. S. Hogg

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Adults receiving HAART voluntarily enrolled into the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) cohort. Individual food insecurity was measured using a modified version of the Radimer\\/Cornell Questionnaire. We

  17. Stray Dogs, Saints, and Saviors: Fighting for the Soul of America's Toughest High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book tells the real-life story of Locke High School. Locke High--originally known for its excellence--became one of the toughest, most dysfunctional schools in the nation. Then in 2007 teachers voted to bring in an upstart charter school organization called "Green Dot" to try and restore the Locke Saints' past glory. It was a brave and…

  18. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  19. On a Cercopithifilaria sp. transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus: a neglected, but widespread filarioid of dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was aimed at investigating the distribution of a Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 with dermal microfilariae recently identified in a dog from Sicily (Italy). A large epidemiological survey was conducted by examining skin samples (n = 917) and ticks (n = 890) collected from dogs at different time points in Italy, central Spain and eastern Greece. Results The overall prevalence of Cercopithifilaria sp. in the sampled animal populations was 13.9% and 10.5% by microscopy of skin sediments and by PCR on skin samples, respectively. Up to 21.6% and 45.5% of dogs in Spain were positive by microscopical examination and by PCR. Cumulative incidence rates ranging from 7.7% to 13.9% were estimated in dogs from two sites in Italy. A low level of agreement between the two diagnostic tests (microscopical examination and PCR) was recorded in sites where samples were processed in parallel. Infestation rate as determined by tick dissection (from 5.2% to 16.7%) was higher than that detected by PCR (from 0% to 3.9%); tick infestation was significantly associated with Cercopithifilaria sp. infestation in dogs from two out of four sites. Developing larvae found in ticks were morphometrically studied and as many as 1469 larvae were found in a single tick. Conclusions Our data suggest that, in addition to the most common species of filarioids known to infest dogs (i.e., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), Cercopithifilaria sp. with dermal microfilariae should be considered due to its widespread distribution in southern Europe and high frequency in tick-exposed dogs. PMID:22212459

  20. High Prevalence of Inducible Erythromycin Resistance among Streptococcus bovis Isolates in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2001-01-01

    Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobial agents were determined by measurement of MICs for 60 isolates of Streptococcus bovis from blood cultures. Thirty-eight isolates (63.3%) had high-level resistance to erythromycin (MICs, ?128 ?g/ml). Among the 38 erythromycin-resistant strains, 21 isolates (55%) had inducible resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (iMLS isolates) and 17 (45%) had constitutive resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (cMLS isolates). Tetracycline resistance was also found among all of the erythromycin-resistant strains. None of the strains displayed resistance to penicillin, chloramphenicol, or vancomycin. Detection of erythromycin resistance genes by PCR and sequencing indicated that all 17 cMLS isolates were positive for the ermB gene and that 7 of 21 iMLS isolates carried the ermB gene and the remaining 14 iMLS isolates carried the ermT gene. Sequence analysis of amplified partial ermB fragments (594 bp) from S. bovis isolates revealed a 99.8% nucleotide identity and a 100% amino acid homology compared with the sequences from gene banks. The sequences of amplified fragments with primers targeted for ermC were shown to be very similar to that of ermGT (ermT) from Lactobacillus reuteri (98.5% nucleotide identity). This is the first report to describe the detection of the ermT class of erythromycin resistance determinants in S. bovis. The high rate of inducible erythromycin resistance among S. bovis isolates in Taiwan was not reported before. The iMLS S. bovis isolates were shown to be heterogeneous by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These results indicate that the prevalence of inducible erythromycin resistance in S. bovis in Taiwan is very high and that most of the resistant strains carry the ermT or the ermB gene. PMID:11709309

  1. High prevalence of both humoral and cellular immunity to Zaire ebolavirus among rural populations in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Becquart, Pierre; Wauquier, Nadia; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Padilla, Cindy; Souris, Marc; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in Gabon. Using a sensitive and specific ELISA method, we found a ZEBOV-specific IgG seroprevalence of 15.3% overall, the highest ever reported. The seroprevalence rate was significantly higher in forested areas (19.4%) than in other ecosystems, namely grassland (12.4%), savannah (10.5%), and lakeland (2.7%). No other risk factors for seropositivity were found. The specificity of anti-ZEBOV IgG was confirmed by Western blot in 138 individuals, and CD8 T cells from seven IgG+ individuals were shown to produce IFN-gamma after ZEBOV stimulation. Together, these findings show that a large fraction of the human population living in forested areas of Gabon has both humoral and cellular immunity to ZEBOV. In the absence of identified risk factors, the high prevalence of "immune" persons suggests a common source of human exposure such as fruits contaminated by bat saliva. These findings provide significant new insights into ZEBOV circulation and human exposure, and raise important questions as to the human pathogenicity of ZEBOV and the existence of natural protective immunization. PMID:20161740

  2. Long QT Interval in Turner Syndrome – A High Prevalence of LQTS Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian H.; Pedersen, Lisbeth N.; Berglund, Agnethe; Jensen, Henrik K.; Andersen, Niels H.; Gravholt, Claus H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype. Methods Adult women with Turner syndrome (n?=?88) were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%), and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett’s (bQTc) and Hodges’s formula (hQTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. Results The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0±25.5 ms) compared to controls (390.4±17.8 ms) was prolonged (p<0.001) and did not change over time (416.9±22.6 vs. 415.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.4). 45,X karyotype was associated with increased hQTc prolongation compared to other Turner syndrome karyotypes (418.2±24.8 vs. 407.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.055). In women with Turner syndrome and a bQTc >432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2) and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E. PMID:23936059

  3. Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis (TB) in an Emergency Room in a Region with High Prevalence of TB in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; Müller, Alice Mânica; Tomasini, Karina da Silva; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Golub, Jonathan E.; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public hospital emergency room (ER) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, a setting with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objective To determine the prevalence of PTB, using a symptom based active case finding (ACF) strategy in the ER of a public hospital in an area with high prevalence of TB and HIV, as well as variables associated with pulmonary TB diagnosis. Methods Cross sectional study. All patients ?18 years seeking care at the ER were screened for respiratory symptoms and those with cough ?2 weeks were invited to provide a chest radiograph and two unsupervised samples of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture. Results Among 31,267 admissions, 6,273 (20.1%) reported respiratory symptoms; 197 reported cough ?2 weeks, of which pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 30. In multivariate analysis, the variables associated with a pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis were: age (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97; p<0.0001), sputum production (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06–0.56; p?=?0.003), and radiographic findings typical of TB (OR 12.11, 95% CI 4.45–32.93; p<0.0001). Conclusions This study identified a high prevalence of pulmonary TB among patients who sought care at the emergency department of a tertiary hospital, emphasizing the importance of regular screening of all comers for active TB in this setting. PMID:25211158

  4. KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS Kendal Shepherd (BVSc, CCAB, MRCVS) Adapted for classroom use;2 Keeping ourselves safe near dogs 1 Do you have a pet dog? 2 Do you like dogs? 3 Does a relative of yours have a pet dog? 4 What makes dogs likely to bite? 5 How can we prevent a dog biting us? 6 Is a small

  5. Evaluation of off-leash dog parks in Texas and Florida: A study of use patterns, user satisfaction, and perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung-Sook Lee; Mardelle Shepley; Chang-Shan Huang

    2009-01-01

    The growing importance of dogs in people's lives and in high-density urban environments has increased demand for a place where people and their dogs can interact and exercise together. The recent increase in the number of off-leash dog parks across the country is evidence of these demands of dog owners. Evaluation of four dog parks in Texas and Florida was

  6. Dogs catch human yawns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramiro M. Joly-Mascheroni; Atsushi Senju; Alex J. Shepherd

    2008-01-01

    Summary This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that

  7. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in Portugal: high prevalence of non-B subtypes.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Aida; Parreira, Ricardo; Venenno, Teresa; Franco, Margarida; Piedade, João; Germano De Sousa, José; Canas-Ferreira, Wanda F

    2002-03-20

    In this study, we have investigated the diversity of current HIV-1 strains circulating in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, Portugal. A total of 217 HIV-1-positive blood samples, collected between October 1998 and December 2000, was genetically characterized in the gp120 C2V3C3 region (n = 205) or part of the gp41 N-terminal segment (n = 12) by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) and/or DNA sequencing. The HMA subtyping efficiency (number of samples unambiguously subtyped by HMA divided by the total number of samples subtyped) was 65.9% (143 of 217), with indeterminate migration patterns of subtype A and G strains contributing significantly to this value. On the overall, subtype B was the most prevalent (50.2%), followed by subtypes G (21.7%), A (17.5%), and F (5.5%), whereas subtypes C, D, H, and J accounted altogether for 5.1% of the infections. Non-B subtypes were responsible for 77.4 and 33.1% of the infections among African immigrants and Portuguese subjects, respectively. Angolan individuals (n = 25) were the only ones infected with all the HIV-1 subtypes documented, probably reflecting a high degree of viral genetic diversification in their country of origin. Phylogenetic analysis showed a predominance of IbNG-like viruses among subtype A sequences and two new major subclusters within subtype G (G(P) and G(P)'). The majority of the Portuguese G sequences described formed a well-defined subcluster (G(P)), supported by bootstrap values >90%, phylogenetically distant from clade G sequences in databases. gag (p24/p7) sequence analysis of these variants confirmed the maintenance of the subtype G subclusters. The multiple subclustering observed for the major clades A, B, D, and G, as well as the variety of subtypes found, indicate a high diversity of HIV-1 variants circulating in Portugal and suggest a need for continuous epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:11897032

  9. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 ?m and wall thickness of 2.47 ?m in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 ?m cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 ?m in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 ?m in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 ?m in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

  10. Acute Portal Hypertension Models in Dogs: Low- and High-Flow Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jaydev K; Liu, Ji-Bin; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Merton, Daniel A; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Altemus, Joseph; Needleman, Laurence; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Effective animal models are needed to evaluate the feasibility of new techniques to assess portal hypertension (PH). Here we developed 2 canine models of acute PH by increasing intrasinusoidal resistance and by increasing the portal vein (PV) flow volume to test the efficacy of a noninvasive technique to evaluate PH. The acute low-flow PH model was based on embolization of liver circulation by using a gelatin sponge material. The acute high-flow PH model was based on increasing the PV flow volume by using an arteriovenous (A-V) shunt from the femoral artery and saline infusion. PV pressures and diameters were assessed before and after inducing PH. Pressure values and diameters were obtained from the inferior vena cava in 3 unmanipulated controls. The low-flow model of PH was repeatable and successfully increased PV pressure by an average of 16.5 mm Hg within 15 min. The high-flow model of PH failed to achieve increased PV pressures. However, saline supplementation of the portal circulation in the high-flow model led to mean increases in PV pressures of 12.8 mm Hg within 20 min. Pulsatility in the PV was decreased in the low-flow model and increased in the high-flow model relative to baseline. No changes in PV diameter were noted in either model. These acute PH models are relatively straightforward to implement and may facilitate the evaluation of new techniques to assess PH. PMID:23114046

  11. Is there a role for video-assisted parathyroidectomy in regions with high prevalence of goitre?

    PubMed

    De Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Traini, E; Giustozzi, E; Oragano, L; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2013-12-01

    Minimally-invasive procedures for parathyroidectomy have revolutionized the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Coexistence of goitre is considered a major contraindication for these approaches, especially if unilateral. A specific advantage of video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) compared to other endoscopic techniques is the possibility to combine it with thyroidectomy when necessary and when the selection criteria for video-assisted thyroidectomy (VAT) are met. We evaluated the role of VAP in a region with a high prevalence of goitre. The medical records of all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy and concomitant thyroid resection in our Division, between May 1998 and June 2012, were reviewed. Patients who underwent VAP and concomitant VAT were included in this study. Overall, in this period, 615 patients were treated in our Division for pHPT and 227 patients (36.9%) underwent concomitant thyroid resection. Among these, 384 patients were selected for VAP and 124 (32.3%) underwent concomitant VAT (lobectomy in 26 cases, total thyroidectomy in 98). No conversion to conventional surgery was registered. Mean operative time was 66.6 ± 43.6 min. Transient hypocalcaemia was observed in 42 cases. A transient recurrent nerve lesion was registered in one case. No other complications occurred. Final histology showed parathyroid adenoma in all but two cases of parathyroid carcinoma, benign goitre in 119 cases and papillary thyroid carcinoma in the remaining 5 patients. After a mean follow-up of 33.2 months, no persistent or recurrent disease was observed. In our experience, a video-assisted approach for the treatment of synchronous thyroid and parathyroid diseases is feasible, effective and safe at least considering short-term follow-up. PMID:24376294

  12. Prelingual deafness: high prevalence of a 30delG mutation in the connexin 26 gene.

    PubMed

    Denoyelle, F; Weil, D; Maw, M A; Wilcox, S A; Lench, N J; Allen-Powell, D R; Osborn, A H; Dahl, H H; Middleton, A; Houseman, M J; Dodé, C; Marlin, S; Boulila-ElGaïed, A; Grati, M; Ayadi, H; BenArab, S; Bitoun, P; Lina-Granade, G; Godet, J; Mustapha, M; Loiselet, J; El-Zir, E; Aubois, A; Joannard, A; Levilliers, J; Garabédian, E N; Mueller, R F; Gardner, R J; Petit, C

    1997-11-01

    Prelingual non-syndromic (isolated) deafness is the most frequent hereditary sensory defect. In >80% of the cases, the mode of transmission is autosomal recessive. To date, 14 loci have been identified for the recessive forms (DFNB loci). For two of them, DFNB1 and DFNB2, the genes responsible have been characterized; they encode connexin 26 and myosin VIIA, respectively. In order to evaluate the extent to which the connexin 26 gene (Cx26) contributes to prelingual deafness, we searched for mutations in this gene in 65 affected Caucasian families originating from various countries, mainly tunisia, France, New Zealand and the UK. Six of these families are consanguineous, and deafness was shown to be linked to the DFNB1 locus, 10 are small non consanguineous families in which the segregation of the trait has been found to be compatible with the involvement of DFNB1, and in the remaining 49 families no linkage analysis has been performed. A total of 62 mutant alleles in 39 families were identified. Therefore, mutations in Cx26 represent a major cause of recessively inherited prelingual deafness since according to the present results they would underlie approximately half of the cases. In addition, one specific mutation, 30delG, accounts for the majority (approximately 70%) of the Cx26 mutant alleles. It is therefore one of the most frequent disease mutations so far identified. Several lines of evidence indicate that the high prevalence of the 30delG mutation arises from a mutation hot spot rather than from a founder effect. Genetic counseling for prelingual deafness has been so far considerably impaired by the difficulty in distinguishing genetic and non genetic deafness in families presenting with a single deaf child. Based on the results presented here, the development of a simple molecular test could be designed which should be of considerable help. PMID:9336442

  13. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging. PMID:23568089

  14. Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  15. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  16. High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined. PMID:9452292

  17. Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-06-24

    Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca. PMID:9177091

  18. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data.

    PubMed

    Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Haunsø, Stig; Nielsen, Jonas B; Olesen, Morten S

    2012-08-01

    To date, hundreds of variants in 13 genes have been associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). The prevalence of LQTS is estimated to be between 1:2000 and 1:5000. The knowledge of genetic variation in the general population has until recently been limited, but newly published data from NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) has provided important knowledge on this topic. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants in ESP (5400 individuals), in order to identify possible false-positive LQTS variants. With this aim, we performed a search for previously published LQTS-associated variants in ESP. In addition, a PolyPhen-2 prediction was conducted, and the four most prevalent LQTS-associated variants with significant functional effects present in ESP were genotyped in a second control population. We identified 33 missense variants previously associated with LQTS in ESP. These 33 variants affected 173 alleles and this corresponded to a LQTS prevalence of 1:31 in the ESP population. PolyPhen-2 predicted 30% of the 33 variants present in ESP to be benign compared with 13% among LQTS-associated variants not present in ESP (P=0.019). Genotyping of the four variants KCNH2 P347S; SCN5A: S216L, V1951L; and CAV3 T78M in the control population (n=704) revealed prevalences comparable to those of ESP. Thus, we identified a much higher prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants than expected in exome data from population studies. Great caution regarding the possible disease causation of some of these variants has to be taken, especially when used for risk stratification in family members. PMID:22378279

  19. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data

    PubMed Central

    Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Haunsø, Stig; Nielsen, Jonas B; Olesen, Morten S

    2012-01-01

    To date, hundreds of variants in 13 genes have been associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). The prevalence of LQTS is estimated to be between 1:2000 and 1:5000. The knowledge of genetic variation in the general population has until recently been limited, but newly published data from NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) has provided important knowledge on this topic. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants in ESP (5400 individuals), in order to identify possible false-positive LQTS variants. With this aim, we performed a search for previously published LQTS-associated variants in ESP. In addition, a PolyPhen-2 prediction was conducted, and the four most prevalent LQTS-associated variants with significant functional effects present in ESP were genotyped in a second control population. We identified 33 missense variants previously associated with LQTS in ESP. These 33 variants affected 173 alleles and this corresponded to a LQTS prevalence of 1:31 in the ESP population. PolyPhen-2 predicted 30% of the 33 variants present in ESP to be benign compared with 13% among LQTS-associated variants not present in ESP (P=0.019). Genotyping of the four variants KCNH2 P347S; SCN5A: S216L, V1951L; and CAV3 T78M in the control population (n=704) revealed prevalences comparable to those of ESP. Thus, we identified a much higher prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants than expected in exome data from population studies. Great caution regarding the possible disease causation of some of these variants has to be taken, especially when used for risk stratification in family members. PMID:22378279

  20. The High Prevalence of Symptomatic Degenerative Lumbar Osteoarthritis in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45 years. Lumbar osteoarthritis is epidemic in Beijing and will become a more severe problem in aging society. Different populations have different features that require targeted interventions. Level of Evidence: 2 PMID:24825154

  1. High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and hospital records of children diagnosed with drug-resistant TB were reviewed, including clinical and radiological outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) was performed using the automated liquid broth MGIT™ 960 method. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed using the MGIT™ 960 method for both first and second-line anti-TB drugs. Results 1317 children were treated for tuberculosis in 2008 between the two hospitals where the study was conducted. Drug susceptibility testing was undertaken in 148 (72.5%) of the 204 children who had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. The prevalence of isoniazid-resistance was 14.2% (n = 21) (95%CI, 9.0-20.9%) and the prevalence of MDR-TB 8.8% (n = 13) (95%CI, 4.8-14.6%). The prevalence of HIV co-infection was 52.1% in children with drug susceptible-TB and 53.9% in children with MDR-TB. Ten (76.9%) of the 13 children with MDR-TB received appropriate treatment and four (30.8%) died at a median of 2.8 months (range 0.1-4.0 months) after the date of tuberculosis investigation. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children in Johannesburg in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV co-infection, although no association between HIV infection and MDR-TB was found in this study. Routine HIV and drug-susceptibility testing is warranted to optimize the management of childhood tuberculosis in settings such as ours. PMID:21269475

  2. Environmental, urinary iodine status and prevalence of goitre among schoolchildren in a high altitude area of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed Salah; El-Sayed Desouky, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the iodine deficiency, prevalence of goitre among schoolchildren and measuring environmental iodine in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional multistage cluster-sampling methodology was done on 1887 schoolchildren. Their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and goitre prevalence was assessed. Blood level of triiodothyronin, thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating-hormone was carried out for students with normal, mild; moderate and sever iodine deficiency. The iodine content of salt, water and soil was also assessed. Results: Goitre prevalence was 7.4% and about 71% of the participants had UIC less than 100?g/L. An inverse relationship between median UIC and the percent prevalence of goitre was found. The mean serum T3, T4 and TSH were 1.05ng/dL, 6.81µg/dL, and 5.69mIU/L, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the mean value of urinary iodine and the mean value of both T3 and T4. While a significant negative correlation between the mean value of urinary iodine and the mean value of TSH was also noted. Conclusions: The results revealed the presence of a potential public health problem of iodine deficiency among school going children in high altitude areas of Saudi Arabia. There is a need to monitor and evaluate the salt iodization process, and distribute adequately iodized salt in the affected areas.

  3. High Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Intracellular Growth Ability of Legionella in Hot Spring Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haijian; Wang, Huanxin; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Mingqiang; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Background Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. Methods Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. Results Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ?0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ?0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ?400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ?3 MPN/L (p<0.01). The Legionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (p<0.01). Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%), and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%), 6 (23.4%), 5 (19.2%), 1 (18.5%), 2 (10.2%), 8 (0.4%), 10 (0.8%), 9 (1.9%) and 12 (0.4%). Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. Conclusions Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are urgently needed. PMID:23527075

  4. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wind to unintended targets (such as other non-aggressive dogs or yourself), and use caution. The best ... dogs or dogs that you know have shown aggression toward people or other dogs. Make sure that ...

  5. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among women in a high HIV prevalence area in urban Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dixon Chibanda; Walter Mangezi; Mustaf Tshimanga; Godfrey Woelk; Peter Rusakaniko; Lynda Stranix-Chibanda; Yvonne Maldonado; Avinash K. Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Despite the significant burden of common mental disorders (CMD) among women in sub Saharan Africa, data on postnatal depression\\u000a (PND) is very limited, especially in settings with a high HIV prevalence. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS),\\u000a a widely used screening test for PND has been validated in many countries, but not in Zimbabwe. We assessed the validity of\\u000a the

  6. High Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Serious Bloodstream Infections in Ambulatory Individuals Presenting for Antiretroviral Therapy in Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Bedell; Suzanne T. B. Anderson; Monique van Lettow; Ann Åkesson; Elizabeth L. Corbett; Moses Kumwenda; Adrienne K. Chan; Robert S. Heyderman; Rony Zachariah; Anthony D. Harries; Andrew R. Ramsay

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundTuberculosis (TB) and serious bloodstream infections (BSI) may contribute to the high early mortality observed among patients qualifying for antiretroviral therapy (ART) with unexplained weight loss, chronic fever or chronic diarrhea.Methods and FindingsA prospective cohort study determined the prevalence of undiagnosed TB or BSI among ambulatory HIV-infected adults with unexplained weight loss and\\/or chronic fever, or diarrhea in two routine

  7. Highly Prevalent but Not Always Persistent: Undergraduate and Graduate Student's Misconceptions about Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin; Nichols, Austin Lee; Miller, Haylie; Saad, Carmel Gabriel; Dukes, Kristin; Lynch, Amy-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Although past research has documented the prevalence of misconceptions in introductory psychology classes, few studies have assessed how readily upper-level undergraduate and graduate students endorse erroneous beliefs about the discipline. In Study 1, we administered a 30-item misconception test to an international sample of 670 undergraduate,…

  8. Prevalence of sudden cardiac death during competitive sports activities in Minnesota High School athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry J Maron; Thomas E Gohman; Dorothee Aeppli

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. Reliable prevalence data would be useful in assessing the impact of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes on the community and designing effective preparticipation screening strategies.Background. The frequency with which these catastrophes occur is largely unknown.Methods. We utilized a circumstance unique to Minnesota in which the precise number of participants and deaths due to cardiovascular disease could be

  9. Institution Type-Dependent High Prevalence of Dementia in Long-Term Care Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ta-Fu Chen; Ming-Jang Chiu; Li-Yu Tang; Yueh-Hsia Chiu; Shu-Feng Chang; Che-Long Su; Shaw-Ji Chen; Chung-Wei Lin; Wan-Yu Shih; Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen; Rong-Chi Chen

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: It is estimated that there are 90,000 patients with dementia in the 23 million habitants of Taiwan, with a few institutions specialized in dementia care. To assess the need of institutional care for dementia, we investigated the institution prevalence of dementia. Methods: We performed stratified randomized sampling of elder residents from different types of institutions in different regions of

  10. Blind Dogs That Can See Pharmacological Treatment of Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    EDITORIAL Blind Dogs That Can See Pharmacological Treatment of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused "Improvement of Visual Performance With Intravitreal Administration of 9-cis- Retinal in Rpe65-Mutant Dogs,"1 electroretinography (ERG) and functional vision testing in Rpe65-mutant dogs. Because dogs generally have high levels

  11. High prevalence of F4+ and F18+ Escherichia coli in Cuban piggeries as determined by serological survey.

    PubMed

    de la Fé Rodríguez, Pedro Yoelvys; Coddens, Annelies; Del Fava, Emanuele; Cortiñas Abrahantes, José; Shkedy, Ziv; Maroto Martin, Luis O; Cruz Muñoz, Eduardo; Duchateau, Luc; Cox, Eric; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria

    2011-06-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence of swine enteropathogens in Cuba where diarrheic diseases are responsible for 31% and 37% of the total mortality during the neonatal and postweaning periods. F4+ and F18+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and F18+ verotoxigenic E. coli induce diarrhea and edematous disease in pigs, but their distribution has never been thoroughly studied in the Cuban swine population. Therefore, the present study estimated the prevalence of F4- and F18-specific antibodies in sera of 1,044 6-month-old gilts distributed in 34 piggeries spread over the Cuban territory. For the data analysis, which included the optical density of individual samples tested by ELISA, random-effects models and a mixture model in R (package "mixAK"; Komárek, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 53:3932-3947, 2009) were fitted. Low, moderate, and high levels of F4-specific antibodies were found in 67.6%, 26.8%, and 5.6% of the gilts, while 66.4% and 33.6% of gilts showed low and high levels of F18-specific antibodies. Hereby, we show that F4+ and F18+ E. coli are highly prevalent as potential enteropathogens in Cuban piggeries. PMID:21234677

  12. High Prevalence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Viruses among Female Commercial Sex Workers Residing in Surabaya, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sukartiningrum, Septhia Dwi; Arfijanto, M. Vitanata; Utsumi, Takako; Normalina, Irine; Handajani, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Rusli, Musofa; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Nasronudin; Kameoka, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and have an impact on the Indonesian economy. In addition, the rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. Commercial sex plays a significant role in the spread of HIV; therefore, in order to reveal the current HIV prevalence rate among commercial sex workers (CSWs), we conducted an epidemiological study on HIV infection among CSWs residing in Surabaya, the capital of East Java province of Indonesia with large communities of CSWs. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of HIV infection among 200 CSWs was studied. In addition, the subtype of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and the prevalence of other blood-borne viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C (GBV-C), were studied. The prevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV antibodies and anti-GBV-C antibodies were 11%, 64%, 4%, 0.5% and 0% among CSWs involved in this study, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE viral gene fragments were detected in most HIV-positive samples. In addition, most CSWs showed low awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and had unprotected sex with their clients. Conclusions/Significance The HIV prevalence rate among CSWs was significantly higher than that among the general population in Indonesia (0.2–0.4%). In addition, CSWs were at a high risk of exposure to HBV, although chronic HBV infection was less frequently established. Our results suggest the necessity of efficient prevention programs for HIV and other blood-borne viral infections among CSWs in Surabaya, Indonesia. PMID:24367533

  13. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, J.; Kays, R.; Dykhuizen, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, reveal a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

  14. Attenuated sympathetic tone augments nitrous oxide-induced myocardial depression during high-dose fentanyl anaesthesia in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukinobu Anzai; Toshiaki Nishikawa; Akiyoshi Namiki

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether centrally mediated sympathetic tone exerts compensatory effects on nitrous\\u000a oxide-induced myocardial depression during highdose fentanyl anaesthesia. The cardiovascular responses to 60 minutes of nitrous\\u000a oxide administration after fentanyl, 100 ?g · kg-1, were examined in 18 dogs with or without autonomic blockade induced by hexamethonium. Decreases of cardiac output and left

  15. Clinical experience with pericardiocentesis and extended drainage in a population with a high prevalence of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Louw, V.J.; Reuter, H.; Smedema, J.P.; Katjitae, I.; Burgess, L.J.; Doubell, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Background The data presented were generated in a prospective study on the immunopathogenesis and management of tuberculous (TB) pericarditis at Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town. We report our experience with 2D echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis in 170 consecutive patients who presented to us with large pericardial effusions since 1995. Methods All patients referred to our department with echocardiographically confirmed large pericardial effusions underwent a clinical assessment followed by pericardiocentesis and drainage by an indwelling pigtail catheter. The appearance and amount of drained effusion were noted and fluid was sent for diagnostic assessment. The pigtail catheter was kept in place and fluid was aspirated once daily until the aspirate was less than 100 ml, at which stage the catheter was removed. Results A chest wall puncture site was chosen in 165 of the 170 patients (97%), while the subcostal approach was only used in five patients. Echocardiographic signs of tamponade were seen in 88% of cases. In the majority of patients (68.2%) a diagnosis of TB could be established and of these 46.6% were HIV positive. TB could not be proven in only three HIV-positive patients (1.8% of all patients). Neither hospital stay nor complications were increased in the HIV-positive group when compared with the HIV-negative group and no patient developed intrapericardial sepsis. No death could be attributed with certainty to the procedure. One patient developed non-fatal tamponade within 24 hours after the tap and in another patient a left ventricular thrombus was noted on echo after 16 days. Twenty-four patients underwent a pericardial window procedure according to protocol for diagnostic purposes. In another four patients a window was performed for therapeutic reasons. The most common minor complication was local pain at the site of catheter insertion. Repeat drainage was necessary in only six (3.5%) cases. Conclusions 2D echocardiographically directed pericardiocentesis with extended catheter drainage has an excellent profile in terms of simplicity, safety and efficacy, even in a population with a very high prevalence of HIV. PMID:25696035

  16. 1Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 97: 000-000, 2002 High Prevalence Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies, among Blood

    E-print Network

    Roche, Benjamin

    . In Mexico, the prevalence of Chagas disease and impact of transfusion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contami- nated - seroprevalence - blood donors - antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi - autochthonous antigens - Puebla - Mexico Chagas1Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 97: 000-000, 2002 High Prevalence Anti-Trypanosoma

  17. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and in normal women in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Pavani Sowjanya; Meenkashi Jain; Usha Rani Poli; S Padma; Manik Das; Keerti V Shah; BN Rao; Radha Rama Devi; Patti E Gravitt; Gayatri Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer reported from India, large scale population based studies on the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are very few from this region. In view of the clinical trials for HPV vaccine taking place in India, it is of utmost importance to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in various geographical regions of India.

  18. A comparison of dog–dog and dog–human play behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola J. Rooney; John W. S. Bradshaw; Ian H. Robinson

    2000-01-01

    In the popular literature, it is often assumed that a single conceptual framework can be applied to both dog–dog and dog–human interactions, including play. We have, through three studies, tested the hypothesis that dog–dog and dog–human play are motivationally distinct. In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (N=402), dogs which were walked together, and had opportunities

  19. Clinical and mycological analysis of dog’s oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; de Oliveira Nobre, Márcia; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2013-01-01

    The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis. PMID:24159296

  20. High prevalence of Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink on a remote Danish island.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Harslund, Jakob; Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2012-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains. PMID:22493130

  1. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds. PMID:11314475

  2. High Sensitivity and Specificity of Acid-Fast Microscopy for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an African Population with a High Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne R. Shea; J. Lucian Davis; Laurence Huang; Joseph A. Kovacs; Henry Masur; Francis Mulindwa; Sally Opus; Yuenwah Chow; Patrick R. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Received 16 February 2009\\/Returned for modification 2 March 2009\\/Accepted 5 March 2009 Laboratories in low-income countries report that acid-fast microscopy is insensitive and nonspecific. We demonstrate that for a Ugandan population with high prevalences of tuberculosis and human immunodefi- ciency virus infection, acid-fast microscopy is highly sensitive (93.1%) and specific (100%) when performed by trained technologists in a carefully controlled

  3. High prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in parents of IDDM patients with albuminuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Cosmo; S. Bacci; G. P. Piras; M. Cignarelli; G. Placentino; M. Margaglione; D. Colaizzo; G. Di Minno; R. Giorgino; A. Liuzzi; G. C. Viberti

    1997-01-01

    Summary   Life expectancy is shorter in the subset of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients who are susceptible to kidney disease.\\u000a Familial factors may be important. In this study the prevalence of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity and of risk\\u000a factors for cardiovascular disease was compared in the parents of 31 IDDM patients with elevated albumin excretion rate (AER\\u000a > 45 ?g\\/min;

  4. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamaryn Menneer; Nick Donnelly; Hayward J. Godwin; Kyle R. Cave

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance was lower in dual-target search compared with the combined performance

  5. Parents' concerns about children are highly prevalent but often not confirmed by child doctors and nurses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sijmen A. Reijneveld; Gea de Meer; Carin H. Wiefferink; Matty R. Crone

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence in the general population of parents' concerns about the development of their child, to identify groups at risk and to assess the association between parents' concerns and professional judgement. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data on a Dutch nationally representative sample of children aged 14 months, 3 3\\/4, 5–6 and

  6. High Prevalence of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Menière's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gazquez, Irene; Soto-Varela, Andres; Aran, Ismael; Santos, Sofia; Batuecas, Angel; Trinidad, Gabriel; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Gonzalez-Oller, Carlos; Acosta, Lourdes; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Autoimmunity appears to be associated with the pathophysiology of Meniere's disease (MD), an inner ear disorder characterized by episodes of vertigo associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. However, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with MD has not been studied in individuals with uni or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods and Findings We estimated the prevalence of AD in 690 outpatients with MD with uni or bilateral SNHL from otoneurology clinics at six tertiary referral hospitals by using clinica criteria and an immune panel (lymphocyte populations, antinuclear antibodies, C3, C4 and proinflammatory cytokines TNF?, INF?). The observed prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was higher than expected for the general population (1.39 for RA, 0.87 for SLE and 0.70 for AS, respectively). Systemic AD were more frequently observed in patients with MD and diagnostic criteria for migraine than cases with MD and tension-type headache (p?=?0.007). There were clinical differences between patients with uni or bilateral SNHL, but no differences were found in the immune profile. Multiple linear regression showed that changes in lymphocytes subpopulations were associated with hearing loss and persistence of vertigo, suggesting a role for the immune response in MD. Conclusions Despite some limitations, MD displays an elevated prevalence of systemic AD such as RA, SLE and AS. This finding, which suggests an autoimmune background in a subset of patients with MD, has important implications for the treatment of MD. PMID:22053211

  7. Sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tunisia: high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abir Znazen; Olfa Frikha-Gargouri; Lamia Berrajah; Sihem Bellalouna; Hela Hakim; Nabiha Gueddana; Adnene Hammami

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in female sex workers (FSW) in Tunisia.Methods188 prostitutes from three Tunisian towns were enrolled at their weekly medical visit. Demographic and sexual behaviour data were collected. C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Street Racing Among Ontario High School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Vingilis; Reginald G. Smart; Robert E. Mann; Angela Paglia-Boak; Gina Stoduto; Edward M. Adlaf

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of street racing among adolescents derived from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), an epidemiological survey of students in Ontario, Canada.Methods: The key response variable, self-reported street racing in past year was examined in relation to grade level, rural\\/urban, school marks, cannabis use, drinking and driving, cannabis use

  9. Prevalence of hypertension at high altitude: cross-sectional survey in Ladakh, Northern India 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Norboo, Tsering; Stobdan, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Angchuk, Norboo; Tsering, Phunsog; Ahmed, Iqbal; Chorol, Tsewang; Kumar Sharma, Vijay; Reddy, Prasanna; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kimura, Yumi; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fukutomi, Eriko; Ishikawa, Motonao; Suwa, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Okumiya, Kiyohito

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of hypertension was examined in a widely dispersed (45 110 km2) representative group of Ladakhi in Northern India. The influence of hypoxic environment of wide-ranged altitude (2600–4900 m) and lifestyle change on hypertension was studied. Methods 2800 participants (age 20–94?years) were enrolled. Systolic blood pressure ?140?mm?Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure of ?90?mm?Hg and/or taking current anti-hypertensive medicine was defined as hypertension. Height and weight for body mass index and SpO2 were examined. The rural population comprised six subdivisions with a distinct altitude, dietary and occupational pattern. Participants in the urban area of Leh consist of two groups, that is, migrants settled in Leh from the Changthang nomadic area, and dwellers born in Leh. The prevalence of hypertension in the two groups was compared with that in the farmers and nomads in rural areas. The effects of ageing, hypoxia, dwelling at high altitude, obesity, modernised occupation, dwelling in an urban area, and rural-to-urban migration to hypertension were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 37.0% in all participants and highest in migrants settled in Leh (48.3%), followed by dwellers born in Leh town (41.1%) compared with those in rural areas (33.5). The prevalence of hypertension in nomads (all: 27.7%, Tibetan/Ladakhi: 19.7/31.9%)) living at higher altitude (4000–4900?m) was relatively low. The associated factors with hypertension were ageing, overweight, dwelling at higher altitude, engagement in modernised sedentary occupations, dwelling in urban areas, and rural-to-urban migration. The effects of lifestyle change and dwelling at high altitude were independently associated with hypertension by multivariate analysis adjusted with confounding factors. Conclusions Socioeconomic and cultural factors play a big role with the effect of high altitude itself on high prevalence of hypertension in highlanders in Ladakh. PMID:25897026

  10. Two years of combined high-intensity physical training and heat acclimatization affect lymphocyte and serum HSP70 in purebred military working dogs.

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Yaron; Aroch, Itamar; Eliav, Ady; Abbas, Atallah; Frank, Ilan; Kelmer, Efrat; Codner, Carolina; Segev, Gilad; Epstein, Yoram; Horowitz, Michal

    2014-07-15

    Military working dogs in hot countries undergo exercise training at high ambient temperatures for at least 9 mo annually. Physiological adaptations to these harsh conditions have been extensively studied; however, studies focusing on the underlying molecular adaptations are limited. In the current study, military working dogs were chosen as a model to examine the effects of superimposing endurance exercise on seasonal acclimatization to environmental heat stress. The lymphocyte HSP70 profile and extracellular HSP70 were studied in tandem with physiological performance in the dogs from their recruitment for the following 2 yr. Aerobic power and heat shock proteins were measured at the end of each summer, with physical performance tests (PPTs) in an acclimatized room (22°C). The study shows that together with a profound enhancement of aerobic power and physical performance, hsp72 mRNA induction immediately post-PPT and 45 min later, progressively increased throughout the study period (relative change in median lymphocyte hsp72 mRNA first PPT, 4.22 and 12.82; second PPT, 17.19 and 109.05, respectively), whereas induction of HSP72 protein was stable. These responses suggest that cellular/molecular adaptive tools for maintaining HSP72 homeostasis exist. There was also a significant rise in basal and peak median optical density extracellular HSP at the end of each exercise test (first PPT, 0.13 and 0.15; second PPT, 1.04 and 1.52, respectively). The relationship between these enhancements and improved aerobic power capacity is not yet fully understood. PMID:24903923

  11. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

  12. Perceived fatigue is highly prevalent and debilitating in patients with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Gráinne S; Elson, Joanna L; Newman, Jane; Payne, Brendan; McFarland, Robert; Newton, Julia L; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2015-07-01

    Perceived fatigue is a prominent symptom in patients with mitochondrial disease but to date its prevalence, impact and aetiology are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and assess for comorbidities associated with clinically relevant fatigue in patients with mitochondrial disease. A cross-sectional postal survey of patients with mitochondrial disease was undertaken using a validated self-completion, patient-reported outcome measures (response rate: 60%; n?=?132). The prevalence and perceived functional impact of experienced fatigue were assessed using the Fatigue Impact Scale. Other putative biological mechanisms were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety Depression scale and Epworth sleepiness scale. Data were compared with those for healthy control subjects and patients with Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome matched for age and gender. Sixty-two per cent of patients with mitochondrial disease reported excessive symptomatic fatigue (Fatigue Impact Scale???40); whilst 32% reported severe, functionally limiting fatigue symptoms (Fatigue Impact Scale???80) comparable to perceived fatigue in patients with Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Fatigue is common and often severe in patients with mitochondrial disease irrespective of age, gender or genotype. Future evaluation of causal factors in mitochondrial disease-associated fatigue is warranted with the potential to guide future treatment modalities. PMID:26031904

  13. Human-induced eutrophication maintains high parasite prevalence in breeding threespine stickleback populations.

    PubMed

    Budria, Alexandre; Candolin, Ulrika

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities are having profound impacts on species interactions, with further consequences for populations and communities. We investigated the influence that anthropogenic eutrophication has on the prevalence of the parasitic tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations. We caught stickleback from four areas along the coast of Finland, and within each area from one undisturbed and one eutrophied habitat. We found the prevalence of the parasite to be lower in the eutrophied habitats at the start of the breeding season, probably because of fewer piscivorous birds that transmit the parasite. However, while the prevalence of the parasite declined across the season in the undisturbed habitat, it did less so in eutrophied habitats. We discuss different processes that could be behind the differences, such as lower predation rate on infected fish, higher food availability and less dispersal in eutrophied habitats. We found no effect of eutrophication on the proportion of infected stickleback that entered reproductive condition. Together with earlier findings, this suggests that eutrophication increases the proportion of infected stickleback that reproduce. This could promote the evolution of less parasite resistant populations, with potential consequences for the viability of the interacting parties of the host-parasite system. PMID:25498372

  14. Perceived fatigue is highly prevalent and debilitating in patients with mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Gráinne S.; Elson, Joanna L.; Newman, Jane; Payne, Brendan; McFarland, Robert; Newton, Julia L.; Turnbull, Douglass M.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived fatigue is a prominent symptom in patients with mitochondrial disease but to date its prevalence, impact and aetiology are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and assess for comorbidities associated with clinically relevant fatigue in patients with mitochondrial disease. A cross-sectional postal survey of patients with mitochondrial disease was undertaken using a validated self-completion, patient-reported outcome measures (response rate: 60%; n?=?132). The prevalence and perceived functional impact of experienced fatigue were assessed using the Fatigue Impact Scale. Other putative biological mechanisms were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety Depression scale and Epworth sleepiness scale. Data were compared with those for healthy control subjects and patients with Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome matched for age and gender. Sixty-two per cent of patients with mitochondrial disease reported excessive symptomatic fatigue (Fatigue Impact Scale???40); whilst 32% reported severe, functionally limiting fatigue symptoms (Fatigue Impact Scale???80) comparable to perceived fatigue in patients with Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Fatigue is common and often severe in patients with mitochondrial disease irrespective of age, gender or genotype. Future evaluation of causal factors in mitochondrial disease-associated fatigue is warranted with the potential to guide future treatment modalities. PMID:26031904

  15. High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-01

    A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province. PMID:22057552

  16. Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

    2011-01-01

    Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

  17. AFRICAN WILD DOGS (LYCAON PICTUS) ENDANGERED BY A CANINE DISTEMPER EPIZOOTIC AMONG DOMESTIC DOGS NEAR THE MASAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE, KENYA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A. Alexander; Max J. G. AppeI

    A longitudinal study of canine distemper (CD) among domestic dogs on Maasai communal land to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya was conducted from 1989 to 1991. Prevalence of antibodies to CD was very low among domestic dogs in 1989 and 1990 (4%, n = 49; and 1%, n = 119, respectively) and no African wild

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd variants Groenendael and Tervueren born in Denmark 1995–2004

    PubMed Central

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Christensen, Stine Louise Krogh; Gudmundsdottir, Hulda; Gredal, Hanne; Fredholm, Merete; Alban, Lis

    2008-01-01

    Background The Belgian shepherd Groenendael and Tervueren is believed to be at higher risk of developing epilepsy than dogs of the common population. This epidemiological study was designed to estimate the prevalence of epilepsy in the Danish population of Groenendael and Tervueren born between 1995 and 2004. Furthermore, it was the intention to describe the clinical manifestation (seizure types and phenomenology) of epilepsy and to identify risk factors for euthanasia once the dog was diagnosed as having epilepsy. Methods All owners of Groenendael and Tervueren dogs born between January 1995 and December 2004 and registered in the Danish Kennel Club (1,248 dogs) were contacted and asked to answer a mailed questionnaire concerning epilepsy. Positive responders were subsequently validated in a follow-up interview conducted by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. Owners were questioned about age at first seizure, seizure frequency, seizure duration, a detailed description of seizure phenomenology, post-ictal signs and if a veterinarian had diagnosed the dog with epilepsy. Results Prevalence of epilepsy was estimated at 9.5%. Mean age of epilepsy debut was 3.3 years (range 0.5–8.0 years). There was an almost equal number of Groenendael (25) and Tervueren (24). The distribution of females and males was 31 and 18 respectively. Twenty-five per cent experienced focal seizures, 53% experienced focal seizures with secondary generalization and 18% experienced primary generalized seizures. In four percent seizures were unclassifiable. The most commonly reported focal seizure phenomenology included ataxia, crawling, swaying, fearful behavior, salivation, excessive attention seeking and disorientation. In 16% of the cases, epilepsy led to euthanasia. Intact dogs with epilepsy had a significantly increased risk of being euthanized because of epilepsy compared to neutered dogs with epilepsy. In 22% of the cases the owners reported that anxiety/hyperactivity/stress could act as a seizure provoking factor. Conclusion A high prevalence of epilepsy appears to be present in the Danish Groenendael and Tervueren population. The relatively late debut age of epilepsy in this breed contributes greatly to the increased prevalence of epileptic individuals, because dogs developing epilepsy late in life are used for breeding unintended. PMID:19102738

  19. Study of urban community survey in India: growing trend of high prevalence of hypertension in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence pattern of hypertension in developing countries is different from that in the developed countries. In India, a very large, populous and typical developing country, community surveys have documented that between three and six decades, prevalence of hypertension has increased by about 30 times among urban dwellers and by about 10 times among the rural inhabitants. Various factors might have contributed to this rising trend and among others, consequences of urbanization such as change in life style pattern, diet and stress, increased population and shrinking employment have been implicated. In this paper, we study the prevalence of hypertension in an urban community of India using the JNC VII criteria, with the aim of identifying the risk factors and suggesting intervention strategies. A total of 1609 respondents out of 1662 individuals participated in our cross-sectional survey of validated and structured questionnaire followed by blood pressure measurement. Results showed pre-hypertensive levels of blood pressures among 35.8% of the participants in systolic group (120-139mm of Hg) and 47.7% in diastolic group (80-89 mm of Hg). Systolic hypertension (140 mm of Hg) was present in 40.9% and diastolic hypertension (90 mm of Hg) in 29.3% of the participants. Age and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension showed progressive rise of systolic and diastolic hypertension in women when compared to men. Men showed progressive rise in systolic hypertension beyond fifth decade of life. Bivariate analysis showed significant relationship of hypertension with age, sedentary occupation, body mass index (BMI), diet, ischemic heart disease, and smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed age and BMI as risk factors, and non-vegetarian diet as protective factor with respect to hypertension. Prevalence of prehypertensives was high among younger subjects - particularly students and laborers who need special attention. Role of non-vegetarian diet as a protective factor might have been related to fish-eating behavior of the sample population, who also use mustard oil as cooking medium - both of which have significant level of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed prevalence of hypertension in this study and other studies suggest the need for a comprehensive national policy to control hypertension in India, and, in other similar developing countries. PMID:15968343

  20. Promoting Declines in the Prevalence of Late-Life Disability: Comparisons of Three Potentially High-Impact Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Vicki A; Hodgson, Nancy; Lynn, Joanne; Spillman, Brenda C; Waidmann, Timothy; Wilkinson, Anne M; Wolf, Douglas A

    2006-01-01

    Although the prevalence of late-life disability has been declining, how best to promote further reductions remains unclear. This article develops and then demonstrates an approach for comparing the effects of interventions on the prevalence of late-life disability. We review evidence for three potentially high-impact strategies: physical activity, depression screening and treatment, and fall prevention. Because of the large population at risk for falling, the demonstrated efficacy of multi-component interventions in preventing falls, and the strong links between falls and disability, we conclude that, in the short run, multi-component fall-prevention efforts would likely have a higher impact than either physical activity or depression screening and treatment. However, longer-term comparisons cannot be made based on the current literature and may differ from short-run conclusions, since increases in longevity may temper the influences of these interventions on prevalence. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term outcomes of interventions, including effects on length and quality of life. PMID:16953808

  1. Design, Testing and Implementation of a Large-Scale Urban Dog Waste Composting Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah Nemiroff; Judith Patterson

    2007-01-01

    In Montreal, Quebec, many dogs are exercised in fenced-in runs in parks. Consequently, these dog parks are a high-density source of large amounts of dog waste, which is typically collected by the owner in a plas- tic bag and deposited in the municipal garbage. In 2004, an experimental large-scale dog waste composting programme was initiated at the Notre-Dame-de-Grace (NDG) dog

  2. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. PMID:23802765

  3. High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women living in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) contribute largely to the burden of health in South Africa and are recognized as major contributors to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Young women are particularly vulnerable to STIs. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the risk factors associated with prevalent and incident STIs among women who had participated in three clinical trials. Methods A total of 5,748 women were screened and 2293 sexually active, HIV negative, non-pregnant women were enrolled in three clinical trials in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. The prevalence of individual STIs Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), syphilis, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) was assessed at screening; and incident infections were evaluated over a 24 month period. Results Overall, the combined study population of all three trials had a median age of 28 years (inter-quartile range (IQR):22–37), and a median duration of follow-up of 12 months. Prevalence of STIs (CT, NG, TV, or syphilis) was 13% at screening. The STI incidence was estimated to be 20/100 women years. Younger women (<25 years, p?high prevalence and incidence of STIs among women living in rural and urban communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where the HIV epidemic is also particularly severe. These findings strongly suggest an urgent need to allocate resources for STI and HIV prevention that mainly target younger women. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00121459. PMID:25243015

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing among High School Students in Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Ayalu A.; Moges, Asmamaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Wondmagegn, Berhanu Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis) alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. Methodology The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. Result The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%–26.2%). About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16–1.49), male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50–2.93), Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17–3.04), having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40–11.64), and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07–2.11) were found to be independent predictors of chewing. Conclusion A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences. PMID:22479484

  5. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  6. High Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) Prevalence in Triatoma sanguisuga (Hemiptera: Redviidae) in Southeastern Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    CESA, K.; CAILLOUËT, K. A.; DORN, P. L.; WESSON, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    From May through November 2007, intensive weekly surveys at the site of a previously reported autochthonous human case of Chagas parasite infection resulted in the collection of 298 Triatoma sanguisuga (Leconte) specimens, of which 60.4% (180) were polymerase chain reaction positive for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas. All were adults, in a ratio of ? 1:1 female to male, indicating that the domicile was not colonized, but was a destination for these host-seeking adults. We report on seasonal activity pattern, T. cruzi prevalence in T. sanguisuga, and attempts at insect exclusion and control at the case residence. PMID:21936329

  7. High Prevalence of qnr Genes in Commensal Enterobacteria from Healthy Children in Peru and Bolivia? †

    PubMed Central

    Pallecchi, Lucia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Sennati, Samanta; Gamboa, Herlan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable prevalence of qnrB (54%) and, at a lower level, of qnrS (14%) was discovered in pools of commensal enterobacteria from 310 healthy children living in Peru and Bolivia, using a metagenomic approach. Analysis of randomly selected enterobacterial pools revealed that qnrB was mainly carried by Escherichia coli and qnrS by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Investigation of 11 qnrB-positive isolates and 9 qnrS-positive isolates revealed the presence of plasmid-borne qnrB19 (n = 8), qnrB2 (n = 2), qnrB10 (n = 1), and qnrS1 (n = 9) genes. PMID:19364872

  8. A comparison of HIV stigma and discrimination in five international sites: The influence of care and treatment resources in high prevalence settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Maman; Laurie Abler; Lisa Parker; Admire Chirowodza; Jacob Ntogwisangu; Namtip Srirak; Precious Modiba; Oliver Murima; Katherine Fritz

    2009-01-01

    What accounts for differences in HIV stigma across different high prevalence settings? This study was designed to examine HIV stigma and discrimination in five high prevalence settings. Qualitative data were collected as part of the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized trial of community-based HIV voluntary counseling and testing. In-depth interviews were conducted

  9. Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Adam H; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Wilton, Alan; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Ostrander, Elaine A; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

  10. Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: Extrathyroidal Extension, Lymph Node Metastases, and Risk Factors for Recurrence in a High Prevalence of Goiter Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celestino P. Lombardi; Rocco Bellantone; Carmela De Crea; Nunzia C. Paladino; Guido Fadda; Massimo Salvatori; Marco Raffaelli

    2010-01-01

    Background  Although papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is diagnosed with increasing frequency, the best therapeutic option and follow-up\\u000a protocol have not been established yet, especially in the case of incidental diagnosis. We reviewed our series of patients\\u000a with PTMC to determine risk factors for recurrence in an area where there is a high prevalence of goiter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The medical records of all patients

  11. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

  12. Dog echinococcosis in northern Spain: Comparison of coproantigen and serum antibody assays with coprological exam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aitziber Benito; David Carmena; Lawrence Joseph; Jorge Martínez; Jorge A. Guisantes

    2006-01-01

    A large sheep-dog population from the province of Álava (northern Spain) has been investigated in order to determine the prevalence of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Worms were detected in 14.0% of 721 dog faecal supernatants by coproantigen ELISA, and in 9.1% of 754 dog serum samples by serum antibody ELISA. A weak but statistically significant correlation (Spearman's ?=0.103, 95%

  13. Medial canthoplasty for epiphora in dogs: a retrospective study of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Yi, Na Young; Park, Shin Ae; Jeong, Man Bok; Kim, Min Su; Lim, Ji Hey; Nam, Tchi Chou; Seo, Kangmoon

    2006-01-01

    The medical records of 23 dogs that underwent medial canthoplasty for treatment of epiphora were reviewed. The most prevalent breed encountered was the shih tzu. Other affected breeds included the Pekingese, Maltese, toy poodle, and pug. All dogs had epiphora associated with medial canthal trichiasis and/or entropion. Other ocular abnormalities included conjunctivitis, keratitis, pigmentary keratitis, corneal ulceration, globe prolapse, and nasal fold trichiasis. After medial canthoplasty, the epiphora resolved in all dogs. PMID:17088390

  14. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation. PMID:18682357

  15. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus subgenotypes A1 and D4 in Maranhão state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lena Maria Fonseca; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Kramvis, Anna; Mendes-Corrêa, Maria Cássia Jacintho; dos Santos, Alexsandro; Souza, Letícia Alana Barros; Santos, Max Diego Cruz; Carrilho, Flair José; de Jesus Domicini, Arnaldo; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; de Souza Paiva Ferreira, Adalgisa

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of HBV subgenotypes in Maranhão state, located in northeastern Brazil, where the population is heterogeneous, with a high proportion of African descendants. HBV was detected in 119 of 133 (89.5%) chronic hepatitis B patients, including 103 (86.5%) who were HBeAg-negative. Using phylogenetic analysis of the S/Polymerase region of HBV DNA, subgenotype A1 was found to be the most prevalent (67%), followed by genotype D (28%; subgenotype D4 was detected in 24%, D3 in 3%, and D2 in 1%). Genotype F, clustering with subgenotype F2a, was found in six (5%) patients. The topology of the phylogenetic tree showed that HBV/A1 sequences did not cluster together, suggesting that more than one strain was introduced into Maranhão. On the other hand, HBV/D4 sequences formed a monophyletic cluster, suggesting a single entry of this strain in this population. This study showed that HBV/A1 was the only subgenotype of HBV/A present in the population from Maranhão and indicated that in this region HBV/A1 was not restricted to an Afro-descendant community where it was previously reported, but is widely distributed among general population of HBV chronic carriers. Unexpectedly, we found a high frequency of HBV subgenotype D4. Together with previously reported data on the distribution of HBV/D4 in the world, these findings suggest that this subgenotype was more prevalent in the African continent in the past and may have been introduced in Maranhão by means of the slave trade during the late XVIII century, when the largest number of African slaves arrived to this region. PMID:24642137

  16. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment. PMID:22784377

  17. The novel 'Candidatus Amphibiichlamydia ranarum' is highly prevalent in invasive exotic bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus).

    PubMed

    Martel, An; Adriaensen, Connie; Sharifian-Fard, Mojdeh; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter; Favoreel, Herman; Bergen, Karolien; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Devisscher, Sander; Adriaens, Tim; Louette, Gerald; Baert, Kristof; Hyatt, Alex; Crameri, Sandra; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge concerning microbial infectious diseases in the current amphibian crisis is rudimentary and largely limited to ranavirosis and chytridiomycosis. The family Chlamydiaceae is gaining attention as a common cause of disease in amphibians and may harbour new and emerging amphibian pathogens. We identified a novel species of Chlamydiales (Candidatus Amphibiichlamydia ranarum) with a prevalence of 71% in exotic invasive bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) from an introduced population in the Netherlands. The sequence of a 1474?bp 16S rRNA gene fragment showed that the novel taxon forms a well-defined clade with 'Candidatus Amphibiichlamydia salamandrae' within the Chlamydiaceae family. Although none of the tadpoles examined showed signs of clinical disease, urgent evaluation of its pathogenic potential for native amphibian species is required. PMID:23757138

  18. High Prevalence of Malnutrition among the Above Thirteen with Primary Pyomyositis in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kitara, David Lagoro; Bwangamoi, Paul Okot; Wabinga, Henry; Odida, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with primary pyomyositis among patients and controls who were age and sex matched. Study Design and Setting A case-control study was conducted at Gulu Regional, Lacor, Kalongo, Kitgum and St. Joseph’s Hospitals in Northern Uganda. Study Duration Study was conducted from September 2011 to November 2013. Methods Primary pyomyositis patients were consecutively recruited to these Hospitals and were age and sex-matched with controls selected during the same period. History, physical examinations, Body Mass Index (BMI), blood samples for haematology, biochemistry, clinical chemistry and muscle biopsy for histology were obtained. Those that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. The study was approved by the Ethics and Review Committee of Gulu University Medical School. Results During the study period, 63 patients and 63 controls were recruited; 29 females and 34 males. Among primary pyomyositis patients, 59 (93.7%) had malnutrition while there were 2 in the control group, giving a prevalence of 3.2%.The matched analysis produced an aOR of 449.875 with a 95% CI (79.382, 2549.540; p<0.001) for malnutrition. Among the cases, 16 (25.4%) fulfilled the Clinical Case Definition (CCD) for AIDS, compared to 2 (3.2%) among the controls. The adjusted Odds ratio for the difference in fulfilling the CCD for AIDS between cases and controls was statistically significant aOR of 10.383 with a 95% CI (2.275, 47.397; p<0.001). Conclusion Primary pyomyositis is a common health problem in Northern Uganda. It is evident that malnutrition is the most common risk factor in Primary pyomyositis especially among the above thirteen year olds in Northern Uganda.

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for canine tick infestation in the United States, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Malathi; Glickman, Nita; Moore, George; Caldanaro, Richard; Lewis, Hugh; Glickman, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic range and seasonal activity of vector ticks is important for determining which people or animals are at risk of acquiring tick-borne infections. Several time-consuming methods requiring large-scale organization are used to map geographic and seasonal variations in tick distribution. A cost-effective, complementary approach to study tick distribution using a large nation-wide veterinary database is described in this paper. Prevalence of canine tick infestation in 40 states was estimated by analyzing electronic medical records of more than 8 million dog visits to Banfield veterinary hospitals in 2002-2004. Prevalence was defined as the proportion of dog visits in which tick infestation was recorded, and was expressed per 10,000 dog visits with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall prevalence (CI) of tick infestation was 52 (51, 53) dogs per 10,000 dog visits. Among states, Oklahoma (249 [229, 271) dogs with ticks per 10,000 dog-visits), Arkansas (242 [213, 274]), Connecticut (136 [119, 155]), West Virginia (130 [105, 161]), and Rhode Island (122 [97, 154]) ranked highest in prevalence of canine tick infestation. Overall prevalence peaked from May through July, although monthly prevalence varied by geographic region. In multiple logistic regression, younger dogs, male dogs, and sexually intact dogs, were at increased risk of tick infestation. Toy breeds were least likely to be infested, but no linear pattern of risk was evident with body weight. Identified risk factors should enable veterinarians to prevent tick infestation in pet dogs although differences in risk of tick infestation may be related to outdoor activity of dogs. Feasibility of collecting information for surveillance of vectors ticks on a national level using this large, electronic veterinary database is discussed. PMID:17417959

  20. Comparison of two immunochromatographic assays and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs in south central Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Prixia D; Boughton, Roger; Dorn, Patricia L; Steurer, Frank; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Esfandiari, Javan; Gonçalves, Edson; Diaz, James; Malone, John B

    2009-11-12

    Two rapid tests evaluated in dogs considered to be of high risk of infection with the Chagas parasite Trypanosoma cruzi using two immunochromatographic assays: Trypanosoma Detect for canine, InBios, Seattle, WA and CHAGAS STAT-PAK assay, Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Medford, NY, in south central Louisiana. For this purpose a serological survey was carried out in a total of 122 dogs and a serum bank was created. These 122 animals were first tested by IFAT that was used as the standard test. From the serum bank 50 samples were tested using the two rapid Chagas assays and results compared to the standard test IFAT. The serological survey using IFAT showed a prevalence of T. cruzi infection in 22.1% of the tested dogs. In the immunochromatographic assays, 13 and 11 animals were positive on rapid assay: Trypanosoma Detect for canine, InBios and CHAGAS STAT-PAK, Chembio Diagnostic Systems, respectively compared to 11 positive by IFAT. These two immunochromatographic tests have shown high susceptibility and specificity compared to our standard method IFAT. The rapid, easy and accurate screening assays used in conjunction with confirmatory tests, would be an excellent tool for veterinarians to diagnose T. cruzi infection. Early detection of T. cruzi infection may prevent complications through an effective treatment. Greater awareness by veterinarians of the risk, clinical findings, history along with diagnostic methods will contribute greatly to an understanding of the true prevalence of Chagas disease in dogs in Louisiana. PMID:19647943

  1. Exceptionally High Prevalence of Infection of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos with Opisthorchis viverrini Cercariae in Different Wetlands in Thailand and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Kiatsopit, Nadda; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Boonmars, Thidarut; Tesana, Smarn; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Petney, Trevor N.; Andrews, Ross H.

    2012-01-01

    The carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, requires Bithynia snail intermediate hosts in its life cycle. However, the prevalence of O. viverrini in snail intermediate hosts is typically low (< 1%). Here, we examined B. siamensis goniomphalos from 48 localities in Thailand and The Lao People?s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and reported high-prevalence levels of O. viverrini. The highest-prevalence levels per locality were 6.93% (mean = 3.04%) in Thailand and 8.37% (mean = 2.01%) in Lao PDR; 4 of 13 localities examined showed prevalence higher than any prevalence previously recorded. The number of cercariae infecting snails and their prevalence were positively correlated with the size of the snails. High prevalence occurred in the Songkram River wetland (Thailand) and the Nam Ngum River wetland (Lao PDR). Our results show that transmission of O. viverrini from humans as well as animal reservoir hosts to snail intermediate hosts is ongoing and potentially increasing in endemic areas across Thailand and Lao PDR. PMID:22403318

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and risk factors related to high-risk occupational groups in Eritrea.

    PubMed Central

    Omer, M. K.; Assefaw, T.; Skjerve, E.; Tekleghiorghis, T.; Woldehiwet, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In a study of three high-risk occupational groups using Rose Bengal and complement fixation tests, the highest prevalence (7.1%) was found among dairy farm workers and owners in randomly selected dairy-cattle farms, followed by veterinary personnel (4.5%) and inhabitants in pastoralist areas (3.0%). There was no evidence for significant differences between the three populations. Among dairy farm workers, a higher risk was associated with the presence of sheep in the farm (OR = 13.2, CI = 2.2-76.7). In the pastoral area, a high risk was linked to having close contact with animals (OR = 6.32, CI = 0.88-infinity), while a reduced risk was seen for contact with cattle (OR = 0.18, CI = 0-1.30). Symptoms suggestive of brucellosis were more commonly observed among the dairy farm workers, mainly found in the highlands, than among the pastoralist area inhabitants, where malaria is prevalent. The study documents not only the presence of serological and clinical evidence of human brucellosis, but also risk factors related to it in Eritrea, for the first time. PMID:12211600

  3. High prevalence of low bone mass and associated factors in Korean HIV-positive male patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Park, Wan Beom; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Bang, Ji Hwan; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-don; Kim, Nam Joong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low bone mass is prevalent in HIV-positive patients. However, compared to Western countries, less is known about HIV-associated osteopenia in Asian populations. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey in Seoul National University Hospital from December 2011 to May 2012. We measured bone mineral density using central dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, with consent, in male HIV-positive patients, aged 40 years and older. Diagnosis of low bone mass was made using International Society for Clinical Densitometry Z-score criteria in the 40–49 years age group and World Health Organization T-score criteria in the >50-year age group. The data were compared with those of a community-based cohort in Korea. Results Eighty-four HIV-positive male patients were included in this study. Median age was 49 (interquartile range [IQR], 45–56) years, and median body mass index (BMI) was 22.6 (IQR, 20.9–24.4). Viral suppression was achieved in 75 (89.3%) patients and median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 71 (IQR, 36–120) months. The overall prevalence of low bone mass was 16.7% in the 40–49 years age group and 54.8% in the>50 years age group. Our cohort had significantly lower bone mass at the femur neck and total hip than HIV-negative Koreans in the 40–49 years age group. Low bone mass was significantly associated with low BMI, and a high level of serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, but was not associated with antiretroviral regimen or duration of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Low bone mass is prevalent in Korean HIV-positive males undergoing antiretroviral therapy, and may be associated with increased bone resorption. PMID:24433984

  4. The High Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Among Very Low Birth-Weight Infants in Poland.

    PubMed

    Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Pobiega, Monika; de Champs, Christophe; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Rozanska, Anna; Heczko, Piotr B; Guillard, Thomas; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in Escherichia coli from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Poland. The study was conducted on 80 E. coli isolates from different types of infections collected between 2009 and 2012. Six (5%) isolates were not susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 16% to ofloxacin, and 6.2% to levofloxacin. Among the 80 isolates, 27.5% carried at least one PMQR determinant (n=22). qnrB was found in 8.8% of isolates (7/80), and qnrS was found in 2.5% (2/80). No isolates carrying qnrA, qnrD, qnrC, qepA, or oqxAB were found. The prevalence of aac(6')-Ib-cr was 27.5%, and 54.5% of the isolates contained aac(6')-Ib-cr and blaCTX-M. qnr-positive strains were more likely to produce extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) than qnr-negative strains, which may suggest an association between qnr and ESBLs (88.9% vs. 17%, p=0.0003). PMQR-positive isolates had significantly higher ciprofloxacin MIC50 values (28.8-fold higher when comparing the MIC50 values) than the PMQR-negative strains (0.23 vs. 0.008?mg/L), regardless of the presence of quinolone resistance-determining region mutations. Five of the nine isolates, for which conjugation was performed successfully, harbored plasmids that contained CTX-M together with qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr. Our data suggest that the number of qnr genes detected in E. coli from newborns may be related to the selection of qnr through antimicrobial exposure. Even if fluoroquinolones are not commonly used in the NICU, E. coli isolates may carry PMQR. The high prevalence of PMQR is of serious concern, as it may be horizontally transferred to other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25658303

  5. High Prevalence of Sleep Disorders and Associated Comorbidities in a Community Sample of Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmire, Claire A.; Magyar, Caroline I.; Connolly, Heidi V.; Fernandez, I. Diana; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Down syndrome (DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple comorbidities. Sleep disorders are common among children with DS and can cause significant distress for families. However, research is limited describing sleep problems and correlates in large population-based samples. Accordingly, we aimed to describe sleep behavior among children with DS and its relationship with medical conditions in this population. Methods: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study (2009-2011) of sleep disturbances in children and adolescents with DS 7 to 17 years of age (N = 107). We assessed sleep problems using caregiver report on two validated screening tools: the Childhood Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). The prevalence of sleep problems was compared in children with and without important comorbidities using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Results: 65% of children screened positive on the CSHQ for significant sleep problems in the past month, but their parents often did not report sleeping difficulties in their children. On the PSQ, 46% screened positive for sleep related breathing problems and 21% screened positive for sleep related movement disorders. Children with asthma, autism, and a history of enlarged adenoids and tonsils had more current sleep problems than children without these comorbidities. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that sleep problems may be an important but under-recognized problem in children with DS. Sleep problems appear to be correlated with prevalent comorbidities, which may provide guidance to augment current practice guidelines to evaluate sleep problems in this population. Citation: Hoffmire CA; Magyar CI; Connolly HV; Fernandez ID; van Wijngaarden E. High prevalence of sleep disorders and associated comorbidities in a community sample of children with down syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):411-419. PMID:24733987

  6. Immuno-enzymatic evaluation of the recombinant TSSA-II protein of Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs and human sera: a tool for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Cimino, R O; Rumi, M Monje; Ragone, P; Lauthier, J; D'Amato, A Alberti; Quiroga, I R López; Gil, J F; Cajal, S P; Acosta, N; Juárez, M; Krolewiecki, A; Orellana, V; Zacca, R; Marcipar, I; Diosque, P; Nasser, J R

    2011-07-01

    The rTSSA-II (recombinant Trypomastigote Small Surface II) antigen was evaluated by ELISA to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in sera from naturally infected dogs and humans. For this evaluation ELISA-rTSSA-II was standardized and groups were classified according to the results obtained through xenodiagnosis, ELISA and PCR. Sensitivity (Se), Specificity (Sp), Kappa index (KI) and area under curve (AUC) were determined. The Se was determined by using 14 sera from dogs infected with T. cruzi VI (TcVI) whereas Sp was determined by using 95 non-chagasic sera by xenodiagnosis, ELISA-Homogenate and PCR. The performance of ELISA-rTSSA-II in dog sera was high (AUC=0·93 and KI=0·91). The Se was 92·85% (1 false negative) and Sp was 100%. Two sera from dogs infected with TcI and 1 with TcIII were negative. For patients infected with T. cruzi, reactivity was 87·8% (36/41), there was only 1 indeterminate, and Sp was 100%. Fifty-four sera from non-chagasic and 68 sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis did not react with rTSS-II. ELISA-rTSSA-II showed a high performance when studying sera from naturally infected dogs and it also presented 100% Sp. This assay could be an important tool to carry out sero-epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of T. cruzi circulating lineages in the region. PMID:21518468

  7. Progress in control of cystic echinococcosis in La Rioja, Spain: decline in infection prevalences in human and animal hosts and economic costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Santos; Pérez, Azucena; Gil, Horacio; Schantz, Peter; Ramalle, Enrique; Juste, Ramón

    2002-09-01

    The Autonomous Community of La Rioja is a region in the north of Spain where the mean annual number of surgical cases of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was 50 (19 per 100000 inhabitants) during the years 1984-1987. This high clinical incidence prompted local authorities to implement a control program in 1986, whose methods and results are reported here. Initially, the program consisted in documenting the prevalence of CE in sheep and humans, communicating an awareness of the disease risks among the population, and treating all registered dogs with praziquantel at intervals of 45 days. Stray dogs were collected systematically, euthanized, and their intestines were examined for Echinococcus granulosus infection. Epidemiological data collected during the course of the program demonstrated that the major reservoirs of E. granulosus were the stray dogs, precisely the ones not receiving periodic praziquantel treatment. Therefore, the program emphasis was shifted to targeting critical points in the transmission of E. granulosus, including improved control of stray dogs, echinococcidal treatments of working sheep dogs, providing means for safe disposal of slaughtered sheep offal and safe disposal of dead sheep in sanitary pits. These measures led to a decline in prevalence of E. granulosus in dogs from 7.0% at the beginning of the program to 0.2% in 2000, i.e. a reduction of 97.2%. Prevalence of infection in adult sheep declined from 82.3 to 20.3%, i.e. a reduction of 75.4%, while the mean number of cysts per infected animal decreased from 6.5% to 0.58 (91% reduction). The rate of diagnoses of new cases in humans between these two dates dropped by 78.9%, from 19 to 4 per 100000 population. In terms of economic costs, these reductions were estimated to yield an increasing cumulative cost/benefit balance that was already positive on year 8 of the program (1994), and that reached 1.96 in year 2000. PMID:12204394

  8. A Partial Gene Deletion of SLC45A2 Causes Oculocutaneous Albinism in Doberman Pinscher Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Paige A.; Gornik, Kara R.; Ramsey, David T.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Venta, Patrick J.; Petersen-Jones, Simon M.; Bartoe, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP) dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1) produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2) objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3) determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs); cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (<5 years of age: 4/12; >5 years of age: 8/8) and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001). Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4?77,062,968–77,067,051). This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model. PMID:24647637

  9. Brain damage and mortality in dogs following pulsatile and non-pulsatile blood flows in extracorporeal circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wright; J. M. Sanderson

    1972-01-01

    In a series of 20 dog experiments, total cardiac bypass was followed by a high rate of mortality during the first 12 postoperative hours. Only five dogs survived for one week, but a further three dogs were perfuse-fixed after shorter periods of survival. All dogs developed pulmonary alveolar haemorrhages and seven of the eight perfuse-fixed brains exhibited brain damage. Diffuse

  10. High Prevalence of Screen Detected Prostate Cancer in West Africans: Implications for Racial Disparity of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Ann W.; Yeboah, Edward; Biritwum, Richard; Tettey, Yao; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Adjei, Andrew; Netto, George J.; Yu, Kai; Li, Yan; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Chu, Lisa W.; Chia, David; Partin, Alan; Thompson, Ian M.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Niwa, Shelley; Tarone, Robert; Hoover, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To our knowledge the reasons for the high rates of prostate cancer in black American men are unknown. Genetic and lifestyle factors have been implicated. Better understanding of prostate cancer rates in West African men would help clarify why black American men have such high rates since the groups share genetic ancestry and yet have different lifestyles and screening practices. To estimate the prostate cancer burden in West African men we performed a population based screening study with biopsy confirmation in Ghana. Materials and Methods We randomly selected 1,037 healthy men 50 to 74 years old from Accra, Ghana for prostate cancer screening with prostate specific antigen testing and digital rectal examination. Men with a positive screen result (positive digital rectal examination or prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml) underwent transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies. Results Of the 1,037 men 154 (14.9%) had a positive digital rectal examination and 272 (26.2%) had prostate specific antigen greater than 2.5 ng/ml, including 166 with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. A total of 352 men (33.9%) had a positive screen by prostate specific antigen or digital rectal examination and 307 (87%) underwent biopsy. Of these men 73 were confirmed to have prostate cancer, yielding a 7.0% screen detected prostate cancer prevalence (65 patients), including 5.8% with prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml. Conclusions In this relatively unscreened population in Africa the screen detected prostate cancer prevalence is high, suggesting a possible role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology and the disparity in prostate cancer risk between black and white American men. Further studies are needed to confirm the high prostate cancer burden in African men and the role of genetics in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:24747091

  11. High Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Swedish Moose – A Phylogenetic Characterization and Comparison of the Virus from Different Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jay; Karlsson, Marie; Olofson, Ann-Sophie; Belák, Sándor; Malmsten, Jonas; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Widén, Frederik; Norder, Heléne

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects a range of species, including humans, pigs, wild boars and deer. Zoonotic transmission may contribute to the high HEV seroprevalence in the human population of many countries. A novel divergent HEV from moose (Alces alces) in Sweden was recently identified by partial genome sequencing. Since only one strain was found, its classification within the HEV family, prevalence in moose and zoonotic potential was unclear. We therefore investigated samples from 231 moose in seven Swedish counties for HEV, and sequenced a near complete moose HEV genome. Phylogenetic analysis to classify this virus within the family Hepeviridae and to explore potential host specific determinants was performed. Methods and Findings The HEV prevalence of moose was determined by PCR (marker for active infection) and serological assays (marker of past infection) of sera and 51 fecal samples from 231 Swedish moose. Markers of active and past infection were found in 67 (29%) animals, while 34 (15%) were positive for HEV RNA, 43 (19%) were seropositive for anti-HEV antibodies, and 10 (4%) had both markers. The number of young individuals positive for HEV RNA was larger than for older individuals, and the number of anti-HEV antibody positive individuals increased with age. The high throughput sequenced moose HEV genome was 35-60% identical to existing HEVs. Partial ORF1 sequences from 13 moose strains showed high similarity among them, forming a distinct monophyletic clade with a common ancestor to HEV genotype 1-6 group, which includes members known for zoonotic transmission. Conclusions This study demonstrates a high frequency of HEV in moose in Sweden, with markers of current and past infection demonstrated in 30% of the animals. Moose is thus an important animal reservoir of HEV. The phylogenetic relationship demonstrated that the moose HEV belonged to the genotype 1-6 group, which includes strains that also infect humans, and therefore may signify a potential for zoonotic transmission of this HEV. PMID:25906163

  12. High prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) infection in water pythons (Liasis fuscus) from tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Madsen, Thomas; Olsson, Mats

    2004-06-01

    Molecular methods were used to identify blood parasites frequently observed in blood smears of water pythons (Liasis fuscus) captured in our study area in the Northern Territory of Australia. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers amplifying the 18s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nuclear gene resulted in a short PCR product (180 bp) matching this region in the genus Hepatozoon. However, because of the short sequence obtained. 2 new primers were designed based on 18s rRNA sequences of 3 Hepatozoon taxa available in GenBank. Using these primers, approximately 600 bp of the parasite's 18s rRNA gene was amplified successfully and sequenced from 2 water python samples. The new primers were used to investigate the prevalence of blood parasites in 100 pythons. In 25 of these samples we did not observe any blood parasites when examining stained slides. All the samples revealed a 600-bp PCR product, demonstrating that pythons in which we did not visually observe any parasites were infected by Hepatozoon spp. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of blood parasites in 4 other reptile taxa commonly encountered in our study area. The sequences obtained from water pythons and from 1 of these taxa were identical, suggesting that the parasite is capable of infecting hosts at different taxonomic levels. PMID:15270125

  13. Screening for adenoviruses in haematological neoplasia: High prevalence in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, Karin; Rauch, Margit; Ambros, Peter F; Pötschger, Ulrike; Chott, Andreas; Jäger, Ulrich; Drach, Johannes; Nader, Alexander; Lion, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Human adenoviruses possess oncogenic capacity which is well documented in mammalian animal models, but their possible implication in human malignancy has remained enigmatic. Following primary infection, adenoviruses can persist in a latent state in lymphocytes where the virus is apparently able to evade immune surveillance. In the present study, we have employed a broad-spectrum adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to systematically screen more than 200 diagnostic specimens of different lymphoid malignancies including acute lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), various types of malignant lymphoma (n=100) and multiple myeloma (n=11) for the presence of adenoviral sequences. While most entities analysed revealed negative findings in virtually all specimens tested, adenoviral DNA was detected in 15/36 (42%) mantle cell lymphomas investigated. The most prevalent adenoviral species detected was C, and less commonly B. Adenovirus-positive findings in patients with mantle cell lymphoma were made at different sites including bone marrow (n=7), intestine (n=5), lymph nodes (n=2) and tonsillar tissue (n=1). The presence of adenoviral sequences identified by PCR was confirmed in individual cells by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). The frequent observation of adenoviruses in mantle cell lymphoma is intriguings, and raises questions about their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this lymphoid malignancy. PMID:24246703

  14. High familial prevalence of gallstones in the first-degree relatives of gallstone patients.

    PubMed

    Sarin, S K; Negi, V S; Dewan, R; Sasan, S; Saraya, A

    1995-07-01

    Limited information is available on the prevalence of gallstones in the first-degree relatives of gallstone patients. Three groups of subjects were studied by real-time ultrasound examination: group A, 105 index gallstone patients (male/female; 20:85); group B, 330 first-degree relatives of index patients; group C, matched controls for group A (n = 105) and group B (n = 330) subjects. Dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical investigations were carried out. In 39 of 105 (37%) index cases, one or more additional family members had gallstones (positive-index case). The positive-index cases were younger than the remaining index cases (mean age, 33.1 +/- 14 vs. 44.5 +/- 13.1 years; P < .05). Fifty-one of 330 (15.5%) first-degree relatives had gallstones, nearly four and a half times (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 8.5) more often than in the matched control population (12 of 330 [3.6%]). Thirty-three of 51 (65%) positive relatives were women; mother (37.3%), sister (17.6%) or daughters (10%) to the index patients. There was no difference in the diet, physical activity, and serum lipid profile between the positive index patients and the remaining gallstone patients and positive relatives and their controls. Our results show that there is a strong familial predisposition for gallstone formation. Female relatives of young gallstone patients should be routinely screened for gallstones. PMID:7601405

  15. High Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use in Men Who Have Sex with Men with HIV-1 Infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takano, Misao; Ogane, Miwa; Ikeda, Kazuko; Oka, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of illicit drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV-1 infection in Japan, where the life-time prevalence of illicit drug use in the general population is only 2.9%. Design A single-center cross-sectional study at a large HIV clinic in Tokyo, which treats approximately 15% of HIV-1 infected patients in Japan. Methods The prevalence of illicit drug use and the assciation of characteristics and social demographics of the patients with illicit drug use were examined. Patients who visited the clinic for the first time from 2005 to 2010 were enrolled. Relevant variables were collected using a structured interview and from the medical records. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate the odds of association of MSM over non-MSM HIV-infected patients with illicit drug use. Results 1,196 patients were enrolled. They were mostly Japanese men of relatively young age. Illicit drug use (including injection drugs) was reported by 35% of the patients (by 40% of MSM), and 4% were IDU while 5% were on methamphetamine. 2% of the population was arrested due to illicit drugs. MSM was significantly associated with illicit drug use (adjusted OR?=?4.60; 95% CI, 2.88–7.36; p<0.01). Subgroup analysis of the patients stratified by three age groups (?30, 31 to 40, and >40) showed that the odds of association of MSM with illicit drug use was the strongest in the youngest age group (?30 years: adjusted OR?=?7.56; 95% CI, 2.86–20.0; p<0.01), followed by the oldest (>40 years: adjusted OR?=?6.15; 95% CI, 2.40–15.8; p<0.01), and the weakest in the group aged 31 to 40 (adjusted OR?=?3.39; 95% CI, 1.73–6.63; p<0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of illicit drug use is high among MSM patients with HIV-1 infection in Japan. Effective intervention for illicit drug use in this population is warranted. PMID:24339982

  16. Cardiovascular alterations in dogs treated with hydralazine.

    PubMed

    Mesfin, G M; Shawaryn, G G; Higgins, M J

    1987-01-01

    Groups of 5 male beagle dogs were treated orally with hydralazine tablets in gelatin capsules at a dose of 12 or 24 mg/kg twice a day (6 hours apart) for 2 consecutive days. Five male dogs treated with empty gelatin capsules served as untreated controls. Clinical findings and heart rate changes during treatment and terminal body weight, hematology, and blood chemistry changes were evaluated. The heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and thymus of each animal were examined microscopically. Dogs in the 12 mg/kg group ate less than control group. Dogs treated with 24 mg/kg did not eat and vomited. Heart rates in both of the treated groups increased by 60% to 80% within 2 hours of treatment and remained high during the entire treatment period. Significant hematologic change was confined to a slight increase in platelet number of dogs treated with 24 mg/kg. Serum glucose was increased in the hydralazine treated dogs. Conjugated serum bilirubin was increased and serum potassium, chloride and phosphorus were decreased in the 24 mg/kg group. Blood urea nitrogen and serum chloride were slightly increased in dogs treated with 12 mg/kg. Treatment-related pathologic alterations were confined to the heart. Two dogs from each of the hydralazine groups experienced acute localized hemorrhage into the epicardium and subepicardium of the right atrium. The media of the muscular branches of the coronary arteries, especially the left coronary artery, was hemorrhagic in 3 dogs from the 24 mg/kg group. Medial necrosis, when seen, tended to be proportional to the severity of medial hemorrhages. There was no necrosis in the papillary muscles of the heart.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3432940

  17. Sensitive assays for simian foamy viruses reveal a high prevalence of infection in commensal, free-ranging Asian monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jones-Engel, Lisa; Steinkraus, Katherine A; Murray, Shannon M; Engel, Gregory A; Grant, Richard; Aggimarangsee, Nantiya; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; May, Cynthia; Schillaci, Michael A; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sutthipat, Tulyawat; Vojtech, Lucia; Zhao, JianYuan; Linial, Maxine L

    2007-07-01

    Foamy viruses (FV) are retroviruses that naturally infect many hosts, including most nonhuman primates (NHPs). Zoonotic infection by primate FV has been documented in people in Asia who reported contact with free-ranging macaques. FV transmission in Asia is a concern, given abundant human-NHP contact, particularly at monkey temples and in urban settings. We have developed three assays capable of detecting the presence of FV in Asian NHP species that are commensal with humans: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot assays using recombinant viral Gag protein, and an indicator cell line that can detect macaque FV. The recombinant ELISA correlates very well with the presence of FV sequences detected by PCR. We have used these assays to demonstrate both that FV is highly prevalent among free-ranging NHPs and that seroconversion occurs at a young age in these animals. These assays should also prove useful for large-scale analysis of the prevalence of FV infections in human populations in Asia that are commensal with free-ranging NHPs. PMID:17475645

  18. High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori hopQ II Genotype Isolated from Iranian Patients with Gastroduodenal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Mohabbati Mobarez, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and noncardia gastric cancer. Several putative virulence factors for H. pylori have been identified including vacA, babA, and iceA. HopQ is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. Due to the substantial geographic differences in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors reported, the main purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQ alleles (types I and II) and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. The presence of H. pylori and hopQ alleles in gastric biopsy specimens was identified by specific PCR assays. H. pylori type II hopQ was found to be significantly associated with gastric cancer patients (odds ratio: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.56–5.89). Information about the prevalence of H. pylori hopQ type II can be used for determining the high-risk diseases type which is actually colonized by H. pylori hopQ type II positive strains. The presence of H. pylori hopQ type II should be investigated in different geographical regions as confirmatory findings may provide a definite biomarker attributed to the pathogenesis of certain severe digestive diseases. PMID:24672729

  19. Dogs that bite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P C Shewell; J D Nancarrow

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the circumstances of dog bites and identify risk factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey and case note review of victims of dog bites referred between 1982 and 1989. SETTING--One referral based regional plastic surgery unit. PATIENTS--146 consecutive patients referred for primary treatment of dog bites, for whom current addresses were available for 133, 107 (81%) of whom returned the questionnaire.

  20. Prevalence of Cannabis Lifetime Use in Iranian High School and College Students: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses, and Meta-Regression.

    PubMed

    Nazarzadeh, Milad; Bidel, Zeinab; Mosavi Jarahi, Alireza; Esmaeelpour, Keihan; Menati, Walieh; Shakeri, Ali Asghar; Menati, Rostam; Kikhavani, Sattar; Saki, Kourosh

    2014-08-20

    Cannabis is the most widely used substance in the world. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cannabis lifetime use (CLU) in high school and college students of Iran and also to determine factors related to changes in prevalence. A systematic review of literature on cannabis use in Iran was conducted according to MOOSE guideline. Domestic scientific databases, PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, relevant reference lists, and relevant journals were searched up to April, 2014. Prevalences were calculated using the variance stabilizing double arcsine transformation and confidence intervals (CIs) estimated using the Wilson method. Heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q statistic and I(2) index and causes of heterogeneity were evaluated using meta-regression model. In electronic database search, 4,000 citations were retrieved, producing a total of 33 studies. CLU was reported with a random effects pooled prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI = 3.0% to 5.0%). In subgroups of high school and college students, prevalences were 5.0% (95% CI = 3.0% to -7.0%) and 2.0% (95% CI = 2.0% to -3.0%), respectively. Meta-regression model indicated that prevalence is higher in college students (? = 0.089, p < .001), male gender (? = 0.017, p < .001), and is lower in studies with sampling versus census studies (? = -0.096, p < .001). This study reported that prevalence of CLU in Iranian students are lower than industrialized countries. In addition, gender, level of education, and methods of sampling are highly associated with changes in the prevalence of CLU across provinces. PMID:25147097

  1. Difference in overall and age-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in Italy: evidence from NTCC trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although among women a decreasing prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with increasing age has been consistently observed in high-resource countries, different age profiles have been reported elsewhere. Methods We compared the age profile of high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence in nine different areas of Northern and Central Italy by studying the women recruited in the intervention arm of the New Technologies in Cervical Cancer study and tested by Hybrid Capture 2. Differences in the age-distribution of HPV infection were investigated in each centre by the joinpoint approach in a logistic model. 46,900 women aged 25 to 60 years were included in the analysis. Results The HR-HPV age-standardised (on Italian population) prevalence ranged from 5.7% (Trento) to 10.3% (Ravenna). HR-HPV prevalence decreased as a logistic function of increasing age in 6 of 9 centres (Trento, Verona, Florence, Bologna, Imola, and Viterbo). The effect of age on HR-HPV prevalence slopes did not differ significantly among these 6 centres, whereas significant heterogeneity in intercepts (p?prevalence between centres. One significant joinpoint was observed in 2 centres (Padua and Ravenna), indicating that the decrease in HR-HPV prevalence by age was better described using a function composed with two logistic segments. In Padua HR-HPV prevalence decreased only slightly up to 39 years but showed a steep downturn thereafter. In Ravenna HR-HPV prevalence decreased steeply down to 45 years of age and then showed a plateau. Finally, in Turin two significant joinpoints were observed: prevalence decreased only after age 29 and showed a plateau after age 39. Conclusions Our results showed substantial differences in overall and age-specific HR-HPV prevalence across Italian areas. These findings may be related to different timing of changes in sexual behaviours across regions. Age-specific HR-HPV prevalence in Italy does not support an influence of age per se. PMID:23706168

  2. A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites. PMID:25203839

  3. Exposure of small rodents to plague during epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Carter, Leon G; Gage, Kenneth L; Tripp, Daniel W; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-07-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes die-offs of colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). It has been argued that other small rodents are reservoirs for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs; yet there is little empirical support for distinct enzootic and epizootic cycles. Between 2004 and 2006, we collected blood from small rodents captured in colonies in northern Colorado before, during, and for up to 2 yr after prairie dog epizootics. We screened 1,603 blood samples for antibodies to Y. pestis, using passive hemagglutination and inhibition tests, and for a subset of samples we cultured blood for the bacterium itself. Of the four species of rodents that were common in colonies, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) was the only species with consistent evidence of plague infection during epizootics, with 11.1-23.1% of mice seropositive for antibody to Y. pestis during these events. Seropositive grasshopper mice, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured the year following epizootics. The appearance of antibodies to Y. pestis in grasshopper mice coincided with periods of high prairie dog mortality; subsequently, antibody prevalence rates declined, with no seropositive individuals captured 2 yr after epizootics. We did not detect plague in any rodents off of colonies, or on colonies prior to epizootics, and found no evidence of persistent Y. pestis infection in blood cultures. Our results suggest that grasshopper mice could be involved in epizootic spread of Y. pestis, and possibly, serve as a short-term reservoir for plague, but provide no evidence that the grasshopper mouse or any small rodent acts as a long-term, enzootic host for Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies. PMID:18689662

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain) registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Both low (94/80) and high (102/88) waist circumference (WC) thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2), 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3) and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3) according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII) or 60.3% (JIS94/80) among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80). The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6%) and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively). Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese). Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be reinforced. PMID:21752307

  5. Dogs that bite.

    PubMed Central

    Shewell, P C; Nancarrow, J D

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the circumstances of dog bites and identify risk factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey and case note review of victims of dog bites referred between 1982 and 1989. SETTING--One referral based regional plastic surgery unit. PATIENTS--146 consecutive patients referred for primary treatment of dog bites, for whom current addresses were available for 133, 107 (81%) of whom returned the questionnaire. RESULTS--The male to female ratio was 74:72; 79 (54%) patients were aged below 15 years. The commonest dogs producing bites were Staffordshire bull terriers (15 cases), Jack Russell terriers (13), medium sized mongrels (10), and Alsatians (nine). 82 of 96 (85%) dogs were male. 29 of 47 (62%) adults were bitten at home and 45 of 60 (75%) children at a friend's, neighbour's, or relative's house. 91 of 107 (85%) bites occurred in the dog's home. Bites occurred during playing with 13 (12%), petting 14 (13%), or waking 16 (15%) dogs. 45 (42%) bites were judged as unprovoked. 32 bites were identified as severe and 11 attacks as sustained. CONCLUSIONS--Most victims are bitten by male dogs which they either own or have had frequent contact with, and the bite occurs in the dog's home. PMID:1782490

  6. High prevalence of mutations of the p53 gene in poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Fagin, J A; Matsuo, K; Karmakar, A; Chen, D L; Tang, S H; Koeffler, H P

    1993-01-01

    The development and progression of thyroid tumors is signaled by phenotype-specific mutations of genes involved in growth control. Molecular events associated with undifferentiated thyroid cancer are not known. We examined normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue for structural abnormalities of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Mutations were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphisms of PCR-amplified DNA, using primers bracketing the known hot spots on either exons 5, 6, 7, or 8. The prevalence of mutations was as follows: normal thyroid 0/6; follicular adenomas 0/31; papillary carcinomas 0/37; medullary carcinomas 0/2; follicular carcinomas 1/11; anaplastic carcinomas 5/6; thyroid carcinoma cell lines 3/4. Positive cases were confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products. All five anaplastic carcinoma tissues and the anaplastic carcinoma cell line ARO had G:C to A:T transitions leading to an Arg to His substitution at codon 273. In both tumors and cell lines, examples of heterozygous and homozygous p53 mutations were identified. The only thyroid carcinoma cell line in which p53 mutations were not detected in exons 5-8 had markedly decreased p53 mRNA levels, suggesting the presence of a structural abnormality of either p53 itself or of some factor controlling its expression. The presence of p53 mutations almost exclusively in poorly differentiated thyroid tumors and thyroid cancer cell lines suggests that inactivation of p53 may confer these neoplasms with aggressive properties, and further loss of differentiated function. Images PMID:8423216

  7. High prevalence of symptoms in a severely abused “non-patient” women population

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, N; Piacentino, D; Ciccantelli, B; Rivera, M; Golini, N; Spagnoli, A; Vincoli, G; Farchi, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence of somatic symptoms and of gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes in abused “non-patient” women and the association with the time of perpetration, type, and severity of abuse. Methods Sixty-seven women, 18–58 years, receiving shelter in anti-violence associations were invited to fill out an anonymous questionnaire with a medical and an abuse section. The severity of abuse was expressed as the 0–6 Abuse Severity Measure (ASM). The association between abuse characteristics and the number of symptoms, and GI syndromes was assessed by Poisson regression model. Results Most women suffered from childhood and adulthood sexual and physical abuse. They reported a mean of 5.1 GI symptoms (range 0–13; median 5; IQR 6) and of 1.3 extra-GI symptoms (range 0–6; median 1; IQR 2); 30% of women matched the Rome II Criteria for one, 36% for two, and 4.4% for three or more syndromes, respectively. Women with an ASM of 5–6, having suffered from both sexual and physical abuse, reported significantly (p?=?0.02) more GI symptoms, but not extra-GI ones (p?=?0.07), and met criteria for more GI syndromes than women with an ASM ?4 and those reporting only one type of abuse. No association was found between the time of perpetration of the abuse and the number of GI and extra-GI symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms in abused “non-patient” women mainly concern the abdomen and the GI tract. A history of severe, combined physical and sexual abuse is associated with a higher number of GI symptoms. PMID:25452847

  8. High prevalence of maternal vitamin D deficiency in preterm births in northeast China, Shenyang

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Liu, Tian-Jing; Ge, Xin; Kong, Juan; Zhang, Li-Jun; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a number of fetal and neonatal health problems. Preterm birth is one of the most detrimental, and the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency in preterm births has not been universally acknowledged. There had been limited epidemiological studies of vitamin D deficiency on the Chinese population. Subjects and methods: 1103 women delivered in Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University from January 1st, 2012 to January 1st, 2013. Finally, 821 mother-newborn pairs which contained 143 mother-newborn pairs who were preterm delivery were recruited for analysis. Results: There was significant difference between spring and summer (P<0.0001) as well as spring and autumn (P<0.01). Compared to those in summer and autumn, the 25 (OH) D level was significantly lower in winter (summer vs winter P<0.0001, autumn vs winter P<0.0001). Maternal vitamin D level showed obvious variation with months and seasons, with higher level in summer months and lower level in winter months. There were significant difference between the vitamin D level of the very preterm group and the mildly preterm groups (P<0.01), as well as the very preterm group and the in-term groups (P<0.001). Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency occurred in 63.04% of pregnant women in very preterm group, compared with 36.61% in in-term group. Conclusion: Vitamin D nutritional status of pregnant women and their newborns in Shenyang were relatively good compared to cities in similar latitudes. Vitamin D deficiency was most severe in late spring and least in summer. Severe preterm births before 31 weeks of gestation was associated with maternal vitamin D deficiency. PMID:25973031

  9. Economic Impact of HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy on Education Supply in High Prevalence Regions

    PubMed Central

    Risley, Claire L.; Drake, Lesley J.; Bundy, Donald A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia), the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA), contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the scenario of universal access. Methodology/Principal Findings A costed mathematical model of the impact of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA) was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by region. It was estimated that (1) The impact of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2) In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3) The impacts on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4) If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the regions studied. Conclusions/Significance The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest impact. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support. PMID:23173030

  10. Survey on the Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis and its Effect on the Quality of High School Students’ Life

    PubMed Central

    Amizadeh, Maryam; Safizadeh, Hossein; Bazargan, Nasrin; Farrokhdoost, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common airway disease. In order to study the prevalence of AR in high school students in Kerman, the Score for Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR) was used and the quality of life in the students affected by rhinitis was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, analytical, descriptive study, based on the SFAR scale. Quality of life in students with AR was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: From 1511 students who completed the SFAR questionnaire, 291 (52.6%, girls; 47.4%, boys) had AR. Domestic dust was the most common cause of the disease. The most common symptoms of AR were rhinorrhea (76.6%), epiphora (76.3%), nasal congestion (64.3%), and itching (54.3%). According to the ARYA scale, (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), 41.9% of students had moderate-to-severe rhinitis and 58.1% had mild rhinitis. A total of 43.1% of patients with moderate-to-severe rhinitis had a persistent condition and 56.9% had an intermediate condition. Results of the SF-36 questionnaire among students with AR showed a significant difference in physical functioning and bodily pain in comparison with healthy students. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the prevalence of AR among Kerman high school students is 19.3%. Because of the effect of this disease on the life quality of high school students in terms of both physical functioning and bodily pain, efforts should be made to reduce allergen levels as far as possible. PMID:24303424

  11. Prevalence and predictors of Lymphogranuloma venereum in a high risk population attending a STD outpatients clinic in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated LGV prevalence and predictors in a high risk population attending a STI Outpatients Clinic in the North of Italy. Methods A total of 108 patients (99 MSM and 9 women), with a history of unsafe anal sexual intercourses, were enrolled. Anorectal swabs and urine samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) DNA detection by Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Terrytown, USA). RFLP analysis was used for CT molecular typing. Results L2 CT genotype was identified in 13/108 (12%) rectal swabs. All LGV cases were from MSM, declaring high-risk sexual behaviour and complaining anorectal symptoms. Patients first attending the STI Outpatient Clinic received a significant earlier LGV diagnosis than those first seeking care from general practitioners or gastroenterologists (P?=?0.0046). LGV prevalence and characteristics found in our population are in agreement with international reports. Statistical analysis showed that LGV positive patients were older (P?=?0.0008) and presented more STIs (P?=?0.0023) than LGV negative ones, in particular due to syphilis (P?high-risk population, they strongly suggest to perform CT NAAT tests and genotyping on rectal specimens in presence of ulcerative proctitis in HIV and/or syphilis-positive MSM. In this context, CT DNA detection by Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay, followed by RFLP analysis for molecular typing demonstrated to be an excellent diagnostic algorithm for LGV identification. PMID:24716676

  12. Impact of red blood cells count and high density lipoproteins with the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Alon; Verdoia, Monica; Cassetti, Ettore; Barbieri, Lucia; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    We have hypothesized that high red blood cells (RBC) count can potentially play an atheroprotective role in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. We, therefore, have investigated the relationship between high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) and RBC levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of mortality. Impaired lipid profile represents a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key factor in atherosclerosis disease development. RBC can mimic HDL's reverse cholesterol transportation with a potential atheroprotective role. Coronary angiography has been evaluated in 3,534 patients. Fasting samples were collected for haematology and lipids levels assessment. Coronary disease was defined for at least 1 vessel stenosis >50 %. Patients were divided according to HDL-C and RBC tertiles. Lower HDL-C was significantly associated to the prevalence of CAD (84.8 vs 78.5 vs 67.3 %, p ? 0.001; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.55 [1.3-1.8], p < 0.001) and severe CAD (30 % vs 30 % vs 24.4 %, p = 0.002; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.08 [1.01-1.16], p = 0.02), this relationship was maintained even dividing our population according to RBC tertiles (p < 0.001).In conclusion, HDL-C levels are directly related to RBC count and inversely to the prevalence and extent of coronary disease. Higher RBC levels can reduce the risk of CAD in patients with lower HDL-C levels, suggesting an important atheroprotective role. PMID:25680891

  13. Helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; van der Flaes, L

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. Determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. Of 2324 faecal flotations (NaCl sp.gr. 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of Toxocara canis (17.4%), Toxascaris leonina (10.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and cestodes (2.1%). Isospora oocysts were observed in 5.2% of the dogs. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that T. canis eggs were by far the most common (50.9%). Necropsy data from 212 infected dogs indicate that 38.9% were infected with T. canis and 33.7% with T. leonina. The overall prevalence of worm infestation of 246 well-cared-for kennel dogs, based on worm egg counts by the McMaster technique, was 36.1%. Of 30 feline faecal samples examined by flotation, 83.3% were positive for parasites, including Toxocara cati (60%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (36.6%), Taenia (Hydatigera) taeniaeformis (20%) and coccidia (30%). Toxocara cati was the most frequently found worm species at the necropsy of 25 cats (52%). Toxoplasma was not observed. PMID:2024431

  14. The prevalence of risky behaviors related to violence in high school students in a southern city, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Sevgi; Ergin, Ahmet; Saatci, Esra; Bozdemir, Nafiz; Kurdak, Hatice; Akpinar, Ersin

    2008-12-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents and can be grouped as unintentional (such as motor vehicle crashes and fires) and intentional (violence and suicide). The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of high risk behaviors related to violence in high school students. The population comprised 2,480 randomly selected students from 10 schools among 46,271 students from 72 high schools in 1999-2000 in Adana and 2,352 (94.8%) were reached. They completed a Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire (YRBSQ). The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1 (14-21) years. 275 (11.7%) students stated that they carried a knife or a sharp weapon during the last 30 days, 151 (6.4%) carried a gun, 710 (30.2%) participated in a physical fight, 68 (2.9%) were threatened or injured by a weapon, 73 (3.1%) could not attend school because of threats from other students, 96 (4.1%) were forced into sexual intercourse. Male students were significantly more likely than female students to report all types of high risk behaviors except forced sexual intercourse. The rate of risky behaviors increased with higher grade. Violence towards and by adolescents is a severe problem. Families, teachers, and health care professionals should be aware of risk factors and be active in prevention of high risk behaviors in youth. PMID:19149208

  15. Transcranial Doppler sonographic findings in granulomatous meningoencephalitis in small breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Cibele Figueira; Perez, Raquel Braga; Chamas, Maria Cristina; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar

    2012-08-01

    Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) is an acute, progressive, and often fatal inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, affecting mainly small and toy dog breeds. A definitive diagnosis of GME can only be achieved through histopathologic examination of samples collected after death. This retrospective study describes transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TDS) findings in dogs with confirmed clinical histopathology of GME. Eleven dogs were selected for this study. Sonographic findings in B-mode demonstrated diffuse decreased brain parenchyma echogenicity in 9 dogs, ventriculomegaly in 8 dogs, brain atrophy in 4 dogs, and hyperechoic focal lesions in 6 dogs. Color Doppler imaging revealed more obvious vessels of the arterial circle in 10 dogs. Spectral Doppler examination was performed in 10 dogs to detect the 6 major cerebral arteries of interest. The examination showed normal and high resistive index (RI) values in the outlined arteries. The TDS findings were consistent with pathology found on postmortem examination. PMID:23372192

  16. Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

  17. Temporal and spatial patterns of Bartonella infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, M Y; Ray, C; Brinkerhoff, R J; Collinge, S K

    2008-08-01

    We describe the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of Bartonella in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) based on a longitudinal study conducted in 20 black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD) colonies in Boulder County, CO from 2003 to 2005. Bartonella infection was widely distributed in all colonies with an overall prevalence of 23.1%, but varied by colony from 4.8% to 42.5% and by year from 9.1 to 39.0%, with a marked increase in Bartonella activity in 2005. Levels of bacteremia varied from 40 to 12,000 colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter of BTPD blood, but were highly skewed with a median of 240 CFU. Bartonella infection rates were unimodal with respect to BTPD body mass, first increasing among growing juveniles, then declining among adults. Infection rates exhibited a sigmoidal response to body mass, such that 700g may prove to be a useful threshold value to evaluate the likelihood of Bartonella infection in BTPDs. Bartonella prevalence increased throughout the testing season for each year, as newly emerged juveniles developed bacteremia. Data from recaptured animals suggest that Bartonella infections did not persist in individual BTPDs, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of Bartonella in BTPDs compared to other rodent species. No association was found between Bartonella prevalence and host population density. Prevalence did not differ between males and females. The spatio-temporal pattern of Bartonella infection among colonies suggests epizootic spread from northern to central and southern portions of the study area. The potential significance of the BTPD-associated Bartonella for public health needs to be further investigated. PMID:18176820

  18. Review of risk factors for human echinococcosis prevalence on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China: a prospective for control options

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Echinococcosis is a major parasitic zoonosis of public health importance in western China. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Health estimated that 380,000 people had the disease in the region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly co-endemic with both alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). In the past years, the Chinese government has been increasing the financial support to control the diseases in this region. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significant risk factors of the diseases by reviewing studies done in the region in the past decade to help policymakers design appropriate control strategies. Review Selection criteria for which literature to review were firstly defined. Medline, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and Google Scholar were systematically searched for literature published between January 2000 and July 2011. Significant risk factors found by single factor and/or multiple factors analysis were listed, counted, and summarized. Literature was examined to check the comparability of the data; age and sex specific prevalence with same data structures were merged and used for further analysis. A variety of assumed social, economical, behavioral, and ecological risk factors were studied on the Plateau. Those most at risk were Tibetan herdsmen, the old and female in particular. By analyzing merged comparable data, it was found that females had a significant higher prevalence, and a positive linearity relationship existed between echinococcosis prevalence and increasing age. In terms of behavioral risk factors, playing with dogs was mostly correlated with CE and/or AE prevalence. In terms of hygiene, employing ground water as the drinking water source was significantly correlated with CE and AE prevalence. For definitive hosts, dog related factors were most frequently identified with prevalence of CE or/and AE; fox was a potential risk factor for AE prevalence only. Overgrazing and deforestation were significant for AE prevalence only. Conclusion Tibetan herdsmen communities were at the highest risk of echinococcosis prevalence and should be the focus of echinococcosis control. Deworming both owned and stray dogs should be a major measure for controlling echinococcosis; treatment of wild definitive hosts should also be considered for AE endemic areas. Health education activities should be in concert with the local people’s education backgrounds and languages in order to be able to improve behaviors. Further researches are needed to clarify the importance of wild hosts for AE/CE prevalence, the extent and range of the impacts of ecologic changes (overgrazing and deforestation) on the AE prevalence, and risk factors in Tibet. PMID:24475907

  19. A Very High Infection Intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria Fishing Community Is Required for Association with Highly Prevalent Organ Related Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Madsen, Henry; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria in Mayuge district, highly endemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methodology and Principal Findings A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of 217 females and 229 males, with a mean age of 26 years (SD ±16, range 7–76 years). The prevalence of S. mansoni was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.6–91.5). The geometric mean intensity (GMI) of S. mansoni was 236.2 (95% CI: 198.5–460.9) eggs per gram (epg) faeces. Males had significantly higher GMI (370.2 epg) than females (132.6 epg) and age was also significantly associated with intensity of infection. Levels of water contact activities significantly influenced intensity of infection and the highest intensity of infection was found among people involved in fishing. However, organomegaly was not significantly associated with S. mansoni except for very heavy infection (>2000 epg). Liver image patterns C and D indicative of fibrosis were found in only 2.2% and 0.2%, respectively. S. mansoni intensity of infection was associated with portal vein dilation and abnormal spleen length. Anaemia was observed in 36.4% of the participants but it was not associated with S. mansoni infection intensity. Considering growth in children as one of the morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis, intensity of S. mansoni was significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Although organ-related morbidity, with the exception of periportal fibrosis, and S. mansoni infections were highly prevalent, the two were only associated for individuals with very high infection intensities. These results contrast starkly with reports from Ugandan Lake Albert fishing communities in which periportal fibrosis is more prevalent. PMID:23936559

  20. Intestinal protozoa and helminths among Terena Indians in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul: high prevalence of Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, José Ivan Albuquerque; Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Sodré, Fernando Campos; Pereira, Severino Dos Ramos; Bóia, Márcio Neves; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Daher, Roberto Ruhman

    2007-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out among Terena Indians living in the Tereré settlement in the municipality of Sidrolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Single samples of feces from 313 Indians were processed by means of the spontaneous sedimentation method. In the population studied, 73.5% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite or commensal. Protozoa predominated. Blastocystis hominis (40.9%), Entamoeba coli (33.2%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (31.6%) were the most common. Bivariate analysis showed that females were generally more infected and presented higher rates of infection by Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba coli. Males were more infected by hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis than females. The precarious sanitary conditions of the Tereré settlement are probably a contributory factor towards the high prevalence of intestinal protozoa. PMID:18200414

  1. High prevalence of qacA/B carriage among clinical isolates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shamsudin, M N; Alreshidi, M A; Hamat, R A; Alshrari, A S; Atshan, S S; Neela, V

    2012-07-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 60 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from Malaysia to three antiseptic agents - benzalkonium chloride (BZT), benzethonium chloride (BAC) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) - were determined. All isolates had MICs ranging from 0.5 to 2 mg/L. Antiseptic resistance genes qacA/B and smr were detected in 83.3% and 1.6% of the isolates, respectively. Carriage of qacA/B correlated with reduced susceptibility to CHG and BAC. This is the first report of the prevalence of qacA/B and smr gene carriage in Malaysian MRSA isolates, with a high frequency of qacA/B carriage. The presence of these antiseptic resistance genes and associated reduced susceptibility to antiseptic agents may have clinical implications. PMID:22633074

  2. Properties and characterization of a highly purified sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase from dog cardiac and rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Wang, T; Tsai, L I; Schwartz, A

    1983-04-25

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase was purified from dog cardiac and rabbit skeletal muscle using Triton X-100 at optimal ratios of 0.5 for cardiac and 0.5 to 1.0 for skeletal SR. The yields of Ca2+-ATPase were 4 to 5 and 1 to 2.2 mg/100 mg of cardiac and skeletal SR protein, respectively. The enzyme activities were 547 +/- 67 mumol ADP/mg/h for cardiac and 1192 +/- 172 mumol ADP/mg/h for skeletal Ca2+-ATPase. Removal of excess Triton X-100 increased the enzyme activities to 719 +/- 70 and 1473 +/- 206 mumol ADP/mg/h, respectively. The residual content of Triton X-100 for cardiac and skeletal Ca2+-ATPase was 20 and 5 mol/mol of enzyme, respectively. Maximum levels of phosphoenzyme were 4.4 +/- 0.2 and 5.6 +/- 0.6 nmol/mg in each case. A single protein band of 100 kDa was obtained for each purified Ca2+-ATPase by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The preparations were stable at -80 degrees C for 5 months in the presence of 1 mM Ca2+. The phospholipid content of the purified enzyme was 2-fold greater than that of native cardiac and skeletal SR microsomes. Repeated washing of the purified enzyme preparation did not alter the phospholipid content or the specific activities. PMID:6220013

  3. Neospora caninum infection in dogs from Southern Romania: coproparasitological study and serological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Enachescu, Violeta; Ionita, Mariana

    2013-04-01

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide for which dogs are the definitive host. The present study was aimed at investigating the exposure to N. caninum infection based on lifestyle categories of dogs from southern Romania. For this purpose, randomly selected rural and urban dogs were examined for fecal N. caninum -like oocysts and were serologically tested for the presence of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies. Of the 386 dog fecal samples, N. caninum -like oocysts were found in 19 (4.9%; 95% CI = 2.89-7.59) as follows: rural guard dogs (4/41; 9.8%), cattle farm dogs (6/118; 5.1%), and stray dogs (9/192; 4.7%) (P > 0.05). None of the 35 urban guard dogs was positive. Serum samples (n = 84) from all of the 19 N. caninum -like oocysts-positive dogs and another 65 randomly selected canines (15 cattle farm dogs, 21 rural guard dogs, and 29 strays) were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). None of these dogs exhibited any symptoms of clinical neosporosis. However, IgG antibodies against N. caninum were detected in 17/84 (20.2%) (P < 0.05) serum samples. The highest prevalence was registered in cattle farm dogs (38.1%) followed by strays (18.4%) and rural guard dogs (8.0%). The seropositivity to N. caninum increased significantly with age (P < 0.05), reaching 66.7% in dogs >10 yr of age, suggesting post-natal exposure to N. caninum is the predominant mechanism of N. caninum recruitment. PMID:22931541

  4. Canine fecal contamination in a metropolitan area (Milan, north-western Italy): prevalence of intestinal parasites and evaluation of health risks.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection. PMID:25478583

  5. Birds and Beaches, Dogs and Leashes: Dog Owners' Sense of Obligation to Leash Dogs on Beaches in Victoria, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn J. H. Williams; Michael A. Weston; Stacey Henry; Grainne S. Maguire

    2009-01-01

    Domesticated dogs threaten the conservation of beach-nesting birds in Australia through disturbance, and destruction of eggs and chicks. Leashing of dogs can improve conservation outcomes, but few dogs are leashed on beaches. We surveyed dog owners to explore their sense of obligation to leash dogs on beaches. Dog owners were more likely to feel obliged to leash their dog when

  6. Dogs on the catwalk: Modelling re-introduction and translocation of endangered wild dogs in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Gusset; Oliver Jakoby; Michael S. Müller; Michael J. Somers; Rob Slotow; Volker Grimm

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, a plan was launched to manage separate sub-populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in several small, geographically isolated conservation areas as a single meta-population. This intensive management approach involves the re-introduction of wild dogs into suitable conservation areas and periodic translocations among them. Despite the initial failures and high costs associated with wild dog re-introductions

  7. The Skin Microbiome in Healthy and Allergic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Patterson, Adam P.; Diesel, Alison; Lawhon, Sara D.; Ly, Hoai Jaclyn; Stephenson, Christine Elkins; Mansell, Joanne; Steiner, Jörg M.; Dowd, Scot E.; Olivry, Thierry; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n?=?12) and allergic dogs (n?=?6) from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. Conclusions/Significance The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between healthy and allergic dogs, with allergic dogs having lower species richness when compared to healthy dogs. PMID:24421875

  8. Chloramphenicol toxicity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D

    1977-07-01

    Twenty dogs were given chloramphenicol by mouth night and morning for 14 days: six dogs were dosed at 225 mg/kg/day, four each at 175 and 125 mg/kg/day and three each at 275 and 75 mg/kg/day. Six control dogs were given empty gelatin capsules twice daily for the same period. Dogs dosed at 75 mg/kg consumed more food and gained a little more weight than the control dogs, while those in the 175, 225 and 275 mg/kg groups ate less and lost weight. Four dogs dosed at 175 mg/kg or above became dull and depressed and virtually ceased to eat. No changes were observed in erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume or total and differential leukocyte counts during the experiment. Bone marrow examination showed suppression of erythropoiesis in four of nine dogs dosed at 225 or 275 mg/kg/day. In addition, there was evidence of decreased mitotic activity and reduced rate of granulocytopoiesis in the 275 mg/kg group. Vacuolation of marrow cells was not observed. The two toxic effects observed (depression and hypophagia on the one hand, marrow suppression on the other) occurred separately or together in individual dogs. PMID:905657

  9. Drawing Prairie Dog Blood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Blood is taken from an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endanger...

  10. Prairie Dog Under Anesthesia

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endangered black-footed ferrets in the western U.S. because the ferrets rely on prairie dogs for ...

  11. Sampling Prairie Dog Fur

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Fur samples are taken from an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect e...

  12. Anesthetizing a Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    National Park Service veterinarian Kevin Castle places a prairie dog under anesthesia in Wind Cave National Park. He will tag this trapped prairie dog and take hair, whisker, and blood samples before scientists release the animal back into the wild. Over 30 organizations and agencies are&...

  13. Prairie Dog in Trap

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

  14. Marked Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The chin of an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park is marked before the animal is released back into the wild. Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvat...

  15. Trapped Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

  16. Prairie Dog Tagging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An anaesthetized prairie dog is tagged in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endangered black-f...

  17. One Dog Policy

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-08-19

    Broadcast Transcript: First the one child policy and now the one dog policy. First in Beijing and now in Guangzhou, the government is limiting the number of dogs in any household to one. And the regulation wasn't grandfathered in, meaning if you had...

  18. Dogs Over Babies

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-08-19

    wee babe you find a wee dog. In a frilly t-shirt. Meet Japan's newest demographic: Career-oriented women who choose dogs instead of babies, careers instead of motherhood. These women spend big bucks on doggie accessories, doggie parties and doggie spas...

  19. Carolyn with Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease. A USGS technician works with a prairie dog as part of the center's efforts to protect prairie dogs, and in turn the endangered black-footed ferret, from plague....

  20. A retrospective study of the relationship between tracheal collapse and bronchiectasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marolf, Angela; Blaik, Margaret; Specht, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Tracheal collapse is common in middle age toy and miniature breed dogs. Cartilaginous defects have been identified histologically and are considered a form of chondromalacia. In addition to tracheal cartilaginous changes, concurrent lower airway histologic changes indicative of inflammation have been noted in dogs with tracheal collapse and these changes may lead t o concurrent bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bronchiectasis in dogs with a previous radiographic diagnosis of tracheal collapse. The thoracic radiographs of 60 dogs with tracheal collapse were evaluated for evidence of concurrent bronchiectasis. Eighteen of 60 (30%) dogs had evidence of bronchiectasis, and all were cylindrical in morphology. The signalment of affected dogs was similar to that previously reported. The occurrence of bronchiectasis in this group of dogs with tracheal collapse (18 dogs) was six times higher (P < 0.05) than the expected prevalence within a random sample population (three dogs). The results of this study provide evidence of a link between tracheal collapse and bronchiectasis. A finding of bronchiectasis with tracheal collapse should encourage further evaluation for chronic lower airway disease in these patients. PMID:17508504

  1. Blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Galler, A; Tran, J L; Krammer-Lukas, S; Höller, U; Thalhammer, J G; Zentek, J; Willmann, M

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may affect excretion and metabolism of vitamins but data for dogs are limited. In this study, blood vitamin levels were investigated in 19 dogs with chronic renal failure. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, whereas cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were increased compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with CKD showed decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Alpha-tocopherol, biotin, pantothenate and cobalamin levels were not significantly different between controls and dogs with CKD. Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies. PMID:21767966

  2. Experimental infection of equine herpesvirus 9 in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yanai, T; Fujishima, N; Fukushi, H; Hirata, A; Sakai, H; Masegi, T

    2003-05-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9), a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus, was inoculated intranasally at 107 plaque-forming units in five dogs to assess its pathogenicity. Dogs showed weight loss, pyrexia, anorexia, and neurologic signs on the fourth day. The EHV-9 virus was recovered from the examined brains. Histologically, dogs had a fulminant nonsuppurative encephalitis characterized by severe neuronal degeneration and loss, with intranuclear inclusions, slight glial reactions, perivascular cuffing, and multifocal hemorrhage. The olfactory bulb and the frontal and temporal lobes were predominantly affected. Immunohistochemistry revealed reactivity for EHV-9 antigen in neurons. All dogs had mild bronchopneumonia and various degrees of lymphoid necrosis. These findings indicate that dogs are fully susceptible to EHV-9 and that EHV-9 can cause fulminant encephalitis with high mortality in dogs, as in gazelles and goats. PMID:12724566

  3. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in dogs in Bogota, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm dogs closely associated with food animals such as dairy and beef cattle have the potential to serve as a source of infectious agents. In our previous studies cattle were found infected with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a parasite that also infects humans. However, nothing is known of the prevalence...

  4. Altered Splicing of the BIN1 Muscle-Specific Exon in Humans and Dogs with Highly Progressive Centronuclear Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Johann; Vasli, Nasim; Maurer, Marie; Cowling, Belinda; Shelton, G. Diane; Kress, Wolfram; Toussaint, Anne; Prokic, Ivana; Schara, Ulrike; Anderson, Thomas James; Weis, Joachim; Tiret, Laurent; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphysin 2, encoded by BIN1, is a key factor for membrane sensing and remodelling in different cell types. Homozygous BIN1 mutations in ubiquitously expressed exons are associated with autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a mildly progressive muscle disorder typically showing abnormal nuclear centralization on biopsies. In addition, misregulation of BIN1 splicing partially accounts for the muscle defects in myotonic dystrophy (DM). However, the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 and its pathogenicity in both muscle disorders are not well understood. In this study we identified and characterized the first mutation affecting the splicing of the muscle-specific BIN1 exon 11 in a consanguineous family with rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal centronuclear myopathy. In parallel, we discovered a mutation in the same BIN1 exon 11 acceptor splice site as the genetic cause of the canine Inherited Myopathy of Great Danes (IMGD). Analysis of RNA from patient muscle demonstrated complete skipping of exon 11 and BIN1 constructs without exon 11 were unable to promote membrane tubulation in differentiated myotubes. Comparative immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of patient and canine biopsies revealed common structural defects, emphasizing the importance of amphiphysin 2 in membrane remodelling and maintenance of the skeletal muscle triad. Our data demonstrate that the alteration of the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 is a common pathomechanism for centronuclear myopathy, myotonic dystrophy, and IMGD. The IMGD dog is the first faithful model for human BIN1-related CNM and represents a mammalian model available for preclinical trials of potential therapies. PMID:23754947

  5. Altered splicing of the BIN1 muscle-specific exon in humans and dogs with highly progressive centronuclear myopathy.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Johann; Vasli, Nasim; Maurer, Marie; Cowling, Belinda S; Cowling, Belinda; Shelton, G Diane; Kress, Wolfram; Toussaint, Anne; Prokic, Ivana; Schara, Ulrike; Anderson, Thomas James; Weis, Joachim; Tiret, Laurent; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2013-06-01

    Amphiphysin 2, encoded by BIN1, is a key factor for membrane sensing and remodelling in different cell types. Homozygous BIN1 mutations in ubiquitously expressed exons are associated with autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a mildly progressive muscle disorder typically showing abnormal nuclear centralization on biopsies. In addition, misregulation of BIN1 splicing partially accounts for the muscle defects in myotonic dystrophy (DM). However, the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 and its pathogenicity in both muscle disorders are not well understood. In this study we identified and characterized the first mutation affecting the splicing of the muscle-specific BIN1 exon 11 in a consanguineous family with rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal centronuclear myopathy. In parallel, we discovered a mutation in the same BIN1 exon 11 acceptor splice site as the genetic cause of the canine Inherited Myopathy of Great Danes (IMGD). Analysis of RNA from patient muscle demonstrated complete skipping of exon 11 and BIN1 constructs without exon 11 were unable to promote membrane tubulation in differentiated myotubes. Comparative immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of patient and canine biopsies revealed common structural defects, emphasizing the importance of amphiphysin 2 in membrane remodelling and maintenance of the skeletal muscle triad. Our data demonstrate that the alteration of the muscle-specific function of amphiphysin 2 is a common pathomechanism for centronuclear myopathy, myotonic dystrophy, and IMGD. The IMGD dog is the first faithful model for human BIN1-related CNM and represents a mammalian model available for preclinical trials of potential therapies. PMID:23754947

  6. High Prevalence of Food Insecurity and Hunger in Households in the Rural Lower Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuff, Janice E.; Horton, Jacqueline A.; Bogle, Margaret L.; Connell, Carol; Ryan, Donna; Zaghloul, Sahar; Thornton, Alma; Simpson, Pippa; Gossett, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Residents of the Lower Mississippi Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi are at risk for food insecurity since a high proportion of the population live in households with incomes below the poverty level and have reduced access to food and decreased availability of a variety of foods. However, the magnitude of the problem is unknown because…

  7. Subsite Distribution of Gastric Cancer in an Area of High Prevalence—Northwest Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousef Bafandeh; Sara Farhang

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine subsites of gastric cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran—a high incidence region for gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: Data were collected from 2002 through 2007 from patients who sought treatment for gastrointestinal symptoms or signs at a university clinic and subsequently underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Results: Cancer was diagnosed

  8. The Prevalence of Effective Substance Use Prevention Curricula in the Nation's High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Chris; Hanley, Sean; Vincus, Amy A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Despite a substantial proportion of high school students who initiate substance use following middle school, the implementation of universal evidence-based prevention curricula appears to be scant. We report data collected in 2005 from 1392 school district-based drug prevention coordinators, from a national, representative study of school-based…

  9. Prevalence of Gender DIF in Mixed Format High School Exit Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Dianne L.

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential sources of gender differential item bias (DIF) in a high school exit examination composed of both selected-response and constructed-response items in the content areas of English, social studies, mathematics, and biology. A secondary purpose was to determine the agreement between the…

  10. Prevalence of a characteristic gene profile in high-level rhythmic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Cristina; Brivio, Ilaria; Stucchi, Beatrice; Silvestri, Ilaria; Scurati, Raffaele; Michielon, Giovanni; Alberti, Giampietro; Venerando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    High-level physical performance in rhythmic gymnastics is influenced by numerous skills and anthropometric factors. In order to understand if genetic predisposition could play a role to define the elite rhythmic gymnast phenotype, we analysed the frequency of common polymorphisms linked to genes correlated with body mass (ADRB2 and FTO), explosive strength (ACTN3 and ACE), and joint mobility (COL5A1), in 42 gymnasts involved in National and International events, and in 42 control girls. Our results demonstrated that high-level rhythmic gymnasts constituted a genetically selected population showing higher frequency of: (a) ADRB2 and FTO alleles linked to low body mass index and low fat mass; (b) COL5A1 CT genotype linked to high joint mobility and to the occurrence of genu recurvatum, but also to a higher incidence of injuries. ACTN3 and ACE polymorphisms did not appear to be connected with the phenotype of high-level rhythmic gymnast. Based on these data, it can be assumed that these polymorphisms could positively affect the phenotype and performance of gymnasts. PMID:24702222

  11. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  12. High Prevalence of Autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 in Anti–Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody–Associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Tadema, Henko; McKinney, Eoin F.; Benharkou, Alexandra; Brandes, Ricarda; Peschel, Andrea; Hubert, Virginie; Feenstra, Tjerk; Sengölge, Gürkan; Stegeman, Coen; Heeringa, Peter; Lyons, Paul A.; Smith, Kenneth G.C.; Kallenberg, Cees; Rees, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The involvement of autoantibodies to human lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (hLAMP-2) in anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)–associated vasculitis is controversial because of the absence of confirmatory data subsequent to the initial reports of their high prevalence in this disease. We characterized three assays for anti-hLAMP-2 antibodies: ELISA and Western blotting assays using unglycosylated recombinant hLAMP-2 expressed in Escherichia coli, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay using stably transfected ldlD cells that expressed glycosylated full-length hLAMP-2 on the plasma membrane. The assays detected autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 in human sera reproducibly and with comparable sensitivity and the assays gave the same results in 80.5% of the test panel of 40 selected positive and negative sera. In untreated patients at presentation, the frequencies of autoantibodies to LAMP-2 were 89%, 91%, and 80%, respectively, among three groups of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis from Vienna, Austria (n=19); Groningen, the Netherlands (n=50) and Cambridge, United Kingdom (n=53). Prevalence of LAMP-2 autoantibodies was similar in both those with myeloperoxidase-ANCA and proteinase 3-ANCA. Furthermore, we detected LAMP-2 autoantibodies in two ANCA-negative patients. LAMP-2 autoantibodies rapidly became undetectable after the initiation of immunosuppressive treatment and frequently became detectable again during clinical relapse. We conclude that when robust assays are used, circulating autoantibodies to hLAMP-2 can be detected in most European patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. Large-scale prospective studies are now needed to determine whether they are pathogenic or merely an epiphenomenon. PMID:22323643

  13. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in the Dutch pediatric oncology population: a multicenter survey.

    PubMed

    Singendonk, Maartje; Kaspers, Gert-Jan; Naafs-Wilstra, Marianne; Meeteren, Antoinette Schouten-van; Loeffen, Jan; Vlieger, Arine

    2013-01-01

    Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used in the pediatric population, research on the use of these therapies in the pediatric oncology population is of mixed quality. In this multicenter survey, we investigated the prevalence of CAM use, possible determinants of use, and parental attitude towards communication and research on CAM therapies. The prevalence of CAM use in the past 12 months was assessed by using a questionnaire based on the European guidelines on CAM research, filled out by parents of children visiting pediatric oncology outpatient clinics of six academic hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire consisted of 26 questions on the child's clinical status, CAM use, and attitude towards communication and research on CAM therapies. One hundred and twenty-two of 288 respondents (42.4 %) reported CAM use. The most frequently used categories were homeopathy (18.8 %) and dietary supplements (11.5 %). Female gender and parental CAM use were significant predictors for the use of CAM (p?high-quality research in this field. This study shows that most parents have an open attitude towards CAM research and that almost half of the parents would consider participating in future CAM trials, paving the way for research on CAM and aiming for its evidence-based use in pediatric oncology. PMID:22991098

  14. Atrial Fibrillation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Prevalence, Clinical Correlations, and Mortality in a Large High?Risk Population

    PubMed Central

    Siontis, Konstantinos C.; Geske, Jeffrey B.; Ong, Kevin; Nishimura, Rick A.; Ommen, Steve R.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common sequela of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but evidence on its prevalence, risk factors, and effect on mortality is sparse. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of AF, identify clinical and echocardiographic correlates, and assess its effect on mortality in a large high?risk HCM population. Methods and Results We identified HCM patients who underwent evaluation at our institution from 1975 to 2012. AF was defined by known history (either chronic or paroxysmal), electrocardiogram, or Holter monitoring at index visit. We examined clinical and echocardiographic variables in association with AF. The effect of AF on overall and cause?specific mortality was evaluated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Of 3673 patients with HCM, 650 (18%) had AF. Patients with AF were older and more symptomatic (P<0.001). AF was less common among patients with obstructive HCM phenotype and was associated with larger left atria, higher E/e’ ratios, and worse cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance (all P values<0.001). During median (interquartile range) follow?up of 4.1 (0.2 to 10) years, 1069 (29%) patients died. Patients with AF had worse survival compared to those without AF (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis adjusted for established risk factors of mortality in HCM, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the effect of AF on overall mortality was 1.48 (1.27 to 1.71). AF did not have an effect on sudden or nonsudden cardiac death. Conclusions In this large referral HCM population, approximately 1 in 5 patients had AF. AF was a strong predictor of mortality, even after adjustment for established risk factors. PMID:24965028

  15. Low Levels of Awareness Despite High Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among Communities in Nyalenda Informal Settlement, Kisumu City, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odhiambo, Gladys O.; Musuva, Rosemary M.; Atuncha, Vincent O.; Mutete, Elizabeth T.; Odiere, Maurice R.; Onyango, Rosebella O.; Alaii, Jane A.; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal schistosomiasis is widely distributed around Lake Victoria in Kenya where about 16 million people in 56 districts are at risk of the infection with over 9.1 million infected. Its existence in rural settings has been extensively studied compared to urban settings where there is limited information about the disease coupled with low level of awareness. This study therefore assessed community awareness on existence, signs and symptoms, causes, transmission, control and risk factors for contracting schistosomiasis as well as attitudes, health seeking behaviour and environmental antecedents that affect its control so as to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to strengthen schistosomiasis control interventions in informal urban settings. Methods The study was carried out in an informal urban settlement where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was previously reported to be the highest (36%) among the eight informal settlements of Kisumu city. The study adopted cross-sectional design and purposive sampling technique. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members and eight key informant interviews with opinion leaders. Data was audio recorded transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 6 software. Results Most respondents stated having heard about schistosomiasis but very few had the correct knowledge of signs and symptoms, causes, transmission and control of schistosomiasis. However, there was moderate knowledge of risk factors and at high risk groups. Their attitudes towards schistosomiasis and its control were generally indifferent with a general belief that they had no control over their environmental circumstances to reduce transmission. Discussion/Conclusion Although schistosomiasis was prevalent in the study area, majority of the people in the community had low awareness. This study, therefore, stresses the need for health education to raise community's awareness on schistosomiasis in such settings in order to augment prevention, control and elimination efforts. PMID:24699502

  16. Training dogs to detect Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Jimmie C.; Smith, James L.; Moran, Jesse; Nelson, Ken; Utley, William E.

    2004-09-01

    Dogs have been used successfully to detect drugs and conventional high explosives. The world-wide rise in terrorist activities has placed emphasis on the detection of non-conventional explosive materials such as the multi-functional peroxides, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD). This study demonstrates that dogs can detect both solid TATP and TATP adsorbed to cotton balls. An effective procedure to train dogs to detect TATP using cotton balls permeated with TATP vapor is provided. The various trials showed that dogs were capable of detecting as little as 200 ?g of TATP adsorbed to a one gram cotton ball under a variety of circumstances. However, since TATP vaporizes rapidly at room temperature, significant depletion of TATP from cotton balls can occur in as little as 20 minutes, hampering the ability of the dogs to detect it. The TATP depleted cotton ball can be refreshed by returning it to a sealed container with TATP residue for about 20 minutes. A presumed decomposition product of TATP, acetone, cannot be used in place of TATP to train dogs.

  17. Dogs Are Not for Dinner

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-02-23

    Broadcast Transcript: Dogs. They're not just for dinner anymore. Over the years, many a Chinese diner has cooked and served dog and there's a story about an emperor from ancient times whose favorite meat was dog meat. And while dog is still...

  18. The Discourse of Dog Fighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Kalof; Carl Taylor

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, we discuss dog fighting as a blood sport with a history embedded in the status-driven display of masculinity, power and violence. Based on published reports and interviews with those living and working in dog fighting neighborhoods, we show that the contemporary cultural knowledge of dog fighting is a discourse with multiple meanings: for those who pit dogs

  19. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog–human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication (‘emotional reactivity hypothesis’). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog–wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf–wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog–human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  20. Independent Risk Factors for Gallstone Formation in a Region with High Cholelithiasis Prevalence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Völzke; Sebastian E. Baumeister; Dietrich Alte; Wolfgang Hoffmann; Christian Schwahn; Peter Simon; Ulrich John; Markus M. Lerch

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aims:Cholelithiasis is a common disorder in north-eastern Germany. Analyses of risk factors for gallstone formation in this population may have high explanatory power. Gender-specific risk factors for gallstone formation and their interactions were investigated by using data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Methods:Data of 4,202 persons aged 20–79 years were available. Cholelithiasis was defined by either

  1. High Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B Infection and Association with Underweight in Rwandan Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Ignatius; Jean Bosco Gahutu; Christian Klotz; Christian Steininger; Cyprien Shyirambere; Michel Lyng; Andre Musemakweri; Toni Aebischer; Peter Martus; Gundel Harms; Frank P. Mockenhaupt

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundGiardia duodenalis is highly endemic in East Africa but its effects on child health, particularly of submicroscopic infections, i.e., those below the threshold of microscopy, and of genetic subgroups (assemblages), are not well understood. We aimed at addressing these questions and at examining epidemiological characteristics of G. duodenalis in southern highland Rwanda.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn 583 children <5 years of age from

  2. Hepatic calodium hepaticum (Nematoda) infection in a zoo colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Jennifer A; Karim, Baktiar O; Poynton, Sarah L; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2003-12-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica), a nematode parasite commonly found in the liver of wild rodents, infects a wide variety of mammals, including humans. A retrospective study of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at the Baltimore Zoo showed that 5 of 21 (24%) of the prairie dogs submitted for postmortem examination between 1981 and 2001 had hepatic capillariasis, with all the infections diagnosed during or after 1997. Affected livers contained multifocal granulomas containing numerous eggs and occasional adult nematodes. Asymptomatic wild rats in the zoo with a high prevalence of infection may have served as a reservoir for the disease. Wild rodent control is essential to minimize exposure of susceptible exhibition animals as well as humans to C. hepaticum. PMID:15077713

  3. Seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Tripp, Shanesha; Kinlaw, Christopher; Sharma, R N; Stone, D; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections by both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi in dogs from Grenada, West Indies. We examined 70 dog sera using the qualitative immunochromatographic dipstick tests (ICTs) based on recombinant antigens specific for visceral leishmaniasis and AT. Antibodies to visceral Leishmania were not detected in Grenadian dogs by ICT. Using the canine dipsticks for AT, antibodies to T. cruzi were determined in 3 (4.3%) of the 70 dogs. Results from this study indicate that dogs in Grenada are exposed in low levels to T. cruzi , but not to visceral Leishmania spp. at all. PMID:19712013

  4. Animal Planet: Dog Breed Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Are you considering bringing a canine into the family, and wondering which type of dog would be the best fit? This website from Animal Planet provides potential dog owners with information about a variety of breeds. The site directory lists dogs under such categories as Hound, Sporting, Terrier, Working, Herding, and more. Site visitors can view profiles for many different types of dogs including the Bernese Mountain Dog, Irish Setter, Old English Sheepdog, and Tibetan Spaniel. Dog profiles contain a photograph, Rating of Characteristics; and concise sections addressing History, Temperament, Form and Function, Upkeep, and Health. Profiles also include a hyperlinked list of related dogs.

  5. Mortality after high ligation of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery in dogs; effects of various pharmacological agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Allenberg; L. von Gerstenbergk; G. J. Mast; H. Mehmel; U. Mittmann; R. Neeley; H. D. Schmidt; J. Schmier

    1971-01-01

    Summary Over a period of seven years the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was acutely ligated in a total of 93 dogs. Two control series, 1963\\/1964 and 1969\\/1970, on 11 and 13 dogs respectively, produced essentially identical survival rates of 9.1% and 7.7% despite variations in the experimental team. Two experimental series performed at the same time

  6. Causes of Death in Men With Prevalent Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed High- Versus Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V., E-mail: adamico@partners.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Moran, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prevalent diabetes mellitus (pDM) affects the presentation, extent of radiotherapy, or prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and whether PCa aggressiveness affects the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality in men with pDM. Methods: Between October 1997 and July 2907, 5,279 men treated at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center with radiotherapy for PCa were included in the study. Logistic and competing risk regression analyses were performed to assess whether pDM was associated with high-grade PCa, less aggressive radiotherapy, and an increased risk of PCSM. Competing risks and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess whether PCa aggressiveness described by risk group in men with pDM was associated with the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Analyses were adjusted for predictors of high-grade PCa and factors that could affect treatment extent and mortality. Results: Men with pDM were more likely (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; p = .002) to present with high-grade PCa but were not treated less aggressively (p = .33) and did not have an increased risk of PCSM (p = .58) compared to men without pDM. Among the men with pDM, high-risk PCa was associated with a greater risk of non-PCSM (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = .035), DM-related mortality (AHR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.0-14.0; p = .001), and all-cause mortality (AHR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; p = .01) compared to favorable-risk PCa. Conclusion: Aggressive management of pDM is warranted in men with high-risk PCa.

  7. Prevalence of Addiction to the Internet, Computer Games, DVD, and Video and Its Relationship to Anxiety and Depression in a Sample of Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Amiri, Amin; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Khademalhosseini, Mitra; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab; Gholami, Zeinab; Sharifian, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of addiction to the Internet, computer games, DVD, and video and its relationship to anxiety and depression in a sample of Iranian high school students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1020 high school students (males and females) were selected randomly from different areas of Shiraz city in southern Iran. They were interviewed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed (DSM-IV) criteria. Results: About 50% of the students were females, 277 students (27.2%) were studying in the first year of high school, 242 (23.7%) were in the second year, and others in the third year. The prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher in females than in males (p < 0.05). The prevalence of anxiety was lower among students of the third year (p < 0.05). The prevalence of depression was significantly higher in students with lower economic status defined as family monthly income. Internet dependence was seen only in 5 students. The prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher in the students who used internet for chatting, amusement, and reading news (p < 0.05). The prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher in students who were DVD or video CD dependents (p < 0.05). The students who used especial drugs or had especial diseases had higher rates of depression and anxiety (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Internet addiction may cause depression and anxiety in high school students. It seems necessary to develop an Internet addiction prevention program for adolescents taking into account the psychological factors such as depression and Internet use habits. PMID:25053960

  8. Dangerous dogs: culprits or victims?

    PubMed

    Mills, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Dangerous dogs and dog bite incidents are rarely out of the news and are a matter of great public interest, but what can be done to tackle this issue and are the dogs really to blame? A debate at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show discussed the complexities surrounding dog bites and dog behaviour, and looked at possible ways of preventing future incidents. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:25480896

  9. Mutation screening of the HGD gene identifies a novel alkaptonuria mutation with significant founder effect and high prevalence.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Srinivasan; Zatkova, Andrea; Nemethova, Martina; Surovy, Milan; Kadasi, Ludevit; Saravanan, Madurai P

    2014-05-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder; caused by the mutations in the homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene located on Chromosome 3q13.33. AKU is a rare disorder with an incidence of 1: 250,000 to 1: 1,000,000, but Slovakia and the Dominican Republic have a relatively higher incidence of 1: 19,000. Our study focused on studying the frequency of AKU and identification of HGD gene mutations in nomads. HGD gene sequencing was used to identify the mutations in alkaptonurics. For the past four years, from subjects suspected to be clinically affected, we found 16 positive cases among a randomly selected cohort of 41 Indian nomads (Narikuravar) settled in the specific area of Tamil Nadu, India. HGD gene mutation analysis showed that 11 of these patients carry the same homozygous splicing mutation c.87 + 1G > A; in five cases, this mutation was found to be heterozygous, while the second AKU-causing mutation was not identified in these patients. This result indicates that the founder effect and high degree of consanguineous marriages have contributed to AKU among nomads. Eleven positive samples were homozygous for a novel mutation c.87 + 1G > A, that abolishes an intron 2 donor splice site and most likely causes skipping of exon 2. The prevalence of AKU observed earlier seems to be highly increased in people of nomadic origin. PMID:24575791

  10. Impaired-Driving Prevalence Among US High School Students: Associations With Substance Use and Risky Driving Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hingson, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of impaired driving among US high school students and associations with substance use and risky driving behavior. Methods. We assessed driving while alcohol or drug impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol- or drug-impaired drivers (RWI) in a nationally representative sample of 11th-grade US high school students (n?=?2431). We examined associations with drinking and binge drinking, illicit drug use, risky driving, and demographic factors using multivariate sequential logistic regression analysis. Results. Thirteen percent of 11th-grade students reported DWI at least 1 of the past 30 days, and 24% reported RWI at least once in the past year. Risky driving was positively associated with DWI (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.25; P?

  11. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains are highly prevalent in Ugandan piggeries but disease outbreaks are masked by antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Okello, Emmanuel; Moonens, Kristof; Erume, Joseph; De Greve, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease of newly weaned piglets. ETEC strains commonly express F4 and/or F18 fimbriae that attach to carbohydrate receptors present on the intestinal epithelium during colonization. The disease status in the Ugandan piggeries had previously not been studied. In this cross-sectional sero-survey and clinical outbreak monitoring, we found very high sero-prevalence levels of both anti-F4 (70.5%) and anti-F18 (73.7%) antibodies, despite limited cases of clinical outbreaks. Strains isolated from these cases were typically F18(+) ETEC. High antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were characteristics of the isolates, with highest resistance level of over 95% to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. We conclude that ETEC infections are widely spread on farms in Central Uganda but clinical disease outbreaks were masked by the management practices on these farms, like the use of extensive antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25311441

  12. High prevalence of suicide risk in people living with HIV: who is at higher risk?

    PubMed

    Passos, Susane Müller Klug; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Spessato, Bárbara Coiro

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was developed to evaluate suicide risk and associated factors in HIV/AIDS patients at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. We assessed 211 patients in regard to suicide risk, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression, and anxiety. Suicide risk was assessed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Module C. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Of the total sample, 34.1% were at risk of suicide. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independently associated with suicide risk: female gender; age up to 47 years; unemployment; indicative of anxiety; indicative of depression; and abuse or addiction on psychoactive substances. Suicide risk is high in this population. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation, given their strong association with suicide risk. PMID:24797027

  13. Western European epidemiological survey for parvovirus and coronavirus infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Billi, Monica; Mari, Viviana; Elia, Gabriella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-02-01

    An epidemiological survey for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine coronavirus (CCoV) infections was conducted in Western Europe. A total of 156 faecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhoea in Spain (n=47), Italy (n=39), France (n=26), Germany (n=21), the United Kingdom (n=8), Belgium (n=10), and the Netherlands (n=5). Using molecular assays for virus detection and characterisation, CPV and CCoV were found to be widespread in European dog populations, either alone or in mixed infections. In agreement with previous reports, the original type CPV-2 was shown not to circulate in European dogs. The recently identified virus variant CPV-2c was predominant in Italy and Germany and present at high rates in Spain and France but was not detected in the UK or Belgium. Except for the UK, CCoV genotype I was identified in all European countries involved in the survey, albeit at a lower prevalence rates than CCoV genotype II. PMID:19932978

  14. Flea Abundance on Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) Increases During Plague Epizootics

    E-print Network

    Antolin, Michael F.

    the 1940s (Ecke and Johnson 1952), and prairie dogs experience rapid epizo- otics with mortality on townsFlea Abundance on Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) Increases During Plague-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible

  15. Training dogs with help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioural effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthijs B. H. Schilder; Joanne A. M. van der Borg

    2004-01-01

    Behavioural effects of the use of a shock collar during guard dog training of German shepherd dogs were studied. Direct reactions of 32 dogs to 107 shocks showed reactions (lowering of body posture, high pitched yelps, barks and squeals, avoidance, redirection aggression, tongue flicking) that suggest stress or fear and pain. Most of these immediate reactions lasted only a fraction

  16. A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement

    E-print Network

    A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement Ashish Singh, James E}@cs.umanitoba.ca Abstract. We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of com- municating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages peo- ple's general knowledge of dogs

  17. Serological survey of Leishmania infection in dogs from the municipality of Peso da Régua (Alto Douro, Portugal) using the direct agglutination test (DAT) and fast agglutination screening test (FAST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu??s Cardoso; Henk D. F. H Schallig; Francisco Neto; Nel Kroon; Manuela Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is a prevalent disease in dogs and humans. A serological survey of Leishmania infection in dogs was carried out in the endemic region of Alto Douro (north Portugal). Two hundred and ninety-four dogs from the municipality of Peso da Régua were examined for clinical signs of canine leishmaniasis (CanL), and sera samples were evaluated by

  18. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Lud?k; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  19. Prevalence Projections

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Prevalence Projections Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health

  20. Landscape features influence genetic structure of black-tailed prairie dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Antolin; L. T. Savage; R. J. Eisen

    2006-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) currently live in metapopulations in the parts of their range where plague, caused by the bacterium Yesinia pestis, has invaded. Prairie dogs are highly susceptible to the pathogen, with most animals within towns dying during Y. pestis outbreaks. A review of population genetic studies of prairie dogs demonstrates considerable differentiation between prairie\\u000a dog towns. Despite

  1. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (?18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (<18 years). However, there was no significant difference in cumulative incidence of dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and expressing negative perceptions of community dogs (Spearman rho<0.13). Reporting of a dog bite was not significantly correlated to expressing fear or negative perceptions towards community dogs. A further understanding of current programs directed at the prevention of dog bites and means of dog population control may help determine appropriate future steps for canine management. Conflicts between free roaming dogs and people are a pressing issue worldwide, and a focus on prevention strategies through education, rather than rapid extermination, would be of benefit. PMID:21872951

  2. High Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) Prevalence, Clinical Correlates and High Incidence among Recently HIV-1-Infected Subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Mariana Dias; Ferreira, Suzete; Sauer, Mariana M.; Tomiyama, Helena; Giret, Maria Teresa Maidana; Pannuti, Cláudio S.; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent for Kaposi Sarcoma, which occurs especially in HIV-infected subjects. HHV-8 infection and its clinical correlates have not been well characterized in recently HIV-1-infected subjects, especially men who have sex with men (MSM). Methodology/ Principal Findings We assessed the HHV-8 seroprevalence, clinical correlates, and incidence after one year of follow-up in a cohort of 228 recently HIV-1-infected individuals, of whom 83.6% were MSM, using indirect immunofluorescence assay. The prevalence of HHV-8 infection at the time of cohort enrollment was 25.9% (59/228). In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, black ethnicity, MSM practice, and previous hepatitis B virus and syphilis infections. In the multivariate model we could still demonstrate association with MSM, hepatitis B, and black ethnicity. No differences in mean CD4+ cell counts or HIV viral load according to HHV-8 status were found. In terms of incidence, there were 23/127 (18.1%) seroconversions in the cohort after 1 year. Conclusions HHV-8 is highly prevalent among recently HIV-1-infected subjects. Correlations with other sexually transmitted infections suggest common transmission routes. PMID:19479040

  3. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis and of Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichia Infection in Dogs in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Pusterla, Jeannine Berger; Deplazes, Peter; Wolfensberger, Celestine; Müller, Werner; Hörauf, Angelika; Reusch, Claudia; Lutz, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Serum samples from 996 dogs in Switzerland were examined for antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and to the agent causing canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (CGE). Ehrlichiosis, borreliosis, and systemic illness not associated with ticks were suspected in 75, 122, and 157 of these dogs, respectively. The remainder of the serum samples were obtained from clinically healthy dogs which resided north (n = 235) or south (n = 407) of the Alps. The serum samples were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence technique for antibodies to the two agents incriminated, E. canis and Ehrlichia phagocytophila, a surrogate marker of the agent of CGE. Twenty-two of 996 (2.2%) serum samples had antibodies to E. canis and were distributed as follows: 20 of 75 (26.7%) samples from dogs suspected of having ehrlichiosis, 1 of 122 (0.8%) from dogs suspected of having borreliosis, and 1 of 407 (0.2%) from healthy dogs which resided south of the Alps. Of the 75 (7.5%) serum samples that had antibodies to E. phagocytophila, significantly more samples were from ill dogs than from healthy dogs. Among the sera from healthy dogs, antibodies to E. phagocytophila were significantly more prevalent in the north. Because seropositive dogs had a history of travel outside Switzerland and because Rhipicephalus sanguineus is found exclusively south of the Alps, it was presumed that, in contrast to the agent of CGE, E. canis is not indigenous to Switzerland. PMID:9817854

  4. Dental abnormalities associated with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, JR; Reiter, AM; Mauldin, EA; Casal, ML

    2009-01-01

    Objectives X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) occurs in several species, including humans, mice, cattle and dogs. The orofacial manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia in humans and mice have been extensively studied, but documentation of dental abnormalities in dogs is lacking. The current study describes the results of clinical and radiographic examinations of XLHED-affected dogs and demonstrates profound similarities to findings of XLHED-affected humans. Setting and sample population Section of Medical Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine. Clinical and radiographic oral examinations were performed on 17 dogs with XLHED, 3 normal dogs, and 2 dogs heterozygous for XLHED. Materials and methods The prevalence and severity of orofacial and dental abnormalities were evaluated by means of a sedated examination, photographs, and full-mouth intraoral radiographs. Results Crown and root abnormalities were common in dogs affected by XLHED, including hypodontia, oligodontia, conical crown shape, decreased number of cusps, decreased number of roots, and dilacerated roots. Persistent deciduous teeth were frequently encountered. Malocclusion was common, with Angle Class I mesioversion of the maxillary and/or mandibular canine teeth noted in 15 of 17 dogs. Angle Class III malocclusion (maxillary brachygnathism) was seen in one affected dog. Conclusion Dental abnormalities are common and severe in dogs with XLHED. Dental manifestations of canine XLHED share characteristics of brachyodont tooth type and diphyodont dentition, confirming this species to be an orthologous animal model for study of human disease. PMID:20078794

  5. Canine Distemper Virus Strains Circulating among North American Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kapil; Robin W. Allison; Larry Johnston; Brandy L. Murray; Steven Holland; Jim Meinkoth; Bill Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes multisystemic disease in dogs. We received seven samples from dogs with CD from the United States during 2007. CDV isolates from these samples formed large, multinucleated syncytia in a Vero cell line expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Based on the hemagglutinin gene sequences, the CDV isolates from

  6. Social organization and space-use in Gunnison's prairie dog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Rayor

    1988-01-01

    Social organization of the Gunnison's prairie dog, Cynomys gunnisoni, was studied in two populations in south-central Colorado. Gunnison's prairie dogs live in complex, interactive societies fitting current definitions of highly social ground squirrels. Members of harems (‘coteries’) cooperatively use and defend a common territory. Spatial overlap is extensive between the adult male(s) and adult females, and among adult females within

  7. Shock collars used as correction of behaviour in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Kraft Thomassen

    In the canine business, running from dogs kept as family pets to highly specialized working dogs, training methods are frequently discussed. One of the methods causing a consistent debate is the use of shock collars. A shock collar is an electric receiver attached to the animals' neck by a firm collar. The owner\\/trainer holds a transmitter, which can be used

  8. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3?days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8?kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20?kg; 10?years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48?hours. PMID:26023146

  9. Ototoxicity in Children With High-Risk Neuroblastoma: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Concordance of Grading Scales—A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Wendy; Knight, Kristin; Wong, F. Lennie; Lee, Jin; Thomas, Ola; Kim, Heeyoung; Kreissman, Susan G.; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Chen, Lu; London, Wendy B.; Gurney, James G.; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based therapy is the mainstay for management of high-risk neuroblastoma. Prevalence of platinum-related ototoxicity has ranged from 13% to 95% in previous reports; variability is attributable to small samples and disparate grading scales. There is no consensus regarding optimal ototoxicity grading. Furthermore, prevalence and predictors of hearing loss in a large uniformly treated high-risk neuroblastoma population are unknown. We address these gaps in our study. Patients and Methods Audiologic testing was completed after administration of cisplatin alone (< 400 mg/m2; exposure one) or after cisplatin (400 mg/m2) plus carboplatin (1,700 mg/m2; exposure two). Hearing loss was graded using four scales (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association; Brock; Chang; and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3 [CTCAEv3]). Results Of 489 eligible patients, 333 had evaluable audiologic data. Median age at diagnosis was 3.3 years. Prevalence of severe hearing loss differed by scale. For those in the exposure-one group, prevalence ranged from 8% per Brock to 47% per CTCAEv3 (Brock v CTCAEv3 and Chang, P < .01; CTCAEv3 v Chang, P = .16); for those in the exposure-two group, prevalence ranged from 30% per Brock to 71% per CTCAEv3 (all pair-wise comparisons, P < .01). In patients requiring hearing aids, hearing loss was graded as severe in 49% (Brock), 91% (Chang), and 100% (CTCAEv3). Risk factors for severe hearing loss included exposure to cisplatin and carboplatin compared with cisplatin alone and hospitalization for infection. Conclusion Severe hearing loss is prevalent among children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Exposure to cisplatin combined with myeloablative carboplatin significantly increases risk. The Brock scale underestimates severe hearing loss and should be used with caution in this setting. PMID:24419114

  10. [An update on viral diseases of the dog and cat].

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; Egberink, H F

    2009-04-15

    In this review, recent developments in the field of viral diseases of the dog and the cat are discussed. In the dog, infection with the coronavirus type 2 is associated with respiratory signs, while infection of a highly pathogenic strain of the coronavirus type 1 has been identified as the cause of mortality in puppies. A new strain of the canine parvovirus is identified, from which the pathogenicity is not yet completely clarified. Infection with West Nile virus is associated with progressive neurological disease and subclinical infections in dogs. Infection with equine influenza A (H3N8) or a highly related influenza virus can cause severe respiratory disease and mortality in greyhounds and other dogs. Infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) can cause disease and mortality in cats and is mostly subclinical in dogs. A number of outbreaks of highly virulent strains of the calicivirus in cats have been described. PMID:19462619

  11. High prevalence of abscesses and self-treatment among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pollini, Robin A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Hasan, Samreen; Minuto, Joshua; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Soft tissue infections are common among injection drug users (IDUs), but information on correlates and treatment in this highly marginalized population is lacking. Methods Six hundred twenty-three community-recruited IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico, completed a detailed interview on abscess history and treatment. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify factors independently associated with having an abscess in the prior 6 months. Results Overall, 46% had ever had an abscess and 20% had had an abscess in the past 6 months. Only 12% had sought medical care for their most recent abscess; 60% treated the abscess themselves. The most common self-treatment method was to apply heated (24%) or unheated (23%) Aloe vera leaf. Other methods included draining the wound with a syringe (19%) or knife (11%). Factors independently associated with recent abscess were having income from sex work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08–10.00), smoking methamphetamine (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.05–2.62), seeking someone to help with injection (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.18–3.61), and reporting that police affected where they used drugs (aOR 2.14, 95% CI 1.15–3.96). Conclusions Abscesses are common among IDUs in this setting, but appropriate treatment is rare. Interventions to reduce barriers to medical care in this population are needed. Research on the effectiveness of Aloe vera application in this setting is also needed, as are interventions to provide IDU sex workers, methamphetamine smokers, and those who assist with injection with the information and equipment necessary to reduce abscess risk. PMID:20381396

  12. Low prevalence of insulin resistance among HIV-infected children receiving nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Lee; L Aurpibul; V Sirisanthana; A Mangklabruks; T Sirisanthana; T Puthanakit

    2009-01-01

    Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is reported to cause insulin resistance among adults, but effects on children are less clear. We attempted to describe the prevalence of insulin resistance among HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Methods Insulin resistance was assessed at 96 weeks of treatment with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based HAART (nevirapine or efavirenz with stavudine and lamivudine) among

  13. The Prevalence and Correlates of Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout among Teachers Working in High-Poverty Urban Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham-Cook, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Although public school educators employed in high-poverty urban districts are likely to encounter traumatized children on a regular basis, there is a scarcity of research exploring the psychological effects of secondary traumatic stress exposure in this population. As such, a primary goal of the study was to explore the prevalence and correlates…

  14. Heavy alcohol use among elementary and high-school students in downtown and outskirts of Campinas City - São Paulo: prevalence and related factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meire Solder; Paulo Dalgalarrondo; Cleide Aparecida

    It is important to identify factors related to heavy alcohol use among adolescents, as this allows interventions aimed at reducing risk behavior and pos- sible increasing harmful use of alcohol. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use and investigate the influence of sociodemographic, cultural and psychopathological vari- ables on alcohol use among elementary and high-school students of public

  15. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Pre-S Mutant in Countries Where It Is Endemic and Its Relationship with Genotype and Chronicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Thien-Tuan Huy; Hiroshi Ushijima; Khin Maung Win; Pairoj Luengrojanakul; Pradeep Krishna Shrestha; Zhao-Hua Zhong; Andrei V. Smirnov; Teresa Casanovas Taltavull; Tetsutaro Sata; Kenji Abe

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants carrying mutations in the pre-S region can be found in infected patients. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of the HBV variant with the pre-S mutant in different geographic regions, including countries with low and high levels of endemic HBV infection, and analyzed the correlation with clinical findings. We

  16. Prevalence of anxiety disorders among Finnish primary care high utilizers and validation of Finnish translation of GAD-7 and GAD-2 screening tools

    PubMed Central

    Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Jokelainen, Jari; Hirsikangas, Sari; Kanste, Outi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Timonen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To analyse the prevalence of GAD and other anxiety disorders, as well as sensitivity and specificity of GAD-7 among high utilizers of health care. Setting. Four municipal health centres in Northern Finland. Subjects. A psychiatric interview was conducted for 150 high utilizers of health care. Main outcome measures. Prevalence of GAD as well as sensitivity and specificity of GAD-7. Results. The prevalence of GAD was 4% in this study group of Finnish high utilizers of health care. The sensitivity of GAD-7 was 100.0% (95% CI 54.1–100.0) and the specificity of GAD-7 was 82.6% (95% CI 75.4–88.4) with a cut-off point of 7 or more. Conclusion. GAD is rather common among high utilizers of primary care, although the prevalence of 4% is lower than that previously reported. GAD-7 is a valid and useful tool for detecting GAD among primary health care patients. PMID:24920316

  17. Mitral annular calcium detected by transthoracic echocardiography is a marker for high prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda Adler; Itzhak Herz; Mordehay Vaturi; Renato Fusman; Ronit Shohat-Zabarski; Noam Fink; Avital Porter; Yaron Shapira; Abid Assali; Alex Sagie

    1998-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that mitral annular calcium (MAC) detected by transthoracic echocardlography (TTE) is a marker for high prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Pathological studies have suggested that there is an association between MAC and calcific deposits in coronary arteries; however, there are no clinical data to support this association.

  18. The utility of screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (scared) as a tool for identifying children at high risk for prevalent anxiety disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Muris; Harald Merckelbach; Merel Kindt; Susan Bögels; Laura Dreessen; Ciona Van Dorp; Andrea Habets; Sandra Rosmuller; Nienke Snieder

    2001-01-01

    The current study examined the utility of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) as a screening tool for the identification of children at high risk for prevalent childhood anxiety disorders. The child version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (KSCID) was used as the diagnostic standard. It was investigated whether SCARED scores are indicative for the

  19. Identification of a new copper metabolism gene by positional cloning in a purebred dog population.

    PubMed

    van De Sluis, Bart; Rothuizen, Jan; Pearson, Peter L; van Oost, Bernard A; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2002-01-15

    Domesticated animal species such as dogs and cats, with their many different characteristics and breed-specific diseases, and their close relationship and shared environment with humans, are a potentially rich source for the identification of the genetic contribution to human biology and disease. Copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers is a genetic disease occurring with a high prevalence worldwide and is unique to this breed. Copper homeostasis appears to be well regulated in mammals. Two copper carrier proteins have been identified in man and rodents which, when dysfunctional, cause either copper deficiency (Menkes disease) or copper accumulation in various tissues (Wilson disease). However, these proteins are not primarily involved in the biliary excretion of copper. Bedlington terriers have a high prevalence of copper toxicosis and it is well documented that their biliary excretion of copper is impaired. This disease is of direct relevance for the understanding of copper metabolism in mammals. Previously, we mapped the copper toxicosis gene to dog chromosome region 10q26. Based on DNA samples obtained from privately owned dogs, we were able to confine the localization of the copper toxicosis gene to a region of <500 kb by linkage disequilibrium mapping. While screening genes and expressed sequence tags in this region for mutations we found that exon 2 of the MURR1 gene is deleted in both alleles of all affected Bedlington terriers and in single alleles in obligate carriers. Although the function of the MURR1 gene is still unknown, the discovery of a mutated MURR1 gene in Bedlington terriers with copper toxicosis provides a new lead to disentangling the complexities of copper metabolism in mammals. PMID:11809725

  20. High Prevalence of Cysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in Southern Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rottbeck, Ruth; Nshimiyimana, Jules Fidèle; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Düll, Uta E.; Sattler, Janko; Hategekimana, Jean-Claudien; Hitayezu, Janvier; Bruckmaier, Irmengard; Borchert, Matthias; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Harms, Gundel

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by Taenia solium larvae, is a preventable and treatable cause of epilepsy. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the role of NCC in epilepsy differs geographically and, overall, is poorly defined. We aimed at contributing specific, first data for Rwanda, assessing factors associated with NCC, and evaluating a real-time PCR assay to diagnose NCC in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methodology/Principal findings At three healthcare facilities in southern Rwanda, 215 people with epilepsy (PWE) and 51 controls were clinically examined, interviewed, and tested by immunoblot for cysticerci-specific serum antibodies. Additionally, CSF samples from PWE were tested for anticysticercal antibodies by ELISA and for parasite DNA by PCR. Cranial computer tomography (CT) scans were available for 12.1% of PWE with additional symptoms suggestive of NCC. The Del Brutto criteria were applied for NCC diagnosis. Cysticerci-specific serum antibodies were found in 21.8% of PWE and 4% of controls (odds ratio (OR), 6.69; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.6–58.7). Seropositivity was associated with age and lack of safe drinking water. Fifty (23.3%) PWE were considered NCC cases (definitive, based on CT scans, 7.4%; probable, mainly based on positive immunoblots, 15.8%). In CSF samples from NCC cases, anticysticercal antibodies were detected in 10% (definitive cases, 25%) and parasite DNA in 16% (definitive cases, 44%). Immunoblot-positive PWE were older (medians, 30 vs. 22 years), more frequently had late-onset epilepsy (at age >25 years; 43.5% vs. 8.5%; OR, 8.30; 95%CI, 3.5–20.0), and suffered from significantly fewer episodes of seizures in the preceding six months than immunoblot-negative PWE. Conclusions/Significance NCC is present and contributes to epilepsy in southern Rwanda. Systematic investigations into porcine and human cysticercosis as well as health education and hygiene measures for T. solium control are needed. PCR might provide an additional, highly specific tool in NCC diagnosis. PMID:24244783

  1. Tick infestation and prophylaxis of dogs in northeastern Germany: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephanie; Schreiber, Cécile; Schein, Eberhard; Krücken, Jürgen; Baldermann, Claudia; Pachnicke, Stefan; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Kohn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Ticks transmit various important pathogens to humans and animals, and dogs are frequently exposed to tick infestation. The objective of this study was to examine tick infestation and the characteristics of tick prophylaxis of dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. A total of 441 dogs (392 owners) was examined from March 2010 to April 2011. The dog owners participated in the study for a period of 1-13 months (10.33±2.85; median 11.00). The prevalences of a total of 1728 ticks collected from 251 (57%) of these dogs were: 46.0% Ixodes ricinus, 45.1% Dermacentor reticulatus, 8.8% Ixodes hexagonus, and 0.1% Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The ticks were 75.2% adult females and 24.4% adult males, and 0.4% were nymphs. The average prevalence of apparent infestation of tick-positive dogs was 0.78 ticks/month (median 0.38). Tick infestation was highest in October (5.9±5.8 ticks/dog) and lowest in December (1±0 tick/dog). The highest frequency of infestation was observed during May (117 dogs). The number of ticks found on dogs by owners on a single day varied from one to 70 (median 1). The scutal index indicated that more than 60% of I. ricinus and more than 40% of D. reticulatus had been removed after they had fed for more than 2 days. The heads, necks, chests, and limbs of the dogs were the most common attachment sites. Data for tick prophylaxis with substances licensed for dogs by the Medicinal Products Act (MPA) were available for 124 dogs; a total of 1195 ticks was obtained from these dogs. About two-thirds of the ticks were collected from dogs that were treated incorrectly (n=96) or were not treated (n=60). One third of the ticks were collected from dogs (n=96) that had been treated correctly. Dog-specific characteristics such as length of coat (p=0.011) and body size (p=0.040) played significant roles in tick infestation. PMID:24629616

  2. High Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium Isolates from Pediatric Patients with Diarrhea in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fangyou; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Xiaojun; Li, Qiaoqiao; Ding, Baixing; Yang, Lehe; Chen, Cong; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Jinwei; Luo, Yun; Wang, Liangxing; Pan, Jingye

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%), tetracycline (80.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%), chloramphenicol (66.1%), cefotaxime (27.4%). Forty-nine (79.0%) of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for blaTEM-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0%) were positive for blaCTX-M-1-group and blaCTX-M-9-group, and all isolates harboring blaCTX-M genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of blaCTX-M-55 within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates. PMID:21390297

  3. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity and associated factors among public high school students in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de; Tenório, Maria Cecilia Marinho; Bezerra, Jorge; Hallal, Pedro C

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the association between demographic, socioeconomic, school-related, and behavioral factors and overweight and obesity in adolescents. The sample included 4,210 public high school students (14-19 years old) in Pernambuco State, Brazil, selected by two-stage cluster sampling. Obesity and overweight were assessed using anthropometric measurements, and the Global School-Based Health Survey was used to collect personal and behavioral data. The cutoff points for defining overweight and obesity were those recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Prevalence rates for overweight and obesity were 11.5% (95%CI: 10.7-12.8) and 2.4% (95%CI: 1.9-2.9), respectively. Overweight and obesity were more common in males who reported residing in urban areas and were not enrolled in physical education classes. Watching television 3+ hours/day was associated with obesity in females. Reducing TV time and encouraging enrollment in physical education could be effective measures to counteract the growing obesity trends. PMID:20191155

  4. Are insecticide-impregnated dog collars a feasible alternative to dog culling as a strategy for controlling canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Reithinger; Paul G Coleman; Bruce Alexander; Edvar Paula Vieira; Geraldo Assis; Clive R Davies

    2004-01-01

    In a zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL)-endemic area in Brazil, deltamethrin-impregnated collars (DMC) were fitted to 136 dogs for 5 months and significantly reduced the odds of increasing their anti-Leishmania antibody titer during this period by 50% (95% confidence interval 29–87%, P=0.01), as compared with a population of 97 uncollared dogs with pre-intervention prevalence within the same town. Mathematical modeling suggests

  5. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  6. Seroprevalence of Some Vector-Borne Infections of Dogs in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Lukács, Zoltán; Aladics, Balázs; Solymosi, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The first comprehensive study on the prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis) was carried in Hungary because, except for babesiosis and dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria repens, there were no data on their regional distribution and prevalence. In 2011 and 2012, 1305 blood samples were collected from randomly selected, apparently healthy pet dogs in 167 localities of 19 counties of Hungary. All sera samples from dogs were screened for simultaneous qualitative detection of circulating antibodies to E. canis and B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen using SNAP® 4Dx (IDEXX Laboratories). Overall, 170 dogs (13.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 11–15) were serologically positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. A. phagocytophilum was the most prevalent pathogen detected in 102 dogs by antibody titers (7.9%, 95% CI 6.5–9.5), followed by D. immitis (2.4%, 95% CI 1.0–4.0, n=64) and B. burgdorferi (0.4%, 95% CI 0.0–1.1, n=11) out of 1305 tested dogs. The least prevalent infection was with E. canis, with only two positive dogs (0.16%, 95% CI 0.03–0.6). Co-infection was found in eight dogs (0.61%, 95% CI 0.29–1.21), of which seven were seropositive to two pathogens (five with A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis, two with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi). One dog was serologically positive to three pathogens (A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi, and D. immitis). Purebred and crossbred animals did not show significantly different levels of seropositivity. There was no significant association between the gender and the results of diagnostic testing. Logistic regression analysis showed a higher chance of seropositivity in the older dogs. PMID:24689833

  7. Dog echinococcosis in northern Spain: comparison of coproantigen and serum antibody assays with coprological exam.

    PubMed

    Benito, Aitziber; Carmena, David; Joseph, Lawrence; Martínez, Jorge; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2006-11-30

    A large sheep-dog population from the province of Alava (northern Spain) has been investigated in order to determine the prevalence of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Worms were detected in 14.0% of 721 dog faecal supernatants by coproantigen ELISA, and in 9.1% of 754 dog serum samples by serum antibody ELISA. A weak but statistically significant correlation (Spearman's rho=0.103, 95% CI: 0.023-0.178) between the two immunoassay results was found. In addition, eggs of the family Taeniidae were detected in 10.3% of 726 faecal samples examined by coproparasitological (flotation and sedimentation) tests. The overall E. granulosus infection rate, based on a Bayesian latent class model that accounts for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of all diagnostic tests used, was estimated to be 8.0% (95% credible interval: 5.4-11.4%), corroborating that sheep-dog is the dog class most vulnerable to acquiring the infection. Dog sex did not influence the prevalence of E. granulosus, independently of the diagnostic test used or the dog region of origin. No significant linear correlation was found between the coproantigen ELISA OD values and the dog age (Spearman's rho=-0.049, 95% CI: -0.234 to 0.135), suggesting that there were no differences in prevalence of E. granulosus between old and young dogs. The obtained results highlight the importance of initiating a control program based on regular treatment of the sheep-dogs with praziquantel in the province of Alava. PMID:16863681

  8. Nutrition of aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344

  9. Let the Dogs Out!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrea S. Foster

    2003-04-01

    Even the simplest of toys can be great tools for promoting interest in physical science principles. The author developed a strategy based on the 5E learning cycle (Engage, Explore, Explanation, Elaboration, and Evaluation) that uses bobble head dogs to explore the principles of force and motion, systems, and simple machines. The activity is designed to have students make predictions and ask questions about the internal mechanism that allows the dog's head to bobble, and then construct their own model using simple materials.

  10. Campylobacter enteritis in dogs and cats: a 'new' zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, M B

    1981-09-01

    The subject is introduced by a brief historical resumé and account of campylobacter enterocolitis in man. Published figures on the prevalence of campylobacters in normal dogs and cats show a wide range. It is highest (49% dogs, 45% cats) in immature animals, particularly strays or those living in kennels, and lowest (less than 1.6% dogs and cats) in adult animals living in households. Several studies have shown no significant difference between the prevalence in normal animals and those suffering from diarrhoea, but two surveys did show such a difference. It seems that while most animals are unaffected by infection with campylobacters, a few suffer an illness like that seen in man. Longitudinal studies to determine incidence--as opposed to prevalence--of infection are required. A small proportion of human infections are acquired from dogs. These are usually puppies that are themselves suffering from diarrhoea. Only four infections associated with cats (all kittens with diarrhoea) have been reported. Contact is invariably close and the victims are often small children. The application of simple hygienic measures should prevent such infections. PMID:7046215

  11. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Signe W Worm; N. Friis-Moller; Mathias Bruyand; Martin Rickenbach; Peter Reiss; Wafaa El-Sadr; Andrew Phillips; Jens Lundgren; Caroline Sabin; I. C. J. Gyssens

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time. METHODS: We described the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients under follow-up at the end of six

  12. Species differences in the proportion of plasma lipoprotein lipid carried by high-density lipoproteins influence the distribution of free and liposomal nystatin in human, dog, and rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, M; Wallace, T L; Cossum, P A; Wasan, K M

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this study was an interspecies comparison of free nystatin (NYS) and liposomal NYS (Nyotran) distribution in plasma. NYS and liposomal NYS at concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 microg of NYS/ml were incubated in human, dog, and rat plasma for 5, 60, and 180 min at 37 degrees C. Following these incubations, plasma samples were separated into their high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride-rich lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and lipoprotein-deficient plasma (LPDP) fractions by density-gradient ultracentrifugation, and each fraction was assayed for NYS by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Total plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and protein concentrations in each human, dog, or rat plasma sample were determined by enzymatic assays. When NYS and liposomal NYS were incubated in human, dog, or rat plasma, the majority of the NYS was recovered in the LPDP fraction. For the 5- and 60-min incubation times for all plasmas measured, a significantly greater percentage of NYS was recovered in the lipoprotein fraction (primarily HDL) following the incubation of liposomal NYS than following the incubation of NYS. There was a significant correlation between the lipoprotein lipid and protein profiles in human, dog, and rat plasmas and the distribution of NYS and liposomal NYS in plasma. In particular, differences in the proportion of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolar lipids (cholesteryl ester and triglycerides) carried by HDL influenced the distribution of NYS and liposomal NYS within plasmas of different species. These findings suggest that the distribution of NYS among plasma lipoproteins of different species is defined by the proportion of lipid carried by HDL, and this is possibly an important consideration when evaluating the pharmacokinetics, toxicities, and activities of these compounds following administration to different animal species. PMID:10348764

  13. Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry H.; Neumeier, Anna T.; Davies, Brett W.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The average age was 4.59?±?3.36 years, with a slight male preponderance (52.0%). The majority of dog bites occurred in children 5 years of age or younger (68.0%). Almost all (89.8%) of the dogs were known to the children. When circumstances surrounding the bite were documented, over half (53.2%) of the cases were provoked. The most common breeds were mixed breed (23.0%), Labrador retriever (13.7%), Rottweiler (4.9%), and German shepherd (4.4%). Inpatient treatment was required in 121 (22.5%) patients with an average length of stay of 2.96?±?2.77 days. Children 5 years or younger were more likely to be hospitalized than older children. Children 5 years old and younger are at high risk for being bitten in the face by a familiar dog and are more likely to require hospitalization than older children. Certain dog breeds are more likely to bite, and there is often a history of provocation. There is a tremendous financial and psychosocial burden associated with dog bites, and prevention strategies should focus on education with the aid of public policies and better documentation and reporting systems. PMID:24436765

  14. High prevalence of metallo-?-lactamase among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a teaching hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Xu, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Zhi-chang; Wang, Mei-hua; Cao, Ying-ping

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the carbapenemases in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) from a Chinese teaching hospital. A total of 40 CR-KPs were screened for the presence of carbapenemases. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by agar dilution. The modified Hodge test was used for the detection of carbapenemase production. Carbapenemase, extended-spectrum ?-lactamase, and AmpC genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. A conjugation test was performed using a broth culture mating method, transferred plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, and clonal relatedness was investigated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences PCR (ERIC-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results revealed that modified Hodge test was positive for 28 CR-KPs, and CR-KPs exhibited high resistance rates against various antibiotics, except colistin (5.0%) and tigecycline (22.5%). ERIC and MLST profiles showed no clonal outbreak. PCR demonstrated a high prevalence rate (55.0%, 22/40) of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) in CR-KPs. IMP-4, IMP-8, NDM-1, and KPC-2 were identified in 14 (35.0%), 7 (17.5%), 2 (5.0%), and 7 (17.5%) isolates, respectively. Notably, 2 CR-KPs coproduced 2 carbapenemases simultaneously (IMP-8/NDM-1 and IMP-4/KPC-2). In vitro transfer of carbapenem resistance was successful for 11 MBL-producing CR-KPs. The extended spectrum ?-lactamase genes were detected in 30 (75.0%) of these CR-KPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae due to metalloenzymes in China. Screening and surveillance of MBLs in Enterobacteriaceae is urgently needed in this region to control and prevent the spread of these resistance determinants. PMID:25285938

  15. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n?=?249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n?=?182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

  16. Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O.; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n?=?249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n?=?182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiology in a South African Community: A Second Study of a Very High Prevalence Area*

    PubMed Central

    VILJOEN, DENIS L.; PHILLIP GOSSAGE, J.; BROOKE, LESLEY; ADNAMS, COLLEEN M.; JONES, KENNETH L.; ROBINSON, LUTHER K.; EUGENE HOYME, H.; SNELL, CUDORE; KHAOLE, NATHANIEL C.O.; KODITUWAKKU, PIYADASA; ASANTE, KWADWO OHENE; FINDLAY, RICHARD; QUINTON, BARBARA; MARAIS, ANNA-SUSAN; KALBERG, WENDY O.; MAY, PHILIP A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a second primary school cohort in a community in South Africa. Method: Active case ascertainment, two-tier screening, and Institute of Medicine assessment methodology were employed among 857 first grade pupils, most born in 1993. Characteristics of children with FAS were contrasted with characteristics of a randomly selected control group from the same classrooms. Physical growth and development, dysmorphology and psychological characteristics of the children and measures of maternal alcohol use and smoking were analyzed. Results: The rate of FAS found in this study is the highest yet reported in any overall community in the world, 65.2-74.2 per 1,000 children in the first grade population. These rates are 33-148 times greater than U.S. estimates and higher than in a previous cohort study in this same community (40.5-46.4 per 1,000). Detailed documentation of physical features indicates that FAS children in South Africa have characteristics similar to those elsewhere: poor growth and development, facial and limb dysmorphology, and lower intellectual functioning. Frequent, severe episodic drinking of beer and wine is common among mothers and fathers of FAS children. Their lives are characterized by serious familial, social and economic challenges, compared with controls. Heavy episodic maternal drinking is significantly associated with negative outcomes of children in the area of nonverbal intelligence but even more so in verbal intelligence, behavior and overall dysmorphology (physical anomalies). Significantly more FAS exists among children of women who were rural residents (odds ratio: 7.36, 95% confidence interval: 3.31-16.52), usually among workers on local farms. Conclusion: A high rate of FAS was documented in this community. Given social and economic similarities and racial admixture, we suspect that other communities in the Western Cape have rates that also are quite high. PMID:16331845

  18. Association of plasma triglyceride and C-peptide with coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with a high prevalence of glucose intolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Bergstrom; D. L. Leonetti; L. L. Newell-Morris; W. P. Shuman; P. W. Wahl; W. Y. Fujimoto

    1990-01-01

    Summary  In a community-based study of second-generation Japanese-American men known to have a high prevalence of both Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, there was a highly significant association of coronary heart disease with glucose intolerance in a study sample of 219 men. Intra-abdominal cross sectional fat area determined by computed tomography was significantly elevated in men with coronary

  19. Medium-to-high prevalence of screening-detected parkinsonism in the urban area of Tehran, Iran: data from a community-based door-to-door study

    PubMed Central

    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Shafieesabet, Mahdiyeh; Rahmani, Arash; Delbari, Ahmad; Lökk, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism occurs in all ethnic groups worldwide; however, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates reported from different countries, even for neighboring regions. The huge socioeconomic burden of parkinsonism necessitates the need for prevalence studies in each country. So far, there is neither data registry nor prevalence information on parkinsonism in the Iranian population. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence rate of probable parkinsonism in a huge urban area in Iran, Tehran using a community-based door-to-door survey. Materials and methods We used a random multistage sampling of the households within the network of health centers consisting of 374 subunits in all 22 districts throughout the entire urban area of Tehran. Overall, 20,621 individuals answered the baseline checklist and screening questionnaire and data from 19,500 persons aged ?30 years were entered in the final analysis. Health care professionals used a new six-item screening questionnaire for parkinsonism, which has been previously shown to have a high validity and diagnostic value in the same population. Results A total of 157 cases were screened for parkinsonism using the validated six-item questionnaire. After age and sex adjustment based on the Tehran population, the prevalence of parkinsonism was calculated as 222.9 per 100,000. Using the World Health Organization’s World Standard Population, the standardized prevalence rate of parkinsonism was 285 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 240–329). The male:female ratio of probable parkinsonism was calculated as 1.62, and there was a significant increase in the screening rate by advancing age. Conclusion The calculated rates for the prevalence of parkinsonism in our study are closer to reports from some European and Middle Eastern countries, higher than reports from Eastern Asian and African populations, and lower than Australia. The prevalence rate of >200 in 100,000 for parkinsonism in Tehran, Iran could be considered a medium-to-high rate. PMID:25709455

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi TcI and TcII transmission among wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs in a conservation unit and surrounding areas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Santos, Jean Pierre; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Cordeir-Estrela, Pedro; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2013-02-01

    Aiming to better understand the ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles, wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs were examined for T. cruzi infection in the Serra da Canastra National Park region, Brazil. Isolates were genotyped using mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8 and H3) genomic targets. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was well established in the area and occurred in both wild and peridomestic environments. Dog seroprevalence was 29·4% (63/214) and TcI and TcII genotypes, besides mixed infections were observed. Only TcI was detected in wild mammals. Marsupials displayed lower relative abundance, but a high prevalence of positive haemocultures (4/22), whereas rodents displayed positive haemocultures (9/113) mainly in the abundant Akodon montensis and Cerradomys subflavus species. The felid Leopardus pardalis was the only carnivore to display positive haemoculture and was captured in the same region where the small mammal prevalence of T. cruzi infection was high. Two canid species, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Cerdocyon thous, were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection (4/8 and 8/39, respectively), probably related to their capacity to exploit different ecological niches. Herein, dog infection not only signals T. cruzi transmission but also the genotypes present. Distinct transmission strategies of the T. cruzi genotypes are discussed. PMID:23062278

  1. HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours among MSM repeat and first-time testers in China: implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jie; Yang, Bo; Yu, Maohe; Gao, Yongjun; Dong, Willa M; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about HIV testing, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among bathhouse patrons in China. This study aims to assess differences in HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending bathhouse in Tianjin, China. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2012, a HIV voluntary counselling and testing station was established in a gay bathhouse, which provided HIV testing and conducted a survey among participants recruited through snowball sampling. Differences in demographic and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers were assessed using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors for HIV infection. Results Of the 1642 respondents, 699 (42.6%) were repeat testers and 943 (57.4%) were first-time testers. Among repeat testers, a higher proportion were men aged 18 to 25, single, better educated, had a history of STIs and worked as male sex workers or “money boys” (MBs). Repeat testers were less likely to report having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. The overall HIV prevalence was 12.4% (203/1642). There was no difference in HIV prevalence between repeat (11.2%, 78/699) and first-time (13.3%, 125/943) testers. The HIV prevalence increased with age among first-time testers (?trend2=9.816, p=0.002). First-time MB testers had the highest HIV prevalence of 34.5%. Conclusions MSM attending bathhouse had an alarmingly high HIV infection rate, particularly in MB. Targeted interventions are urgently needed especially focusing on older MSM and MBs. PMID:24993457

  2. Amylase activity is associated with AMY2B copy numbers in dog: implications for dog domestication, diet and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Maja; Fall, Tove; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Axelsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    High amylase activity in dogs is associated with a drastic increase in copy numbers of the gene coding for pancreatic amylase, AMY2B, that likely allowed dogs to thrive on a relatively starch-rich diet during early dog domestication. Although most dogs thus probably digest starch more efficiently than do wolves, AMY2B copy numbers vary widely within the dog population, and it is not clear how this variation affects the individual ability to handle starch nor how it affects dog health. In humans, copy numbers of the gene coding for salivary amylase, AMY1, correlate with both salivary amylase levels and enzyme activity, and high amylase activity is related to improved glycemic homeostasis and lower frequencies of metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigate the relationship between AMY2B copy numbers and serum amylase activity in dogs and show that amylase activity correlates with AMY2B copy numbers. We then describe how AMY2B copy numbers vary in individuals from 20 dog breeds and find strong breed-dependent patterns, indicating that the ability to digest starch varies both at the breed and individual level. Finally, to test whether AMY2B copy number is strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes mellitus, we compare copy numbers in cases and controls as well as in breeds with varying diabetes susceptibility. Although we see no such association here, future studies using larger cohorts are needed before excluding a possible link between AMY2B and diabetes mellitus. PMID:24975239

  3. Non–High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: Distribution and Prevalence of High Serum Levels in Children and Adolescents: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shifan; Yang, Quanhe; Yuan, Keming; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Fang, Jing; Daniels, Stephen R.; Hong, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate age-related changes for serum concentration of non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), describe non-HDL-C distribution, and examine the prevalence of high non-HDL-C levels in children and adolescents by demographic characteristics and weight status. Study design Data from 7058 participants ages 6–19 years in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A high level of non-HDL-C was defined as a non-HDL-C value ?145mg/dL. Results Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing–smoothed curves showed that non-HDL-C levels increased from 101 mg/dL at age 6 to 111 mg/dL at age 10, decreased to 101 mg/dL at age 14, and then increased to 122 mg/dL at age 19 in non-Hispanic white males. Non-HDL-C levels generally were greater in female than male subjects, lower in non-Hispanic black subjects, and similar in male and slightly lower in female Mexican American subjects, compared with non-Hispanic white subjects. The overall mean was 108 (SE 0.5), and the percentiles were 67 (5th), 74 (10th), 87 (25th), 104 (50th), 123 (75th), 145 (90th), and 158 (95th) mg/dL. Mean and percentiles were greater among age groups 9–11 and 17–19 years than others and greater among non-Hispanic white than non-Hispanic black subjects. The prevalence of high non-HDL-C was 11.8% (95% CI 9.9%–14.0%) and 15.0% (95% CI 12.9%–17.3%) for the age groups 9–11 and 17–19, respectively. It varied significantly by race/ethnicity and overweight/obesity status. Conclusion Non-HDL-C levels vary by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight classification status. Evaluation of non-HDL-C in youth should account for its normal physiologic patterns and variations in demographic characteristics and weight classification. PMID:24139441

  4. The Shepherds’ Tale: A Genome-Wide Study across 9 Dog Breeds Implicates Two Loci in the Regulation of Fructosamine Serum Concentration in Belgian Shepherds

    PubMed Central

    Ljungvall, Ingrid; Merveille, Anne-Christine; Gouni, Vassiliki; Wiberg, Maria; Lundgren Willesen, Jakob; Hanås, Sofia; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Mejer Sørensen, Louise; Tiret, Laurent; McEntee, Kathleen; Seppälä, Eija; Koch, Jørgen; Battaille, Géraldine; Lohi, Hannes; Fredholm, Merete; Chetboul, Valerie; Häggström, Jens; Carlborg, Örjan; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Höglund, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem in both dogs and humans. Certain dog breeds show high prevalence of the disease, whereas other breeds are at low risk. Fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) are two major biomarkers of glycaemia, where serum concentrations reflect glucose turnover over the past few weeks to months. In this study, we searched for genetic factors influencing variation in serum fructosamine concentration in healthy dogs using data from nine dog breeds. Considering all breeds together, we did not find any genome-wide significant associations to fructosamine serum concentration. However, by performing breed-specific analyses we revealed an association on chromosome 3 (pcorrected ? 1:68 × 10-6) in Belgian shepherd dogs of the Malinois subtype. The associated region and its close neighbourhood harbours interesting candidate genes such as LETM1 and GAPDH that are important in glucose metabolism and have previously been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes mellitus. To further explore the genetics of this breed specificity, we screened the genome for reduced heterozygosity stretches private to the Belgian shepherd breed. This revealed a region with reduced heterozygosity that shows a statistically significant interaction (p = 0.025) with the association region on chromosome 3. This region also harbours some interesting candidate genes and regulatory regions but the exact mechanisms underlying the interaction are still unknown. Nevertheless, this finding provides a plausible explanation for breed-specific genetic effects for complex traits in dogs. Shepherd breeds are at low risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The findings in Belgian shepherds could be connected to a protective mechanism against the disease. Further insight into the regulation of glucose metabolism could improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods for diabetes mellitus. PMID:25970163

  5. The Shepherds' Tale: A Genome-Wide Study across 9 Dog Breeds Implicates Two Loci in the Regulation of Fructosamine Serum Concentration in Belgian Shepherds.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Simon K G; Kierczak, Marcin; Ljungvall, Ingrid; Merveille, Anne-Christine; Gouni, Vassiliki; Wiberg, Maria; Lundgren Willesen, Jakob; Hanås, Sofia; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Mejer Sørensen, Louise; Tiret, Laurent; McEntee, Kathleen; Seppälä, Eija; Koch, Jørgen; Battaille, Géraldine; Lohi, Hannes; Fredholm, Merete; Chetboul, Valerie; Häggström, Jens; Carlborg, Örjan; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Höglund, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem in both dogs and humans. Certain dog breeds show high prevalence of the disease, whereas other breeds are at low risk. Fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) are two major biomarkers of glycaemia, where serum concentrations reflect glucose turnover over the past few weeks to months. In this study, we searched for genetic factors influencing variation in serum fructosamine concentration in healthy dogs using data from nine dog breeds. Considering all breeds together, we did not find any genome-wide significant associations to fructosamine serum concentration. However, by performing breed-specific analyses we revealed an association on chromosome 3 (pcorrected ? 1:68 × 10-6) in Belgian shepherd dogs of the Malinois subtype. The associated region and its close neighbourhood harbours interesting candidate genes such as LETM1 and GAPDH that are important in glucose metabolism and have previously been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes mellitus. To further explore the genetics of this breed specificity, we screened the genome for reduced heterozygosity stretches private to the Belgian shepherd breed. This revealed a region with reduced heterozygosity that shows a statistically significant interaction (p = 0.025) with the association region on chromosome 3. This region also harbours some interesting candidate genes and regulatory regions but the exact mechanisms underlying the interaction are still unknown. Nevertheless, this finding provides a plausible explanation for breed-specific genetic effects for complex traits in dogs. Shepherd breeds are at low risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The findings in Belgian shepherds could be connected to a protective mechanism against the disease. Further insight into the regulation of glucose metabolism could improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods for diabetes mellitus. PMID:25970163

  6. Treatment of MDR1 Mutant Dogs with Macrocyclic Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Joachim; Janko, Christina

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance gene MDR1, is an ATP-driven drug efflux pump which is highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier of vertebrates. Drug efflux of macrocyclic lactones by P-glycoprotein is highly relevant for the therapeutic safety of macrocyclic lactones, as thereby GABA-gated chloride channels, which are confined to the central nervous system in vertebrates, are protected from high drug concentrations that otherwise would induce neurological toxicity. A 4-bp deletion mutation exists in the MDR1 gene of many dog breeds such as the Collie and the Australian Shepherd, which results in the expression of a non-functional P-glycoprotein and is associated with multiple drug sensitivity. Accordingly, dogs with homozygous MDR1 mutation are in general prone to neurotoxicity by macrocyclic lactones due to their increased brain penetration. Nevertheless, treatment of these dogs with macrocyclic lactones does not inevitably result in neurological symptoms, since, the safety of treatment highly depends on the treatment indication, dosage, route of application, and the individual compound used as outlined in this review. Whereas all available macrocyclic lactones can safely be administered to MDR1 mutant dogs at doses usually used for heartworm prevention, these dogs will experience neurological toxicity following a high dose regimen which is common for mange treatment in dogs. Here, we review and discuss the neurotoxicological potential of different macrocyclic lactones as well as their treatment options in MDR1 mutant dogs. PMID:22039792

  7. Understanding the High Prevalence of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Socio-Economically Vulnerable Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J. Peter; Cooper, Carol Jones; Edwards, Jessie K.; Byfield, Lovette; Eastman, Shashauna; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study estimates HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica and explores social determinants of HIV infection among MSM. Design An island-wide cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited by peer referral and outreach was conducted in 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered and HIV/STI tests done. We compared three groups: MSM who accepted cash for sex within the past 3 months (MSM SW), MSM who did not accept cash for sex (MSM non-SW), and MSM with adverse life events (ever raped, jailed, homeless, victim of violence or low literacy). Results HIV prevalence among 449 MSM was 31.4%, MSM SW 41.1%, MSM with adverse life events 38.5%, 17 transgender MSM (52.9%), and MSM non-SW without adverse events 21.0%. HIV prevalence increased with age and number of adverse life events (test for trend P < 0.001), as did STI prevalence (P = 0.03). HIV incidence was 6.7 cases/100 person-years (95% CI: 3.74, 12.19). HIV prevalence was highest among MSM reporting high-risk sex; MSM SW who had been raped (65.0%), had a STI (61.2%) and who self identified as female (55.6%). Significant risk factors for HIV infection common to all 3 subgroups were participation in both receptive and insertive anal intercourse, high-risk sex, and history of a STI. Perception of no or little risk, always using a condom, and being bisexual were protective. Conclusion HIV prevalence was high among MSM SW and MSM with adverse life events. Given the characteristics of the sample, HIV prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is probably in the range of 20%. The study illustrates the importance of social vulnerability in driving the HIV epidemic. Programs to empower young MSM, reduce social vulnerability and other structural barriers including stigma and discrimination against MSM are critical to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:25659122

  8. A Retrospective Investigation on Canine Papillomavirus 1 (CPV1) in Oral Oncogenesis Reveals Dogs Are Not a Suitable Animal Model for High-Risk HPV-Induced Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Porcellato, Ilaria; Brachelente, Chiara; Guelfi, Gabriella; Reginato, Alice; Sforna, Monica; Bongiovanni, Laura; Mechelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    CPV1 (also called COPV) is a papillomavirus responsible for oral papillomatosis in young dogs. The involvement of this viral type in oral oncogenesis has been hypothesized in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but has never been investigated in other neoplastic and hyperplastic oral lesions of dogs. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CPV1 in different neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions in order to assess its role in canine oral oncogenesis; according to the results obtained, a second aim of the study was to define if the dog can be considered a valid animal model for oral high risk HPV-induced tumors. Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) canine oral lesions including 78 oral tumors (papillomas, SCCs, melanomas, ameloblastomas, oral adenocarcinomas) and 10 hyperplastic lesions (gingival hyperplasia) were investigated with immunohistochemistry for the presence of papillomavirus L1 protein and with Real-Time PCR for CPV1 DNA. RT-PCR for