To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission. PMID:18828485
Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Dimitrijevi?, Sanda; Kati?-Radivojevi?, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobr?, Branko; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica
We evaluated the serological and molecular prevalence of selected organisms in 145 dogs during late spring (May/June) of 2005 and in 88 dogs during winter (February) of 2007 from the Hopi Indian reservation. Additionally, in 2005, 442 ticks attached to dogs were collected and identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Infection with or exposure to at least one organism was detected in 69% and 66% of the dogs in May/June 2005 and February 2007, respectively. Exposure to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was detected in 66.4% (2005) and 53.4% (2007) of dogs, but rickettsial DNA was not detected using polymerase chain reaction. Active Ehrlichia canis infection (by polymerase chain reaction) was identified in 36.6% (2005) and 36.3% (2007) of the dogs. E. canis infection was associated with SFG rickettsiae seroreactivity (p < 0.001). Anaplasma platys DNA was detected in 8.3% (2005) and 4.5% (2007) of the dogs. Babesia canis and Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii seroprevalences were 6.7% and 1% in 2005, whereas in 2007 prevalences were 0% and 1.1%, respectively. No Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia chaffeensis, or Ehrlichia ewingii DNA was detected. Dogs on this Hopi Indian reservation were most frequently infected with E. canis or A. platys; however, more than half of the dogs were exposed to a SFG-Rickettsia species. PMID:19469667
Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Beall, Melissa J; Omark, Karina; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Daniluk, Daryn A; Cyr, Katie E; Koterski, James F; Robbins, Richard G; Lalo, Pamela G; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
Blood samples and ticks were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs in southern Hungary, in order to screen them for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. Out of 126 blood samples, 33 were positive (26%). Significantly more shepherd dogs (31%) were infected, than hunting (8%) and stray dogs (7%). Three genotypes of Hepatozoon canis were identified by sequencing, differing from each other in up to six nucleotides in the amplified portion of their 18S rRNA gene. In Dermacentor marginatus larvae/nymphs and Dermacentor reticulatus nymphs, H. canis was present only if they had been collected from PCR-positive dogs, and the genotypes were identical in the ticks and their hosts. However, two Haemaphysalis concinna nymphs removed from a PCR-negative dog were found positive for H. canis, and the genotype detected in specimens of this tick species differed from that in the blood of their respective hosts. These results indicate that canine hepatozoonosis may be highly prevalent in regions where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is considered to be non-endemic. In addition, H. canis was identified for the first time in Hungary, as well as in D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and Ha. concinna ticks. Canine hepatozoonosis was significantly more prevalent west of the Danube river (where higher densities of red fox and golden jackal populations occur), suggesting a role of wild carnivores in its epidemiology. PMID:23499483
Hornok, Sándor; Tánczos, Balázs; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Farkas, Róbert
Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.
Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg
Extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45 and 55% were positive for Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0 and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and Proteus mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly blaCTX-M-1, but also blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-52-StPaul, blaSHV-12, and blaCMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore, the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food-producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care.
Hordijk, Joost; Schoormans, Anky; Kwakernaak, Mandy; Duim, Birgitta; Broens, Els; Dierikx, Cindy; Mevius, Dik; Wagenaar, Jaap A.
In this study, we examined the prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic dogs in Finland, which is known to have a high prevalence of Trichinella infection in sylvatic hosts. Altogether 727 dog serum samples were tested serologically by ELISA with ES-antigen in dilutions 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, and 1:400. Additionally, muscle samples from 102 dogs’ front leg extensors were tested parasitologically
Leena Oivanen; Anu Näreaho; Saija Jokela; Ulla Rikula; Ray Gamble; Antti Sukura
Objective-To determine the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria and its natural clinical course over a 3-month period in healthy female dogs. Design-Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. Animals-101 healthy client-owned female dogs. Procedures-In all dogs, screening clinicopathologic tests and bacteriologic culture of urine were performed. In culture-positive dogs, subclinical bacteriuria was confirmed by 2 positive culture results within 2 weeks and dogs were reevaluated at 3 months. Results-The prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in healthy female dogs was 9 of 101 (8.9%). Three-month follow-up data were available for 8 of 9 dogs with subclinical bacteriuria. Four dogs had persistent bacteriuria, and 4 had transient bacteriuria. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs during the 3-month observation period. Subclinical bacteriuria was diagnosed in 6 of 51 (12%) young and middle-aged dogs and 3 of 50 (6.0%) senior and geriatric dogs. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria with age. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that subclinical bacteriuria is a nonprogressive condition in healthy female dogs and can be persistent or transient. No significant difference in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in young and middle-aged dogs versus senior and geriatric dogs was detected. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs requiring antimicrobial treatment during the 3-month observation period. Healthy female dogs with subclinical bacteriuria may be a population of dogs in which antimicrobial treatment is unnecessary. PMID:24941394
Wan, Stephanie Y; Hartmann, Faye A; Jooss, Michelle K; Viviano, Katrina R
The prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) was examined in the southeast region of Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, using a rapid immunomigration (RIM) test kit. Between April 2007 and March 2010, we examined 108 raccoon dogs rescued and housed by the Kanazawa Zoological Garden. D. immitis infection was found in 8 (7.4%) raccoon dogs. This is the first report to reveal the prevalence of D. immitis infection in living raccoon dogs. The prevalence of the infection was lower than previously reported values obtained on postmortem examination. One reason might be that the present study included young raccoon dogs infected with immature worms. Significant high-risk areas of D. immitis infection in the raccoon dogs were not observed. PMID:21293077
Kido, Nobuhide; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko
BACKGROUND: Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. METHODS: In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal
Uade Samuel Ugbomoiko; Liana Ariza; Jorg Heukelbach
Oral disorders of the dog represent for veterinarians a medical challenge and an important field of interest from the economical point of view. Although many epidemiological studies on dental diseases in beagles bred under controlled conditions have been realized, information on frequency of these alterations in populations of pet dogs, especially in Central Europe, is far from complete. The aim
M. Kyllar; K. Witter
Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus) in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273) canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion), age (young or adult), and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273). There was significant difference (P < 0.05) between hunting (15.94%) and companion dogs (1.52%) but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases) in the region.
Adediran, Oyeduntan Adejoju; Kolapo, Temitope Ubaidat; Uwalaka, Emmanuel Chibuike
Serum samples from 134 dogs from 22 cattle dairy farms in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil, were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies (> or = 1:50) to N. caninum were found in 29 (21.6%) of the 134 dogs, and seropositive dogs were found on 14 (63.6%) of the 22 dairy cattle farrms. The antibody titers of dogs were 1:50 (3 dogs), 1:100 (7 dogs), 1:200 (7 dogs), 1:400 (6 dogs), and > or = 1:800 (6 dogs). The low prevalence (9%) in < 1-yr-old dogs compared with the 2- to 3-fold higher prevalence in older dogs (17-29%) suggests postnatal exposure to N. caninum infection. PMID:12054023
de Souza, S L P; Guimarães, J S; Ferreira, F; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524
Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.
Vieira, Ana Luisa; Vieira, Maria Joao; Oliveira, Joao Manuel; Simoes, Ana Rita; Diez-Banos, Pablo; Gestal, Juan
In the present study, we first report the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China. Sera from 528 randomly selected dogs were examined for D. immitis antigen using SNAP®4Dx test kit; 12.7% tested showed seropositive. No significant difference of infection was observed in different genders and breeds (P>0.05), but the difference was significant in different age groups and rearing conditions (P<0.05). The result suggested that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Shenyang, and should be given attention. PMID:23864752
Liu, Chengwu; Yang, Na; He, Jianbin; Yang, Min; Sun, Ming
A dog microfilariae prevalence and risk factor survey was conducted in 51 contiguous municipalities of the Mt. Vesuvius area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding filarial worms in this zone. Between May 1999 and June 2000, blood samples were collected from 351 asymptomatic dogs. Blood samples were examined using a modified Knott's technique and histochemical staining in order to count and identify microfilariae. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and choroplethic municipal maps (MMs) were drawn by a geographical information system (GIS) software. Microfilariae were detected in 63 of the 351 dogs surveyed, constituting a total filarial prevalence of 17.9%. In particular, 56 dogs (15.9%) showed only microfilariae of Dipetalonema reconditum; three dogs (0.8%) only microfilariae of Dirofilaria repens; two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both D. reconditum and D. repens and two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. High D. reconditum prevalence was associated with hunting practice, masculine gender and older dogs. There was also a tendency to find high prevalence in dogs sampled in the afternoon. In conclusion, the presence of microfilariae of D. reconditum in 92% of microfilaraemic dogs indicates that this filarial worm was the predominant filarial species in dogs in the Mt. Vesuvius area. In addition, the general trends of the MMs showed that D. immitis and D. repens were present only in a few municipalities, whereas D. reconditum was widely and homogeneously spread throughout the entire study area. PMID:11777604
Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Capelli, G
Background Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. Results 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs and 62 control dogs (large breed dogs with long hair) were included. All dogs were considered healthy according to a questionnaire filled out by the owner, complete blood count, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture. Bernese Mountain Dogs and control dogs were kept in similar environments. Seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by ELISA and Western blot and was 58% in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to 15% in control dogs. This difference was significant. Neither antibodies against leptospires nor vaccination or hair coat color influenced the results. Conclusion The cause of the considerably higher prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain Dogs and it's consequences are not known. A breed predisposition can be suspected.
Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E
• The overall prevalence of dog intestinal parasites detected in this study was 54.33% and most dogs (31.4%) were harbouring only one parasite. • Relevant parasites in terms of zoonotic potential were the most frequently observed, i.e. Ancylostoma spp. (37.8%), Giardia spp.(16.9%) and Toxocara canis (8.7%). • The lack of knowledge showed by dog owners on the zoonotic potential of
S. Katagiri; T. C. G. Oliveira-Sequeira
Hearing function was tested in dogs from breeds at risk for pigment-associated congenital sensorineural deafness – Dalmatian, English setter (ES), English cocker spaniel (ECS), bull terrier (BT), Australian cattle dog (ACD), whippet, Catahoula leopard dog, and Jack Russell terrier. Deafness prevalence was highest in Dalmatians and lowest in ECS. Phenotype correlation studies were performed in breeds with >100 brainstem auditory
George M. Strain
Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05). However, significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health.
Oluwasina, Oseni Saheed; ThankGod, Onyiche Emmanuel; Augustine, Omonuwa Omojefe; Gimba, Fufa Ido
Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05). However, significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health. PMID:24757557
Oluwasina, Oseni Saheed; Thankgod, Onyiche Emmanuel; Augustine, Omonuwa Omojefe; Gimba, Fufa Ido
Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.
Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barron, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.
Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domestic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacterial in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which of the organisms were culturable, and if the cultured organisms were morphologically similar to the organisms seen in situ; (iii) to identify the isolated organisms; and (iv) to determine if gastric bacteria were associated with gastritis. Three groups of dogs were examined: healthy laboratory dogs, healthy dogs from an animal shelter, and pet dogs with various nongastric illnesses. Of these, 100% of laboratory and shelter dogs and 67% of pet dogs were colonized by large, tightly coiled gastric spiral bacteria morphologically similar to Gastrospirillum hominis or Helicobacter felis (referred to as gastrospirilla). Regardless of the presence or density of gastric bacteria, all of the dogs in the study except one had mild to moderate gastritis. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from only 6 of 39 stomachs cultured, and only three of the organisms isolated were morphologically similar to the bacteria seen in situ. Five helicobacters were identified by 16S rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence analysis. Three were strains of H. felis, one was H. bilis, and one was a novel helicobacter morphologically similar to "Flexispira rappini." Gastrospirilla are almost universal in the stomachs of domestic dogs, and in most infected dogs, they do not appear to be associated with clinical signs or histologic lesions compared with uninfected dogs. Nongastrospirillum helicobacters are rare in dogs and are not histologically detectable. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated from domestic dogs.
Eaton, K A; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Tzellas, N; Coleman, B E; Paola, J; Sherding, R
Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing, greyhound kennels and animal shelters, was compared to dogs residing in low-intensity housing, private homes. Serum was collected from a cross-section of 1500 adult dogs from Florida, including 500 pet dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, 500 racing greyhounds, and 500 dogs residing in animal shelters. Serum was tested for D. immitis antigen, E. canis antibodies, and B. burgdorferi antibodies by ELISA. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher (14.6%) in shelter dogs and in pet dogs (1.4%) than in racing greyhounds (0.2%) (P<0.04). There were no significant differences in the seroprevalence of E. canis (0.4-1.6%) or B. burgdorferi (0-0.8%) among the groups. There was no association of sex or age with D. immitis infection, but pit bull type dogs were more than twice as likely to be infected than other breeds (P=0.003). Evidence for vector-borne infections, particularly D. immitis, was found in dogs throughout the state. The prevalence was greatest for D. immitis infection in shelter dogs, likely due to lack of preventive medications prior to impoundment. Although heartworm infection is considered to be a treatable condition, insufficient resources in shelters may lead to euthanasia of infected dogs that would otherwise be considered adoptable. PMID:20399018
Tzipory, Nirit; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K
Although prevalences of antibodies against Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum have been reported to be high in the German dog population, the importance of the diseases caused by both agents is still not well characterized in a field situation.The aim of this study was (1) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl and A. phagocytophilum in dogs in Munich, Germany, and (2) to assess the clinical presentation and laboratory values of antibody-positive dogs and compare them to a negative control group. In total, 448 randomly selected dogs were screened for antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl and A. phagocytophilum with the SNAP 4Dx assay (IDEXX, Laboratories, Inc., USA). Dogs carrying antibodies against B. burgdorferi sl and/or A. phagocytophilum were classified as "positive"(n=100), the following 100 negative dogs served as control group. In both groups, physical examination and laboratory parameters were compared. 22 (4.9%) dogs had antibodies to B. burgdorferi sl, 78 (19.4%) to A. phagocytophilum, nine (2.0%) to both agents. Bernese Mountain Dogs had significantly more often antibodies against B. burgdorferi sl. Negative dogs were more often diagnosed as "healthy" compared to A. phagocytophilum antibody-positives that showed more often elevated body temperature and poor general condition; beyond that, there were no differences in clinical and laboratory abnormalities between both groups. Although dogs tested negative were more often considered healthy, there were no differences in parameters considered "specific" for both infections between dogs with and without antibodies. Hence, tests detecting antibodies against both agents are not able to detect animals with the clinical disease. PMID:22919928
Barth, Charlotte; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin
The prevalence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LTV) was determined by reviewing the pelvic radiographs of 4000 medium- and large-breed dogs of 144 breeds routinely screened for canine hip dysplasia. An LTV was seen in 138 (3.5%) dogs. The prevalence was higher in German Shepherd dogs and Greater Swiss Mountain dogs than in the other breeds, suggesting a genetic predisposition. There was no gender predisposition. The transverse processes of the LTV were divided into three types based on their morphological characteristics: lumbar type or type 1; intermediate type or type 2; and sacral type or type 3. In a symmetric LTV, both transverse processes are of the same type, while in an asymmetric LTV they are not. The frequency of occurrence of symmetric and asymmetric LTV was similar. In symmetric LTV, intermediate-type transverse processes predominated. Most of the asymmetric LTV had an intermediate-type transverse process combined with a lumbar or sacral type, respectively. Highly asymmetric LTV were often angled relative to the adjacent vertebrae. We hypothesize that an LTV is not the result of transformation of a lumbar into a sacral vertebra or vice versa, but rather is an autonomous intermediate type of vertebra. It occurs when the point of contact of the pelvis with the vertebral column is slightly cranial or caudal to its normal position. The resulting formative stimulus on the vertebral ossification centers, sagittally still separated, causes the various morphologies seen in LTV including the asymmetric variations. PMID:16429982
Damur-Djuric, Natascha; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joe P; Flückiger, Mark A
During the 2001-2002 outbreak in Gabon, we observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus-epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus-IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus-epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic. PMID:15757552
Allela, Loïs; Boury, Olivier; Pouillot, Régis; Délicat, André; Yaba, Philippe; Kumulungui, Brice; Rouquet, Pierre; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Leroy, Eric M
This work focused on the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in samples obtained from dog droppings. There were 135 samples collected and examined from both clinically healthy and diseased dogs from households, clinics, rehabilitation centres and dog shelters in eastern Slovakia. The isolation of the Campylobacter spp. was achieved by the use of combined selective cultivation methods, followed by confirmation and species identification of the isolates using the PCR method.The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in dogs was 30.4%. Statistically significant differences were recorded (P < 0.05) within the age groups of all dogs examined: 40.6% of the older dogs (> or = 1 year) tested positive, compared to 19.7% of the younger ones (< 1 year). There was no significant difference in relation to dog gender. The most frequently isolated species was Campylobacter (C.) jejuni, present in 51.2% of all positive samples. Campylobacter coli was present in 9.8% of the samples. The remaining positive samples (39%) were confirmed as C upsaliensis, based on phenotypic traits. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter was found in samples from shelters (50%) and the lowest in those from households (11.5%), with samples from rehabilitation centres (42.3%) and clinics (18.8%) coming in second and third place.The high prevalence of Campylobacter confirms the hypothesis that dogs, mainly the ones kept in groups, are a source of Campylobacter spp. Further investigation is required to determine to what extent infected dogs may be a potential source of infection in humans. PMID:24693660
Badlík, Marián; Holoda, Emil; Pistl, Juraj; Koscová, Jana; Sihelská, Zuzana
Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6%) and hunting dogs (1.7%). The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs.
Maia, Carla; Cortes, Helder; Brancal, Hugo; Lopes, Ana Patricia; Pimenta, Paulo; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luis
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of cataracts in dogs presented to veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2003. A retrospective study of all dogs presented with cataracts to veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2003 was conducted to determine cataract prevalence. The different decades, breeds, gender, and age at time of presentation with cataract were compared. The prevalence of dogs presented with cataract varied by decade and ranged from 0.95% (1964-73), 1.88% (1974-83), 2.42% (1994-2003), to 3.5% (1984-93). The total number of dogs presented with cataracts over the 40-year period was 39,229. From 1964 to 2003 the prevalence of cataract formation in this patient population increased by about 255%. Fifty-nine breeds of dogs were affected with cataracts above the baseline prevalence of 1.61% seen in mixed-breed/hybrid dogs. The breeds with the highest cataract prevalence included: Smooth Fox Terrier (11.70%), Havanese (11.57%), Bichon Frise (11.45%), Boston Terrier (11.11%), Miniature Poodle (10.79%), Silky Terrier (10.29%) and Toy Poodle (10.21%). The breeds with the largest number of cataractous dogs during the entire four decades were the Boston Terrier (11.11%), Miniature Poodle (10.79%), American Cocker Spaniel (8.77%), Standard Poodle (7.00%), and Miniature Schnauzer (4.98%). Gender ratios of cataractous dogs seemed to affect limited breeds. Age of presentation with cataract diagnosis varied among several breeds. In the mixed-breed/hybrid baseline population, cataract formation appeared to be age related with a higher frequency of cataract formation in dogs after 4-7 years. Cataract formation is one of the most prevalent eye diseases in the dog population, and in about 60 breeds of dogs the prevalence of cataract exceeds that of the baseline mixed-breed/hybrid group. The prevalence of cataract is also influenced by age in most purebred dogs and affects 16.80% of the 7-15+-year-old mixed-breed/hybrid dog population. Total and age-related cataract prevalence in dogs seems very similar to that in man. PMID:15762923
Gelatt, Kirk N; Mackay, Edward O
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. To assess the prevalence of the parasite in urban dogs in the Mazovian Voivodeship, Central Poland, serum samples from 257 dogs were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG antibodies. The examined dogs visited three private veterinary clinics located in Warsaw due to control tests, vaccinations, or other reasons not directly connected with neosporosis. Using ELISA and Western blot, antibodies against the parasite were detected in 56 out of 257 dogs, giving a prevalence of 21.7%. A greater prevalence was observed in female dogs than in males, 28% and 17.3%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence of Neospora infection within the age groups (p>0.05). This study indicates the presence of N. caninum in the Mazovian Voivodeship, in dogs which live in urban areas and exposure of these dogs to the parasite. The fact that seropositive dogs had no contact with cattle confirms the important role of dogs in the parasite's epidemiology. PMID:21079995
Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Wrzesie?, Robert; Wielgosz-Ostolska, Adrianna; Bie?, Justyna; Kozak-Ljunggren, Monika; Cabaj, W?adys?aw
Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29–2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83–1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53–1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02–1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55–36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0–11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0–6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant “baseline” data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China.
Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29-2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83-1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53-1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02-1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55-36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0-11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0-6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant "baseline" data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355
Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a reservoir host for Bvb and Br and that ectoparasite control is an important component of shelter intake protocols. PMID:24268654
Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M
To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma. PMID:23659343
Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki
Most of the dogs studied for the prevalence of CVBD have previously received acaricidal and insecticidal treatments. In the present work, a very specific population of dogs (Group 1) that had never been treated against ticks and mosquitoes was studied. Moreover, the territory occupied by this population has also never been treated, because it is a protected area--Voronezh Natural Reserve. Canine patients from veterinary clinics (Group 2) that had been treated against VBD vectors were studied for comparison. Eighty-two dogs (Group 1) were enrolled in June, 2008. Blood samples were tested using the IDEXX SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test. A specific heartworm antigen was detected in 12.2% samples. The seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found to be 34.1%. The antibodies to Borrelia C6 peptide and to Ehrlichia canis were detected in 2.4% of the samples. Almost all dogs with infections had no clinical signs. Only 3 mixed-infected dogs showed non-specific clinical signs. During the tick season, 358 Ixodes ricinus were collected; the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 21.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Four hundred and forty dogs (Group 2) were studied for comparison. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected only in one dog, seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum represented 1.1%, no E. canis seropositive dogs were identified, and 8.2% dogs were found infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Fifty-six percent of dogs with dirofilariosis had clinical signs. All dogs with anaplasmosis showed specific clinical signs--fever, anemia, splenitis. Three dogs died within a few days. PMID:24054985
Volgina, N S; Romashov, B V; Romashova, N B; Shtannikov, A V
To determine the national, regional, and age-related prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs presenting to veterinarians in the United States, we reviewed the results of examination via zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation of 1,199,293 canine fecal samples submitted to Antech Diagnostics in 2006. The most commonly identified intestinal parasites were ascarids (2.2%), hookworms (2.5%), whipworms (1.2%), Giardia (4.0%), and Cystoisospora (4.4%). With the exception of whipworms, intestinal parasites were more commonly identified in dogs less than 6 months of age (29.6% positive) as compared to those greater than 1 year of age (6.1% positive) although infections with each parasite considered were identified in all age classes of dogs. Hookworm eggs were most commonly identified in fecal samples submitted from dogs from the South (4.0% positive), whereas ascarid eggs and Giardia cysts were most commonly seen in samples from dogs from the West (2.8% and 6.3% positive, respectively). When compared to previous data from shelter dogs, the prevalence of intestinal helminths, particularly ascarids and hookworms, was greatly suppressed in pet dogs in the southern United States (90-91% reduction) and much less so in dogs in the West (52-78% reduction), perhaps due in part to the routine year-round use of monthly anthelmintics effective at controlling both heartworm infection and intestinal helminths in dogs in the South. Taken together these data indicate that intestinal parasites remain a common, important finding in dogs presenting to veterinary practices although in most of the country infection rates in pet dogs appear to be greatly reduced from the level reported from dogs in animal shelters. PMID:19716659
Little, Susan E; Johnson, Eileen M; Lewis, David; Jaklitsch, Renee P; Payton, Mark E; Blagburn, Byron L; Bowman, Dwight D; Moroff, Scott; Tams, Todd; Rich, Lon; Aucoin, David
Despite the public health importance and the possible zoonotic role of Giardia, epidemiological survey on the prevalence of giardiosis in Italy are lacking and fragmentary, compared to other countries. A cross-sectional coprological study on giardiosis was carried out in central and northern Italy in dogs and humans with the aim to providing data about prevalence and potential risk factors. A
G. Capelli; B. Paoletti; R. Iorio; A. Frangipane di Regalbono; M. Pietrobelli; P. Bianciardi; A. Giangaspero
The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites.
Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagne, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert
The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137
Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagné, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert
To get an overview of the current state of endoparasite prevalences in stray and not well-cared dogs and cats, faecal samples of 445 stray and foster dogs and 837 stray and foster cats were collected at their arrival at animal shelters in Lower Saxony (Germany). They were investigated for infections with endoparasites by the use of sedimentation-flotation method. Additionally, 341 canine and 584 feline samples were investigated by IDEXX SNAP® Giardia test. Stages of endoparasites were found coproscopically in 9.4 % (n?=?42) of the canine samples, 4.0 % were positive for Toxocara canis, 0.9 % for hookworms, 0.4 % for Toxascaris leonina and 0.2 % for Hammondia-like oocysts. Giardia-coproantigen was detected in 11.4 % of the canine samples. In cats, 33.6 % (n?=?281) were coproscopically positive for helminths and/or protozoa. Toxocara cati was found in 27.1 %, Isospora spp. in 7.5 %, Capillaria spp. 5.0 %, Taeniidae in 2.0 %, hookworms in 1.1 %, Giardia sp. in 0.7 %, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in 1.0 % and Toxoplasma-like oocysts in 0.1 %. Coproantigen specific for Giardia sp. was detected in 6.8 % of the feline samples. Dogs and cats up to 1 year of age were more frequently infected with endoparasites than animals over 1 year of age (p?0.001). Toxocara spp. and Isospora spp. were detected significantly more often in younger dogs and cats, respectively (p?0.05 and p?0.001). Stray dogs or cats older than 1 year were significantly more frequently infected with endoparasites than dropped off animals of the same age group (p?0.05). Using the faecal egg count reduction test, the therapeutic efficacy of some anthelmintics was tested. All tested anthelmintics showed high efficacy and no suspected anthelmintic resistance was found. However, endoparasite-infected stray and free-roaming cats and dogs may contribute considerably to the contamination of public parks, playgrounds and sandpits with zoonotic parasites and therefore have to be considered a public health problem. PMID:22526289
Becker, A-C; Rohen, M; Epe, C; Schnieder, T
The present study examined the prevalence of behaviours in dogs separated from the litter for adoption at different ages. Seventy adult dogs separated from their dam and littermates and adopted between the ages of 30 and 40 days were compared with 70 adult dogs that had been taken from the litter for adoption at two months. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire eliciting information on whether their dog exhibited potentially problematic behaviours when in its usual environment. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the age at which the dog was separated from the litter might predispose it to developing undesirable behaviours. The odds of displaying destructiveness, excessive barking, fearfulness on walks, reactivity to noises, toy possessiveness, food possessiveness and attention-seeking were significantly greater for the dogs that had been removed from the litter earlier during the socialisation period. In addition, dogs purchased from a pet shop at 30 to 40 days of age were reported to exhibit some of the listed behaviours with a significantly higher frequency than dogs purchased from a pet shop at two months. No significant differences were observed with dogs obtained from other types of sources. The dogs in the youngest age group (18 to 36 months) had a higher probability of displaying destructiveness and tail chasing. These findings indicate that, compared with dogs that remained with their social group for 60 days, dogs that had been separated from the litter earlier were more likely to exhibit potentially problematic behaviours, especially if they came from a pet shop. PMID:21865608
Pierantoni, L; Albertini, M; Pirrone, F
The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 309 unwanted dogs from Bogotá, Colombia, South America was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 52 (16.8%) of 309 dogs with titers of 1:20 in 20, 1:40 in six, 1:80 in 17, 1:160 in three, 1:320 in three, 1:1280 or higher in three. Some organs obtained after necropsy of dogs (hearts, tongues and brains, either separately or pooled) were used in bioassays carried out in mice (37 samples, of which 20 were assayed with separate organs and 17 were assayed with pooled organs), cats (pooled organs from six) and pooled organs of two dogs both in mice and cat. Mice receiving dog tissues were examined for T. gondii infection. Feces of cats that received dog tissues were examined for oocyst shedding. In total, T. gondii was isolated from tissues of 20 dogs (16 by bioassays in mice, 3 by bioassay in cats and 1 by bioassay in mice and cat). All infected mice from 7 of 17 isolates bioassayed in this host died of toxoplasmosis during primary infection. Only 10 of the 20 dogs whose tissues were bioassayed separately induced infections in mice. Interestingly, dog organs varied in their capacity to induce T. gondii infection in mice, hearts and tongues producing more positive results than the brain. The 20 T. gondii isolates obtained from seropositive dogs were PCR-RFLP genotyped using polymorphisms at 10 nuclear markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, a new SAG2 and an apicoplast marker Apico. Ten genotypes were revealed. These genotypes are different from the three predominant Types I, II and III lineages that are widely spread in North America and Europe. A new allele denoted u-3 at PK1 locus was identified in three isolates. This result supports previous findings that T. gondii population is highly diverse in Colombia. PMID:17257761
Dubey, J P; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Vargas-Duarte, J J; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Bandini, L M; Polo, L J; Zambrano, L; Mora, L E; Kwok, O C H; Smith, T; Su, C
Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are parasitic diseases of global importance. The present study had the objective to determine the influence of age, sex and breed in the prevalence of antibodies against both diseases in dogs from Brotas city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood samples of 342 dogs were collected, and the age, sex and breed of each animal were recorded. The serological diagnosis for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were performed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The Fischer's test was used to calculate the association probability of the variables, with ? = 5%. For toxoplasmosis the prevalence of antibodies was 26.9% (CI 95% 22.4-31.8%), and for neosporosis 4.97% (CI 95% 3.1-7.8%). The statistical analysis revealed a higher risk of infection for T. gondii in dogs with more than five years. PMID:24688530
Langoni, Helio; Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Monti, Elis Talita; Villa, Fausto Baptista
Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are parasitic diseases of global importance. The present study had the objective to determine the influence of age, sex and breed in the prevalence of antibodies against both diseases in dogs from Brotas city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood samples of 342 dogs were collected, and the age, sex and breed of each animal were recorded. The serological diagnosis for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were performed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The Fischer’s test was used to calculate the association probability of the variables, with ? = 5%. For toxoplasmosis the prevalence of antibodies was 26.9% (CI 95% 22.4–31.8%), and for neosporosis 4.97% (CI 95% 3.1–7.8%). The statistical analysis revealed a higher risk of infection for T. gondii in dogs with more than five years.
Langoni, Helio; Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Monti, Elis Talita; Villa, Fausto Baptista
Summary Todorova, I., 2006. Prevalence and etiology of the most common malignant tumours in dogs and cats. Bulg. J. Vet. Med. , 9, No 2, 85 ?98. Cancer is a multistage process with a polyfactorial etiology. Its development results from the effect of various carcinogens such as ionized radiation, chemicals and oncogenic viruses. The impact of many endogenous factors ?
Studies of a foxhound pack and gundog kennel in Clwyd, Wales showed 47 of 162 foxhounds (29%) and six of 25 gundogs (24%) to be infested with cestodes. Taeniia species were found in both groups, T. hydatigena being most common. Echinococcus granulosus and Dipylidium caninum were found in hounds only. The husbandry of the dogs was investigated and close relationships were found between diet, worming procedures and cestode infestation. These dogs play an important role in disseminating cestode eggs in the environment. Recommendations for control of the problem are made. Foxhounds and other hunting dogs play a particularly important role in the life-cycle of cestodes because their diet frequently includes uncooked carcasses and because they hunt over large areas of countryside, facilitating the widespread dissemination of infective eggs. PMID:3675042
Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665
O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C
Aggression between dogs is common and can result in injury. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence, evaluate co-occurrence with human-directed aggression, and investigate potential risk factors, using a cross-sectional convenience sample of dog owners. Aggression (barking, lunging, growling or biting) towards unfamiliar dogs was reported to currently occur, by 22 per cent of owners, and towards other dogs in the household, by 8 per cent. A low level of concordance between dog and human-directed aggression suggested most dogs were not showing aggression in multiple contexts. Aggression towards other dogs in the household was associated with increasing dog age, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques, and attending ring-craft classes. Aggression towards other dogs on walks was associated with location of questionnaire distribution, owner age, age of dog, origin of dog, dog breed type, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques and attending obedience classes for more than four weeks. In both, the amount of variance explained by models was low (<15 per cent), suggesting that unmeasured factors mostly accounted for differences between groups. These results suggest general characteristics of dogs and owners which contribute to intraspecific aggression, but also highlight that these are relatively minor predictors. PMID:23193037
Casey, R A; Loftus, B; Bolster, C; Richards, G J; Blackwell, E J
Certain zoonotic parasites are enteropathogens in dogs that cause serious human disease such as cystic echinococcosis, human alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans. This study investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs in the Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. Sampling was carried out randomly in 17 villages from November 2009 to January 2010. Seventy-seven fecal samples from 28 domestic and 49 stray dogs were examined using sieving/flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Intestinal parasites were found in 51 of the 77 (66%) dogs most common being Toxascaris leonina (29%, 22/77), Toxocara spp. (25%, 19/77), Eimeria spp. (19%, 15/77), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (18%, 14/77), Sarcocystis spp. (17%, 13/77), and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (14%, 11/77). Lower infection rates of parasites were observed for Trichuris vulpis (6%, 5/77), Cryptosporidium spp. (5%, 4/77), and Physaloptera spp. (3%, 2/77). Prevalence of infection by Dipylidium caninum, Capillaria spp., Cystoisospora spp., and hookworms was similar (1%, 1/77). This study is the first report of the prevalence of intestinal parasites of domestic and stray dogs in Chenaran County, Northeast Iran. The higher prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites such as Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara spp. and Taenia/Echinococcus spp. compared to other parasites indicates the need for control programs to minimize the risk of transmission of zoonotic disease, particularly cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans to people living in these areas. PMID:23044475
Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Motevalian, Abbas; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Razmjou, Elham
Hearing function was tested in dogs from breeds at risk for pigment-associated congenital sensorineural deafness - Dalmatian, English setter (ES), English cocker spaniel (ECS), bull terrier (BT), Australian cattle dog (ACD), whippet, Catahoula leopard dog, and Jack Russell terrier. Deafness prevalence was highest in Dalmatians and lowest in ECS. Phenotype correlation studies were performed in breeds with >100 brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) tested subjects. No gender differences were observed. No differences were seen between black- and liver-spotted Dalmatians, among the ES roan colour varieties, among the ECS parti varieties, or among the ACD colour varieties. Blue eyes were positively associated and patches were negatively associated with deafness in the Dalmatian. Blue eyes were also associated with deafness in the ES and ECS. White BT were more likely than coloured BT to be deaf. Having one or more parent's ear deaf was positively associated with deafness in Dalmatians, ES, and ECS. PMID:14623147
Strain, George M
Objective To determine the prevalence, outcome and risk factors for postoperative pyothorax in dogs undergoing thoracic surgery. Methods Case records were reviewed retrospectively to identify dogs with post thoracic surgery pyothorax, defined as septic neutrophilic inflammation within the pleural space based on cytology and/or a positive bacterial culture of pleural fluid. Those identified were reviewed for potential risk factors for postoperative pyothorax based on biological plausibility and previously published data. These potential risk factors were explored by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 232 dogs undergoing thoracic surgery, 15 (6·5%) dogs developed pyothorax. Bacteria cultured included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-resistant Escherichia coli. Of these dogs, six died, four were euthanased and five were treated successfully. A diagnosis of idiopathic chylothorax [Odds Ratio (OR)=12·5, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=2·7-58·5, P=0·001], preoperative intrathoracic biopsy (OR=14·3, 95% CI=1·7-118·7, P=0·014) and preoperative thoracocentesis (OR=11·2, 95% CI=1·6-78·2, P=0·015) were identified as independent risk factors for development of postoperative pyothorax. Clinical Significance Idiopathic chylothorax, intrathoracic biopsy and prior thoracocentesis are independent risk factors for postoperative pyothorax, which was associated with a 67% mortality rate.
Meakin, L B; Salonen, L K; Baines, S J; Brockman, D J; Gregory, S P; Halfacree, Z J; Lipscomb, V J; Lee, K C
This study was conducted to investigate the low prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Johor Bahru as reported by veterinary practitioners, using wet blood mount, Knott's Concentration Test and two heartworm antigen test kits (IDEXX Canine SNAP® 4Dx and RapiGEN®). This study also compared the two test kits used and determined the microfilaria species. Blood were collected from 100 owned dogs and 50 stray dogs in Johor Bahru via cephalic venipuncture. A thick blood smear was done and examined for samples that were positive for microfilaria species identification. The overall prevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Johor Bahru was 1.33% (2/150) and the microfilaria identified was D. immitis. The prevalence of heartworm in owned and stray dogs in this study was 1% and 2% respectively. With only one false negative result from RapiGEN® test kit, comparing the sensitivity between the two test kits could not be achieved. The low prevalence of D. immitis found in this study confirmed anecdotal evidence that prevalence of dirofilariasis is indeed low in Johor Bahru. Additionally, we speculate that dirofilariasis in dogs might be considered as an indicator of vector availability. PMID:22543620
Ng, K L; Lee, E L; Sani, R A
We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered.
Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther
We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered. PMID:23820161
Gandolfi-Decristophoris, Paola; Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther
The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6555 dogs and 1566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1-4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1-4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815
Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J
The apparent prevalence of endoparasitic infections of cats and dogs presented to the small animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania was measured between 1984 and 1991. Two thousand feline and 8077 canine fecal samples were examined along with 6830 canine blood samples. The overall mean monthly prevalence of feline infections was 16% for ascarids, 0.9% for hookworms, 4.0%
Thomas J. Nolan; Gary Smith
The aim of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of tail injuries that required veterinary examination in different breeds of dog in Scotland. The study population included all dogs that had visited one of 16 veterinary practices located in Scotland between 2002 and early 2012. The overall prevalence of tail injuries in dogs visiting one of the 16 veterinary practices was 0.59 per cent. The prevalence of tail injuries in dogs of working breeds was estimated to be 0.90 per cent. Working dog breeds that were examined by a veterinary surgeon were at a significantly greater risk of sustaining a tail injury than non-working breeds (P<0.001). To prevent one such tail injury in these working breeds approximately 232 dogs would need to be docked as puppies. To prevent one tail amputation in spaniels, 320 spaniel puppies would need to be docked. Spaniels presented after January 2009 were 2.3 times more likely to have a tail injury than those presented before April 29, 2007 (date of the legislation that banned tail docking in Scotland). Given the results of this and the accompanying paper it may be appropriate to consider changes to the current legislation for specific breeds of working dogs. PMID:24706391
Cameron, N; Lederer, R; Bennett, D; Parkin, T
Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.
Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (p<0.0001). Thirty five percent (51/146) of the dogs were infested with ticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (p<0.029). This is the first description of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693
Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad
The house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) and D. pteronyssinus (Dpt) are commonly implicated as allergens causing canine atopic dermatitis in the UK. However, there are few studies that characterize the exposure of UK pet dogs to these mites. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the mite species on the skin, hair coat and bedding of a population of pet dogs. Dust samples (n = 68) were collected from both dogs and their beds using a standardized vacuuming technique and stored at -20 degrees C. Mites were identified using accepted morphological criteria. House dust mite allergen concentrations were assayed using standardized ELISA for Dpt and Df group 1 allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1). Mites were identified in 15/68 samples (22%) and Dpt was the most common. Df mites were not present. Der p 1 allergens were detected in 60% of samples, and Der f 1 in 6% of samples. There were no significant differences between the number of Der p 1 positive samples from dogs and the number of those from their bedding, or between the average Der p 1 concentrations from dogs and the number of those from their bedding. Contrary to studies elsewhere in Europe and the USA, these findings support studies of human asthma patients in the UK, where exposure to Df is rare, but to Dpt is common. As the prevalence of positive intradermal and serological reactions to Df in atopic dogs is high, further investigations are warranted to clarify true Df hypersensitivity or potential immunological cross-reactivity between mite allergens. PMID:15725103
Jackson, Anna P; Foster, Aiden P; Hart, Barbara J; Helps, Chris R; Shaw, Susan E
A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of spiral-shaped bacteria in animals as a pos - sible source of pathogens causing chronic changes in the human and animal stomach as well as in other parts of the digestive tract. This study was carried out in three different groups of animals, pigs, cattle and dogs. Swabs from the oral cavity
L. Kolodzieyski; B. Kim; H. S. Yoon; C. W. Lim
The purposes of this study were to specify the occurrence and prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw, and to determine the Borrelia species occurring in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 590 collected ticks, 209 were identified as I. ricinus, and 381 as Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of B. canis was
Wojciech Zygner; S?awomir Jaros; Halina W?drychowicz
Blood sera from 71 dogs were examined for specific IgG antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The dogs were divided into two groups according to the pres - ence or absence of gastrointestinal disease, which could potentially be associated with L. intracellularis. In the group of dogs with gastrointestinal disease ( n = 54), 40 dogs
J. Klimes; K. Dezorzova; J. Smola; R. Husnik
Ticks are important vectors of disease in companion animals and transmit an extensive range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens to dogs and cats. They may also be vectors of zoonotic pathogens which affect the health of in-contact owners. In recent years, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis have all shown signs of increased prevalence and distribution in various parts of Europe. Here, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. pathogens in Ixodes ticks, collected from dogs in the UK in 2009, were evaluated using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA or 18S rDNA regions respectively. Species identification was performed by alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. After sequencing, 5 out of 677 tick samples (0.74%) contained rDNA which shared 97-100%% sequence homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Of these, three samples came from Ixodes ricinus and two from Ixodes hexagonus. Sixteen out of 742 ticks (2.4%) were positive for Babesia and of these 11 showed 97-100% homology with B. gibsoni. All of these 11 samples were derived from I. ricinus. One sample, again from I. ricinus, showed 99% homology for B. divergens. Four of the Babesia spp sequences were of the "venatorum" or EU1 type, three of which came from I. ricinus and one from an Ixodes canisuga. This strain has been associated with severe human cases of babeisiosis. A further 246 positive results, which appeared to show the presence of Anaplasma following PCR, were shown by sequence analysis to be derived from the bacterium Candidatus "Midichloria mitochondrii", which to date has been assumed to be non-pathogenic. The results are of interest because the presence of B. gibsoni in the UK further confirms the worldwide distribution of this piroplasm and supports the inference that I. ricinus may act as a vector for Babesia of the gibsoni-complex. PMID:24055106
Smith, Faith D; Wall, Lauren Ellse Richard
Background Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and “in house”), and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n?=?1,213) animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n?=?296) and PCR-negative (n?=?917) for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. Principal Findings Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9%) were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7%) were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family income
Coura-Vital, Wendel; Marques, Marcos Jose; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leoncio; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Mariangela
Immunophenotypes in lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) are prognostically significant, yet causative factors for these conditions, and specifically those associated with heritable risk, remain elusive. The full spectrum of LPD seen in humans occurs in dogs, but the incidence and lifetime risk of naturally occurring LPD differs among dog breeds. Taking advantage of the limited genetic heterogeneity that exists within dog breeds, we tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes would differ among different breeds. The sample population included 1,263 dogs representing 87 breeds. Immunophenotype was determined by the presence of clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain or T-cell receptor gamma chain. The probability of observing the number of B-cell or T-cell tumors in a particular breed or breed group was compared with three reference populations. Significance was computed using chi2 test, and logistic regression was used to confirm binomial predictions. The data show that, among 87 breeds tested, 15 showed significant differences from the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes seen across the dog population as a whole. More significantly, elevated risk for T-cell LPD seems to have arisen ancestrally and is retained in related breed groups, whereas increased risk for B-cell disease may stem from different risk factors, or combinations of risk factors, arising during the process of breed derivation and selection. The data show that domestic dogs provide a unique and valuable resource to define factors that mediate risk as well as genes involved in the initiation of B-cell and T-cell LPD. PMID:15994938
Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Burnett, Robert C; Parker, Heidi G; Inusah, Seidu; Thomas, Rachael; Avery, Paul R; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Ostrander, Elaine A; Cutter, Gary C; Avery, Anne C
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus intermedius has been isolated from healthy dogs and pigeons as well as diseased dogs. Similar to Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius is known to carry many virulence factors but most of these factors remain to be studied. In this study, we examined 106 S. intermedius isolates (44 dog isolates and 62 pigeon isolates) for their hemolytic activity, biofilm formation,
Keiko Futagawa-Saito; William Ba-Thein; Naomi Sakurai; Tsuguaki Fukuyasu
The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n = 476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n = 8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350
Broeckx, Bart J G; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E C; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H; Soetaert, Sandra S A; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter
The usefulness of a diffusion chamber method for determination of concentrations of cytostatic drugs in the interstitial fluid of tissues was tested. Chambers with a permeable membrane (pore size: 0.45 µm) were implanted in the liver, kidney, bladder wall, and prostate of dogs. After administration of high doses of methotrexate (100 mg\\/kg body wt) the concentrations in the chamber fluid
Peter Porpaczy; Christian P. Schmidbauer; Apostolos Georgopoulos; Arno T. Endler
Faecal samples from 272 dogs and 236 cats from Dutch households were examined for nematode eggs. Toxocara eggs were found in 8 dogs (2.9%) and 11 cats (4.7%). Toxascaris eggs were found in 1 dog (0.4%) and Trichuris eggs in 2 dogs (0.7%). Examination of faeces from 56 stray cats revealed Toxocara in 12 cases (21%) and Toxascaris eggs in 3 cases (5.4%). No hookworm eggs were found. The percentage of positive samples was significantly higher in young animals than in older animals. Toxocara eggs were found significantly more frequently in stray cats than in cats kept in households. PMID:9225423
Overgaauw, P A
Cats are considered a susceptible host for Dirofilaria immitis; however, increased host resistance is reflected by relatively low adult worm burdens in natural and experimental infections; the prolonged prepatent period (8 months); the low level and short duration of microfilaremia; and the short life span of adult worms (2–3 years). From April to September 2006, 212 cats and 608 dogs,
L. Venco; M. Genchi; C. Genchi; D. Gatti; L. Kramer
Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.
Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling
A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Prevalence and Risk Factors for Anti-Microbial-Resistant Generic Escherichia coli in Domestic Dogs that Frequent Dog Parks in Three Cities in South-Western Ontario, Canada.
Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli in dogs. PMID:23802858
Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M
Infection rates with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were compared among dogs living under different conditions. Stool samples (n=433) collected from dogs of different ages, gender, living conditions and origin were analyzed using three techniques, i.e., centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate solution, centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution, and methylene blue gram safranin staining. Eighty-nine of the samples were from stay
M. J. S. Mundim; L. A. G. Rosa; S. M. Hortêncio; E. S. M. Faria; R. M. Rodrigues; M. C. Cury
This study evaluated the fecal microbiota of 12 healthy pet dogs and 12 pet cats using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. A total of 120,406 pyrosequencing reads for bacteria (mean 5017) and 5359 sequences (one pool each for dogs and cats) for fungi were analyzed. Additionally, group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were constructed. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes in dogs and Actinobacteria in cats. The most prevalent bacterial class in dogs and cats was Clostridia, dominated by the genera Clostridium (clusters XIVa and XI) and Ruminococcus. At the genus level, 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in dogs and 113 OTUs in cats. Seventeen LAB and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were detected in canine feces. Ascomycota was the only fungal phylum detected in cats, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota were identified in dogs. Nacaseomyces was the most abundant fungal genus in dogs; Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were predominant in cats. At the genus level, 33 different fungal OTUs were observed in dogs and 17 OTUs in cats. In conclusion, this study revealed a highly diverse bacterial and fungal microbiota in canine and feline feces. PMID:21261668
Handl, Stefanie; Dowd, Scot E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S
Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples. PMID:21247022
Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P
Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P?0.05). Although H. canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks. PMID:23812601
El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma
Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible. PMID:20532563
Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja
The prevalence of canine trypanosomosis was investigated in two Chagas disease endemic rural communities located in the central region of Panama. Serologic tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection revealed a prevalence of 11.1%. Hemocultures coupled with PCR analysis demonstrated a Trypanosoma rangeli infection rate of 5.1%. An overall trypanosome infection index of 16.2% (16\\/99) was detected in this canine population. One
V. Pineda; A. Saldaña; I. Monfante; A. Santamaría; N. L. Gottdenker; M. J. Yabsley; G. Rapoport; J. E. Calzada
The purposes of this study were to specify the occurrence and prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks removed from dogs in Warsaw, and to determine the Borrelia species occurring in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 590 collected ticks, 209 were identified as I. ricinus, and 381 as Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of B. canis was detected in 11% of D. reticulatus ticks. We found that 6.2% of I. ricinus ticks harbored B. burgdorferi s.l. specific DNA and 2.9% harbored A. phagocytophilum DNA. In these samples sequencing of the detected Borrelia amplicon confirmed infection with Borrelia afzelii genospecies. New sequences were submitted to the GenBank database (accession no. EU152128, EU152127, EU152126). This work is the first detection of B. afzelii and A. phagocytophilum in ticks from Warsaw, and the first survey for the prevalence of B. canis, B. afzelii, and A. phagocytophilum in ticks in central Poland. PMID:18328630
Zygner, Wojciech; Jaros, S?awomir; Wedrychowicz, Halina
Changes in the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection among shelter dogs between a decade ago and the present were evaluated. Serum samples were collected from 200 adult dogs in urban and suburban areas in Tokyo, Japan, during two 2-year periods (April 1999 to March 2001 and April 2009 to March 2011). Sera were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using a specific commercialized kit. The seroprevalence of D. immitis infection was 46% in 1999-2001 and 23% in 2009-2011. A decrease was observed in the prevalence of infection between 1999-2001 and 2009-2011; in particular, the prevalence in urban areas decreased significantly compared with that in suburban areas (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in prevalence between the sexes in each period, but there was a significant difference between mixed-breed and purebred dogs (P < 0.01). The decrease in prevalence of canine heartworm disease in urban areas could be related to better veterinary care. PMID:24581552
Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Matsumoto, Jun; Nogami, Sadao
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of organ and nonorgan specific autoantibodies in relation to disability and comorbidity in an unselected population of centenarians. A population-based survey of all persons living in Denmark who celebrated their 100th birthday during the period 1 April 1995 to 31 May 1996, a total of 276 persons, was undertaken. Participants underwent an interview, a physical examination and blood sampling. Organ specific autoantibodies (Tg-ab, TPO-ab, PCA-ab) and nonorgan specific autoantibodies (ANA, IgM RF, IgA RF, MPO-ab, c-ANCA, p-ANCA, oxLDL-ab, IgM ACA, IgG ACA, PR3-ANCA, histone-ab, SSA-ab, SSB-ab, Mit-ab) were measured, and comorbidity and disability (Katz Index of ADL) were registered. In all, 207 (75·0%) of 276 eligible subjects participated, and 148 agreed to blood tests. A large majority (79·3%) had at least one autoantibody detected. Organ specific autoantibodies were present in 32·1% of the centenarians. The high level of autoantibodies did not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. While nonorgan specific autoantibodies were equally represented in less-disabled/disabled subjects as well as in subjects with low/high comorbidity, significantly fewer subjects with organ specific autoantibodies were found among less-disabled subjects or subjects with low comorbidity. Autoantibodies (both nonorgan and organ specific) are common in an unselected population of centenarians of today, but do not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. Non-organ specific autoantibodies are evenly distributed irrespective of the level of disability or comorbidity, suggesting underlying, undiagnosed pathological processes which may be part of the processes involved in frailty.
ANDERSEN-RANBERG, K; H?IER-MADSEN, M; WIIK, A; JEUNE, B; HEGEDUS, L
Rickettsia conorii is the causative agent of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and Israeli spotted fever (ISF) transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In areas where MSF or ISF are prevalent, dogs have high prevalence of R. conorii -neutralizing antibodies. However, the true role of dogs in the persistence of the R. conorii transmission cycle is unknown, and their reservoir competence for this pathogen has remained untested. We assessed the ability of dogs infected with R. conorii to transmit the pathogen to previously uninfected Rh. sanguineus ticks. Dogs were infected either via needle-inoculation of cultured rickettsiae or naturally via infected tick bite. Dogs were monitored for clinical signs of infection, for rickettsemia by PCR, and for seroconversion and were subjected to infestation with uninfected ticks at different time points. Rh. sanguineus larvae and nymphs successfully acquired the agent from both needle-inoculated and tick-infected dogs and transmitted it transtadially. Tick-infected dogs remained infectious to ticks for at least a month postinfection. The molted ticks were, in turn, infectious to naïve dogs. These results demonstrate that dogs are capable of acquiring R. conorii from infected Rh. sanguineus ticks and transmitting infection to cohorts of uninfected ticks, thus confirming for the first time that dogs are indeed competent reservoirs for R. conorii. In addition, dogs with different genetic backgrounds appear to differ in their susceptibility to R. conorii infection. PMID:21923270
Levin, Michael L; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Zemtsova, Galina E
Association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti- Leishmania antibodies: A case–control study in dogs from a Brazilian endemic area
The association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has been evaluated in dogs located in a city of Brazil endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Blood samples from 5556 domestic dogs domiciliated in the urban area of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais state) were submitted to enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA)
Gustavo F. Paz; Múcio F. B. Ribeiro; Danielle F. de Magalhães; Kelly P. B. Sathler; Maria Helena F. Morais; Vanessa O. P. Fiúza; Silvana T. Brandão; Guilherme L. Werneck; Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias; Edelberto S. Dias
Immunophenotypes in lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) are prognostically significant, yet causative factors for these conditions, and specifically those associated with heritable risk, remain elusive. The full spectrum of LPD seen in humans occurs in dogs, but the incidence and lifetime risk of naturally occurring LPD differs among dog breeds. Taking advantage of the limited genetic heterogeneity that exists within dog breeds,
Jaime F. Modiano; Matthew Breen; Robert C. Burnett; Heidi G. Parker; Seidu Inusah; Rachael Thomas; Paul R. Avery; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Elaine A. Ostrander; Gary C. Cutter; Anne C. Avery
Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%?60.42%) and dogs (57.41%?43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.
Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica
The seasonal prevalence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides spp. on kennelled dogs in Pretoria North was determined by the regular examination of 3, initially, and later 2 dogs from March 1975--January 1977. Once the ticks had become established in the kennel peak burdens of immature ticks (larvae plus nymphae) were present on the dogs during early summer 1975 and from midsummer--late summer 1976 and early midsummer 1976/77. Peak numbers of adult ticks were present in midsummer 1975/76, from late summer--autumn and during early spring 1976 and during midsummer 1976/77. Few adults and even fewer immature ticks were present on the dogs during winter 1976 and the infestation overwintered in the pens as engorged nymphae. The flea population took 10 months to become well established. Thereafter, the periods late summer--autumn 1976 and early midsummer 1976/77 (when the survey stopped) were the most favourable and winter--spring 1976 and least favourable for adult fleas. The immature ticks preferred the sides and bellies, adult ticks the necks, and fleas the bellies of the dogs. PMID:7122067
Horak, I G
A 13-year-old mixed-breed dog showing ascites, anorexia and anemia was found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. The dog died 4 days after initial presentation and was diagnosed with splenic high-grade B-cell lymphoma at necropsy. Remarkable infiltrations of eosinophils were observed in spleen and liver tissues. The eosinophilia and infiltration of eosinophils into the lesions could have been associated with B-cell lymphoma because causes other than lymphoma were excluded. This is the first report of eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltrations into neoplastic lesions in a dog with high-grade B-cell lymphoma. PMID:20467202
Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ugai, Jun; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ide, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayam, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime
The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA-DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA-DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392
Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P
Little is known about tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in psychiatric hospitals in Vietnam, but prevalence may be higher than in the general population. We assessed the TB prevalence among in-patients of a psychiatric hospital in 2005 in Danang City, Vietnam. Of 300 in-patients, 70 had an abnormal X-ray or prolonged cough, and underwent sputum smear examinations. The prevalence of smear-positive TB was 0.33% (1/300, 95%CI 0.008-1.9). Twenty-three (7.7%) patients had X-ray lesions suggesting active TB and 22 (7.3%) had a history of TB treatment. TB prevalence was high in this psychiatric hospital, and TB infection control needs strengthening. PMID:18492338
Van Duc, L; Vree, M; Cobelens, F G; Phuc, L T; Sy, D N
SUMMARY The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41–42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8·2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats.
GURTLER, R. E.; CECERE, M. C.; LAURICELLA, M. A.; CARDINAL, M. V.; KITRON, U.; COHEN, J. E.
Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control. PMID:16651867
Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia
Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.
Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ? 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ? 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. PMID:22261239
Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison
In recent years, worldwide surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported. However, only limited surveys of T. gondii infection in police dogs have been available, including China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii in police dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China. Sera from 291 police dogs were examined for T. gondii antibodies with the modified agglutination test (MAT), and 30.9% animals were tested seropositive. The results of the present study indicated a relatively high prevalence of T. gondii infection in police dogs in Shenyang, China.
Liu, Cheng-Wu; He, Jian-Bin; Mu, Ming-Yang; Yang, Min; Sun, Ning; Li, Hong-Kui
Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) represent a recently-discovered, intriguing class of mid-IR luminous sources at high redshifts. Evidence is mounting that DOGs (selected on the basis of extreme optical/mid-IR color cut and high mid-IR flux level) may represent systems caught in the process of host galaxy formation and intense SMBH growth. Here we report the results of an X-ray spectroscopic survey aimed at studying the X-ray properties of these sources and establishing the fraction of Type 2 quasars among them.
Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Vignali, C.; Salvato, M.; Gruppioni, C.
This study investigated the nature and frequency of the contacts that occur between dogs, and between dogs and people, by means of a questionnaire survey of 260 dog-owning households in a community in Cheshire, uk. The contacts were highly variable and were affected by the size, sex and age of the dog, individual dog behaviours, human behaviours and human preferences
C. Westgarth; G. L. Pinchbeck; J. W. S. Bradshaw; S. Dawson; R. M. Gaskell; R. M. Christley
Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied.
Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman
Using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and duallaser flow cytometry, we have routinely obtained high-resolution bivariate flow karyotypes of the dog in which 32 peaks are resolved. To allow the identification of the chromosome types in each peak, chromosomes were flow sorted, amplified and labelled by polymerase chain reaction with partially degenerate primers and hybridized onto metaphase spreads of a male
Cordelia F. Langford; Patricia E. Fischer; Matthew M. Binns; Nigel G. Holmes; Nigel P. Carter
Background The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. Tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential. Methods Parasite numbers were measured by qPCR in bone marrow and ear skin biopsies of 82 dogs and 34 crab-eating foxes collected during a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil, for which previous data was available on infectiousness (by xenodiagnosis) and severity of infection. Results Parasite numbers were highly aggregated both between samples and between individuals. In dogs, total parasite abundance and relative numbers in ear skin compared to bone marrow increased with the duration and severity of infection. Infectiousness to the sandfly vector was associated with high parasite numbers; parasite number in skin was the best predictor of being infectious. Crab-eating foxes, which typically present asymptomatic infection and are non-infectious, had parasite numbers comparable to those of non-infectious dogs. Conclusions Skin parasite number provides an indirect marker of infectiousness, and could allow targeted control particularly of highly infectious dogs.
Calvo-Bado, Leo; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Quinnell, Rupert J.
The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically-transmitted cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH), is not fully understood. During outbreaks on the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere, HEV causes severe AVH with mortality rates around 20% during pregnancy. In Egypt, where prevalence of HEV antibodies (anti-HEV) in rural communities is very high, severe HEV-caused AVH in pregnant women has not been reported. This study examined a cohort of 2,428 pregnant women in the Nile Delta to assess prevalence of, and risk factors for, anti-HEV and correlated these with history of liver disease. Anti-HEV prevalence was 84.3%. Several risk factors associated with anti-HEV included older age, many siblings, not using soap to wash produce and frequent contact with cats. History of jaundice and liver disease was rare and not increased in those having anti-HEV. Our results confirm Egypt's high HEV endemicity and show that almost all women of childbearing age in these communities had prior HEV exposures without a history of liver disease. Reasons for the lack of clinical hepatitis remain unclear but could be the result of early childhood HEV exposures, producing long-lasting immunity and/or modify subsequent responses to exposure. Alternatively, the predominant HEV strain(s) in Egypt are less virulent than those in South Asia. PMID:16257426
Stoszek, Sonia K; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Saleh, Doa'a A; El Kafrawy, Sherif; Narooz, Shaker; Hawash, Yousry; Shebl, Fatma M; El Daly, Mai; Said, Ahmed; Kassem, Enas; Mikhail, Nabiel; Engle, Ronald E; Sayed, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Fix, Alan D; Emerson, Suzanne U; Purcell, Robert H; Strickland, G Thomas
Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe, and Icterohaemorrhagiae were the most common. Infection was related to age with the highest prevalence observed for adult rats but there was no difference in infection rate between sexes, suggesting primarily environmental transmission. Since most reported rat problems in urban areas are related to sewer rats, the surprisingly high level of infection calls for an increased public health concern. PMID:19393116
Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K; Jensen, J S; Leirs, H; Heiberg, A-C
Living at 2300-m altitude combined with intermittent training at 3500 m leads to cardiovascular alterations in dogs, including increase in systemic and pulmonary artery pressure. Despite moderate to marked hypoxemia at these altitudes, erythrocytosis does not develop. To study humoral mechanisms of acclimatisation to high altitude, erythropoietin (EPO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), big endothelin (Big-ET) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were
Tony M Glaus; Beat Grenacher; Daniel Koch; Barbel Reiner; Max Gassmann
A new method was developed for the determination of 7?-hydroxycholesterol (7-HC) in dog plasma by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. 7-HC extracted with organic solvent from plasma was purified with Bond Elut 2OH and converted to a sensitive fluorescent derivative containing double coumarin groups at the C-3 and C-7 positions of the steroid nucleus with 7-methoxycoumarin-3-carbonyl
Yutaka Saisho; Chika Shimada; Tsuneji Umeda
Porcine Hokovirus (PHoV) was recently discovered in Hong Kong. This new Parvovirus of pigs is closely related to the human Parvoviruses 4 and 5 (PARV4/5) and bovine Hokovirus (BHoV). So far, nothing is known about the presence and prevalence of PHoV in regions of the world other than Hong Kong. A study was initiated to investigate PHoV in German wild boars from five different geographical regions, using a newly established quantitative real-time PCR assay. Analysis of collected liver and serum samples revealed high overall prevalence (32.7%; 51/156) of PHoV in wild boars. The prevalence differed between the regions and increased with age. Two near full-length genomes and a large fragment for three additional isolates from different regions were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The German PHoV sequences from wild boars showed a close relationship with sequences of isolates from Hong Kong.
Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28?s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95). Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49) followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85) and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84). Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR?=?4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31) and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR?=?0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43). Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions to combat hookworm in the country.
Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed. PMID:16884021
Khan, R A; Evans, L
Faecal samples from 286 adult dogs and 159 pups and dust and soil samples from 32 dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands were examined for nematode eggs. Dogs that shed nematode eggs were found in 41% of the kennels. The kennel prevalence of nematode infection of adult dogs was 33%. The kennel prevalence for infection of adult dogs and pups
P. A. M. Overgaauw; J. H. Boersema
In the present study, we investigated, using custom dog cDNA arrays, the time course of transcriptional changes in the left ventricle of dogs fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9-24 wk. Array hybridizations were performed with complex probes representing mRNAs expressed in left ventricles from obese hypertensive and lean control dogs. We identified 63 differentially expressed genes, and expression of 17 of 20 randomly chosen genes was confirmed by real-time PCR. Transcripts were categorized into groups involved in metabolism, cell signaling, tissue remodeling, ionic regulation, cell proliferation, and protein synthesis. Hierarchical clustering indicated that the pattern of coregulated genes depends on duration of the HFD, suggesting that HFD-induced obesity hypertension is associated with continuous cardiac transcriptome adaptation despite stability of both body weight and blood pressure. GenMAPP analysis of the data pointed out the crucial importance of the ventricle TGF-beta pathway. Our results suggest that this system may be involved in molecular remodeling during HFD and in changes observed in the transcription profile, reflecting functional and morphological abnormalities that arise during prolonged HFD. These results also suggest some novel regulatory pathways for cardiac adaptation to obesity. PMID:15226482
Philip-Couderc, Pierre; Smih, Fatima; Hall, John E; Pathak, Atul; Roncalli, Jérome; Harmancey, Romain; Massabuau, Pierre; Galinier, Michel; Verwaerde, Patrick; Senard, Jean-Michel; Rouet, Philippe
To evaluate the effects of high intensity white noise, Beagles were individually exposed to noise levels of 120 decibels. The stressing effects of noise at this intensity were studied by determining changes in circulating venous levels of 17-hydroxycortic...
C. E. Thalken
Background Canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs) comprise illnesses caused by a spectrum of pathogens that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Some dogs have persistent infections without apparent clinical, hematological or biochemical abnormalities, whereas other dogs develop acute illnesses, persistent subclinical infections, or chronic debilitating diseases. The primary objective of this study was to screen healthy dogs for serological and molecular evidence of regionally important CVBDs. Methods Clinically healthy dogs (n?=?118), comprising three different groups: Gp I blood donor candidates (n?=?47), Gp II healthy dog volunteers (n?=?50), and Gp III stray dogs (n?=?21) were included in the study. Serum and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anti-coagulated blood specimens collected from each dog were tested for CVBD pathogens. Results Of the 118 dogs tested, 97 (82%) dogs had been exposed to or were infected with one or more CVBD pathogens. By IFA testing, 9% of Gp I, 42% of Gp II and 19% of Gp III dogs were seroreactive to one or more CVBD pathogens. Using the SNAP 4DX® assay, Gp I dogs were seronegative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) antibodies and D. immitis antigen. In Gp II, 8 dogs were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive, 2 were infected with D. immitis and 1 was B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) seroreactive. In Gp III, 6 dogs were infected with D. immitis and 4 were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive. Using the BAPGM diagnostic platform, Bartonella DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from 19% of Gp I, 20% of Gp II and 10% of Gp III dogs. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, 6% of Gps I and II and 19% of Gp III dogs were infected with other CVBD pathogens. Conclusion The development and validation of specific diagnostic testing modalities has facilitated more accurate detection of CVBDs. Once identified, exposure to vectors should be limited and flea and tick prevention enforced.
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity.
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis.
Schar, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J.
Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815
Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J
Faecal samples from 286 adult dogs and 159 pups and dust and soil samples from 32 dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands were examined for nematode eggs. Dogs that shed nematode eggs were found in 41% of the kennels. The kennel prevalence of nematode infection of adult dogs was 33%. The kennel prevalence for infection of adult dogs and pups with nematode species was 21% and 48% for Toxocara canis, respectively, 29% and 0% for Trichuris vulpis, and 20% and 0% for Toxascaris leonina. Kennels with more than two litters per year and with regular import of new animals had a significantly higher prevalence of T. canis (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). T. vulpis infections in adult dogs occurred significantly more often in kennels that used deworming products other than benzimidazoles (p < 0.05). Embryonated T. canis ova were recovered from 20% of the house and kennel dust samples and from 50% of the soil samples. This survey shows that the nematode infection rate in dog breeding kennels is high. Better deworming strategies should be used to improve the health status of the dogs and to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection in humans. PMID:9477528
Overgaauw, P A; Boersema, J H
Although canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is common, few models are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate high-IgE beagles epicutaneously sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) as a possible model for cAD. Six high-IgE beagles were environmentally challenged with HDM using various doses and protocols. Similar challenge protocols were used in positive and negative control dogs: three dogs with naturally occurring cAD and positive intradermal skin test (IDT) to HDM and three normal dogs without history of skin disease and negative IDT to HDM. All high-IgE beagles and all atopic dogs developed severe cutaneous lesions and pruritus after challenge. Lesions were erythematous papules and macules in contact areas such as face, ears, ventral abdomen, groin, axillae and feet. They were first visible after 6 h and increased in severity over time. No normal dog developed pruritus or lesions. Biopsies of representative lesions in the high-IgE beagles were taken for histopathology and immunohistochemistry. There was superficial perivascular dermatitis with mononuclear infiltrates and spongiosis. Lymphocytes and eosinophils accumulated in small epidermal micro-abscesses with hyperplasia of epidermal IgE-bearing dendritic cells. These findings suggest that this colony of high-IgE beagles develops a dermatitis that clinically, histopathologically and immunologically resembles the naturally occurring canine disease. It is also concluded that this modality of challenge is not irritating to normal dogs but induces flare-ups in hypersensitive atopic dogs. PMID:16412117
Marsella, Rosanna; Olivry, Thierry; Nicklin, Connie; Lopez, Jennifer
Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…
Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira
Objectives: To present the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Methods: Twelve layman descriptions of common musculoskeletal diseases were part of the questionnaires of a prospective cohort study of a random sample in the general Dutch population aged 25 years or more (baseline: n=3664, follow up after six months: n=2338). Data collection also included information about pain relating to five different anatomical areas. Results: Osteoarthritis of the knee (men 10.1%, women 13.6%) was amongst the most reported musculoskeletal diseases, whereas the figures for self reported rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were 1.6% and 4.6% for men and women, respectively. The coexistence of these diseases is high: 47 of the 66 combinations were reported more often than would be expected if they were independent of each other (p<0.05). For most diseases the test-retest reliability was good (? between 0.6 and 0.8), but for repetitive strain injury (?=0.37) and chronic arthritis other than RA (?=0.44) the agreement was fair to moderate. All complaints of pain were more often reported by those with musculoskeletal diseases than those without those diseases, and the pain pattern was disease-specific. Conclusions: Self reported musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent, with a fair to good reliability and a disease-specific pain pattern. Health surveys are a limited but valuable source of information for this group of health problems, which is not available from most other sources of information.
Picavet, H; Hazes, J
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal disease that causes premature death. The present study describes the clinical and molecular epidemiologic findings of NCL in Border Collies in Japan for 12 years, between 2000 and 2011. The number of affected dogs was surveyed, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. In 4 kennels with affected dogs, the dogs were genotyped. The genetic relationships of all affected dogs and carriers identified were analyzed. The survey revealed 27 affected dogs, but there was a decreasing trend at the end of the study period. The clinical characteristics of these affected dogs were updated in detail. The genotyping survey demonstrated a high mutant allele frequency in examined kennels (34.8%). The pedigree analysis demonstrated that all affected dogs and carriers in Japan are related to some presumptive carriers imported from Oceania and having a common ancestor. The current high prevalence in Japan might be due to an overuse of these carriers by breeders without any knowledge of the disease. For NCL control and prevention, it is necessary to examine all breeding dogs, especially in kennels with a high prevalence. Such endeavors will reduce NCL prevalence and may already be contributing to the recent decreasing trend in Japan.
Mizukami, Keijiro; Kawamichi, Takuji; Koie, Hiroshi; Tamura, Shinji; Matsunaga, Satoru; Imamoto, Shigeki; Saito, Miyoko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Matsuki, Naoaki; Tamahara, Satoshi; Sato, Shigenobu; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu
Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat a variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 249 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 89 (35.7%) of 249 were seropositive with titers of 25 in seven dogs, 50 in 22 dogs, 100 in 22 dogs, 200 or higher in 38 dogs. Hearts of 76 seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 12 dogs; these isolates were designated TgDogGr1 to TgDogGr12. These isolates were further propagated in cell culture and DNA isolated from cell culture derived tachyzoites of 12 isolates was genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The results revealed six genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #1, #2, #3, #7, #13 and #224, with 1, 6, 1, 2, 1 and 1 isolates, respectively. The result supports previous findings that T. gondii population genetics is highly diverse in Grenada. PMID:24041485
Dubey, J P; Tiwari, K; Chikweto, A; Deallie, C; Sharma, R; Thomas, D; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Su, C
Although there is a widely held belief that pain is the number 1 complaint in emergency medical care, few studies have actually assessed the prevalence of pain in the emergency department (ED). We conducted an analysis of secondary data by using explicit data abstraction rules to determine the prevalence of pain in the ED and to classify the location, origin,
William H. Cordell; Kelly K. Keene; Beverly K. Giles; James B. Jones; James H. Jones; Edward J. Brizendine
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health problems is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3,999) was examined by self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables, such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2 percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.8-17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV-TR kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p < .05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears to be fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggest that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A
Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5 % (95% CI; 0.1 % <> 1.3 %). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6 % in Annemasse and 2.6 % in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70 % of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286
Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck
Background: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be- tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec- tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area.
To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223
Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne
Amphibian chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that is implicated in the worldwide decline and extinction of amphibians. Africa has been proposed as a potential source for the global expansion of Bd, yet the distribution of Bd across the continent remains largely unexplored. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we screened for the presence of Bd in 166 adult anurans from two national parks in Gabon (Monts de Cristal and Ivindo). Bd was detected in 20 of the 42 species and was present at all three sites surveyed (two in Monts de Cristal, and one in Ivindo) with high prevalence (19.6%-36.0%). Both national parks were Bd-positive at all elevations and across habitat types, though no dead or dying frogs were encountered. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence of Bd in Gabon and the first record of infection for 19 of the 20 species that were Bd-positive. Documenting the distribution and virulence of Bd across Africa will be essential for understanding the dynamics of amphibian chytridiomycosis across the globe. PMID:21210295
Bell, Rayna C; Gata Garcia, Adriana V; Stuart, Bryan L; Zamudio, Kelly R
Objective: No evidence exists regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents in Middle Eastern countries. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a representative sample of Iranian adolescents.Research Methods and Procedures: Anthropometry, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure were assessed in a population-based cross-sectional study of 3036 Iranian adolescents (1413 boys and 1623 girls) 10
Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Parvin Mirmiran; Leila Azadbakht; Arash Etemadi; Fereidoun Azizi
We tested the hypothesis that total body irradiation (TBI) given at a high dose rate would be more immunosuppressive and lead to a higher incidence of stable hematopoietic cell engraftment after suboptimal levels of conditioning irradiation compared with TBI at a low dose rate. We assessed the engraftment success of dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow transplantation in recipients of 100, 150, and 200 cGy TBI administered at a rate of 7 or 70 cGy/min. Dogs received donor marrow on the same day as TBI and were subsequently treated with postgraft immunosuppression consisting of mycophenolate mofetil (for 28 days) and cyclosporine (for 37 days). Donor chimerism was monitored until the end of study and was characterized by either graft rejection or stable engraftment. Increasing the radiation dose rate from the traditional 7 cGy/min to 70 cGy/min did not lead to increased engraftment success at any of the irradiation doses tested. The dose rate of 70 cGy/minute was no more hematotoxic than the rate of 7 cGy/minute. TBI delivered at a high dose rate was well tolerated but was not associated with a better rate of allogeneic hematopoietic cell engraftment compared with TBI delivered at a lower dose rate. PMID:23994246
Graves, Scott S; Storer, Barry E; Butts, Tiffany M; Storb, Rainer
The "in vivo" conditions for beta3-adrenoceptors (beta-AR) activation by isoproterenol were investigated in dog. Experiments were carried out in anesthetized dogs using isoproterenol as a nonselective beta-AR agonist. Intravenous infusion of isoproterenol (0.4 nmol/kg/min) induced arterial hypotension and tachycardia with a slight decrease in cutaneous blood flow. At this dose, isoproterenol increased glucose, glycerol, and nonesterified fatty acid plasma levels. The changes in cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic parameters, induced by the low dose of isoproterenol, were suppressed by pretreatment with nadolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.). After nadolol administration, however, a 10-fold higher dose (4 nmol/kg/min) of isoproterenol was able to induce a decrease in arterial blood pressure with a slight tachycardia and an increase in cutaneous blood flow. This high dose of isoproterenol increased nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol plasma levels but failed to change glucose plasma levels. All these effects were abolished by a pretreatment with nadolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) plus SR59230A [a selective beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist; (3-(2-ethylphenoxy)-1(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-1-ylaminol-(2S)2-propanol oxalate); 1 mg/kg, i.v.]. Moreover, as observed with the high dose of isoproterenol under nadolol pretreatment, an infusion of SR58611A [a selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonist; ((N2S)-7-carbethoxymethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-2-yl-(2R)-2-hydroxy-2-chlorophenyl) ethanamine hydrochloride] induces a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure associated with an increase in heart rate, cutaneous blood flow, and nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol plasma levels. These results demonstrate that the in vivo activation of beta3-adrenoceptors requires higher doses of catecholamine than those necessary for beta1- and/or beta2-adrenoceptor stimulation. These results also argue for the lack of a beta3-AR involvement in the control of heart rate and glycogenolysis in dogs. PMID:12490598
Pelat, Michel; Verwaerde, Patrick; Galitzky, Jean; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel; Senard, Jean-Michel; Montastruc, Jean-Louis
A single-centre, open-label, controlled, randomized clinical trial to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis in a high prevalence area.
The innate immune response acting immediately after initial infection with Leishmania parasites is known to play a relevant role in prevention against clinical progression of the disease. Domperidone is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that has shown to enhance the innate cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a high prevalence area. The study was performed with 90 healthy, seronegative dogs of different sex, age, weight and breed from a single veterinary clinic located in Valencia (Spain). Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs in one group (domperidone-treated group; n=44) were administered an oral suspension of domperidone at 0.5mg/kg bw/day during 30 consecutive days, every 4 months. Dogs in the other group (negative control group; n=46) were left untreated. A 21-month follow-up period was implemented covering two seasonal phases of the sand fly vector. During this period all animals underwent periodic clinical examinations and blood samplings for anti-Leishmania serological testing. Dogs seropositive for Leishmania (IFAT antibody titre?1:80) plus at least one clinical sign consistent with CanL (indicative of active infection and incipient disease progression) were categorized as a 'prevention failure'. These dogs were withdrawn from the study after confirming the infection by direct observation of the parasite in smears of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow aspirates. The cumulative percentage of 'prevention failure' after 12 months was significantly lower in the domperidone-treated group than in the negative control group (7% versus 35%, p=0.003). Differences between groups persisted after 21 months (11% versus 48%, p<0.001). The prevention rate provided by domperidone was 80% during the first 12 months and 77% throughout the complete 21-month follow-up period, with odds ratios of 7.3 (p=0.001) and 7.15 (p<0.001), respectively, this indicating that the risk for domperidone-treated dogs to develop the clinical disease is quite 7 times lower than for dogs left untreated. The results of this study demonstrate that the implementation of a strategic domperidone-based treatment programme consisting in quarterly repeated 30-day treatments with domperidone effectively reduces the risk to develop clinical CanL in areas with high prevalence of the disease. PMID:24698328
Sabaté, David; Llinás, Jorge; Homedes, Josep; Sust, Mariano; Ferrer, Lluís
TT virus (TTV) is much more prevalent than we once imagined. With the use of primers designed from the noncoding regions, a more than 90% rate of TTV infection in the general population by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been reported, showing that nonparenteral transmission must play an important role to its epidemiology. We considered that TTV may be secreted
Mamoru Itoh; Hiroyuki Shimomura; Shin-Ichi Fujioka; Masanobu Miyake; Hideyuki Tsuji; Fusao Ikeda; Takao Tsuji
A total of 67 cases of tuberculosis was diagnosed in the first 100 cases of AIDS, diagnosed according to the former CDC criteria, at a hospital in Madrid, Spain. This is the highest known prevalence of tuberculosis in AIDS patients both within and outside Spain. The clinical manifestations of tuberculosis were very variable and atypical. The rate of isolation ofMycobacterium
E. Bouza; C. Martín-Scapa; J. C. L. Bernaldo de Quirós; D. Martínez-Hernández; J. Menarguez; J. Gómez-Rodrigo; J. Cosín; M. J. Sagues-Cifuentes
Background Helminthiasis is a public health concern in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos). This study aimed to understand helminth infection and associated risk factors in relation to existing local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding worm infections in endemic communities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 randomly selected villages in Saravane district, Southern Laos. Two stool samples obtained from 574 members (aged ?2 years) of selected households were examined using the Kato Katz method. Household heads (n?=?130) were interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and direct observations were performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict infection. Content analysis was conducted for qualitative data. Results The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia sp. was 88.7%, 86.6%, 32.9%, 9.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Most individuals were co-infected with O. viverrini and hookworm. More men had multiple helminth infections than did women. Only one-third of household heads had heard about liver fluke before, of which 59.2% associated it with eating raw fish dish. Among the soil-transmitted helminths, roundworm was the most well known (70.8%) but was attributed to raw food consumption (91.3%). Eating raw fish was a common practice (75.4%); few households possessed a latrine (16.1%); less than half of the study participants mentioned health benefits from latrine use and personal hygiene. Focus group discussion participants had a low level of awareness of worm infections; more men liked eating raw fish than did women; some disliked using latrines because they were not used to it and because of their bad smell. Poor personal and village hygiene practices were observed. Conclusions This study highlights a high helminth infection rate and poor community awareness of worm infections and associated risk factors. Only a sound awareness of worm infection and the underlying risk factors may prevent infection and re-infection after treatment.
. Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl\\u000a in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were\\u000a determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de Val?ncia, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Do?ana (Guadalquivir Marshes).\\u000a Lead pellet density
R. Mateo; J. Belliure; J. C. Dolz; J. M. Aguilar Serrano; R. Guitart
Summary Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) has emerged as a serious public health problem in the country of Georgia. However, there have been little or no data on rates and risk factors for drug resistant TB including multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB in Georgia. Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors for drug resistant TB. Methodology A cross-sectional prospective survey of patients with suspected pulmonary TB was carried out at four sentinel sites (Tbilisi, Zugdidi, Kutaisi, and Batumi) in Georgia to in 2001-2004. Results Among 1,422 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, 996 (70.0%) of 1,422 patients were culture positive; 931 (93.5%) of 996 had drug susceptibility testing performed. Overall, 64% of patients (48.3% of new and 85.3% of retreatment cases) had positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to ?1 first line antituberculosis drugs. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB was 28.1% (10.5% of newly diagnosed patients and 53.1% of retreatment cases). In multivariate analysis, risk factors for MDR-TB included: being a retreatment case (prevalence ratio [PR]=5.28, 95% CI 3.95-7.07); history of injection drug use (PR=1.59, 95% CI 1.21-2.09); and female gender (PR=1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.65). Conclusion MDR-TB has emerged as a serious public health problem in Georgia and will greatly impact TB control strategies.
Mdivani, Nino; Zangaladze, Ekaterina; Volkova, Natalia; Kourbatova, Ekaterina; Jibuti, Thea; Shubladze, Natalia; Kutateladze, Tamar; Khechinashvili, George; del Rio, Carlos; Salakaia, Archil; Blumberg, Henry M.
Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)
Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others
We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12.
Danice K. Eaton; Lela R. McKnight-Eily; Richard Lowry; Geraldine S. Perry; Letitia Presley-Cantrell; Janet B. Croft
High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.
Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.
We investigated a focus of highly endemic Echinococcus multilocularis infection to assess persistence of high endemicity in rural rodents, explore potential for parasite transmission to domestic carnivores, and assess (serologically) putative exposure versus infection frequency in inhabitants of the region. From spring 1993 to spring 1998, the prevalence of E. multilocularis in rodents was 9% to 39% for Arvicola terrestris and 10% to 21% for Microtus arvalis. From June 1996 to October 1997, 6 (7%) of 86 feral dogs and 1 of 33 cats living close to the region tested positive for intestinal E. multilocularis infection. Testing included egg detection by coproscopy, antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and specific parasite DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Thus, the presence of infected domestic carnivores can increase E. multilocularis exposure risk in humans. A seroepidemiologic survey of 2,943 blood donors in the area used specific Em2-ELISA. Comparative statistical analyses of seroprevalence and clinical incidence showed an increase in Em2-seroprevalence from 1986 and 1996-97 but no increase in clinical incidence of alveolar hydatid disease.
Gottstein, B.; Saucy, F.; Deplazes, P.; Reichen, J.; Demierre, G.; Busato, A.; Zuercher, C.; Pugin, P.
ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to set specific dog breed and sex standards for total cholesterol (T-Cho) and total triglyceride (T-TG) concentrations in dogs and to quantify the associations between dog age and concentrations of both lipids for different breeds. Increased age was associated with higher T-Cho and T-TG concentrations in all five breed groups (P<0.05); T-Cho concentrations increased by 62.5 mg/dl between 9 and 16 years of age, and T-TG concentrations increased by 4.8 mg/dl per year of age (P<0.05). Miniature Schnauzers had the highest T-Cho concentrations of the studied breeds, while Miniature Dachshunds had the lowest concentrations (P<0.05). Veterinarians should consider dog age and breed when they use the lipid concentrations for diagnostic purposes.
USUI, Shiho; MIZOGUCHI, Yasushi; YASUDA, Hidemi; ARAI, Nobuaki; KOKETSU, Yuzo
Background Behcet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology. There are several clues which may indicate an ethiopathogenesis role for Helicobacter pylori infection in this disease. Methods In a case control study in an out patient department, 48 patients with BD were compared to age, sex matched controls regarding presence of H. pylori infection by serology and urea breath test (UBT). Results Ongoing H. pylori infection was more prevalent among patients with BD using result of UBT with odds ratio of 3.1 (95% CI: 1.34 – 7.26, PV?0.001). Conclusion H. pylori infection may have a role in the pathogenesis of BD.
ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region.
GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate platelet function using in vitro tests based on both high and low shear rates and von Willebrand factor (vWf) multimeric composition in dogs with cardiac disease and turbulent high-velocity blood flow. Client-owned asymptomatic, untreated dogs were divided into 4 groups: 14 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (Cavaliers) with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and no or minimal mitral regurgitation (MR), 17 Cavaliers with MVP and moderate to severe MR, 14 control dogs, and 10 dogs with subaortic stenosis (SAS). Clinical examinations and echocardiography were performed in all dogs. PFA100 closure times (the ability of platelets to occlude a hole in a membrane at high shear rates), platelet activation markers (plasma thromboxane B2 concentration, platelet surface P-selectin expression), platelet aggregation (in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma with 3 different agonists), and vWf multimers were analyzed. Cavaliers with moderate to severe MR and dogs with SAS had longer closure times and a lower percentage of the largest vWf multimers than did controls. Maximal aggregation responses were unchanged in dogs with SAS but enhanced in Cavaliers with MVP (regardless of MR status) compared with control dogs. No significant difference in platelet activation markers was found among groups. The data suggest that a form of platelet dysfunction detected at high shear rates was present in dogs with MR and SAS, possibly associated with a qualitative vWf defect. Aggregation results suggest increased platelet reactivity in Cavaliers, but the platelets did not appear to circulate in a preactivated state in either disease. PMID:16095168
Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Falk, Torkel; Haubro, Lotte; Pedersen, Lotte G; Pedersen, Henrik D
Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted.
Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio
Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. PMID:24929882
Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu
The worldwide increase of celiac disease prompted us to assess its prevalence in the Italian general population. The 3483 inhabitants of Campogalliano were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysial antibodies. Twenty subjects showed antibody positivity and duodenal biopsy detected typical mucosal lesions of celiac disease in 17 of them; the remaining three cases had a normal villous architecture, but the finding of increased gamma/delta intraepithelial lymphocytes in all and the heterodimer DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 in two of them was consistent with potential celiac disease. Only one patient had an overt malabsorption syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and severe weakness. In eight subjects atypical symptoms of celiac disease, such as dyspepsia and depression, were present, whereas the remaining subjects were silent. Celiac disease was more frequent in younger age groups. Our cross-sectional design study demonstrates that celiac disease prevalence in the Italian general population is 4.9 per 1000 (95% CI 2.8-7.8), increasing up to 5.7 per 1000 (95% CI 3.5-8.8) with the inclusion of potential cases. PMID:11478502
Volta, U; Bellentani, S; Bianchi, F B; Brandi, G; De Franceschi, L; Miglioli, L; Granito, A; Balli, F; Tiribelli, C
Endostatin prevents angiogenesis and tumor growth by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The purpose of this study was to determine serum endostatin concentrations in 53 healthy dogs and in 38 dogs with confirmed malignant neoplasms. Endostatin concentration was determined with a competitive enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) with rabbit polyclonal antibody generated against a recombinant canine endostatin protein. Both the presence of cancer and increasing age were associated with increased serum concentration of endostatin. Endostatin concentration in healthy dogs was 87.7 +/- 3.5 ng/mL. Upper and lower limits of the reference range for serum endostatin concentration in healthy dogs were 60 and 113 ng/mL. Dogs with lymphoma (LSA) and hemangiosarcoma (HSA) had endostatin concentrations of 107 +/- 9.3 ng/mL. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that endostatin can be quantified in dogs and that endostatin concentrations are high in dogs with HSA and LSA. PMID:12322707
Rossmeisl, John H; Bright, Patricia; Tamarkin, Lawrence; Simpson, Byron W; Troy, Gregory C; Hueston, William; Ward, Daniel L
Background Altered cardiac repolarization and increased dispersion of repolarization have been identified as risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The prevalence of and the mechanisms contributing to altered cardiac repolarization are currently unknown in COPD. Methods In 91 COPD patients, 32 controls matched for age, cardiovascular risk and medication, and 41 healthy subjects, measures of cardiac repolarization and dispersion of repolarization (QTc interval, QT dispersion) were derived from 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). Prevalence rates of heart rate corrected QT (QTc) >450ms and QT dispersion >60ms were determined to assess the number of subjects at risk for SCD. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify possible factors contributing to altered cardiac repolarization. Results QTc was found to be prolonged in 31.9% and QT dispersion in 24.2% of the COPD patients compared to 12.5% in matched controls and 0% in healthy subjects. The QTc interval was longer in COPD patients compared to matched and healthy controls respectively (437.9?±?29.5 vs. 420.1?±?25.3 ms, p?=?0.001 and vs. 413.4?±?18.2 ms, p?0.001). QT dispersion was significantly increased in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects (45.4 (34.8 , 59.5) vs. 39.7 (29.3 , 54.8) ms, p?=?0.049). Only oxygen saturation was independently associated with QTc duration in multivariate analysis (??=?-0.29, p?=?0.015). Conclusion One third of a typical COPD population has altered cardiac repolarization and increased dispersion of repolarization, which may be related to hypoxia. Altered cardiac repolarization may expose these patients to an increased risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias and SCD.
Between 2009 and 2011, we conducted a case-control study of ticks and tick-associated pathogens affecting dogs on the island of St. Kitts, eastern Caribbean, including 55 cases of clinically suspected tick-borne disease (TBD) and 110 presumably healthy animals presented for elective surgeries. Rhipicephalus sanguineus caused year-round infestations of dogs, and 36% of the dogs in the study were infested at the time of examination. Overall, 62% of suspected TBD cases and 24% of presumably healthy dogs tested positive by PCR for infections with: Anaplasma platys (0% and 4%), Babesia canis vogeli (20% and 6%), Babesia gibsoni (18% and 5%), Ehrlichia canis (35% and 7%), and Hepatozoon canis (5% and 2%). Co-infections were documented in 15% of these PCR-positive dogs. Antibodies against A. platys or E. canis were noted in 36% of the dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most common sign of infection, followed by anemia. This is the first detection of A. platys, B. canis vogeli, or H. canis on St. Kitts and the first detection of B. gibsoni in the Caribbean. We conclude that tick-borne pathogens of dogs are highly prevalent in this region and may present in dogs that appear healthy, in spite of hematologic abnormalities that may increase surgical risk. PMID:23481028
Loftis, Amanda D; Kelly, Patrick J; Freeman, Mark D; Fitzharris, Susan; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Wang, Chengming
Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania. PMID:21996514
Bružinskait?-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šark?nas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter
Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities
This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter.
Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan
Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities.
This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792
Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan
A complete set of paint probes, with each probe specific for a single type of dog chromosome, was generated by DOP-PCR amplification\\u000a of flow-sorted chromosomes. These probes have been assigned to high-resolution G-banded chromosomes of the dog and Arctic\\u000a fox by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. On the basis of these results we propose improved nomenclature for the G-banded karyotypes of the
A. S. Graphodatsky; F. Yang; P. C. M. O'Brien; N. Serdukova; B. S. Milne; V. Trifonov; M. A. Ferguson-Smith
There is increasing evidence that immigrants and traumatized individuals have elevated prevalence of medical disease. This study focuses on 459 Vietnamese, Cambodian, Somali, and Bosnian refugee psychiatric patients to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. The prevalence of hypertension was 42% and of diabetes was 15.5%. This was significantly higher than the US norms, especially in the groups younger than 65. Diabetes and hypertension were higher in the high-trauma versus low-trauma groups. However, in the subsample with body mass index (BMI) measurements subjected to logistic regression, only BMI was related to diabetes, and BMI and age were related to hypertension. Immigrant status, presence of psychiatric disorder, history of psychological trauma, and obesity probably all contributed to the high prevalence rate. With 2.5 million refugees in the country, there is a strong public health concern for cardiovascular disease in this group. PMID:18277218
Kinzie, John David; Riley, Crystal; McFarland, Bentson; Hayes, Meg; Boehnlein, James; Leung, Paul; Adams, Greg
Objective To determine the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and temporal profile of concurrent ischemic lesions in patients with acute primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods Patients were recruited within a prospective, longitudinal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based study of primary ICH. Clinical, demographic, and MRI data were collected on all subjects at baseline and 1 month. Results Of the 138 patients enrolled, mean age was 59 years, 54% were male, 73% black, and 84% had a history of hypertension. At baseline, ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were found in 35% of patients. At 1 month, lesions were present in 27%, and of these lesions, 83% were new and not present at baseline. ICH volume (p=0.025), intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.019), presence of microbleeds (p=0.024), and large, early reductions in mean arterial pressure (p=0.003) were independent predictors of baseline DWI lesions. A multivariate logistical model predicting the presence of 1 month DWI lesions included history of any prior stroke (p=0.012), presence of 1 or more microbleeds (p=0.04), black race (p=0.641), and presence of a DWI lesion at baseline (p=0.007) Interpretation This study demonstrates that more than 1/3 of patients with primary ICH have active cerebral ischemia at baseline remote from the index hematoma, and 1/4 of patients experience ongoing, acute ischemic events at 1 month. Multivariate analyses implicate blood pressure reductions in the setting of an active vasculopathy as a potential underlying mechanism. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of these lesions on outcome and optimal management strategies to arrest vascular damage.
Menon, Ravi S.; Burgess, Richard E.; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Gibbons, M. Christopher; Shara, Nawar M.; Fernandez, Stephen; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; German, Laura; Sobotka, Ian; Edwards, Dorothy; Kidwell, Chelsea S.
An indirect fluorescent antibody test was performed on sera collected from dogs housed in the municipal kennel of Setúbal to assess the prevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis and to Rickettsia conorii, agent of boutonneuse fever in humans. Two other members of the family Rickettsiaceae, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia typhi, were included in the serosurvey. Of the 104 dogs tested, 85.6% had antibodies to R. conorii, 50% to E. canis, 26.9% to R. typhi, and 4.8% to C. burnetii. These high seroprevalence rates of dogs with antibodies all year around against Rickettsiaceae suggest that physicians, public health officers and veterinarians should more frequently consider the diagnosis of these infections in Portugal. PMID:7655402
Bacellar, F; Dawson, J E; Silveira, C A; Filipe, A R
Purpose – The use of canines in the gathering of evidence is a valuable tool for law enforcement to discover crime and criminals. Narcotics, explosives, cadaver detection, search and rescue, or patrol dogs are prevalently used by most police organizations for combatting crime. Police service dogs decrease the time required and increase success in crime detection. The purpose of this
S. Sebnem Ozcan; Hulki Akin; Hakan Bayram; Musa Bas; Ahmet Yildiz; Atalay Ozdemiroglu
The life cycle of the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus multilocularis is predominantly sylvatic, involving foxes as definitive hosts infected by predation of rodents, the intermediate hosts. The North-Eastern French departments of Meuse and Haute-Saône are highly endemic, with an estimated fox prevalence of 41% and 36% respectively. Although most of the parasites' biomass occurs in foxes, domestic dogs can also be infected, leading to a major risk of human infection due to the close proximity of dogs and owners. In the present study, dog faeces were collected after praziquantel treatment provided by veterinarians. In all, 860 faecal samples were collected throughout Meuse (n=493) and Haute-Saône (n=367). Intestinal helminth eggs were isolated from the faeces using a flotation technique and observed by microscopy. Parasite species were identified in samples positive for taeniid eggs by sequence analysis after PCR amplification. To study the factors associated with infestation, each sample was linked to a questionnaire filled in by the dog owners. Taeniid eggs were observed in seven faecal samples (0.8%) but none of them were positive for E. multilocularis. Thus, the apparent prevalence of E. multilocularis in dog populations is lower than 1.00% for Haute-Saône and lower than 0.75% for Meuse. In Haute-Saône, a high proportion of dogs observed suspected preying on rodents were not dewormed monthly. In endemic areas, these dogs must be considered at risk of transmitting E. multilocularis to humans. PMID:22494943
Umhang, Gérald; Raton, Vincent; Comte, Sébastien; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck
Mutations 1 295 228 C>T and 1 295 250 C>T (termed C228T and C250T respectively), corresponding to ?124 C>T and ?146 C>T from the translation start site in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, have recently been reported in human cancers, but not in thyroid cancers yet. We explored these mutations in thyroid cancers by genomic sequencing of a large number of primary tumor samples. We found the C228T mutation in 0 of 85 (0.0%) benign thyroid tumors, 30 of 257 (11.7%) papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 9 of 79 (11.4%) follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 3 of 8 (37.5%) poorly differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTC), 23 of 54 (42.6%) anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC), and 8 of 12 (66.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. The C250T mutation was uncommon, but mutually exclusive with the C228T mutation, and the two mutations were collectively found in 11 of 79 (13.9%) FTC, 25 of 54 (46.3%) ATC, and 11 of 12 (91.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. Among PTC variants, the C228T mutation was found in 4 of 13 (30.8%) tall-cell PTC (TCPTC), 23 of 187 (12.3%) conventional PTC, and 2 of 56 (3.6%) follicular variant PTC samples. No TERT mutation was found in 16 medullary thyroid cancer samples. The C228T mutation was associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC, being present in 19 of 104 (18.3%) BRAF mutation-positive PTC vs 11 of 153 (7.2%) the BRAF mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). Conversely, BRAF mutation was found in 19 of 30 (63.3%) C228T mutation-positive PTC vs 85 of 227 (37.4%) C228T mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). We thus for the first time, to our knowledge, demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancers, that are particularly prevalent in the aggressive thyroid cancers TCPTC, PDTC, ATC and BRAF mutation-positive PTC, revealing a novel genetic background for thyroid cancers.
Liu, Xiaoli; Bishop, Justin; Shan, Yuan; Pai, Sara; Liu, Dingxie; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Sun, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Xing, Mingzhao
The hypervariable site of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region has been studied in several sheepdog breeds. The genetic diversity is high in the Central Asian guardian dog and the Northern Caucasian wolf dog (an aboriginal group of breeds) and low in the Caucasian guardian dog. Haplotypes of groups A, B, C, and E/W have been found in Central Asian guardian dogs; haplotypes of groups A and B, in Caucasian guardian dogs. There is evidence suggesting a gene flow from Scandinavian dog populations to the Northern Caucasus. The results of the analysis allow the Caucasian guardian dog, Northern Caucasian wolf dog, Central Asian guardian dog, and the Turkish breeds akbash and kangal to be combined into a single group with an extremely low degree of differentiation. PMID:16915922
Riabinina, O M
To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population. PMID:22665602
Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B; Ferreira, Adelson L; Falqueto, Aloísio
To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population.
Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B.; Ferreira, Adelson L.; Falqueto, Aloisio
Background Khat is widely consumed among the youth of Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. However, its prevalence is not well documented. Objective This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of khat chewing among college and secondary school students in Jazan region. Methods The study was conducted in May 2006 in the colleges and secondary schools in Jazan region. A sample of 10,000 students aged between 15 and 25 years was randomly selected. Students in each year of study were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results The overall prevalence of khat chewing in all the studied population was 21.4% (colleges 15.2% versus schools 21.5%). There were 3.8% female khat chewers and 37.70% male Khat chewers. Significant differences were found between khat chewers according to age, gender and residence (p < 0.05). The prevalence was different in different colleges and in different provinces of Jazan region. Conclusion The prevalence of Khat chewing seems to be high among male students and not remarkable among female students. The use of Khat is significantly associated with age, gender, residence and school and college education (p < 0.05) among students of Jazan region. Strong measures need to be taken for greater awareness among school and college students to reduce its prevalence.
Ageely, Hussein M
In view of the fact that stray dogs are a reservoir for many diseases, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis in stray dogs in North Trinidad and to evaluate the diagnostic implications of haematological alterations associated with seropositivity. Overall, 41 (44.6%) of 92 stray dogs were seropositive to E. canis by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Dogs, one year of age and older (59.7%) were more likely to be seropositive than dogs less than one year old (13.3%) (p<0.001). No significant differences in seropositivity between females and males were found. The odds ratios showed that seropositive dogs were 3.34 (CI 95%; 1.33-8.59) and 5.17 (CI 95%; 0.19-1.26) times more likely to have low platelet counts and elevated total serum protein concentrations (p=0.014 and p<0.001, respectively) than seronegative dogs. Lower mean platelet counts and a higher mean total protein concentration were associated with seropositivity (p<0.01). Mean eosinophil and segmented neutrophil counts were elevated in dogs that tested negative for E. canis antibodies (p=0.002 and p<0.005, respectively). Other haematological parameters were not different between the 2 groups. The high percentage of stray dogs infected with E. canis should alert veterinarians to the potential risk of transmission of the disease. A comprehensive study possibly using molecular methods such as nested PCR should be undertaken to determine how co-infection with other pathogens may alter haematological profiles. In general, control of ticks and stray dog populations may help to control the spread of tick-borne diseases. PMID:22658916
Asgarali, Zinora; Pargass, Indira; Adam, Judy; Mutani, Alexander; Ezeokoli, Chukwudozie
Formocresol applied to vital pulp tissue may be absorbed systemically. The possible effect of the systemic absorption of formocresol is unknown. The purpose of this project was to determine the acute toxic effect of systemically administered formocresol. Two dogs were anesthetized and Buckley's formocresol was administered i.v. at doses of 0.05 and 0.1 5 ml\\/kg respectively. Blood pressure and heart
David R. Myers; David H. Pashley; Gary M. Whitford; Robert E. Sobel; Ralph V. McKinney
An impairment in serotonergic neurotransmission may be associated with alcoholism. We recently identified a high-affinity serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Moreover, molecular analysis of RNA samples of human lymphocytes using reverse transcription, coupled with polymerase chain reaction, enabled us to confirm the expression of a 5-HTT identical to the one reported in neuronal tissues, as evidenced by hybridization and sequence analysis. In this investigation, we measured the serotonin (5-HT) uptake in PBLs of recovering alcoholics (N = 10) with long-term abstinence (2-10 years) and non-alcoholic controls (N = 10). 5-HT uptake was measured by incubating 1 x 10(7) cells of PBLs with [3H]5-HT (3-1000 nM; sp. act. 23 Ci/mmol) for 10 min at 37 degrees. The results of this preliminary study revealed that abstinent alcoholics had significantly (P < 0.01) increased uptake of 5-HT (43.6 +/- 5.70 pmol/10(7) cells) as compared with controls (23.33 +/- 2.50 pmol/10(7) cells). An enhanced uptake of 5-HT in PBLs of abstinent alcoholics agrees with previously reported observations of increased 5-HT uptake in brain and platelets of former alcoholics and their descendants. This suggested that a serotonergic mechanism may be linked to the heredity of alcoholism. PMID:8960063
Faraj, B A; Olkowski, Z L; Jackson, R T
In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n = 118) were screened for VRE. Surprisingly, VRE were isolated from 21 of 35 untreated sewage samples (60%), from 5 of 14 hospital sewage samples (36%), from 6 of 32 treated sewage samples (19%), and from 1 of 37 surface water samples. Thirty-five isolates from 33 samples were further characterized by geno- and phenotyping, MIC determination, and PCR analysis. Most isolates (30 of 35) carried the vanA gene, and the majority (24 of 35) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Most of the VRE were multiresistant. The typing revealed high diversity of the isolates. However, one major cluster with seven identical or similar isolates was found. These isolates came from three different sewage treatment plants and were collected at different occasions during 1 year. All VRE from hospital sewage originated from one of the two hospitals studied. That hospital also had vancomycin consumption that was 10-fold that of the other. We conclude that VRE were commonly found in sewage samples in Sweden. The origin might be both healthy individuals and individuals in hospitals. Possibly, antimicrobial drugs or chemicals released into the sewage system may sustain VRE in the system.
Iversen, Aina; Kuhn, Inger; Franklin, Anders; Mollby, Roland
The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered. PMID:6730003
MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M
Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent and increasing in distribution worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted in southern Italy to determine the incidence of and protection against CVBD-causing pathogens in dogs treated with a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (ImPer). One hundred eleven autochthonous young dogs were divided into group A (n=63) and group B (n=48), both
D. Otranto; D. de Caprariis; R. P. Lia; V. Tarallo; V. Lorusso; G. Testini; F. Dantas-Torres; S. Latrofa; P. P. V. P. Diniz; N. Mencke; R. G. Maggi; E. Breitschwerdt; G. Capelli; D. Stanneck
Background Due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern Europe. Although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in Finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. We determined the antibody and DNA prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in Finland: Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and Bartonella. Methods Anti-Ap, ?Bb and –Ec antibodies were determined in 340 Finnish pet dogs and 50 healthy hunting dogs using the 4DX Snap®Test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs for the detection of Ap and Bartonella DNA were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to a vector borne agent. Results The overall seroprevalence was highest for Ap (5.3%), followed by Bb (2.9%), and Ec (0.3%). Seropositivities to Ap and Bb were significantly higher in the Åland Islands (p <0.001), with prevalence of Ap and Bb antibodies of 45 and 20%, respectively. In healthy hunting dogs, seropositivity rates of 4% (2/50) and 2% (1/50) were recorded for Ap and Bb, respectively. One client-owned dog and one hunting dog, both healthy, were infected with Ap as determined by PCR, while being seronegative. For Bartonella spp., none of the dogs tested was positive by PCR. Conclusions This study represents the first data of seroprevalence to tick borne diseases in the Finnish dog population. Our results indicate that dogs in Finland are exposed to vector borne diseases, with Ap being the most seroprevalent of the diseases tested, followed by Bb. Almost 50% of dogs living in Åland Islands were Ap seropositive. This finding suggests the possibility of a high incidence of Ap infection in humans in this region. Knowing the distribution of seroprevalence in dogs may help predict the pattern of a tick borne disease and may aid in diagnostic and prevention efforts.
The competence of reservoir hosts of vector-borne pathogens is directly linked to its capacity to infect the vector. Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, and exhibit a much higher infectiousness to triatomines than seropositive humans. We quantified the concentration of T. cruzi DNA in the peripheral blood of naturally-infected dogs and cats (a surrogate of intensity of parasitemia), and evaluated its association with infectiousness to the vector in a high-risk area of the Argentinean Chaco. To measure infectiousness, 44 infected dogs and 15 infected cats were each exposed to xenodiagnosis with 10-20 uninfected, laboratory-reared Triatoma infestans that blood-fed to repletion and were later individually examined for infection by optical microscopy. Parasite DNA concentration (expressed as equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL, Pe/mL) was estimated by real-time PCR amplification of the nuclear satellite DNA. Infectiousness increased steeply with parasite DNA concentration both in dogs and cats. Neither the median parasite load nor the mean infectiousness differed significantly between dogs (8.1Pe/mL and 48%) and cats (9.7Pe/mL and 44%), respectively. The infectiousness of dogs was positively and significantly associated with parasite load and an index of the host's body condition, but not with dog's age, parasite discrete typing unit and exposure to infected bugs in a random-effects multiple logistic regression model. Real-time PCR was more sensitive and less time-consuming than xenodiagnosis, and in conjunction with the body condition index, may be used to identify highly infectious hosts and implement novel control strategies. PMID:24732410
Enriquez, G F; Bua, J; Orozco, M M; Wirth, S; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V
... frustrated enough to bite. For instance, if a dog has food or a toy, never try to take it away. You wouldn't like it if someone grabbed your snack while you were eating it! Only Pet With Permission: Never pet a dog without asking the owner if it's OK. Some ...
Several toy breed dogs are predisposed to syringomyelia (SM), a spinal cord disorder, characterised by fluid-filled cavitation. SM is a complex trait with a moderately high heritability. Selective breeding against SM is confounded by its complex inheritance, its late onset nature and high prevalence in some breeds. This study investigated the early outcome of existing SM breeding guidelines. Six hundred and forty-three dogs, 550 Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) and 93 Griffon Bruxellois (GB), were identified as having either one (454 dogs) or both parents (189 dogs) with MRI-determined SM status. Offspring without SM were more common when the parents were both clear of SM (SM-free; CKCS 70 per cent, GB 73 per cent). Conversely, offspring with SM were more likely when both parents had SM (SM-affected; CKCS 92 per cent, GB 100 per cent). A mating of one SM-free parent with an SM-affected parent was risky for SM affectedness with 77 per cent of CKCS and 46 per cent of GB offspring being SM-affected. It is recommended that all breeding dogs from breeds susceptible to SM be MRI screened; that the SM status at five years old is established; and all results submitted to a central database that can be used by dog breeders to better enable mate selection based on estimated breeding values. PMID:21998144
Knowler, S P; McFadyen, A K; Rusbridge, C
Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC.
BACKGROUND: The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. METHODS: Patients undergoing lumbar
Joseph N Jarvis; Graeme Meintjes; Anthony Williams; Yolande Brown; Tom Crede; Thomas S Harrison
This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…
Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao
The incidence rate and mortality of lung cancer continuously rise, and lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death deaths. Detecting the high prevalence areas of lung cancer can effectively provide clue for detecting its influential factors. Taking the incidence rate of lung cancer in Xiamen as an example, this paper adopted Moran's I and Getis's G
Cuiping Wang; Xinhu Li; Long Dai; Guoqin Zhang; Liling Gao; Qianjun Zhao
Hypertension may lead to irreversible damages in vital organs, such as heart, brain, and kidney, and may cause death in children if treatments are not given despite early diagnosis. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted during 1 January–31 March 2004 to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among high school students. The study cohort included 1,041 students of six high schools, who were selected from among 14,789 students of 26 high schools in Sivas province of Turkey, using the cluster-sampling method. A questionnaire was used for collecting information from students on age, gender, smoking, and whether they or their families have any diseases. Blood pressure, height, and weight of the participitants were determined by the research group. Students whose repeated systolic or diastolic blood pressures were higher than the 95th percentile were considered to be hypertensive patients. Hypertension was prevalent among 4.4% (n=45) of the students. There was a significant correlation between prevalence of hypertension and body mass index. No significant correlation was found between prevalence of hypertension and other variables, such as smoking, age, gender, and family history of diabetes. The results suggest that hypertension is an important public-health problem among high school students. The results also showed that the body mass index was an important parameter in hypertension in such a study group. Researchers should consider overweight a causative risk factor for development of hypertension in early-onset groups.
Nur, Naim; Cetinkaya, Selma; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim; Ayvaz, Adnan; Bulut, Mustafa Orhan; Sumer, Haldun
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial.
Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping
Molecular evolutionary studies can provide insights into the spread of infectious diseases and inform infection control measures. We performed a population genetic analysis of gonococcal isolates obtained over a 15-year interval in Baltimore, MD, where gonorrhea is highly prevalent. Categorical analysis of genetic differentiation revealed temporal structuring of the gonococcal population. The use of a new method to determine the
Marcos Pérez-Losada; Keith A. Crandall; Jonathan Zenilman; Raphael P. Viscidi
A high prevalence of the lysosomal storage disease aspartylglycosaminuria was found in a study of four birth cohorts of 12882 children in eastern Finland. Using school achievement tests and registers of mentally retarded individuals, 178 mentally retarded children were identified. Randomized urine samples from 151 of the 178 retarded children and from 101 healthy children were analyzed quantitatively for aspartylglucosamine
Tarja Mononen; Ilkka Mononen; Riitta Matilainen; Eila Airaksinen
OBJECTIVES: In light of the increasing number of high-tech industry workers and the differences in their working conditions compared to those of the general population, the health status of these workers merits serious attention. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlates among Taiwanese high-tech industry workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 4,666 workers who participated in labor health examinations at a hospital in southern Taiwan in 2008. Participants with metabolic syndrome were defined using the criteria proposed by the Taiwan National Department of Health in 2007. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.2%, and the prevalence was higher in men than in women (14.0% vs. 2.3%, p<0.01). Male gender, advanced age, elevated white blood count, and elevated levels of blood biochemistry markers, such as alanine aminotransferase and uric acid, can independently predict metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-tech industry workers is lower than in the general population. Our study's findings may facilitate early health assessments and the provision of proper workplace health promotion programs to reduce the risks faced by high-risk workers.
Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Cheng, Jung-Feng; Lai, Yu-Min
This study examines the body mass index (BMI) percentiles for age of 3970 male high school athletes. Overall, boys participating in sports had BMI percentiles similar to the general population. However, the prevalence of overweight in boys playing certain sports, particularly football, but also wrestling and crew, was higher than the general population.
Nicola Choate; Chris Forster; Jon Almquist; Cara Olsen; Merrily Poth
Background Several large surveys have suggested high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among gay men and other men who have sex with\\u000a men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In 2002, a comprehensive health survey was conducted among 571 gay men in Geneva, Switzerland, using probability-based time-space\\u000a sampling. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form (CIDI-SF) was used to assess 12-month prevalence of\\u000a major depression, specific phobia, social phobia,
Jen Wang; Michael Häusermann; Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross; Peter Aggleton; Mitchell G. Weiss
Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.
Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 ?m were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 ?m were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.
Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.
Summary: Objectives: Several recent reports have indicated a high prevalence of periodontitis in obese subjects, but the results have not been consistent. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in non-elderly obese Japanese adults and to explore the relationship between obesity and periodontitis.Methods: Ninety-five obese subjects (BMI ? 25; males: 44, females: 51) and 102 subjects with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25; males: 66, females: 36) were enrolled from April 1997 to March 1999 in the study. All subjects were aged 25-40 years old. The status of periodontitis was evaluated based on the intraoral community periodontal index (CPI) codes of the WHO, and the numbers of present teeth, untreated decayed teeth, missing teeth, and filled teeth were also examined.Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in obese subjects, and particularly in females, compared to controls, whereas the numbers of present teeth, decayed teeth, missing teeth and filled teeth did not differ significantly between the obese subjects and the controls for both males and females. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that obesity was significantly related to periodontitis.Conclusion: A high prevalence of periodontitis was found in non-elderly Japanese obese subjects, and particularly in obese female adults. Correlation analysis also suggested that obesity carries a high risk for development of periodontitis. PMID:24345696
Katagiri, Sayaka; Nitta, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Toshiyuki; Izumi, Yuichi; Kanazawa, Masao; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Miyauchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Naoto; Kanamura, Narisato; Ando, Yuichi; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Shuji
Twenty years of sky-high tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and high TB mortality in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence countries have so far not been matched by the same magnitude or breadth of responses as seen in malaria or HIV programmes. Instead, recommendations have been narrowly focused on people presenting to health facilities for investigation of TB symptoms, or for HIV testing and care. However, despite the recent major investment and scale-up of TB and HIV services, undiagnosed TB remains highly prevalent at community level, implying that diagnosis of TB remains slow and incomplete. This maintains high transmission rates and exposes people living with HIV to high rates of morbidity and mortality. More intensive use of TB screening, with broader definitions of target populations, expanded indications for screening both inside and outside of health facilities, and appropriate selection of new diagnostic tools, offers the prospect of rapidly improving population-level control of TB. Diagnostic accuracy of suitable (high throughput) algorithms remains the major barrier to realising this goal. In the present study, we review the evidence available to guide expanded TB screening in HIV-prevalent settings, ideally through combined TB-HIV interventions that provide screening for both TB and HIV, and maximise entry to HIV and TB care and prevention. Ideally, we would systematically test, treat and prevent TB and HIV comprehensively, offering both TB and HIV screening to all health facility attendees, TB households and all adults in the highest risk communities. However, we are still held back by inadequate diagnostics, financing and paucity of population-impact data. Relevant contemporary research showing the high need for potential gains, and pitfalls from expanded and intensified TB screening in high HIV prevalence settings are discussed in this review. PMID:23928165
Corbett, E L; MacPherson, P
Serum sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratios are often reported in biochemical studies of dogs, although their value has not been assessed. The aims of this study were to identify diseases associated with a low Na:K ratio in dogs and to compare their prevalence with the prevalence in dogs from the same referral hospital with normal Na:K ratios. A total of 238 dogs
L. Nielsen; R. Bell; A. Zoia; D. J. Mellor; R. Neiger; I. Ramsey
The functional role of an endosymbiotic conidial fungus (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) prevalent within the integumental glands and hemocoel of the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) was investigated to explore the nature of this tick\\/fungus association. D. variabilis is normally highly resistant to Metarhizium anisopliae, a widely-distributed entomopathogenic fungus, but when mature female ticks harboring S. brevicaulis were fed a solution containing
Jay A. Yoder; Joshua B. Benoit; David L. Denlinger; Justin L. Tank; Lawrence W. Zettler
Objective To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis; Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions; P<0.05 was considered of statistical significance; descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages. Results A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40% and 82% among schools, with a median of 59.2%; the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2% high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old; hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P?0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program.
Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Ault, Steven K.; Castillo, Phillip; Serrano, Kenton; Troya, Guillermo
Hypertension is a premier risk factor for cardiovascular disease which can be recognized if sought and treated effectively. Effective management of high blood pressure is possible when the magnitude of the problem is identified. So, a cross-sectional community based survey among 1,239 respondents aged ?30 years was designed to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic correlates of hypertension among adults aged ?30 years. Data was collected by personal interviews, followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The prevalence of hypertension was 43.3%, with the prevalence being more among males (51.6%) as compared to females (38.9%). Of the total prevalence 23.1% (287) were known cases, and 20.2% (250) were newly detected cases. Based on the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC VII) on high blood pressure, prehypertension was noted among 38.7%. Advancing age, male gender, current diabetic status, central obesity, overweight and obesity as defined by body mass index, and family history of hypertension were identified as significant correlates for hypertension by multivariate logistic regression.
Rao, Chythra R.; Kamath, Veena G.; Shetty, Avinash; Kamath, Asha
This paper describes the prevalence of brain lesions in the Swiss fallen stock population of small ruminants. 3075 whole brains (75% sheep, 25% goats) were collected as part of a year-long active survey of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in small ruminants conducted by the Swiss authorities between July 2004 and July 2005. All fallen stock brains were systematically examined by histopathology to obtain reliable data on histologically identifiable brain lesions. Lesions were found in an unexpectedly high number of animals (8.1% of all examined brains). A wide spectrum of diseases was detected showing that this approach provides an excellent opportunity to screen for the prevalence of neurological diseases. Encephalitic listeriosis was by far the most frequent cause of CNS lesions in both species and its prevalence was unexpectedly high when compared to notified confirmed cases. In conclusion, the prevalence of listeriosis as estimated by passive surveillance based on the notification of clinical suspects has been underestimated in the past. PMID:18355992
Oevermann, Anna; Botteron, Catherine; Seuberlich, Torsten; Nicolier, Alexandra; Friess, Martina; Doherr, Marcus G; Heim, Dagmar; Hilbe, Monika; Zimmer, Katja; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Vandevelde, Marc
SUMMARY Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain H5N1 has received great attention with regard to its potential spread to North America. This quantitative risk assessment, which is primarily based on wild bird carriage of HPAI from East Asia to Alaska, was conducted to assess the likelihood of a hunter retriever dog becoming infected after harvesting an infected waterfowl during the Alaskan hunting season. Using Monte Carlo Simulation with @Risk software, the expected probability of a hunter retriever dog becoming infected is 2.3 × 10?8. This model can serve as a tool for decision makers in assessing the risk of HPAI strain H5N1 introduction into Alaska’s hunter retriever dogs.
Lane, C.; Tameru, B.; Nganwa, D.; Habtemariam, T.; Asseged, B.; Robnett, V.; Wilson, S.
This in vitro study evaluated the temperature rise on the outer root surface of the mandibular first molar following root canal filling using the high-temperature, thermoplasticized, Gutta-Percha technique (HTTG) (BeeFill) in the dog. Twelve extracted dog mandibular first molars were used. After root canal preparation, the teeth were filled with thermoplasticized Gutta-Percha and root canal sealer. Temperature changes on the vestibular surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of mandibular first molars were measured using a thermal imaging camera. The results of this in vitro study showed that using HTTG to fill mandibular first molars in dogs produces a safe temperature rise on the root surface and, therefore, should not damage the periodontal ligament and/or surrounding tissues. PMID:22439330
Lipski, M; Wo?niak, K; Lichota, D; Nowicka, A
Purpose: To determine whether tamoxifen plasma concentrations capable of blocking P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in vitro can be safely achieved\\u000a in dogs and whether doxorubicin pharmacokinetic alterations occur when tamoxifen is coadministered. Methods: Tamoxifen dose escalation studies were conducted in 7 normal dogs and in 19 tumor-bearing dogs receiving full-dose chemotherapy.\\u000a Plasma tamoxifen and serum doxorubicin disposition were analyzed for putative drug
J. R. Waddle; R. L. Fine; B. C. Case; M. L. Trogdon; K. Tyczkowska; D. Frazier; R. L. Page
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was evaluated in 227 hemodialysis patients from four units in Caracas, Venezuela, by using different second- and third-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and immunoblot assays. HCV antibodies were detected in 162 patients (71%) by the recombinant-based second-generation assays (Abbott and Ortho) and in 161 patients by the synthetic peptide-based EIA (UBI). Of the 162 HCV antibody-positive serum samples, 161 were confirmed to be positive by RIBA 3. HCV RNA was detected in 49 of 68 (72%) of the seropositive patients and in 5 of 21 (24%) of the seronegative ones. HCV RNA was not always correlated with an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Among 20 patients positive for HCV RNA and for HCV antibodies (without any hepatitis B virus [HBV] marker), only 10 had elevated ALT levels. The possible interference of HBV for HCV replication was evaluated. No significant difference was found between the presence of HCV RNA and the presence of any HBV serological markers. The possible routes of transmission of HCV in hemodialysis patients are multiple, and some of them are still controversial. Of the HCV-positive patients, 30% received a blood transfusion, significantly more than the 15% found for the HCV-negative group. However, blood transfusions alone could not account for the high incidence observed in this group of patients (38% from 1994 to 1995). In conclusion, about one-quarter of the apparently non-HCV-infected patients were probably seroconverting, ALT may not be a useful indicator of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients, and nosocomial transmission of HCV may play a role in the spread of HCV in this group.
Pujol, F H; Ponce, J G; Lema, M G; Capriles, F; Devesa, M; Sirit, F; Salazar, M; Vasquez, G; Monsalve, F; Blitz-Dorfman, L
Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations.
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The elderly are particularly susceptible and at increased risk for adverse outcome as a result of C. difficile infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile colonization among residents of nursing homes in Hesse and to compare it with the prevalence in the general population living outside long-term care facilities (LTCF). We assessed possible risk factors for C. difficile colonization and determined the genotype of circulating strains. C. difficile was isolated from 11/240 (4.6%) nursing home residents and 2/249 (0.8%) individuals living outside LTCF (p?=?0.02). Ten of 11 (90.9%) isolates from nursing homes and one of two isolates from the population outside LTCF were toxigenic. The prevalence of C. difficile colonization varied from 0% to 10% between different nursing homes. Facilities with known actual or recent CDI cases were more likely to have colonized residents than facilities without known CDI cases. C. difficile PCR-ribotypes 014 and 001 were the most prevalent genotypes and accounted for 30% and 20% of toxigenic isolates in nursing homes, respectively. Interestingly, no individuals carried the epidemic strain PCR-ribotype 027. Our results suggest that residents of nursing homes in Germany are at high risk for colonization by virulent C. difficile strains. The high prevalence of C. difficile colonization in nursing homes underscores the importance of good adherence to standard infection control precautions even in the absence of a diagnosed infection. They also emphasize the need for specific programs to increase the awareness of healthcare professionals in LTCF for CDI.
Arvand, Mardjan; Moser, Vera; Schwehn, Christine; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun; Hensgens, Marjolein P.; Kuijper, Ed J.
Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health threat, associated with an alarming increase in morbidity and mortality. The importance is the worldwide increase in its incidence and prevalence. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we estimate the prevalence and determine the associated factors of chronic kidney disease in a representative sample of 10063 participants aged over 20 years, in Tehran, Iran. Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated from abbreviated prediction equation provided by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (MDRD). Results Overall prevalence of CKD with the abbreviated MDRD equation was 18.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.2, 20.6). Age adjusted prevalence of CKD was 14.9% (95%CI 14.2, 15.6). Factors associated to CKD include age(years)(odds ratio(OR) 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2), female gender (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.6, 3.7), BMI (BMI 25 to <30 OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3, 1.8 and BMI ? 30 OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3, 2.0), high waist circumference (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), hypertension (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), and dyslipidemia (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1, 1.5). Conclusion CKD with its high prevalence poses a definite health threat in Iran.
Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Kasraei, Farshad; Nassiri, Amir A; Azizi, Fereidoun
Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880
Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P
Objective With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, it is important to identify high-risk populations of children to direct limited resources for prevention and treatment to those who are most vulnerable. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in children who are clients of community health centers in medically underserved areas of the Health Resources and Service Administration regions II and III (Mid-Atlantic and Puerto Rico), compare this prevalence to nationally representative data, and contrast prevalence data between geographic areas and racial/ethnic groups. Methods The charts from a representative sample of 2474 children using 30 community health centers in 2001 were abstracted to collect clinically measured weight and height. Overweight was defined as a body mass index of ?95th percentile of a reference population. To generate an unbiased estimate of overweight, multiple imputations were used for missing data. These data were compared with the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results The prevalence of overweight was elevated in this sample of children aged 2 to 5 years (21.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1–24.8) and 6 to 11 years (23.8%; 95% CI: 16.9–27.7) compared with the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (10.3% and 15.8%, respectively). No significant differences in prevalence were observed between Asian American (18.2%; 95% CI: 11.2–28.3), Hispanic (24.6%; 95% CI: 21.3–28.2), non-Hispanic black (25.6%; 95% CI: 20.8–30.9), and non-Hispanic white (22.8%; 95% CI: 19.0–27.0) children. Furthermore, no differences in prevalence were observed between children using community health centers in continental urban (23.7%; 95% CI: 20.6–27.2), suburban (24.0%; 95% CI: 20.0–28.5), or rural (22.9%; 95% CI: 19.3–26.9) areas. Conclusions The present study identified a population of children at particularly high risk for obesity based on the type of health care delivery system they use regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic characteristics. Because community health centers are experienced in prevention and serve >4.7 million children in the United States, they may be a particularly promising point of access and setting for pediatric obesity prevention.
Stettler, Nicolas; Elliott, Michael R.; Kallan, Michael J.; Auerbach, Steven B.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.
More than 300 variants in 12 genes have been associated with Brugada syndrome (BrS) which has a prevalence ranging between 1:2000 and 1:100,000. Until recently, there has been little knowledge regarding the distribution of genetic variations in the general population. This problem was partly solved, when exome data from the NHLI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) was published. In this study, we aimed to report the prevalence of previously BrS-associated variants in the ESP population. We performed a search in ESP for variants previously associated with BrS. In addition, four variants in ESP were genotyped in a second Danish control population (n?=?536) with available electrocardiograms. In ESP, we identified 38 of 355 (10%) variants, distributed on 272 heterozygote carriers and two homozygote carriers. The genes investigated were on average screened in 6258 individuals. This corresponds to a surprisingly high genotype prevalence of 1:23 (274:6258). Genotyping the four common ESP-derived variants CACNA2D1 S709N, SCN5A F2004L, CACNB2 S143F, and CACNB2 T450I in the Danish controls, we found a genotype prevalence comparable with that found in ESP. We suggest that exome data are used in research, as an additive tool to predict the pathogenicity of variants in patients suspected for BrS. PMID:23414114
Risgaard, B; Jabbari, R; Refsgaard, L; Holst, A G; Haunsø, S; Sadjadieh, A; Winkel, B G; Olesen, M S; Tfelt-Hansen, J
Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), an acute viral infection, is a zoonotic disease which is transmitted to humans by infected ticks, direct contact with fresh meat or blood of infected animals (usually domestic livestock), or direct contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person. Livestock handlers, skin processors, veterinary staff, livestock market workers, and other personnel engaged in jobs requiring some contact with animals and/or animal products are at high risk for CCHF. Most reported cases of this disease in Iran belong to butchers and slaughterhouse workers. Objectives: We aimed to study the prevalence of CCHF in slaughterhouse workers and livestock handlers who were admitted to Boo-ali Hospital for treatment of CCHF. Materials and Methods: We evaluated all patients’ files with confirmed CCHF admitted to Boo-ali Hospital in Zahedan, in southeastern part of Iran, during 1999-2011. Then, we examined the prevalence of disease among the high risk groups. Results: Out of 362 patients with CCHF (86% male, 14% female; with age range 12-78 years), 123 (34%) were slaughterhouse workers, 103 (28.5%) livestock handlers and farmers, 32 (9%) housewives, 7 (2%) students, 6 (1.9%) teachers, 4 (1.2%) military personnel, and other groups were workers with different employments. Conclusions: The present study showed that CCHF is highly prevalent in high risk occupational groups in Zahedan, Iran. Further surveillance, teaching and prevention programs are recommended.
Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Metanat, Maliheh; Alavi-Naini, Roya
A national survey of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Oman has demonstrated a high prevalence of diabetes (10%) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, 13% in females and 8% in males). Prevalence of diabetes rose with age to a maximum of over 30% in both sexes. Prevalence of total glucose intolerance (diabetes and IGT combined) exceeded 50% in the seventh (females) and eighth (males) decade of life. PMID:8750224
Asfour, M G; Lambourne, A; Soliman, A; Al-Behlani, S; Al-Asfoor, D; Bold, A; Mahtab, H; King, H
After being absent from North West Guyana for over two decades, falciparum malaria returned in force in 1986 and soon developed a high prevalence affecting a large share of the region's inhabitants. This falciparum upsurge was accompanied by a significant rise in the number of vivax cases that helped bring the annual parasite index to figures ranging from 260 positive smears per 1,000 inhabitants in 1986 to 973 in 1988 and 776 in 1991. The chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strain responsible apparently travelled from the area of the Rupununi River in Southern Guyana to the more northern Cuyuni/Mazaruni/Potaro area in 1985, and from there was brought into the North West Region, probably by itinerant miners. Circumstances leading to the present endemic demonstrate how transient populations, resistant parasites, and economic restraints can interfere with malaria control, and how rapidly high malaria prevalences can establish themselves in receptive tropical areas vulnerable to attack. PMID:7951362
A PCR-based protocol for the detection of Leishmania (Viannia) parasites in canine blood, buffy coat, and bone marrow was developed and was then tested with field samples taken from a random sample of 545 dogs from villages in Peru where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana are endemic. Comparative tests with cultured parasites mixed with dog blood showed that the PCR assay's sensitivity was significantly dependent on the DNA extraction protocol and the PCR primers used. Mass screening of field samples by the preferred PCR protocol detected American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in 44 of 545 (8.1%) dogs; 31 of 402 (7.7%), 20 of 223 (9.0%), and 8 of 46 (17.4%) were PCR positive when whole blood, buffy coat, and bone marrow aspirates, respectively, were tested. The high prevalence of Leishmania in both asymptomatic (7.6%) and symptomatic (18.0%) dogs provides further circumstantial evidence for their suspected role as reservoir hosts of ACL and indicates that hematogenous dissemination of parasites may be a more common pathological phenomenon than has previously been acknowledged. However, unlike for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, the comparatively low prevalence of Leishmania (Viannia) in the blood of symptomatic dogs indicates that PCR with blood cannot be the "gold standard" for the (mass) screening of samples in epidemiological studies. PMID:10655379
Reithinger, R; Lambson, B E; Barker, D C; Davies, C R
To our knowledge, the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis has not been assessed in companion animals in Trinidad and Tobago. This report details the first attempt to evaluate the potential zoonotic risk of G. duodenalis in dogs and identify assemblages of G. duodenalis found in dog populations on both islands. Fecal samples were collected from free-roaming dogs and dogs at the Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals from October 2010 to June 2011. A total of 168 samples were collected of which 104 samples were analyzed for the presence of G. duodenalis by PCR amplification of the ssu-rRNA gene with subsequent assemblage-typing. A subset of samples was also analyzed by ELISA. Twenty-six samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR for an overall prevalence of 25%. Four samples were identified as assemblage C (15.4%), 21 as assemblage D (80.8%), and one as assemblage E (3.8%). Puppies were four-times more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.73-12.2). There was a significant agreement between ELISA and PCR in the detection of the protozoa (?=0.67). We infer from our results that while the prevalence of G. duodenalis is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago, the zoonotic risk of infection in humans is low since neither assemblage A nor B was identified in the study population. PMID:23465438
Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Adesiyun, Abiodun A; Basu, Asoke; Georges, Karla A; Pierre, Theresa; Tilitz, Sophie; Wade, Susan E; Mohammed, Hussni O
In humans, the glycosylation pattern of serum and of membrane glycoproteins is associated with invasiveness of tumors: specifically, ?2,6-sialylation and ?2,3-sialylation are associated with metastasizing and nonmetastasizing tumors, respectively. In turn, the type of sialylation depends on the activity of ?2,6 or ?2,3 sialyltransferase (ST) enzymes. Because of the high prevalence of metastasizing tumors with biological behavior similar to the human counterpart, female dogs with metastasizing neoplasms could provide a good animal model for investigating the potential roles of sialic acid (Sia) and ST enzymes in the pathogenesis of metastatic tumors. The aims of this study were (1) to validate a solid-phase method based on lectin staining of serum and tissue homogenates to investigate sialylation and ST activity and (2) to compare the results obtained with this method and with lectin staining and to collect preliminary information on sialylation and ST activity in dogs with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) mammary tumors. The data recorded in healthy dogs revealed that serum and tissue glycoproteins are prevalently characterized by a ?2,6 sialylation, but ST-?2,3 seems to be the most active enzyme in both samples. Sia-?2,3 and ST-?2,3 activity decreases in serum and tissues of dogs with tumors, especially in a dog with metastasis, suggesting that the equilibrium between ST-?2,6 and ST-?2,3 activity shifts toward the former, as reported in humans. PMID:21427240
Paltrinieri, S; Rossi, G; Meregalli, A; Stefanello, D; Pecile, A; Moretti, P; Rondena, M
Purpose: To provide national data on health-risk behaviors of students attending alternative high schools and compare the prevalence of these risk behaviors with data from the 1997 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey.Methods: The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey uses a three-stage cluster sampling design. Data were collected from 8918 students in alternative high schools in 1998 (ALT-YRBS) and 16,262 students
Jo Anne Grunbaum; Richard Lowry; Laura Kann
Plasmodium falciparum has successfully developed resistance to almost all currently used antimalarials. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene at position 76 resulting in a change in coding from lysine to threonine (K76T) has been implicated to be the corner stone of chloroquine resistance. Widespread resistance to chloroquine in endemic regions led to its replacement with other antimalarials. In some areas this replacement resulted in a reversion of the mutant T76 allele to the wild-type K76 allele. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of the K76T mutation of the Pfcrt gene eight years after the ban on chloroquine sales and use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 regional hospitals in Ghana. PCR-RFLP was used to analyse samples collected to determine the prevalence of Pfcrt K76T mutation. Of the 1318 participants recruited for this study, 246 were found to harbour the P. falciparum parasites, of which 60.98% (150/246) showed symptoms for malaria. The prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutant allele was 58.54% (144/246) and that of the K76 wild-type allele was 41.46% (102/246). No difference of statistical significance was observed in the distribution of the alleles in the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants (P=0.632). No significant association was, again, observed between the alleles and parasite density (P=0.314), as well as between the alleles and Hb levels of the participants (P=0.254). Notwithstanding the decline in the prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutation since the antimalarial policy change in 2004, the 58.54% prevalence recorded in this study is considered high after eight years of the abolishment of chloroquine usage in Ghana. This is in contrast to findings from other endemic areas where the mutant allele significantly reduced in the population after a reduction chloroquine use. PMID:24727053
Afoakwah, Richmond; Boampong, Johnson N; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Nwaefuna, Ekene K; Verner, Orish N; Asare, Kwame K
Objective To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs) as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods A total of 9?709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 19-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 2012. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91%) is non-significantly (P>0.1) lower than that of females (4.31%). Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.
Emeka-Nwabunnia, Ijeoma; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okey; Ogbulie, Tochukwu Ekwutosi
The GTG-banding patterns and ideograms of two canid species, the domestic dog and the silver fox, are presented and compared. For both species the number of bands visualized has increased to well over 400. A standard dog karyotype is proposed.Copyright © 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel
A. S. Graphodatsky; V. R. Beklemisheva; G. Dolf
Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy.
Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce
Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257
Liang, Huanbin; Chen, Jidang; Xie, Jiexiong; Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun
Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions.
Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun
Previous studies in intensively raised piglets have detected a high prevalence of the epidemic Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078. In this article we present a longitudinal survey of C. difficile colonisation in a population of Iberian pigs reared under a free-range system. A total of 160 faecal samples from 20 piglets belonging to different litters were obtained by weekly sampling. C. difficile was recovered from samples collected at different times throughout the survey from a 90% of piglets, resulting in an overall prevalence of 25.6% in the studied samples. Most positive samples (75.6%) came from ? 15-day animals, but some piglets shed C. difficile even on day +50. All isolates were ribotype 078, harboured toxin-encoding genes and showed in vitro resistance to several fluoroquinolones. A majority of isolates (80.5%) were also high-level resistant to ertapenem, and four metronidazole heteroresistant isolates (9.8%) were detected. In conclusion, Iberian free-range pigs can be a potential reservoir of epidemic antimicrobial-resistant strains of C. difficile, showing a prevalence rate similar to that found for intensively raised animals. PMID:23876331
Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Peláez, Teresa; Astorga, Rafael J; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E
Background: Dokha is a mixed tobacco product, smoked through a pipe, traditional in Arabic culture and popular in the UAE. User forums suggest this product may contain higher levels of nicotine and potentially psychoactive properties. However, there have been few published studies on dokha prevalence and health effects. The present study provides initial data on prevalence of use among high school students resident in Dubai, UAE. Methods: 416 students were recruited from five English curriculum schools. Respondents completed a questionnaire measuring current and lifetime use of tobacco in the form of cigarettes, water-pipes and dokha. Current tobacco users completed the 'Hooked on Nicotine Checklist for signs of dependency. Results: Data from 394 subjects were analyzed with mean age 16.9 years. Regular use (weekly or daily) of tobacco had relatively high prevalence (23.4%) compared to international data and was driven by use of the local tobacco, dokha. Conclusion: Dokha forms a commonly used tobacco product among young people in the UAE from both Arab and Western national groups. Little is currently known about the health and dependence risks of this product. The paper adds to the few studies calling for timely research into this and other emerging tobacco products. PMID:24708427
Crookes, Annie; Wolff, Kim
Objective To assess the efficacy of folic acid (FA) supplementation and fortification in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in a high prevalence region of the US. Study design Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify all fetuses/infants affected by an NTD in South Carolina. Prevalence rates were compared with FA intake to determine the effects of increased intake on NTD occurrence and recurrence. Results From 1992–2009, 916 NTD cases occurred in South Carolina with isolated defects comprising 79% of cases. The NTD rate decreased 58% during this period. There was one NTD-affected pregnancy among 418 subsequent pregnancies (0.2%) in mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies who consumed periconceptional FA supplements and four NTDs among 66 pregnancies (6.1%) in which the mother did not take FA supplements. Folic acid supplementation increased from 8% to 35% from 1992–2007 and knowledge of the protective benefits of FA increased from 8% to 65% in women of childbearing age. Conclusions Increased periconceptional intake of FA appeared to reduce NTDs in a high prevalence region. The rate of spina bifida and anencephaly in South Carolina is now essentially the same (0.69 cases per 1000 live births and fetal deaths) as the 1998–2005 US rate (0.69).
Collins, Julianne S.; Atkinson, Kristy K.; Dean, Jane H.; Best, Robert G.; Stevenson, Roger E.
The study here reported aimed to: i) evaluate the prevalence of childhood asthma at a Portuguese rural area with high ozone concentrations through lung function tests, validating the previously estimated one assessed through questionnaires (similar to those of the ISAAC); ii) compare the achieved prevalence with the one reported at an unexposed area (with low ozone concentrations), aiming to evaluate
S. I. V. Sousa; C. Ferraz; M. C. M. Alvim-Ferraz; F. G. Martins; L. G. Vaz; M. C. Pereira
Arcobacters are potential pathogens related to diarrheic infections and, rarely, septicaemia. This study evaluated the prevalence of arcobacters in stool samples of subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 61) type 2 diabetes by using cultural and molecular techniques. Three Arcobacter positive cultures were found, all among diabetic subjects, whereas molecular analysis showed a carriage rate of 79% and 26.2% in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (P < .001), respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that type 2 diabetes (? = 1.913; 95%CI: 2.378–19.285; P < .0001) and age (? = 1.744; 95%CI: 2.077–15.766; P = .001) were the only factors independently associated with arcobacters colonization in this population. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of arcobacters colonization in type 2 diabetic and older subjects. The clinical significance and the potential health risk associated with these emerging species remain to be determined.
Fera, Maria Teresa; Russo, Giuseppina T.; Di Benedetto, Antonino; La Camera, Erminia; Orlando, Angelo; Giandalia, Annalisa; Ruffa, Vincenzo F.; Lanza, Giulia; Lentini, Valeria; Perdichizzi, Giuseppa; Cucinotta, Domenico
Resistance to activated protein C (APC) is among the coagulation disorders that have been implicated in retinal vein occlusion. However, since retinal vascular occlusions may be due to a combination of several mechanisms, the question of whether thrombophilic anomalies are pathogenic for this disorder remains controversial. In the current study, we investigated the prevalence of APC resistance in patients with retinal vein occlusion with reference to age and various cardiovascular risk factors. A cohort of 142 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion and a control group of 128 subjects matched for age, sex and several risk factors were screened for resistance to APC. Both cohorts were divided into two subgroups, according to the patient's age (< or =45 or >45 years) at the time of the retinal vein occlusion or a previous thromboembolic event. The proportion of individuals with resistance to APC was higher in the patient group (13 of 142; 9.1%) when compared to controls (6 of 128; 4.7%). Moreover, patient age < or =45 years by the time of the retinal vein occlusion or a previous thromboembolic event was significantly associated with a high prevalence of APC resistance (17%). By contrast, resistance to APC was present in 5 of 95 cases (5.3%) in the patient group >45 years and in 4 of 83 (4.8%) young controls. Our results indicate that APC resistance is highly prevalent in patients with retinal vein occlusion at age < or =45 years and/or with a history of thrombosis at this age. By contrast, the prevalence of APC resistance in patients who suffered a retinal vein occlusion when they were older than 45 years and had no history of thromboembolism appears to be similar to that seen in healthy control subjects or in the normal population. Selective screening may be helpful in identifying retinal vein occlusion patients with thrombophilic defects. PMID:11935272
Kuhli, Claudia; Hattenbach, Lars-Olof; Scharrer, Inge; Koch, Frank; Ohrloff, Christian
Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) has a significant negative impact on the health, reproduction, and life span of chimpanzees, yet the prevalence and distribution of this virus in wild-living populations are still only poorly understood. Here, we show that savanna chimpanzees, who live in ecologically marginal habitats at 10- to 50-fold lower population densities than forest chimpanzees, can be infected with SIVcpz at high prevalence rates. Fecal samples were collected from nonhabituated eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Issa Valley (n = 375) and Shangwa River (n = 6) areas of the Masito-Ugalla region in western Tanzania, genotyped to determine the number of sampled individuals, and tested for SIVcpz-specific antibodies and nucleic acids. None of 5 Shangwa River apes tested positive for SIVcpz; however, 21 of 67 Issa Valley chimpanzees were SIVcpz infected, indicating a prevalence rate of 31% (95% confidence interval, 21% to 44%). Two individuals became infected during the 14-month observation period, documenting continuing virus spread in this community. To characterize the newly identified SIVcpz strains, partial and full-length viral sequences were amplified from fecal RNA of 10 infected chimpanzees. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Ugalla viruses formed a monophyletic lineage most closely related to viruses endemic in Gombe National Park, also located in Tanzania, indicating a connection between these now separated communities at some time in the past. These findings document that SIVcpz is more widespread in Tanzania than previously thought and that even very low-density chimpanzee populations can be infected with SIVcpz at high prevalence rates. Determining whether savanna chimpanzees, who face much more extreme environmental conditions than forest chimpanzees, are more susceptible to SIVcpz-associated morbidity and mortality will have important scientific and conservation implications.
Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona; Moore, Deborah L.; Learn, Gerald H.; Li, Yingying; Takehisa, Jun; Pintea, Lilian; Shaw, George M.; Moore, Jim; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.
Background Prehypertension and prediabetes are major risk factors of cardiovascular disease, and their combined presence may result in more serious cardiovascular outcomes than expected with either prehypertension or prediabetes alone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes, and the associated risk profiles in a Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 3,595 men and 4,593 women aged 18 years and older was performed between 2008 and 2010. Prehypertension and prediabetes were diagnosed using the guidelines from the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, and treatment of high blood pressure and American Diabetes Association, respectively. Prehypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mmHg, and prediabetes was defined as a fasting blood glucose of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L. Results The prevalence of coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes was 11.0%. Men had a higher prevalence of coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes than women (14.2% vs. 8.4%; P < 0.0001). This prevalence increased with age and body mass index, and was the lowest among Mongolian-Chinese (5.1%). A multivariate analysis showed that ?-glutamyltransferase and uric acid were significantly and positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, and total cholesterol, and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects with prehypertension and prediabetes. Conclusions There is a large proportion of Chinese adults with coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes. Thus, there is a need for more efforts that implement public health programs that target the earlier stages of hypertension and diabetes.
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students. Females were more likely to have suicidal behavior than males. No close friends, feelings of loneliness, insomnia, self perception of underweight or overweight, carrying a weapon were significant predictors of students' suicidal behavior. Missing school without permission, being bullied and going hungry were also important risk factors of suicidal ideation. Families and Schools are important environments to prevent high students' suicide. Improving students' psychological well being, quality of relationship with people, and support resources are critical to prevent suicidal behavior. PMID:24282032
Altangerel, Uyanga; Liou, Jenn-Chang; Yeh, Pi-Ming
A survey on Cercopithifilaria spp. was carried out on owned and kennelled dogs in Sardinia, Italy. A total of 180 dogs were sampled and tested by microscopic detection or PCR of dermal microfilariae in skin snip sediments. The overall prevalence for Cercopithifilaria spp. at both microscopy and molecular tests was 9.4 % (17/180), while 8.3 % (15/180) of dogs scored positive at microscopic detection of sediments only. Of the 225 microfilariae measured, 212 were identified as Cercopithifilaria bainae and the remaining as Cercopithifilaria sp. II. All samples were molecularly processed for specific amplification of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and ribosomal 12S gene fragments. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis of the cox1 and 12S sequences here obtained showed a high nucleotide similarity (99 and 100 %, respectively) with those of C. bainae available in GenBank. In particular, cox1 haplotype I (HI; n=14), haplotype HXVIII (n=2), and a new haplotype, named HXIX (n=1), differing for a single polymorphism from HI, were detected. This study reports data on the occurrence, distribution, and genetic makeup of C. bainae and Cercopithifilaria sp. II infesting dogs in Sardinia, suggesting that these filarioids are spread in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks occur. PMID:24271152
Solinas, C; Varcasia, A; Brianti, E; Giannetto, S; Pipia, A P; Columbano, N; Tosciri, G; Dantas-Torres, F; Garippa, G; Otranto, D; Scala, A
Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.
Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.
Context: Limited data are available regarding the prevalence and nature of invalid computerized baseline neurocognitive test data. Objective: To identify the prevalence of invalid baselines on the desktop and online versions of ImPACT and to document the utility of correcting for left-right (L-R) confusion on the desktop version of ImPACT. Design: Cross-sectional study of independent samples of high school (HS) and collegiate athletes who completed the desktop or online versions of ImPACT. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 3769 HS (desktop ?=? 1617, online ?=? 2152) and 2130 collegiate (desktop ?=? 742, online ?=? 1388) athletes completed preseason baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of 5 ImPACT validity indicators, with correction for L-R confusion (reversing left and right mouse-click responses) on the desktop version, by test version and group. Chi-square analyses were conducted for sex and attentional or learning disorders. Results: At least 1 invalid indicator was present on 11.9% (desktop) versus 6.3% (online) of the HS baselines and 10.2% (desktop) versus 4.1% (online) of collegiate baselines; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased this overall prevalence to 8.4% (HS) and 7.5% (collegiate). Online Impulse Control scores alone yielded 0.4% (HS) and 0.9% (collegiate) invalid baselines, compared with 9.0% (HS) and 5.4% (collegiate) on the desktop version; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased the prevalence of invalid Impulse Control scores to 5.4% (HS) and 2.6% (collegiate). Male athletes and HS athletes with attention deficit or learning disorders who took the online version were more likely to have at least 1 invalid indicator. Utility of additional invalidity indicators is reported. Conclusions: The online ImPACT version appeared to yield fewer invalid baseline results than did the desktop version. Identification of L-R confusion reduces the prevalence of invalid baselines (desktop only) and the potency of Impulse Control as a validity indicator. We advise test administrators to be vigilant in identifying invalid baseline results as part of routine concussion management and prevention programs.
Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Solomon, Gary S.; Ott, Summer D.; Karpf, Robin
Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA). It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males) in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213). Mean SpO2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = ?0.929, P < 0.001). In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors associated with CMS.
Sahota, Inderjeet Singh; Panwar, Nidhi Singh
What to do with a problem dog? What is the best book on dog training? Would Tony Soprano benefit from owning a dog? How can you trust your dog walker with your dog? All these questions are addressed by the Dog Lady, who gives advice, as she says herself, on "dogs, love, and life." Always readable and often funny, the Dog Lady answers emails from viewers with questions about their canine pets. Users can read recent columns or review the "Best in Show" archive, a collection of the Dog Lady's most memorable advice. [CH
Existing approaches to tuberculosis (TB) control have been no more than partially successful in areas with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. In the context of increasingly constrained resources, mathematical modelling can augment understanding and support policy for implementing those strategies that are most likely to bring public health and economic benefits. In this paper, we present an overview of past and recent contributions of TB modelling in this key area, and suggest a way forward through a modelling research agenda that supports a more effective response to the TB-HIV epidemic, based on expert discussions at a meeting convened by the TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium. The research agenda identified high-priority areas for future modelling efforts, including 1) the difficult diagnosis and high mortality of TB-HIV; 2) the high risk of disease progression; 3) TB health systems in high HIV prevalence settings; 4) uncertainty in the natural progression of TB-HIV; and 5) combined interventions for TB-HIV. Efficient and rapid progress towards completion of this modelling agenda will require co-ordination between the modelling community and key stakeholders, including advocates, health policy makers, donors and national or regional finance officials. A continuing dialogue will ensure that new results are effectively communicated and new policy-relevant questions are addressed swiftly. PMID:24903784
Houben, R M G J; Dowdy, D W; Vassall, A; Cohen, T; Nicol, M P; Granich, R M; Shea, J E; Eckhoff, P; Dye, C; Kimerling, M E; White, R G
This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664
Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane
This study, which was conducted in central Italy, included (a) 525 office workers employed in an air-conditioned building that had fan coil units in every room (building B) and (b) 281 subjects who worked in three naturally ventilated buildings (building A) that were operated by the same public administration. The prevalence of work-related symptoms was assessed by a questionnaire that was administered by an occupational medicine specialist. The most frequent complaints of employees in building B were dry air, strong lighting, and high temperature. Employees who worked in this building experienced a statistically higher prevalence of symptoms that were characteristic of the sick building syndrome. This is the first time that this syndrome has been reported in Italy. Excessive illumination, a low relative humidity, and fiberglass on floors and furniture might have contributed to the symptoms. Inadequate maintenance of the building's air-conditioning plant and the employees' lack of information regarding self-regulation of the fan coil units may also have contributed to the prevalence of symptoms. PMID:1539998
Abbritti, G; Muzi, G; Accattoli, M P; Fiordi, T; Dell'Omo, M; Colangeli, C; Gabrielli, A R; Fabbri, T; D'Alessandro, A
India is experiencing an epidemic of type 2 diabetes (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2,218 young adults (aged 26-32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in South India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969-1973 in Vellore and nearby villages. Family history, socio-economic status, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed for diagnosis (WHO recommendations). Insulin resistance and secretion were derived from plasma insulin concentrations. Median BMI was 20.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 DM and IGT was higher in urban than in rural subjects (3.7% vs 2.1%, p=0.02; 18.9% vs 14.3%, p=0.002 respectively), while prevalence of IFG was similar in urban and rural populations (3.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.04). Type 2 DM, IGT, IFG or higher insulin resistance and increment were associated with higher socio-economic status (more household possessions) and higher percentage body fat, body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Insulin increment was lower in men with higher alcohol consumption. Our data suggest high levels of glucose intolerance in young rural and urban adults highlighting an urgent need for preventive action to avert a public health catastrophe in India.
Raghupathy, Palany; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Geethanjali, Finney S.; Leary, Samantha D.; Saperia, Julia; Priya, G; Rajaratnam, Abel; Richard, Joseph
Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of infertility in women with Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and associated factors. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Endocrinology Clinic for Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases, with 193 women aged 18-50 years with GD and 66 women aged 18-60 years with HT. The women were interviewed to obtain data on their gynecological and obstetric history and family history of autoimmune diseases. Their medical records were reviewed to determine the characteristics of the disease and to confirm association with other autoimmune diseases. Infertility was defined as 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse without conception. Results. The prevalence of infertility was 52.3% in GD and 47.0% in HT. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years and 39.2 years, in GD and HT, respectively. The mean number of pregnancies was lower in women who were 35 years old or younger at diagnosis and was always lower following diagnosis of the disease, irrespective of age. The only variable associated with infertility was a shorter time of the disease in HT. Conclusions. The prevalence of infertility was high in women with GD and HT and affected the number of pregnancies in young women. PMID:24678319
Quintino-Moro, Alessandra; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise E; Tambascia, Marcos; Machado, Helymar da Costa; Fernandes, Arlete
This prospective study surveyed the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Korean patients with coronary arterial disease (CAD) or cerebrovascular disorder (CVD). From March 2010, 576 hospitalized patients in cardiovascular or stroke center were enrolled as the study group. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured and the cut-off point for diagnosing PAD was ? 0.9 at rest. A total of 424 hospitalized patients in the Department of Surgery and aged ? 50 yr was enrolled as the control group. The prevalence of PAD was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (7.6% vs 1.7%; P < 0.001). To analyze the relationship of other vascular diseases and PAD, the patients were regrouped; group A (no CAD or CVD), group B (CAD only), group C (CVD only), and group D (CAD and CVD). Compared with group A, those with other vascular diseases (group B, C, D) had significantly higher prevalence of PAD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, renal insufficiency and claudication. The trend that patients with CAD or CVD are at risk of PAD is observed in this cross-sectional study in Koreans. Routine ABI measurement is recommended in these high-risk groups for early detection and proper management of PAD. PMID:22690093
Ahn, Sanghyun; Park, Yang Jin; Min, Sang-Il; Kim, Seong Yup; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Min, Seung-Kee
Background Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection can increase the risk of developing skin disorders. This study evaluated the correlation between HTLV-1 proviral load and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count among HTLV-1 infected individuals, with or without skin disorders (SD) associated with HTLV-1 infection [SD-HTLV-1: xerosis/ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis or infective dermatitis associated to HTLV-1 (IDH)]. Methods A total of 193 HTLV-1-infected subjects underwent an interview, dermatological examination, initial HTLV-1 proviral load assay, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count, and lymphproliferation assay (LPA). Results A total of 147 patients had an abnormal skin condition; 116 (79%) of them also had SD-HTLV-1 and 21% had other dermatological diagnoses. The most prevalent SD-HTLV-1 was xerosis/acquired ichthyosis (48%), followed by seborrheic dermatitis (28%). Patients with SD-HTLV-1 were older (51 vs. 47 years), had a higher prevalence of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) (75%), and had an increased first HTLV-1 proviral load and basal LPA compared with patients without SD-HTLV-1. When excluding HAM/TSP patients, the first HTLV-1 proviral load of SD-HTLV-1 individuals remains higher than no SD-HTLV-1 patients. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of skin disorders (76%) among HTLV-1-infected individuals, regardless of clinical status, and 60% of these diseases are considered skin disease associated with HTLV-1 infection.
Okajima, Renata; Oliveira, Augusto C. P.; Smid, Jerusa; Casseb, Jorge; Sanches, Jose Antonio
Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…
Taylor, Kelley R.
Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HT) are common diseases in adulthood, pre-disposing to many cardiovascular complications, posing a major public health challenge. Few studies have reported increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and type 2 diabetes in policemen. Hence, this study aims to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, HT, smoking, alcohol intake, and obesity among policemen. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008–2009 among 256 policemen in Puducherry, South India. Policemen were selected by simple random sampling. Socio-demographic details and some of the risk factors such as alcohol intake and smoking history were obtained using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Presence of stress was measured using the professional life stress score questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured by standard methods. Fasting blood sugar was estimated using a glucometer. Serum cholesterol was also measured. Lipid profile was measured for a randomly chosen subgroup of 50 participants. Results Mean age of study participants was 40.9 years (SD ± 10.9). Out of the study subjects, 23% (n = 60) were known diabetic and 16.8% (n = 43) were known hypertensive. Prevalence of diabetes among study participants was 33.6% (CI: 27.8%–39.6%). Prevalence of HT among study participants was 30.5% (CI: 24.9%–36.5%). Seventy percent (n = 178) had at least moderate range of stress in their life related to their profession and 4% (n = 11) had stress as a “problem” in their life. Conclusions Burden of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and HT was high among police personnel of Puducherry.
Ramakrishnan, Jayalakshmy; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Premarajan, Kariyarath Cheriyath; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha; Thangaraj, Susila; Chinnakali, Palanivel
Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in fibromyalgia (FM) and determine the presence and amount of sleep disruption in FM patients with RLS. RLS and FM have been associated in uncontrolled studies using a variety of RLS definitions. We explored this relationship using a cross-sectional study design. Methods: FM cases that met the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria were recruited through an academic referral clinic and advertising. Pain- and fatigue-free controls were recruited from the Seattle metropolitan area. We enrolled 172 FM patients (mean age 50 years, 93% female) and 63 pain- and fatigue-free controls (mean age 41 years, 56% female). RLS was ascertained by a self-administered validated diagnostic interview. Results: The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of RLS was higher in the FM group than the control group (33.0%; 95% CI: 25.9, 40.1 vs. 3.1%; 95% CI: 0.0, 7.4; p = 0.001). Likewise, the FM group was more likely to report RLS (OR = 11.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 53.0), even after adjusting for age and gender. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was higher among FM patients with RLS than those without (11.8 vs. 9.9; p = 0.01) but subjective limb pain measures did not differ between these 2 groups. Conclusions: There is a higher prevalence and odds of RLS in those with FM compared to controls. Clinicians should routinely query FM patients regarding RLS symptoms because treatment of RLS can potentially improve sleep and quality of life in these patients. Citation: Viola-Saltzman M; Watson NF; Bogart A; Goldberg J; Buchwald D. High prevalence of restless legs syndrome among patients with fibromyalgia: a controlled cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(5):423-427.
Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra
Only few published data are available on ticks and tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in Bolivia. To evaluate rickettsial seroprevalence and infection in dogs and ticks, during February-April 2007, we collected whole blood, sera, and ticks from dogs living in the rural, peri-urban, and urban areas of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Dog sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect IgG antibodies against Rickettsia rickettsii and 68.2% of samples were found to be positive (n?=?30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.4-81.4). Blood samples and ticks were tested using polymerase chain reaction to detect spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. One blood sample was positive for Rickettsia parkeri (2.3%; 95% CI: 0.06-12.3). Ticks were collected from 10 dogs and were identified as Amblyomma tigrinum (n?=?44) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n?=?1). All A. tigrinum ticks were collected from resident dogs from the rural areas of Cochabamba, whereas R. sanguineus was from a dog originating from Santa Cruz. Of 42 DNA samples extracted from ticks, 23 (54.8%; 95% CI: 38.7-70.1) were polymerase chain reaction positive for Rickettsia spp. Sequencing analysis identified 22 samples as R. parkeri and one as Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Positive ticks (all A. tigrinum) were collected from six dogs, all of which were seropositive. This is the first report of SFG rickettsiae in A. tigrinum, suggesting that this tick-like others species in the Amblyomma maculatum group--may play a role in the biological cycle of Ri. parkeri. The high infection prevalence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks and the even higher seroprevalence in dogs suggest an active circulation of agents of rickettsiosis in the study area, although there are no confirmed cases of infection in humans. Our study supports the use of canine serology as risk indicator for SF rickettsioses. PMID:20426684
Tomassone, Laura; Conte, Valeria; Parrilla, Guillermo; De Meneghi, Daniele
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a crippling disorder which is confined almost exclusively to the Indian subcontinent. Despite its association with a significantly increased risk of cancer, the etiology is still not clear. An epidemiological assessment showed 0.4% prevalence for OSMF in Kerala, South India, which is among the highest recorded. Recently the National Tumour Registry in Trivandrum reported the highest recorded site-specific incidence rate for oral cancer (ICD 140-145) in this area. The coastal belt of the Trivandrum and Quilon districts of Kerala has a very high natural radioactivity (over 1500 mR (387 microC) per year); about 500 mR (129 microC) per year is considered to be the maximum permissible dose for populations in general. An epidemiological survey in this area and in a comparable population (without exposure to high background radiation) as a control showed that the percentage prevalence of OSMF in the study area was 0.27 and in the control area 0.32. It appears highly improbable that the OSMF in the study area was induced by high background radiation.
Rajendran, R.; Raju, G. K.; Nair, S. M.; Balasubramanian, G.
Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of mothers at risk of vitamin D deficiency because of dark skin or the wearing of concealing clothes (such as a veil) compared with a group presumed not to be at risk. A second aim was to correlate these newborn infants' vitamin D concentrations with biochemical parameters of vitamin D metabolism and bone turnover at birth. Design A prospective study conducted between April 2004 and February 2006 including women delivering during this period and their newborn infants. Setting The outpatient clinic of the obstetrics department, Sint Franciscus Gasthuis, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Patients Eighty seven newborn infants of healthy mothers with either dark skin and/or concealing clothing (risk group) or light skin (control group). Results We found a significant difference in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25?hydroxyvitamin D3 <25?nmol/l) between newborn infants of mothers at risk and those of mothers in the control group (63.3% vs 15.8%; p<0.001). Mean alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly higher in the at risk group. Conclusions Newborn infants of mothers with dark skin or wearing concealing clothes are at great risk of vitamin D deficiency at birth. The clinical implications are unknown. Further research is necessary to determine the long?term consequences of maternal and neonatal vitamin D deficiency so that guidelines on vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy can be issued.
Dijkstra, S H; van Beek, A; Janssen, J W; de Vleeschouwer, L H M; Huysman, W A; van den Akker, E L T
Background: Vaccination and importation of dogs and cats are prohibited in the Galapagos, resulting in a uniquely isolated population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases of dogs and cats that impact their health, could spill over to native wildlife, or sentinel diseases of concern to humans. Hypothesis: The isolation of dogs and cats
J. K. Levy; P. C. Crawford; M. R. Lappin; E. J. Dubovi; M. G. Levy; R. Alleman; S. J. Tucker; E. L. Clifford
The prevalence of Babesia infections in domestic dogs in South Africa was studied using reverse line blot hybridization and 18S sequence analysis. Babesia canis vogeli was confirmed for the first time in domestic dogs in South Africa. Out of a total of 297 blood samples collected from domestic dogs in Bloemfontein, East London, Johannesburg, Durban and from the Onderstepoort Veterinary
P. T Matjila; B. L Penzhorn; C. P. J Bekker; A. M Nijhof; F Jongejan
Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) in population studies, but no case has been reported in a large HD family. We report a case of a five-generation Chinese family who is afflicted by both HD and DM. The prevalence of DM in HD of this family was high (72.7%). The diagnosis of HD in 11 family members was confirmed by the genetic test of the proband who had 42 CAG repeats. Furthermore, the proband's daughter had abnormal locus at G3460T in MT-ND1 among mtDNA genome. Our case report suggests a genetic link between HD and DM. PMID:24531153
Hu, Yueqing; Liang, Jingyao; Yu, Shengyuan
Background There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda. Methods Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district, Uganda between May 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled and followed-up until discharge, death or referral. Data were collected on social-demographic characteristics, current and past illnesses and clinical signs and symptoms. Blood smears, hemoglobin (Hgb) levels and HIV testing were performed from finger/heel prick blood. The associations between malaria infection and other factors were estimated using log-binomial regression to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (aPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for clustering at health facilities. Results 2471 children were enrolled. The most common medical presentations were fever (96.2%), cough (61.7%), vomiting (44.2%), diarrhea (20.8%), and seizures (16.0%). The prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 54.6%. Children with malaria were more likely to present with a history of fever (aPRR 2.23; CI 1.18–4.24) and seizures (aPRR 1.12; CI 1.09–1.16). Confirmed malaria was significantly lower among girls than boys (aPRR 0.92; CI 0.91–0.93), HIV infected children (aPRR 0.60 CI 0.52–0.71), and children with diarrhea (aPRR 0.76; CI 0.65–0.90). The overall prevalence of anemia (Hgb<10 g/dl) was 56.3% and severe anemia (Hgb<6 g/dL) was 17.8%. Among children with severe anemia 76.8% had malaria parasitemia, of whom 93.1% received blood transfusion. Malaria associated mortality was 0.6%. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among inpatient children under five years. Malaria prevention is a priority in this population.
Kiggundu, Valerian L.; O'Meara, Wendy P.; Musoke, Richard; Nalugoda, Fred K.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Baghendaghe, Enos; Lutalo, Tom; Achienge, Marion K.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Makumbi, Fred; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K.
Background Diabetes is common in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 0.32% in the UK. Clinical signs, as in man, include polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss, associated with hyperglycaemia and glucosuria. Diabetes typically occurs in dogs between 5 and 12 years of age, and is uncommon under 3 years of age. Breeds predisposed to diabetes include the Samoyed, Tibetan Terrier and
B. Catchpole; J. M. Ristic; L. M. Fleeman; L. J. Davison
Blood screening by NAT for major transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs) was originally intended to complement serology for detection of infected donations. Reports from developed countries showed limited marginal value to NAT blood screening in improving blood safety. Reports on NAT results from Europe indicated yield of 1:0.6 million donations for HBV, <1:M for HCV and HIV-1-related to low prevalence of TTI. In contrast, prevalence of TTI in resource-limited countries is almost always high. As a result, more incident cases can be expected among first-time blood donors. Most reports of NAT blood donation screening in these countries showed NAT confirmed yield as high as 1/2800 for HBV and 1/3100 blood donations for HCV as reported from Thailand and Egypt, respectively. The issues for low resource countries are mostly the high cost of NAT but also the requirements of staff qualification, adequate facilities, reagent procurement and maintenance of delicate equipment. Alternatives to commercial NAT are the use of combos antigen-antibody for HIV and HCV, anti-HBc for HBV and in-house NAT. Most of these alternatives have been reported but very few comparisons are available. Once yield data is available, models for estimation of feasibility and cost-effectiveness are proposed to help decision-making. PMID:20079664
El Ekiaby, Magdy; Lelie, Nico; Allain, Jean-Pierre
The National Detector Dog Manual covers background information, procedures, health care, and training related to detector dog activities. The procedures have a national focus to guide detector dog activities, and they are supplemental to general operation...
Background The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are increasing in the developing world; we assessed their prevalence among the urban middle class in Bangladesh. Methods In this cross-sectional survey (n =?402), we randomly selected consenting adults (? 30 years) from a middle-income neighborhood in Dhaka. We assessed demography, lifestyle, and health status, measured physical indices and blood pressure and obtained blood samples. We evaluated two primary outcomes: (1) type-2 diabetes (fasting blood glucose???7.0 mmol/L or hemoglobin A1C???6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or diabetes medication use) and (2) insulin resistance (type-2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation criteria). Results Mean age and Quételet’s (body mass) index were 49.4?±?12.6 years and 27.0?±?5.1 kg/m2; 83% were married, 41% had ?12 years of education, 47% were employed, 47% had a family history of diabetes. Thirty-five percent had type-2 diabetes and 45% had metabolic syndrome. In multivariate models older age and family history of diabetes were significantly associated with type-2 diabetes. Older age, female sex, overweight or obese, high wealth index and positive family history of diabetes were significantly associated with insulin resistance. Participants with type-2 diabetes or insulin resistance had significantly poorer physical health only if they had associated cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome among the middle class in Dhaka is alarmingly high. Screening services should be implemented while researchers focus on strategies to lessen the incidence and morbidity associated with these conditions.
Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population.A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of
Sarah C. Totton; Alex I. Wandeler; Carl S. Ribble; Rick C. Rosatte; Scott A. McEwen
The emergence and rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harbouring the blaKPC gene that encodes for carbapenemase production have complicated the management of patient infections. This study in a tertiary care hospital in Egypt used real-time PCR assay to test ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates of K. pneumoniae for the presence of the blaKPC gene and compared the results with modified Hodge test. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed by standard methods, and interpreted following both the old CLSI breakpoints (M100-S19) for carbapenems and the revised breakpoints (M100-S22). From the 45 non-duplicate isolates of K. pneumoniae recovered from different clinical specimens, a high prevalence of ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (44.4%) was reported using the new lower CLSI breakpoints. The blaKPC gene was confirmed in 14/20 (70.0%) of these isolates. The high prevalence of ertapenem nonsusceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Egypt was predominantly attributed to K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-mediated resistance mechanisms in K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:24673086
Metwally, L; Gomaa, N; Attallah, M; Kamel, N
Introduction Though the clinical significance of testosterone deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent, its prevalence in the general population remains unrecognised. A large web-based survey was undertaken over 3 years to study the scale of this missed diagnosis. Methods An online questionnaire giving the symptoms characterising testosterone deficiency syndrome (Aging Male Symptoms – AMS – scale) was set up on three web sites, together with questions about possible contributory factors. Results. Of over 10,000 men, mainly from the UK and USA, who responded, 80% had moderate or severe scores likely to benefit from testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). The average age was 52, but with many in their 40s when the diagnosis of ‘late onset hypogonadism’ is not generally considered. Other possible contributory factors to the high testosterone deficiency scores reported were obesity (29%), alcohol (17.3%), testicular problems such as mumps orchitis (11.4%), prostate problems (5.6%), urinary infection (5.2%) and diabetes 5.7%. Conclusions In this self-selected large international sample of men, there was a very high prevalence of scores which if clinically relevant would warrant a therapeutic trial of testosterone treatment. This study suggests that there are large numbers of men in the community whose testosterone deficiency is neither being diagnosed nor treated.
TRINICK, TOM R; FENELEY, MARK R; WELFORD, HUGH; CARRUTHERS, MALCOLM
In this math activity related to volume, learners use problem solving skills to calculate and build a model house for Minus the dog. Learners are given certain parameters that they follow as they design and construct a house out of index cards and tape. This activity guide contains a material list, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.
Houston, Children'S M.
We studied the electroencephalographic (EEG) phenomenon of high-frequency (HF) bursts (within the limits of 60–170 cycle,\\u000a 70–80 ?V) in the electrical activity (EA) of the brain (1–200 Hz) of dogs in the process of alimentary instrumental conditioning.\\u000a These bursts appeared at the stage of generalization in a number of neocortical areas in the interstimulus intervals at the\\u000a background EA, which
V. N. Dumenko; M. K. Kozlov
Objectives To measure the prevalence and to identify risk factors of hearing impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in Peru. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two public hospitals and 1 nonprofit center in Lima, Peru, between August 2009 and April 2010. Subjects A total of 139 HIV-infected children, ages 4 to 19 years. Methods Hearing impairment and otologic health were assessed with pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and otoscopy. The primary outcome was hearing loss, defined as average threshold >25dB for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, in one or both ears. Historical and socioeconomic information was obtained through parental survey and medical chart review. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Fifty-four (38.8%) of 139 children had hearing impairment. On multivariate analysis, risk factors included: tympanic membrane perforation (odds ratio [OR] 7.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-30.5; P = .01), abnormal tympanometry (OR 2.71; 95% CI, 1.09-6.75; P = .03), cerebral infection (OR 11.6; 95% CI, 1.06-126; P = .05), seizures (OR 5.20; 95% CI, 1.21-22.4; P = .03), and CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3 (OR 3.53; 95% CI, 1.18-10.5; P = .02). Conclusions The prevalence of hearing impairment in HIV-infected children in Lima, Peru was 38.8%. Middle ear disease, prior cerebral infection, and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with hearing impairment. The high prevalence of hearing impairment emphasizes the need for periodic hearing assessment in the routine clinical care of HIV-infected children.
Chao, Christina K.; Czechowicz, Josephine A.; Messner, Anna H.; Alarcon, Jorge; Roca, Lenka Kolevic; Rodriguez, Marsi M. Larragan; Villafuerte, Cesar Gutierrez; Montano, Silvia M.; Zunt, Joseph R.
Summary BACKGROUND We studied prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. METHODS IDUs aged ?18 years were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and underwent standardized interviews, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing and LTBI screening using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube, a whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). LTBI prevalence was estimated and correlates were identified using RDS-weighted logistic regression. RESULTS Of 1020 IDUs, 681 (67%) tested IGRA-positive and 44 (4%) tested HIV-positive. Mean age was 37 years, 88% were male and 98% were Mexican-born. IGRA positivity was associated with recruitment nearest the US border (aOR 1.64, 95%CI 1.09–2.48), increasing years of injection (aOR 1.20/5 years, 95%CI 1.07–1.34), and years lived in Tijuana (aOR 1.10/5 years, 95%CI 1.03–1.18). Speaking some English (aOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.25–0.57) and injecting most often at home in the past 6 months (aOR 0.68, 95%CI 0.45–0.99) were inversely associated with IGRA positivity. DISCUSSION Increased LTBI prevalence among IDUs in Tijuana appears to be associated with greater drug involvement. Given the high risk for HIV infection among Tijuana’s IDUs, interventions are urgently needed to prevent HIV infection and treat LTBI among IDUs before these epidemics collide.
Garfein, R. S.; Lozada, R.; Liu, L.; Laniado-Laborin, R.; Rodwell, T. C.; Deiss, R.; Alvelais, J.; Catanzaro, A.; Chiles, P. G.; Strathdee, S. A.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the administration of a high volume of isotonic crystalloid at a rapid rate on cardiovascular function in normovolemic, isoflurane-anesthetized dogs during induced hypotension. Using a prospective study, 6 adult dogs were induced to general anesthesia and cardiovascular and hematological values were measured while the dogs were maintained at 3 hemodynamic states: first during light anesthesia with 1.3% end-tidal isoflurane (ETI); then during a hypotensive state induced by deep anesthesia with 3% ETI for 45 min while administered 1 mL/kg body weight (BW) per minute of isotonic fluids; and then decreased to 1.6% ETI while receiving 1 mL/kg BW per minute of fluids for 15 min. End-tidal isoflurane (ETI) at 3.0 ± 0.2% decreased arterial blood pressure (ABP), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume index (SVI), and increased stroke volume variation (SVV) and central venous pressure (CVP). Fluid administration during 3% ETI decreased only SVV and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), while CVP increased progressively. Decreasing ETI to 1.6 ± 0.1% returned ABP and SVI to baseline (ETI 1.3 ± 0.1%), while CI and heart rate increased and SVV decreased. There was significant progressive clinical hemodilution of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), and central-venous oxygen content (CcvO2). High-volume, rapid-rate administration of an isotonic crystalloid was ineffective in counteracting isoflurane-induced hypotension in normovolemic dogs at a deep plane of anesthesia. Cardiovascular function improved only when anesthetic depth was reduced. Excessive hemodilution and its adverse consequences should be considered when a high volume of crystalloid is administered at a rapid rate.
Valverde, Alexander; Gianotti, Giacomo; Rioja-Garcia, Eva; Hathway, Amanda
Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 2006–2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma\\/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled
Renata Welc-Fal?ciak; Anna Rodo; Edward Si?ski; Anna Bajer
BACKGROUNDPrevious studies have shown that up to 0.5% of the Caucasian population is homozygous for the HFE gene C282Y mutation. High prevalence values have been reported in Northern Europe. To what extent the presence of this mutation is associated with overt clinical haemochromatosis is unclear.AIMTo determine the prevalence of the C282Y allele in a hospitalised population of an acute medical
S Distante; J P Berg; K Lande; E Haug; H Bell
SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100) and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100) from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9). S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8), being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not.
Naves, Maria Margarida; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria
Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1%) including one female, (2.0%) and 12 males (15.2%), and in only five dogs (12.2%). Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas.
Background The epidemiology of high-risk (hr) HPV infections in mid-adult women with new sex partners is undefined. Methods We analyzed baseline data from 518 25–65 year old female online daters. Women were mailed questionnaires and kits for self-collecting vaginal specimens for PCR-based hrHPV testing. Risk factors for infection were identified using Poisson regression models to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs). Results The prevalence of hrHPV infection was 35.9%. In multivariate analysis restricted to sexually active women, the likelihood of hrHPV infection was associated with abnormal Pap test history (PR=1.42, 95% CI:1.10–1.84), lifetime number of sex partners >14 (relative to 1–4; PR=2.13, 95% CI:1.13–4.02 for 15–24 partners and PR=1.91, 95% CI:1.00–3.64 for ?25 partners), male partners with ?1 concurrent partnership (PR=1.34, 95% CI:1.05–1.71) and male partners whom the subject met online (PR=1.39, 95% CI:1.08–1.79). Age was inversely associated with infection only in women who were sexually inactive (PR=0.67 per 5-year age difference, adjusted for Pap history and lifetime number of partners). Compared to sexually inactive women, the likelihood of infection increased with increasing risk level, (from low-risk to high-risk partners) (p<.0001 by trend test). In multivariate analysis, infection with multiple versus single hrHPV types was inversely associated with ever having been pregnant (PR=0.64, 95% CI:0.46–0.90) and recent consistent condom use (PR=0.56, 95% CI:0.32–0.97), and positively associated with genital wart history (PR=1.43, 95% CI:1.03–1.99). Conclusions Measures of both cumulative and recent sexual history were associated with prevalent hrHPV infection in this high-risk cohort of mid-adult women.
Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Xi, Long Fu; Lee, Shu-Kuang; O'Reilly, Sandra F.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Koutsky, Laura A.
ABSTRACT Helicobacter spp. may have multiple routes of transmission. It is unclear, however, whether the agent is zoonotic and therefore transmitted from an animal reservoir, including dogs. The aim of this population-based study was to assess the relationship between pet ownership or frequent exposure to dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection, especially focusing on HHLO-2 (Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2) in saliva and feces samples in Korea, using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR. One hundred twenty-four eligible human subjects and 39 dogs participated in this study. Relativity of contact with dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection diagnosed by genus-specific PCR showed a statistically significant result (P<0.01), but in the relativity analyses between contact with dogs and H. pylori, H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections diagnosed using species-specific PCR, only Helicobacter felis showed a statistically significant result. Although H. pylori infection showed a statistically significant relativity, no statistically significant association was found between veterinarian subjects and Helicobacter. spp., H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections. On performing risk factor analyses of HHLO-2 infection by transmission, using matching species, between HHLO-2-positive dog owners and HHLO-2-positive dogs, Helicobacter felis infection showed an extremely significant relativity (P<0.0001), and Helicobacter bizzozeronii may also be a possible significant risk factor (P<0.01). These results suggest that HHLO-2 infection might be a zoonotic infection, because continuous contact with dogs was proved to be correlated with human H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections in this study.
CHUNG, Tae-Ho; KIM, Hee-Dong; LEE, Young-Sun; HWANG, Cheol-Yong
Laryngeal paralysis is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in older, large-breed dogs and is likely associated with a generalized polyneuropathy in most animals. Surgical therapy is frequently indicated, and UAL is currently the recommended treatment. Respiratory signs significantly improve in most patients after surgery; however, postoperative complication rates can be high, and patients have a lifelong risk of developing respiratory tract disease. PMID:19517415
Millard, Ralph P; Tobias, Karen M
Conventional Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) precludes a detailed evaluation of the subcortical region. Micro-SPECT (?-SPECT) has a higher resolution, but has not been used to evaluate the dog's brain until now. In this study, ?-SPECT of the brain was evaluated in 10 Beagle dogs. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain was used to draw a new region map containing 19 volumes of interest (VOIs). Semi-quantitative analysis of the ?-SPECT data was performed and the regional cerebral perfusion was represented by the perfusion indices (PIs). The highest perfusion was found in the parietal cortex and the lowest in the piriform cortex. An asymmetry toward the left hemisphere in general and a regional asymmetry in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex were found. This study shows that functional imaging of the canine brain is possible using ?-SPECT and it describes the normal regional brain perfusion in the adult Beagle dog. PMID:23261153
Martlé, V; Peremans, K; Van Ham, L; Vermeire, S; Waelbers, T; Dobbeleir, A; Gielen, I; Boon, P; Claes, K; Bhatti, S
Summary This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that
Ramiro M. Joly-Mascheroni; Atsushi Senju; Alex J. Shepherd
Background: This study was performed to compare the prevalence of HPV infection and high risk HPV genotypes [16, 18] between monogamous and polygamous women, in Zabol, Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Zabol in 2006 – 2007. Two hundred sixty five married women attending the Gynecology Clinic for Cervical Disease Screening entered to this study. One hundred sixty two cases had monogamous, and 103 had polygamous husbands. HPV PCR samples were obtained from scrape of papsmear specimens. The biotinylated primers MY09/MY11, GP5+/GP6+, were utilized to enable amplification and detection of positive PCR products. Confirmation of HPV-16 and -18 were done by type-specific PCR primers HPV-16/F, HPV-16/R and HPV-18/F, HPV-18/R. Results: Prevalence of HPV infection in monogamous and polygamous groups was 29% and 37.9%, respectively. The most HPV infection was found in 15–25 years group. The most prevalence of infection in monogamous group was HPV-18 and HPV-non16, 18 in 15–25 years, and HPV-16 in 26–35 years group. In polygamous group the most prevalent type was HPV-16, 18 in 15–25 years group. The most prevalent HPV-16 was seen in sever inflammation and dysplasia cytology in both groups. Conclusion: Prevalence of HPV infection in Zabol is high, and in women with polygamous husbands group is slightly more than monogamous. Screening for this infection must be recommended in this region of Iran.
Shahramian, I; Heidari, Z; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, HR; Moradi, A; Forghani, F
An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284
Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David
Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P?=?0.008), cholesterol (P?=?0.003), triglyceride (P?=?0.018), and fasting insulin (P?0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P?=?0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P?=?0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P?=?0.030) in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss.
Estimates of the proportions of the population who are at high risk of influenza complications because of prior health status or who are likely to have decreased vaccination response because of immunocompromising conditions would enhance public health planning and model-based projections. We estimate these proportions and how they vary by population subgroups using national data systems for 2006-2008. The proportion of individuals at increased risk of influenza complications because of health conditions varied 10-fold by age (4.2% of children <2 years to 47% of individuals >64 years). Age-specific prevalence differed substantially by gender, by racial/ethnic groups (with African Americans highest in all age groups) and by income. Individuals living in families with less than 200% of federal poverty level (FPL) were significantly more likely to have at least one of these health conditions, compared to individuals with 400% FPL or more (3-fold greater among <2 and 30% greater among >64 years). Among children, there were significantly elevated proportions in all regions compared to the West. The estimated prevalence of immunocompromising conditions ranged from 0.02% in young children to 6.14% older adults. However, national data on race/ethnicity and income are not available for most immunocompromising conditions, nor is it possible to fully identify the degree of overlap between persons with high-risk health conditions and with immunocompromising conditions. Modifications to current national data collection systems would enhance the value of these data for public health programs and influenza modeling.
Zimmerman, Richard K.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Tan, Sylvia M.; Wagener, Diane K.
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology is a main factor for designing vaccination programs and surveillance strategies; nevertheless, there are few reports of HPV seroprevalence in the general population, especially in Latin America. This study aimed to describe high-risk HPV serological prevalence, persistence, and association with concurrent cervical infection, in Chilean women. Methods 1021 women from the general population, aged 15–85 years, were studied in 2001 of whom 600 were reexamined in 2006. The assessments at both time points included cervical HPV DNA testing, HPV antibody testing, cervical cytology and a sociodemographic/behavioral questionnaire. HPV DNA and antibodies against L1 protein of types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 were assessed by reverse line blot and multiplex serology, respectively. Results Seropositivity was high at both baseline (43.2%) and follow-up (50.2%) and increased with age (p?0.001); corresponding DNA prevalences were 6.7% and 8.7%. DNA and seroprevalence were associated at baseline (p?=?0.01 for any HPV). Early age at first sexual intercourse and having had two or more sexual partners were independently associated with seropositivity. Most (82.0%) initially seropositive women remained seropositive at follow-up; 21.6% of initially seronegative women seroconverted, reaching 17.5% among women older than 60 years of age. ASCUS or worse cytology was correlated with HPV DNA positivity but not with HPV seropositivity. Conclusion HPV seroprevalence studies are a useful tool for learning about the dynamics of HPV infection in a community. This study contributes to understanding the natural history of HPV infection and provides a baseline assessment before the incorporation of HPV vaccination into a national program.
Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%). Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July) of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i) Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii) histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii) polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2%) newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (?50 per microlitre). In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12%) cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.
Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence.
Adipocytes express two types of amine oxidases: the cell surface semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and the mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO). In human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, it has been reported that SSAO substrates stimulate glucose transport and inhibit lipolysis while MAO activity is decreased in obese patients when compared to age-matched controls. However, no information has been reported on visceral WAT. To further investigate the obesity-induced regulations of MAO and SSAO in white adipose tissue (WAT) from different anatomical locations, enzyme activities and mRNA abundance have been determined on tissue biopsies from control and high-fat fed dogs, an obesity model already described to be associated with arterial hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. MAO activity was increased in the enlarged omental WAT of diet-induced obese dogs, but not in their mesenteric WAT, another intra-abdominal fat depot. Subcutaneous WAT did not exhibit any change in MAO activity, as did the richest MAO-containing tissue: liver. Similarly, SSAO was increased in omental WAT of diet-induced obese dogs, but was not modified in other WAT and in aorta. The increase in SSAO activity observed in omental WAT likely results from an increased expression of the AOC3 gene since mRNA abundance and maximal benzylamine oxidation velocity were increased. Finally, plasma SSAO was decreased in obese dogs. Although the observed regulations differ from those found in subcutaneous WAT of obese patients, this canine model shows a tissue- and site-specific regulation of peripheral MAO and SSAO in obesity. PMID:17217165
Wanecq, E; Bour, S; Verwaerde, P; Smih, F; Valet, P; Carpéné, C
Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries.
Khieu, Virak; Schar, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter
Objective The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. Methods A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. Results 17,377 (92.8%) of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73%) of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid) partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4%) had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently) was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single); male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job); having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%–0.06%) and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%–0.51%), respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%–0.70%). Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. Conclusions Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant workers in China.
Wang, Qing; Zheng, Hui; Chen, Xin; Su, Jing; Peng, Zhihang; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning
The outcome of Toxocara canis infections in the canine host depends on the migratory pathway of parasite larvae (somatic or tracheal) which is considered to be related to the host's age and its immune status. However, field studies attest high prevalences of patent T. canis infections in adult animals. The controlled induction of patent infections with low doses of embryonated eggs was investigated in 18 beagles in a 7-month study until their 16th life month. The animals were assigned to three groups, each consisting of three vertically infected dogs (with a short patent infection as pups before anthelmintic treatment) and three helminth-free dogs. At study days 10 and 40, the animals of groups 1 and 3 were given each 100 embryonated T. canis eggs. In each case, group 1 was treated 10 days post-infection with Milbemax, while dogs of group 3 remained untreated. Control group 2 was not experimentally infected but treated as group 1. Two weeks after first egg administration, a sharp increase of specific antibody reactions in ELISA and increased eosinophilic counts indicated larval invasion in all infected dogs. 42-56 days following first infection, patent infections were detected coproscopically in all animals of group 3, but in none of the uninfected dogs (group 2) or the infected and treated dogs (group 1). Following a 3-month observation period, all animals of the three groups were treated with piperazine citrate to eliminate intestinal infections and all were administered 100 embryonated eggs. Subsequently, patent infections developed in animals of all groups: in one of the infected and treated animals of group 1, in five of the so far not infected control group 2 and in four of the dogs with previous patent infections (group 3). Susceptibility to patent infections was not significantly altered in T. canis-free dogs compared to dogs with previous patent infection (vertically acquired or experimentally induced). However, dogs of group 1 treated with Milbemax after repeated egg administration developed a significantly increased resistance to patent infections as compared to control dogs (group 2). Observed prepatency periods were between 40 and 56 days and did not differ in the three groups. Even in urban areas, facing high infection pressure with Toxocara eggs maintained by a high dog and fox population, dogs of all ages are at risk to develop patent T. canis infections. PMID:18201825
Fahrion, A S; Staebler, S; Deplazes, P
A nonradioisotopic method has been developed for the determination of all-trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), the common intermediate at the branch point of the biosynthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol end products, in dog and human plasma. FPP was cleaved to the parent alcohol, farnesol, by the direct addition of alkaline phosphatase to plasma. Farnesol extracted from plasma was converted into a fluorescent
Yutaka Saisho; Atsushi Morimoto; Tsuneji Umeda
Effective animal models are needed to evaluate the feasibility of new techniques to assess portal hypertension (PH). Here we developed 2 canine models of acute PH by increasing intrasinusoidal resistance and by increasing the portal vein (PV) flow volume to test the efficacy of a noninvasive technique to evaluate PH. The acute low-flow PH model was based on embolization of liver circulation by using a gelatin sponge material. The acute high-flow PH model was based on increasing the PV flow volume by using an arteriovenous (A-V) shunt from the femoral artery and saline infusion. PV pressures and diameters were assessed before and after inducing PH. Pressure values and diameters were obtained from the inferior vena cava in 3 unmanipulated controls. The low-flow model of PH was repeatable and successfully increased PV pressure by an average of 16.5 mm Hg within 15 min. The high-flow model of PH failed to achieve increased PV pressures. However, saline supplementation of the portal circulation in the high-flow model led to mean increases in PV pressures of 12.8 mm Hg within 20 min. Pulsatility in the PV was decreased in the low-flow model and increased in the high-flow model relative to baseline. No changes in PV diameter were noted in either model. These acute PH models are relatively straightforward to implement and may facilitate the evaluation of new techniques to assess PH.
Dave, Jaydev K; Liu, Ji-Bin; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Merton, Daniel A; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Altemus, Joseph; Needleman, Laurence; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming
HST's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), with its highly stable point spread function, very high imaging Strehl ratio (panchromatically > 98% over its entire 0.8 - 2.4 micron wavelength regime) and coronagraphic imaging capability, celebrated its tenth anniversary in space earlier this year. These combined instrumental attributes uniquely contribute to its capability as a high-contrast imager as demonstrated by its continuing production of new examples of spatially resolved scattered-light imagery of both optically thick and thin circumstellar disks and sub-stellar companions to young stars and brown dwarfs well into the (several) Jovian mass range. We review these capabilities, illustrating with observationally based results, including examples obtained since HST's entry into two gyro guiding mode in mid 2005. The advent of a recently introduced, and now commissioned and calibrated, coronagraphic polarimetry mode has enabled very-high contrast 2 micron imaging polarimetry with 0.2 spatial resolution. Such imagery provides important constraints in the interpretation of disk-scattered starlight in assessing circumstellar disk geometries and the physical properties of their constituent grains. We demonstrate this new capability with observational results from two currently-executing HST programs obtaining 2 micron coronagraphic polarimetric images of circumstellar T-Tauri and debris disks.
Schneider, G.; Hines, D. C.
OBJECTIVE Fatigue is a classical symptom of hyperglycemia, but the relationship between chronic fatigue and diabetes has not been systematically studied. We investigated prevalence, impact, and potential determinants of chronic fatigue in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Out of 324 randomly selected T1DM outpatients, 214 participated in this cross-sectional observational study. Participants were compared with age- and sex-matched population-based controls. Chronic fatigue, functional impairments, current health status, comorbidity, diabetes-related factors, and fatigue-related cognitions and behaviors were assessed with questionnaires, and HbA1c values and comorbidity were assessed with medical records. Sixty-six patients underwent continuous glucose monitoring combined with an electronic fatigue diary for 5 days. Acute fatigue and four glucose parameters were determined: mean, variability, and relative time spent in hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. RESULTS T1DM patients were significantly more often chronically fatigued (40%; 95% CI 34-47%) compared with matched controls (7%; 95% CI 3-10%; P < 0.001). Chronically fatigued patients had significantly more functional impairments. Fatigue was the most troublesome symptom. Age, depression, pain, sleeping problems, low self-efficacy concerning fatigue, and physical inactivity were significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronically fatigued patients spent slightly less time in hypoglycemia (proportion 0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.12 ± 0.10; P = 0.025). Glucose parameters were not related to acute fatigue. CONCLUSIONS Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent and clinically relevant in T1DM. Its significant relationship with cognitive behavioral variables and weak association with blood glucose levels suggests that behavioral interventions could be helpful in managing chronic fatigue in T1DM. PMID:23949561
Goedendorp, Martine M; Tack, Cees J; Steggink, Elles; Bloot, Lotte; Bazelmans, Ellen; Knoop, Hans
Context: Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the binding protein for cortisol. Rare kindreds with CBG mutations reducing CBG levels or altering binding affinity have been described, along with clinical manifestations encompassing fatigue, chronic pain, and hypotension. The largest kindred, exhibiting two mutations (null and Lyon) were Australian immigrants from Italy. Objective: Our objective was to determine the prevalence of the null/Lyon mutations in the village where the original null/Lyon family emigrated and compare subjects with and without CBG mutations, without previous knowledge of their mutation status. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a survey field study that included 495 adult residents. Main Outcomes: We assessed clinical history, CBG mutation analysis, plasma CBG, salivary cortisol, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and the Krupp fatigue scale. Results: Eighteen of 495 participants (3.6%, seven males and 11 females) had one of two function-altering CBG mutations. All were heterozygous for the null (n = 6) or Lyon mutations (n = 12). Of 12 Lyon participants (four males and eight females), eight (two males and six females) had chronic widespread pain and five osteoarthritis with associated pain (one male and four females). Of six null participants (three males and three females), three (one male and two females) had chronic pain and four osteoarthritis with associated pain (two males and two females). Conclusions: A high combined prevalence (3.6%) of these two CBG mutations was detected. The presence of either mutation conferred a propensity to chronic pain. In other communities, individuals with the same genetic background complain more of fatigue than pain, suggesting an environmental effect on the phenotype. These findings, combined with animal CBG gene knockout and human CBG single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype studies, suggest that CBG influences the endocrine and neurobehavioral response to stress, including the development of pain/fatigue syndromes.
Bernardi, Livia; Smirne, Nicoletta; Maletta, Raffaele; Tomaino, Carmine; Costanzo, Angela; Gallo, Maura; Lewis, John G.; Geracitano, Silvana; Grasso, Maria Beatrice; Potenza, Giuseppe; Monteleone, Cosimo; Brancati, Giacomino; Ho, Jui T.; Torpy, David J.; Bruni, Amalia C.
Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n?=?15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n?=?10), Paraná (PR, n?=?4), São Paulo (SP, n?=?3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n?=?1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tania Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires
Background Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four automatic blood pressure readings ?140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure lowering agents, and pre-hypertension by systolic blood pressure ?120–139 or diastolic blood pressure ?80–89 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The association between the shift of work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses that controlled for risk factors for hypertension by covariance analysis and modified Poisson regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.3±9.4 years and 88.2% were women. Night shift workers were older, more frequently married or divorced, and less educated. The prevalence of hypertension in the whole sample was 16%, and 28% had pre-hypertension. Blood pressure (after adjustment for confounding) was not different in day and night shift workers. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension by shift work was not different in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for confounding (all risk ratios ?=?1.0). Conclusion Night shift work did not increase blood pressure and was not associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension in nursing personnel working in a large general hospital.
Sfreddo, Carla; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Merlo, Alvaro Roberto; Fuchs, Flavio Danni
Background Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcision programs for HIV prevention is unclear. Methods Two mathematical models were examined to explore this issue: a random mixing model and a compartmental model that distinguishes risk groups associated with sex work. In the compartmental model, two scenarios were developed, one calculating HIV transmission and prevalence in a context similar to the country of Botswana, and one similar to Nyanza Province, in western Kenya. Results In both models, male circumcision programs resulted in large and sustained declines in HIV prevalence over time among both men and women. Men benefited somewhat more than women, but prevalence among women was also reduced substantially. With 80% male circumcision uptake, the reductions in prevalence ranged from 45% to 67% in the two "countries", and with 50% uptake, from 25% to 41%. It would take over a decade for the intervention to reach its full effect. Conclusion Large-scale uptake of male circumcision services in African countries with high HIV prevalence, and where male circumcision is not now routinely practised, could lead to substantial reductions in HIV transmission and prevalence over time among both men and women.
Nagelkerke, Nico JD; Moses, Stephen; de Vlas, Sake J; Bailey, Robert C
We studied the opacity effect of the SiO2 aerogel plasma heated by x-ray radiation produced by high power laser pulses irradiating the inner surface of golden 'dog-bone' targets. The PET crystal spectrometer was used to measure the absorption spectra of the plasmas in the range from 6.4 Å to 7.4 Å, among which the line emissions involving the K shell of Si ions from He-like to neutral atom were located. The experimental results were analyzed with Detailed-Level-Accounting method. As the plasma temperature increased, the characteristic lines of highly ionized ions gradually dominated the absorption spectrum.
Zhang, Y.; Dong, Q.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Li, Y.-T.; Zhang, J.; Wei, H.-G.; Shi, J.-R.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Wen, T.-S.; Zhang, W.-H.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.-Y.; Ding, Y.-K.; Zhang, L.; Tang, Y.-J.; Zhang, B.-H.; Zheng, Z.-J.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Takabe, H.
Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18) were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95) of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63) of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79) samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95) was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in Punjab, Pakistan is in line with the worldwide prevalence, but that the incidence of HPV16 and 18 co-infections in our cohort is higher than that previously reported.
Siddiqa, Abida; Zainab, Maidah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Parish, Joanna L.
Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18) were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95) of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63) of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79) samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95) was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in Punjab, Pakistan is in line with the worldwide prevalence, but that the incidence of HPV16 and 18 co-infections in our cohort is higher than that previously reported. PMID:25036463
Siddiqa, Abida; Zainab, Maidah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Parish, Joanna L
The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameter DNA fragmentation Index (DFI) is a valuable tool for prediction of fertility in vivo. Clinical data show that a DFI above 30% is associated with very low chance for achieving pregnancy by natural conception or by insemination. Already when DFI is above 20% the chance of natural pregnancy is reduced, this despite normal conventional semen parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of high DFI in male partners of unexplained infertile couples to further identification of male factors contributing to subfertility. Among 212 consecutive men under infertility investigation, 122 cases with the diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' were identified. For all but three, SCSA data were available. The percentage of couples with diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' in which the male partner has DFI >20% or DFI >30% was calculated. In the group diagnosed with 'unexplained infertility' 17.7% of the men (95% CI 10.8-24.5) presented with 20 ?DFI <30 and 8.4% (95% CI 3.40-13.4) had DFI ?30%. A significant part of men diagnosed as unexplained infertile according to traditional diagnostic methods has remarkably high degrees of fragmented sperm DNA. Apart from adding to our understanding of biology of infertility our finding has clinical implications. Couples in which the DFI of the male partner is high can avoid prolonged attempts to become spontaneously pregnant or referral for intrauterine insemination, both having low chances of leading to conception. PMID:23596042
Oleszczuk, K; Augustinsson, L; Bayat, N; Giwercman, A; Bungum, M
Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978
Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu
Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area.
Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu
The protection of Beagle dogs with disulfiram from high oxygen pressure convulsions and lung damage was investigated. Disulfiram was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg ip. to both male and female Beagle dogs, and the dogs exposed to four atmospheres of 1...
M. D. Faiman R. J. Nolan F. W. Oehme
The relationship between progressive depletion of high energy phosphate and the onset of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium following coronary occlusion has been evaluated. Myocardial ischemia was induced by proximal occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery for 15, 30, 40, or 60 minutes. Cell injury in the severely ischemic posterior papillary muscle (PP) was evaluated by electron microscopy and by measuring the capacity of slices of the injured PP to maintain electrolytes, resynthesize high energy phosphate, and exclude inulin during in vitro incubation. ATP content in the ischemic myocardium decreased to 35%, 9%, 7%, and 5% of control values after 15, 30, 40, and 60 minutes of ischemia, respectively, and was associated with a corresponding depletion of total adenine nucleotides. The loss of 65% of the ATP after 15 minutes of ischemia (reversible injury) was associated with only minimal ultrastructural changes and no significant defects of electrolytes in incubated slices. However, the depletion of over 90% of the ATP after 40 minutes of ischemia (irreversible injury) was associated with significant fine structural changes and markedly altered cell volume regulation. The results suggest a close relationship between the marked depletion of high energy phsophates and the development of lethal injury in acutely ischemic myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Jennings, R. B.; Hawkins, H. K.; Lowe, J. E.; Hill, M. L.; Klotman, S.; Reimer, K. A.
A 25-month-old Chihuahua dog with no clinical signs was evaluated for high serum liver enzymes. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a mass in the left hepatic medial lobe. The histological diagnosis reached using resected tissues was hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To the authors’ knowledge, this is the youngest dog diagnosed with HCC.
Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Shigihara, Kae; Sawada, Harumi; Michishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu
Lipid metabolism in dogs can be divided into exogenous and endogenous pathways and exhibits some unique characteristics compared to other species. Hyperlipidemia is common in dogs, and can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidemia is the most common form and can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, and high fat diets.
Panagiotis G. Xenoulis; Jörg M. Steiner
\\u000a Objective: Evaluate a) the prevalence of developmental disabilities (DD) in children admitted to a general pediatrics inpatient unit, and b) the number of children admitted to the unit with previously undiagnosed developmental disability. Methods: Prevalence was evaluated through retrospective record review. Subjects: One hundred ninety children older than five months of age admitted to a general pediatric unit. Results: Of
Mario C. Petersen; David A. Kube; Frederick B. Palmer
High prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in disaster shelters has been reported in the aftermath of earthquakes in Japan. Calf DVT was examined using sonography in the shelters after the Great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. By the end of July 2011, 701 out of 8,630 evacuees suspected with calf DVT, judged by inspections or medical interviews, were examined in 32 shelters, and 190 evacuees were confirmed to have calf DVT. The prevalence of DVT was 2.20%, which was 200 times higher than the usual incidence in Japan. The DVT prevalence seemed to decrease with time. By the end of May, a significantly higher prevalence of DVT was found in tsunami-flooded shelters (109 of 3,871 evacuees; 2.82%) than in non-flooded shelters (53 of 3,155 evacuees; 1.68%). After June, its prevalence was still higher (18/541; 3.33%) in tsunami-flooded shelters than in non-flooded shelters (10/1063; 0.94%). The cause of the high prevalence of DVT was supposed to be dehydration due to the delay in supplying drinking water, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by the evacuees because of a shortage of clean water to wash their hands. Dehydration was especially noticed in women because they restricted themselves of water intake to avoid using unsanitary toilet facilities. Moreover, crowded shelters restricted the mobility of elderly people, which would exacerbate the prevalence of DVT. Those deteriorated and crowded shelters were observed in tsunami-flooded areas. Therefore, long-term shelters should not be set up in flooded areas after tsunami. PMID:22728376
Ueda, Shinsaku; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Muneichi; Suzuki, Satoshi
There are little information on prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and clinical features in the young military population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea and to identify the risk factors of OSAS. A total of 665 participants (aged 20-23 yr) who visited the Armed Forces Ildong Hospital for regular physical examination were enrolled. All participants completed the Berlin Questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. The participants with high risk for OSAS completed portable sleep monitoring. The prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea was 13.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The prevalence of high arched palate, tongue indentation, long uvula, large tonsil and retrognathia was significantly higher in the high risk OSAS group. High arched palate, long uvula or low lying soft palate, tonsil size III or IV, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10 and obesity (BMI > 27 kg/m2) were found to independently predict OSAS. For early identification and treatment of young soldiers with OSAS in a military environment, a precise screening by questionnaire and physical examination is needed.
Lee, Young Chan; Eun, Young Gyu; Shin, Seung Youp
Photographs are a major aspect of high school science textbooks, which dominate classroom approaches to teaching and learning. It is thus surprising that the function of photographs and their relation to captions and texts have not been the topic of analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, function, and structure of photographs in high school science. Our motivating research question was, What can students learn from textbooks when they study photographs? To answer this and several subordinate questions, we selected and analyzed four Brazilian biology textbooks. We focus on the use of photographs and the relation among them, various types of texts, and the subject matter presented. Our analysis reveals that the structural elements of text, caption, and photographs and the relations among them differ across the textbooks and at times even within the same book. This, of course, will influence readers' interpretations of the photographs changing their role in the text. The results of our study have implications for textbook authors and textbook readers. We suggest that future studies may focus on students' and teachers' interpretation of photographs in real time.
Leivas Pozzer, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Serum lipids and apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured in 174 men aged less than 60 with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease and in 572 healthy control men. Two thirds of the patients had raised age-corrected values of fasting serum cholesterol and/or triglyceride and/or a low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with the controls. Eighteen (30%) of the 61 normolipidaemic patients had a concentration of serum apolipoprotein A-I below the 5th percentile of 233 controls. In normolipidaemic patients on beta blockers the relative prevalence of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apolipoprotein B values above the 95th percentile of 339 controls was significantly increased. Discriminant function analysis showed that a raised concentration of serum triglyceride was the best discriminant between patients and controls, with raised LDL-apolipoprotein B and reduced apolipoprotein A-I coming second only to triglyceride in analyses where each was separately compared with all the lipid variables. These associations were highly significant and were independent of other influences, including beta blockade. These findings re-emphasise the importance of hypertriglyceridaemia as a risk factor and confirm that apolipoprotein abnormalities occur frequently in coronary disease, even in normolipidaemic patients.
Barbir, M; Wile, D; Trayner, I; Aber, V R; Thompson, G R
Mutation screening of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in probands with familial breast/ovarian cancer has been greatly improved by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay able to evidence gene rearrangements not detectable by standard screening methods. However, no criteria for selection of cases to be submitted to the MLPA test have been reported yet. We used the BRCAPro software for the selection of familial breast/ovarian cancer probands investigated with the MLPA approach after negative BRCA1/2 conventional mutation screening. One hundred and seventy-seven probands were investigated for germline BRCA1/2 mutations after assessment of genetic risk using BRCAPro. Probands were classified as BRCAPro positive (n = 67) when the carrier probability (CP) was >10% and as BRCAPro negative (n = 110), when the CP was <10%. Conventional mutational analyses of the BRCA1/2 genes and, in one case, of p53 identified 22 pathogenetic germline mutations, 12 in BRCA1, 9 in BRCA2 and 1 in p53, in 22/177 (12.4%) probands. All the mutations except one were detected in BRCAPro-positive patients. In the 46 BRCAPro-positive cases that resulted negative by BRCA1/2 mutation, screening analysis of rearrangements within BRCA1/2 by MLPA was carried out. Three patients with a very high CP showed BRCA1 deletions, consisting of deletions of exons 1-2 in two probands and of exon 24 in the third proband. In one case, the exons 1-2 deletion was shown to cosegregate with disease in the family. No BRCA2 rearrangements were detected, but one patient showed the 1100delC of the CHEK2 gene, whose probe is present in the BRCA2 kit. In our series, the highest carrier detection rate of mutation screening plus MLPA analysis (52.3%) was in patients with a BRCAPro CP >50%. PMID:17591842
Veschi, S; Aceto, G; Scioletti, A P; Gatta, V; Palka, G; Cama, A; Mariani-Costantini, R; Battista, P; Calò, V; Barbera, F; Bazan, V; Russo, A; Stuppia, L
BACKGROUND: Increased daytime sleepiness is an important symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA is frequently underdiagnosed, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) can be a useful tool in alerting physicians to a potential problem involving OSA. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence and determinants of daytime sleepiness measured using the ESS in a rural community population. METHODS: A community survey was conducted to examine the risk factors associated with ESS in a rural population in 154 households comprising 283 adults. Questionnaire information was obtained regarding physical factors, social factors, general medical history, family medical history, ESS score, and self-reported height and weight. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis based on the generalized estimating equations approach to account for clustering within households was used to predict the relationship between a binary ESS score outcome (normal or abnormal) and a set of explanatory variables. RESULTS: The population included 140 men (49.5%) and 143 women (50.5%) with an age range of 18 to 97 years (mean [± SD] 52.0±14.9 years). The data showed that 79.2% of the study participants had an ESS score in the normal range (0 to 10) and 20.8% had an ESS score >10, which is considered to be abnormal or high sleepiness. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that obesity was significantly associated with an abnormal or high sleepiness score on the ESS (OR 3.40 [95% CI 1.31 to 8.80). CONCLUSION: High levels of sleepiness in this population were common. Obesity was an important risk factor for high ESS score.
Pahwa, P; Karunanayake, CP; Hagel, L; Gjevre, JA; Rennie, D; Lawson, J; Dosman, JA
Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840
Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N
The authors evaluated the lipids of parents of hypercholesterolemic children to assess the prevalence of unrecognized and\\/or untreated hyperlipidemia. Biologic parents of 34 children had measurements of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (n = 47) or total cholesterol only (n = 14). Lipid abnormalities were defined according to guidelines established by the National Cholesterol Education Program. Abnormal
Samuel S. Gidding; Penelope Whiteside; Stephanie Weaver; Lisa Bookstein; Diane Rosenbaum; Katherine Christoffel
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic has caused a dramatic increase in tuberculosis (TB) in East and southern Africa. Several strategies have the potential to reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, and cost and cost-effectiveness analyses can help to prioritize them when budget constraints exist. However, published cost and cost-effectiveness studies are limited. METHODS: Our objective was to
Christine SM Currie; Katherine Floyd; Brian G Williams; Christopher Dye
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Adults receiving HAART voluntarily enrolled into the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) cohort. Individual food insecurity was measured using a modified version of the Radimer\\/Cornell Questionnaire. We
A. Anema; S. D. Weiser; K. A. Fernandes; E. Ding; E. K. Brandson; A. Palmer; J. S. G. Montaner; R. S. Hogg
In the popular literature, it is often assumed that a single conceptual framework can be applied to both dog–dog and dog–human interactions, including play. We have, through three studies, tested the hypothesis that dog–dog and dog–human play are motivationally distinct. In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (N=402), dogs which were walked together, and had opportunities
Nicola J. Rooney; John W. S. Bradshaw; Ian H. Robinson
Introduction In high multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST) at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. Methods We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. Results Of 875 participants with complete data, 23.2% (203) had risk factors for MDR-TB elicited after enrolment. Among the group with no reported risk factors who had a positive culture, we found a 6.3% (95%CI 4.4–8.3) (37/584) rate of MDR-TB. In this group no epidemiological characteristics were associated with MDR-TB. Thus, in this group, multidrug resistance occurred in patients with no identifiable risk factors. Conclusions We found a high rate of primary MDR-TB in a general population with no identifiable risk factors for MDR-TB. This suggests that in a high endemic area targeting patients for MDR-TB based on the presence of risk factors is an insufficient intervention.
Otero, Larissa; Krapp, Fiorella; Tomatis, Cristina; Zamudio, Carlos; Matthys, Francine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Seas, Carlos
We conducted a cross-sectional convenience sampling study of dogs racing in the 2010 Iditarod to determine the seroprevalence of canine influenza virus (CIV) in the sled dog population. Questionnaires were completed detailing medical and CIV vaccination history, kennel size and location, travel history, and social interactions for each team. A total of 399 dogs were tested for CIV antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition assay. None of these, including 39 samples from dogs reported as CIV vaccinated, were seropositive for CIV antibodies. All of the vaccinated dogs were also negative on virus microneutralization assay. Risk factors for CIV seropositivity could not be determined due to a lack of positive samples. This is the first published study investigating the prevalence of CIV in sled dogs and additional studies are warranted to assess CIV infection among racing sled dogs and to evaluate the ecology of CIV and the vaccine efficacy in this population of dogs.
Pecoraro, Heidi L.; Lee, Justin S.; Achenbach, Jenna; Nelson, Stuart; Landolt, Gabriele A.
The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults (= 39 yr) with CD4 counts in the range 300-500 cells/microl and in older subjects (> 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease.
McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M
This study examined (1) the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), (2) the extent to which psychotropic agents were linked to targeted symptoms, and (3) predictors of psychotropic use. A total of 115 children, ages 6–13, with HFASDs who were enrolled in psychosocial treatment trials were included in this study. Parents completed extensive background and rating forms prior to treatment that included data on demographic characteristics, child health, child medication use, and child ASD-related symptoms. Results indicated that 33% (n = 38) of the sample was taking psychotropic medication with the most common being stimulants (25%; n = 29), antidepressants (10%; n = 12), and neuroleptics (6%; n = 7). All children taking stimulants had target symptoms that were appropriate for stimulant medication, whereas 57% of those taking neuroleptics and 42% of those taking antidepressants did not have targeted symptoms consistent with the medication. Logistic regression for the major psychotropic drug categories indicated that lower IQ was a significant predictor of increased antidepressant and neuroleptic use. A higher level of ASD-related symptoms was related to the likelihood of stimulant use.
Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.
The impact of fibromyalgia on the course of pregnancy is not clearly defined. We evaluate the frequency of FMS symptoms among full-term healthy pregnant women and the impact on the course of delivery. The 2011 modification of the ACR 2010 criteria for FMS diagnosis was used as well as the FIQ, SF-36 and AIMS questionnaires. The 1990 ACR classification criteria were documented. Data were collected relating to course of the delivery, induction, length of stage 1, 2 and 3 of delivery, epidural anesthesia, artificial rupture of membranes, instrumental delivery and cesarean section. A VAS recording pain intensity during delivery was documented. Out of 100 women recruited, 27 (27 %) fulfilled Modified FMS criteria. Only one of these women fulfilled ACR 1990 criteria, women who fulfilled the ACR criteria differed significantly from women who did not fulfill these criteria on a broad range of parameters including widespread pain and fatigue, social functioning, emotional well-being, role limitation and physical functioning. A significant correlation was found between length of stage 2 and results of the FIQ as well as with components of the SF-36. The intensity of pain during birth however was not correlated with the presence of FMS criteria. FMS symptoms were highly prevalent among healthy pregnant women at term. The presence of such symptoms may impact on the course of delivery and the need for anesthesia. Evaluating for features of centrally mediated pain may be of clinical relevance for physicians involved in the treatment of pregnant women. PMID:23263499
Saa'd, Sharon; Many, Ariel; Jacob, Giris; Ablin, Jacob N
This study examined (1) the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), (2) the extent to which psychotropic agents were linked to targeted symptoms, and (3) predictors of psychotropic use. A total of 115 children, ages 6-13, with HFASDs who were enrolled in psychosocial treatment trials were included in this study. Parents completed extensive background and rating forms prior to treatment that included data on demographic characteristics, child health, child medication use, and child ASD-related symptoms. Results indicated that 33% (n = 38) of the sample was taking psychotropic medication with the most common being stimulants (25%; n = 29), antidepressants (10%; n = 12), and neuroleptics (6%; n = 7). All children taking stimulants had target symptoms that were appropriate for stimulant medication, whereas 57% of those taking neuroleptics and 42% of those taking antidepressants did not have targeted symptoms consistent with the medication. Logistic regression for the major psychotropic drug categories indicated that lower IQ was a significant predictor of increased antidepressant and neuroleptic use. A higher level of ASD-related symptoms was related to the likelihood of stimulant use. PMID:23762550
Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A; Fox, Jeffery D; Thomeer, Marcus L; Volker, Martin A; Lee, Gloria K
Monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies were undertaken to assess the presence of myocardial uptake in patients with chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Three groups were studied: 17 patients with chronic (greater than 12 months) idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 12 patients with a large, poorly contracting left ventricle not due to dilated cardiomyopathy (control patients) and 8 normal individuals. The patients in the cardiomyopathy and control groups showed a similar degree of clinical and functional impairment. Imaging was undertaken 48 h after antimyosin injection. The heart/lung ratio of antimyosin uptake was used to assess the results. The mean ratio in the cardiomyopathy group was 1.83 +/- 0.36 (range 1.40 to 2.80), a value significantly higher than that obtained in the control patients without cardiomyopathy (mean 1.46 +/- 0.04, range 1.38 to 1.50) or normal subjects (mean 1.46 +/- 0.13, range 1.31 to 1.6) (p less than 0.01). No difference in the ratio was noted between the normal subjects and control patients. Abnormal antimyosin uptake was seen in 12 (70%) of the 17 patients with cardiomyopathy and in only 1 (8%) of the 12 control patients. Positive monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies are highly prevalent in chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
Obrador, D.; Ballester, M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Pons-Llado, G.
The reported prevalence of localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) amongst teenagers and young adults varies greatly. The etiology of LJP has been related to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and it has also been suggested that there may be a transmission of Aa within families resulting in the familial distribution of the disease. This study describes the high prevalence of LJP in adolescents, 12-20 years of age, from a group of nuclear families living and functioning in a closed, closely knit community. The survey was carried out on a population of teenagers that had attended the same school and their siblings. All students attending that school and their siblings were examined. They were given a periodontal examination and a questionnaire relating to their demographic details and their personal oral hygiene habits. The periodontal examination was limited to the incisors and first molar teeth. Plaque index (PlI), gingival index (GI), the presence or absence of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and recession were measured. All patients having at least two of the examined sites with probing pocket depth > or =5 mm or one site > or =6 mm were considered as possible sufferers from LJP and had a full mouth periapical radiographic survey carried out using a paralleling technique to confirm the diagnosis. At the sites with probing pocket depth > or =5 mm, a Shei ruler was used to measure the % of the root coronal to the alveolar bone. A cut off point of > or =20% was used as a measure of true bone loss confirming the clinical diagnosis of LJP. 86 individuals from 30 families comprised the population of interest. There were 44 males and 42 females with a mean age of 14.7+/-2.3. Of the 86 individuals examined, 33 individuals from 15 families were diagnosed as having LJP (38.4%). None of the individuals examined showed any evidence of the generalized form of juvenile periodontitis. The mean age of the LJP patients was 15+/-2.3 yrs. with a 1:1.75 male to female ratio. Except for 2 pairs of families with genetic ties, no familial connections could be traced between the different nuclear families affected by LJP despite repeated and intensive questioning. There were no significant differences in the PlI and the GI between the groups while the LJP group had significantly higher BOP, PPD and PAL than the non-LJP group. These finding strongly suggest an environmental influence in the etiology of the disease. PMID:9846795
Stabholz, A; Mann, J; Agmon, S; Soskolne, W A
Objectives QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype. Methods Adult women with Turner syndrome (n?=?88) were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%), and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett’s (bQTc) and Hodges’s formula (hQTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. Results The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0±25.5 ms) compared to controls (390.4±17.8 ms) was prolonged (p<0.001) and did not change over time (416.9±22.6 vs. 415.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.4). 45,X karyotype was associated with increased hQTc prolongation compared to other Turner syndrome karyotypes (418.2±24.8 vs. 407.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.055). In women with Turner syndrome and a bQTc >432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2) and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E.
Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian H.; Pedersen, Lisbeth N.; Berglund, Agnethe; Jensen, Henrik K.; Andersen, Niels H.; Gravholt, Claus H.
Some Escherichia coli strains produce toxins designated cyclomodulins (CMs) which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle of host cells, suggesting a possible link between these bacteria and cancers. There are relatively few data available concerning the colonization of colon tumors by cyclomodulin- and genotoxic-producing E. coli. We did a qualitative and phylogenetic analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli harboring cyclomodulin-encoding genes from 38 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 31 with diverticulosis. The functionality of these genes was investigated on cell cultures and the genotoxic activity of strains devoid of known CM-encoding gene was investigated. Results showed a higher prevalence of B2 phylogroup E. coli harboring the colibatin-producing genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (55.3%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (19.3%), (p<0.01). Likewise, a higher prevalence of B2 E. coli harboring the CNF1-encoding genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (39.5%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (12.9%), (p?=?0.01). Functional analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were functional. Analysis of the ability of E. coli to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells Int-407 indicated that highly adherent E. coli strains mostly belonged to A and D phylogroups, whatever the origin of the strains (CRC or diverticulosis), and that most E. coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup displayed very low levels of adhesion. In addition, 27.6% (n?=?21/76) E. coli strains devoid of known cyclomodulin-encoding genes induced DNA damage in vitro, as assessed by the comet assay. In contrast to cyclomodulin-producing E. coli, these strains mainly belonged to A or D E. coli phylogroups, and exhibited a non significant difference in the distribution of CRC and diverticulosis specimens (22% versus 32.5%, p?=?0.91). In conclusion, cyclomodulin-producing E. coli belonging mostly to B2 phylogroup colonize the colonic mucosa of patients with CRC.
Sauvanet, Pierre; Raisch, Jennifer; Delmas, Julien
Diabetes and thyroid dysfunction found to exist simultaneously. In this regard, the present study looked into the prevalence of different forms of thyroid dysfunction and their risk factors among Type 2 diabetic Saudi patients. Methodology. A cross-sectional retrospective randomized hospital-based study of 411 Type 2 diabetic Saudi patients of >25 years of age was conducted to test the prevalence of different types of thyroid dysfunction and their risk factors. Results. The prevalence of different types of thyroid dysfunction is 28.5%, of which 25.3% had hypothyroidism, where 15.3%, 9.5%, and 0.5% are clinical, subclinical, and overt hypothyroidism, respectively. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism is 3.2%, of which subclinical cases accounted for 2.7% and overt hyperthyroidism accounted for 0.5%. Risk factors for thyroid dysfunction among Saudi Type 2 diabetic patients are family history of thyroid disease, female gender, and duration of diabetes of >10 years, while the risk was not significant in patients with history of goiter and patients aged >60 years. Smoking and parity show a nonsignificant reduced risk. Conclusion. Thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent among Saudi Type 2 diabetic patients, and the most significant risk factors are family history of thyroid disease, female gender, and >10 years duration of diabetes.
Al-Geffari, Metab; Ahmad, Najlaa A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Youssef, Amira M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid
Ultra high resolution SFC-MS (on sub-2?m particles) coupled to mass spectrometry has been evaluated for the metabolic profiling of rat and dog bile. The selectivity of the SFC separation differed from that seen in previous reversed-phase UPLC-MS studies on bile, with the order of elution for analytes such as e.g., the bile acids showing many differences. The chromatography system showed excellent stability, reproducibility and robustness with relative standard deviation of less than 1% for retention time obtained over the course of the analysis. SFC showed excellent chromatographic performance with chromatographic peak widths in the order of 3s at the base of the peak. The use of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide as a mobile phase solvent also reduced the overall consumption of organic solvent by a factor of 3 and also reduced the overall analysis time by a factor of 30% compared to reversed-phase gradient LC. SFC-MS appear complementary to RPLC for the metabolic profiling of complex samples such as bile. PMID:24815366
Jones, Michael D; Rainville, Paul D; Isaac, Giorgis; Wilson, Ian D; Smith, Norman W; Plumb, Robert S
BackgroundAutoimmunity appears to be associated with the pathophysiology of Meniere's disease (MD), an inner ear disorder characterized by episodes of vertigo associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. However, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with MD has not been studied in individuals with uni or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL).Methods and FindingsWe estimated the prevalence of AD in
Irene Gazquez; Andres Soto-Varela; Ismael Aran; Sofia Santos; Angel Batuecas; Gabriel Trinidad; Herminio Perez-Garrigues; Carlos Gonzalez-Oller; Lourdes Acosta; Jose A. Lopez-Escamez
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). METHODS: The study based on prevalence figures in
Anitta Vilppula; Katri Kaukinen; Liisa Luostarinen; Ilkka Krekelä; Heikki Patrikainen; Raisa Valve; Markku Mäki; Pekka Collin
Background Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV)-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men. Methods Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls) were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV classification groups. Results In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%). Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%). The highest antibody detection rate (88,8%) was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease. Conclusion High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies) in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of oncogenic HPV-types. HPV-serology is economic and can detect past or present HPV-infection, independently of an anatomical region. Therefore HPV-serology could help to better understand the natural history of anogenital HPV-infection in HIV-positive men in the era of antiretroviral therapy.
Hopfl, Reinhard; Petter, Anton; Thaler, Petra; Sarcletti, Mario; Widschwendter, Andreas; Zangerle, Robert
Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented high prevalence of S. japonicum in humans.
Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gray, Darren J.; Olveda, Remigo M.; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Ross, Allen G.; McManus, Donald P.
The presence of parasites was investigated by the examination of 1944 dog faecal samples collected from urban (n=646) and rural (n=1298) areas of the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Parasitic agents (PA) were found in 37.86% of samples. A total of 15 different PA were detected, including Toxocara canis (16.35%), Taenia spp./Echinococcus spp. (12.65%), Trichurisvulpis (6.06%), Giardia spp. (1.29%), Toxascaris leonina (0.56%), Ancylostomacaninum (0.41%), Dipylidium caninum (0.31%), Diphyllobothrium spp. (0.10%), among others. Several of these PA are recognized as zoonotic agents. Therefore, the results of this investigation revealed that local population is exposed to a broad spectrum of zoonotic parasites by means of environmental contamination with dog faeces. Prevalence of PA was slightly higher in rural (40.06%) than in urban (33.44%) locations. Distribution of groups of PA (cestodes, nematodes, and protozoa) showed statistical differences between both habitats. Prevalence of cestodes (18.18%) and protozoa (11.86%) was significantly higher in the rural environment than in urban areas and nematodes (29.10%) were more frequent in urban locations. Infection of dogs with Linguatula serrata and Cryptosporidium sp. was demonstrated for the first time in Neuquén. Rural dogs of the study area are under hydatic disease control program, which includes treatment with praziquantel every 6 weeks; thus, the finding of high level of cestode infection in these areas is of great relevance. The epidemiology of zoonotic parasitic infections in urban and rural dogs showed different patterns and, in consequence, different control measurements should be applied in each location. PMID:19864068
Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Roccia, Irene; Bergagna, Hector Fabián Jesus; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Celescinco, Alejandra; Saiz, Mónica Susana; Kossman, Alejandra; Contreras, Pablo Adrián; Arias, Cecilia; Basualdo, Juan Angel
A baseline epidemiological survey for parasite infections was conducted between December 2007 and January 2008 in 155 villagers in a rural commune in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infection was 13.5%, 45.2% and 58.1%, respectively. At least one of the parasites was detected in 72.3% of the samples. We found no association between infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura and engagement in agriculture, while hookworm infection was more prevalent in populations having frequent contact with soil. Agricultural use of human faeces was not correlated with any of the infections. We suggest that the consumption of vegetables that are commonly fertilized with human faeces in the community has led to the high infection rates with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, rather than the manipulation of faeces in farming activity. This also explains the high infection prevalence, despite high latrine coverage (98.1%) in the study population. The presence of latrines alone is not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of helminthiasis in a rural agricultural community if fresh faeces are used as fertilizer. PMID:18814894
Yajima, Aya; Jouquet, Pascal; Do, Trung Dung; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Tran, Cong Dai; Orange, Didier; Montresor, Antonio
Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms.
Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe
Serum samples from 64 apparently healthy individuals (32 men and 32 women, mean age 81.0 years) were examined for the prevalence of several autoantibodies, including rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to extracted cellular antigens Ro (SSA), La (SSB), Sm, U1nRNP and Scl-70. IgG and IgM isotype-specific ELISA methods were applied for the detection of antibodies to ssDNA (anti-ssDNA), to dsDNA (anti-dsDNA) and to cardiolipin (anti-CL). The sera of this elderly population were found to contain a plethora of autoantibodies; RF was detected in 14.1%, ANA in 31.3% and anti-Ro (SSA) in 1.6% of the individuals. Precipitating antibodies to La (SSB), Sm, U1nRNP and Scl-70 were absent, while 15.6% of the sera displayed precipitating antibodies to a common undefined human spleen antigen. ELISA methods revealed anti-ssDNA in 17.2% of the individuals, anti-dsDNA in 14.1% and anti-CL in an extremely high incidence (51.6%). Notably, the above autoantibodies were exclusively of IgG isotype. Tests of 261 sera from healthy non-elderly individuals disclosed only anti-CL (IgG and IgM isotypes) in 2.3% of them. The levels of IgA and IgG immunoglobulins were increased in 23.4% and 29.7% of the elderly subjects, respectively. IgM was elevated in 3.1%, but it was also found decreased in 9.4%. This study documents the high incidence of autoantibodies in the healthy elderly, including for the first time, anti-CL antibodies. Furthermore, the relative impairment in IgM autoantibody production observed, possibly indicates the involution of the senescent immune system.
Manoussakis, M N; Tzioufas, A G; Silis, M P; Pange, P J; Goudevenos, J; Moutsopoulos, H M
The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees.
Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka
The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428
Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka
A repair/misrepair kinetic model for multiple radiation-induced lesions (mutation inactivation) is coupled to a two-mutation model of initiation-promotion in tissue to provide a parametric description of tumour prevalence in the mouse Harderian gland from high-energy and charge radiations. Track-structure effects are considered using an action-cross section model. Dose-response curves are described for gamma rays and relativistic ions, and good agreement with experiment is found. The effects of nuclear fragmentation are also considered for high-energy proton and alpha-particle exposures. The model described provides a parametric description of age-dependent cancer induction for a wide range of radiation fields. Radiosensitivity parameters found in the model for an initiation mutation (sigma 0 = 7.6 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 148.0 Gy) are somewhat different than previously observed for neoplastic transformation of C3H10T1/2 cell cultures (sigma 0 = 0.7 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 117.0 Gy). We consider the two hypotheses that radiation acts solely as an initiator or as both initiator and promoter and make model calculations for fractionation exposures from gamma rays and relativistic Fe ions. For fractionated Fe exposures, an inverse-dose-rate effect is provided by a promotion hypothesis with an increase of 30% or more, dependent on the dose level and fractionation schedule, using a mutation rate for promotion similar to that of single-gene mutations.
Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.
Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs. PMID:22017049
Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós
Background: Because of the aging population and a rise in the number of stroke survivors, the prevalence of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is increasing. Objective: To identify the factors associated with 3-month PSCI. Methods: All consecutive stroke patients without pre-stroke dementia, mild cognitive disorders, or severe aphasia hospitalized in the Neurology Department of Dijon, University Hospital, France (November 2010 - February 2012) were included in this prospective cohort study. Demographics, vascular risk factors, and stroke data were collected. A first cognitive evaluation was performed during the hospitalization using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). Patients assessable at 3 months were categorized as cognitively impaired if the MMSE score was ?26/30 and MOCA <26/30 or if the neuropsychological battery confirmed PSCI when the MMSE and MOCA were discordant. Multivariable logistic models were used to determine factors associated with 3-month PSCI. Results: Among the 280 patients included, 220 were assessable at 3 months. The overall frequency of 3-month PSCI was 47.3%, whereas that of dementia was 7.7%. In multivariable analyses, 3-month PSCI was associated with age, low education level, a history of diabetes mellitus, acute confusion, silent infarcts, and functional handicap at discharge. MMSE and MOCA scores during hospitalization were associated with 3-month PSCI (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.54-0.74; p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.59-0.76; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion: Our study underlines the high frequency of PSCI in a cohort of mild stroke. The early cognitive diagnosis of stroke patients could be useful by helping physicians to identify those at a high risk of developing PSCI. PMID:24577459
Jacquin, Agnès; Binquet, Christine; Rouaud, Olivier; Graule-Petot, Anny; Daubail, Benoit; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick
The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of surveillance of reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of TBE. Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring for the presence of D. repens. PMID:24491396
Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata
Mineral opacities within the tympanic bullae, termed otoliths, were detected in three dogs by means of radiography and computed tomography. Radiographic signs of otitis externa were present in two dogs. One dog had clinical signs of vestibular disease, whereas the other two dogs had no clinical evidence of ear disease. Otolithiasis may represent mineralized necrotic material of a current or previous case of otitis media. PMID:12620046
Ziemer, Lisa S; Schwarz, Tobias; Sullivan, Martin
Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.
Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.
Recent studies have shown that effective pulmonary ventilation is possible with tidal volumes (VT) less than the anatomic dead-space if the oscillatory frequency (f) is sufficiently large. We systematically studied the effect on pulmonary CO2 elimination (VCO2) of varying f (2-30 Hz) and VT (1-7 ml/kg) as well as lung volume (VL) in 13 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs in order to examine the contribution of those variables that are thought to be important in determining gas exchange by high frequency ventilation. All experiments were performed when the alveolar PCO2 was 40 +/- 1.5 mm Hg. In all studies, VCO2 increased monotonically with f at constant VT. We quantitated the effects of f and VT on VCO2 by using the dimensionless equation VCO2/VOSC = a(VT/VTo)b(f/fo)c where: VOSC = f X VT, VTo = mean VT, fo = mean f and a, b, c, are constants obtained by multiple regression. The mean values of a, b, and c for all dogs were 2.12 X 10(-3), 0.49, and 0.08, respectively. The most important variable in determining VCO2 was VOSC; however, there was considerable variability among dogs in the independent effect of VT and f on VCO2, with a doubling of VT at a constant VOSC causing changes in VCO2 ranging from -13 to +110% (mean = +35%). Increasing VL from functional residual capacity (FRC) to the lung volume at an airway opening minus body surface pressure of 25 cm H2O had no significant effect on VCO2.
Slutsky, A S; Kamm, R D; Rossing, T H; Loring, S H; Lehr, J; Shapiro, A H; Ingram, R H; Drazen, J M
Military working dogs in hot countries undergo exercise training at high ambient temperatures for at least 9 mo annually. Physiological adaptations to these harsh conditions have been extensively studied; however, studies focusing on the underlying molecular adaptations are limited. In the current study, military working dogs were chosen as a model to examine the effects of superimposing endurance exercise on seasonal acclimatization to environmental heat stress. The lymphocyte HSP70 profile and extracellular HSP70 were studied in tandem with physiological performance in the dogs from their recruitment for the following 2 yr. Aerobic power and heat shock proteins were measured at the end of each summer, with physical performance tests (PPTs) in an acclimatized room (22°C). The study shows that together with a profound enhancement of aerobic power and physical performance, hsp72 mRNA induction immediately post-PPT and 45 min later, progressively increased throughout the study period (relative change in median lymphocyte hsp72 mRNA first PPT, 4.22 and 12.82; second PPT, 17.19 and 109.05, respectively), whereas induction of HSP72 protein was stable. These responses suggest that cellular/molecular adaptive tools for maintaining HSP72 homeostasis exist. There was also a significant rise in basal and peak median optical density extracellular HSP at the end of each exercise test (first PPT, 0.13 and 0.15; second PPT, 1.04 and 1.52, respectively). The relationship between these enhancements and improved aerobic power capacity is not yet fully understood. PMID:24903923
Bruchim, Yaron; Aroch, Itamar; Eliav, Ady; Abbas, Atallah; Frank, Ilan; Kelmer, Efrat; Codner, Carolina; Segev, Gilad; Epstein, Yoram; Horowitz, Michal
Dogs from two separate litters of Weimaraners developed tremors by 3 weeks of age. Light and electron microscopic findings in one dog from each of the litters were compared to those of two age-matched controls. Many axons in the brain and spinal cord were either thinly myelinated or nonmyelinated in the affected dogs relative to the controls, while the peripheral
J. N. Kornegay; M. A. Goodwin; L. K. Spyridakis
Few data are available on the prevalence and relevance of chlamydiae in wild mammals, and even fewer studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of Chlamydophila abortus in wildlife hosts, most probably due to the absence of suitable species-specific serological assays for testing sera from wild animals. In light of this, we have developed two in-house blocking-ELISA tests for detection of antibodies against Chlamydiaceae and C. abortus in wild ungulates, and analyzed the relationship between geographical and biological factors and the prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydiaceae and C. abortus in 434 wild ungulates from Spain, including sera from European wild boar, Red deer, Fallow deer, Roe deer, Mouflon, Barbary sheep, Southern chamois, and Iberian ibex. Serology revealed that 41.7+/-4% of the sera were positive for the b-ELISA-LPS (Chlamydiaceae-specific) and 18.9+/-3% for the b-ELISA-rPOMP (C. abortus-specific). Antibodies against Chlamydiaceae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected in sera from all eight ungulate species, the prevalence ranging from 23 to 60%. Iberian ibex was the only wild ungulate not showing seropositivity to the C. abortus specific polymorphic outer membrane protein (POMP). The prevalence of anti-POMP antibodies in the other seven wild ungulate species ranged from 7 to 40%. While significant seroprevalence differences were detected among species and among sampling regions, no effect of age and sex was observed. The high prevalence levels found should be considered with regards to livestock and human health, and warrant further research. PMID:19010612
Salinas, J; Caro, M R; Vicente, J; Cuello, F; Reyes-Garcia, A R; Buendía, A J; Rodolakis, A; Gortázar, C
Background There is limited data on Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Uganda where, as in most low income countries, the routine use of chromogenic agar for MRSA detection is not affordable. We aimed to determine MRSA prevalence among patients, healthcare workers (HCW) and the environment in the burns units at Mulago hospital, and compare the performance of CHROMagar with oxacillin for detection of MRSA. Results One hundred samples (from 25 patients; 36 HCW; and 39 from the environment, one sample per person/item) were cultured for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Forty one S. aureus isolates were recovered from 13 patients, 13 HCW and 15 from the environment, all of which were oxacillin resistant and mecA/femA/nuc-positive. MRSA prevalence was 46% (41/89) among patients, HCW and the environment, and 100% (41/41) among the isolates. For CHROMagar, MRSA prevalence was 29% (26/89) among patients, HCW and the environment, and 63% (26/41) among the isolates. There was high prevalence of multidrug resistant isolates, which concomitantly possessed virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants, notably biofilms, hemolysins, toxin and ica genes. One isolate positive for all determinants possessed the bhp homologue which encodes the biofilm associated protein (BAP), a rare finding in human isolates. SCCmec type I was the most common at 54% prevalence (22/41), followed by SCCmec type V (15%, 6/41) and SCCmec type IV (7%, 3/41). SCCmec types II and III were not detected and 10 isolates (24%) were non-typeable. Conclusions Hyper-virulent methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is prevalent in the burns unit of Mulago hospital.
Relatively little is known about regulatory T (Treg) cells and their functional responses in dogs. We have used the cross-reactive anti-mouse/rat Foxp3 antibody clone FJK-16s to identify a population of canine CD4+ FOXP3high T cells in both the peripheral blood (PB) and popliteal lymph node (LN). FOXP3+ cells in both PB and LN yielded positive staining with the newly developed anti-murine/human Helios antibody clone 22F6, consistent with the notion that they were naturally occurring Treg cells. Stimulation of mononuclear cells of LN origin with concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro yielded increased proportions and median fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 expression by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Removal of the Con A and continued culture disclosed a CD4+ FOXP3high population, distinct from the CD4+ FOXP3intermediate T cells; very few CD8+ FOXP3high T cells were observed, though CD8+ FOXP3intermediate cells were present in equal abundance to CD4+ FOXP3intermediate cells. The CD4+ FOXP3high T cells were thought to represent activated Treg cells, in contrast to the FOXP3intermediate cells, which were thought to be a more heterogeneous population comprising predominantly activated conventional T cells. Co-staining with interferon-? (IFN-?) supported this notion, because the FOXP3high T cells were almost exclusively IFN-??, whereas the FOXP3intermediate cells expressed a more heterogeneous IFN-? phenotype. Following activation of mononuclear cells with Con A and interleukin-2, the 5% of CD4+ T cells showing the highest CD25 expression (CD4+ CD25high) were enriched in cells expressing FOXP3. These cells were anergic in vitro, in contrast to the 20% of CD4+ T cells with the lowest CD25 expression (CD4+ CD25?), which proliferated readily. The CD4+ CD25high FOXP3high T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of responder CD4+ T cells in vitro, in contrast to the CD4+ CD25? cells, which showed no regulatory properties.
Pinheiro, Dammy; Singh, Yogesh; Grant, Charlotte R; Appleton, Richard C; Sacchini, Flavio; Walker, Kate R L; Chadbourne, Alden H; Palmer, Charlotte A; Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Ian; Williamson, Lina; Cunningham, Fiona; Garden, Oliver A
Standard therapy for malaria in Uganda changed from chloroquine to chloroquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2000, and artemether-lumefantrine in 2004, although implementation of each change was slow. Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms are associated with alterations in drug sensitivity. We followed the prevalence of drug resistance-mediating P. falciparum polymorphisms in 982 samples from Tororo, a region of high transmission intensity, collected from three successive treatment trials conducted during 2003-2012, excluding samples with known recent prior treatment. Considering transporter mutations, prevalence of the mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, and pfmdr1 1246Y alleles decreased over time. Considering antifolate mutations, the prevalence of pfdhfr 51I, 59R, and 108N, and pfdhps 437G and 540E were consistently high; pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G were uncommon, but most prevalent during 2008-2010. Our data suggest sequential selective pressures as different treatments were implemented, and they highlight the importance of genetic surveillance as treatment policies change over time. PMID:24799371
Mbogo, George W; Nankoberanyi, Sheila; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Baliraine, Frederick N; Nsobya, Samuel L; Conrad, Melissa D; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Kamya, Moses; Tappero, Jordan; Staedke, Sarah G; Dorsey, Grant; Greenhouse, Bryan; Rosenthal, Philip J
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of animals and humans caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera Babesia and Theileria. In France canine babesiosis has a high prevalence with Babesia canis thought to be the main aetiological agent of the disease. Babesia vogeli has already been reported to occur in Europe and in other countries around the Mediterranean Sea. The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the main known vector of B. vogeli, occurs in southern France. However, only one case of a B. vogeli infected dog has been reported to date in France. To gain further insight into the prevalence of Babesia and Theileria infections in dogs and ticks of the R. sanguineus complex, a study was conducted in a veterinary practice in the south of France from January to September 2010. Twelve bloods from dogs and 36 R. sanguineus ticks were analyzed using PCR and sequencing. For the analysis of ticks, a new primer was designed to specifically amplify the B. vogeli 18S rRNA gene. Four dogs (33.3%) and 8 ticks (22.2%) were found to be infected with B. vogeli. This approach has thus revealed for the first time a cluster of cases of canine babesiosis caused by B. vogeli in France and highlights the need to systematically screen for pathogens potentially responsible for canine babesiosis at the species level using suitable molecular tools. PMID:22342131
René, M; Chêne, J; Beaufils, J P; Valiente Moro, C; Bourdoiseau, G; Mavingui, P; Chabanne, L
Population prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) is an important indicator to judge the disease burden in the community, to monitor the performance of cervical cancer screening program and to assess the impact of HPV vaccination program. India being a country without any cervical cancer screening program has no published data on the population prevalence of CIN and only a few large community-based studies to report the high-risk HPV prevalence. The objective of our study was to study HPV and CIN prevalence in a previously unscreened population. We pooled together the results of three research studies originally designed to assess the performance of visual inspection after acetic acid application and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC 2). Nearly 60% of the screened women had colposcopy irrespective of their screening test results. The diagnosis and grading of cervical neoplasias were based on histology. The age standardized prevalence of HPV by HC 2 test was 6.0%. Age-adjusted prevalence of CIN1 and CIN2 was 2.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of CIN3 was 0.4% and that of invasive cancer was 0.2%. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was relatively low in the population we studied, which is reflected in the low prevalence of high-grade CIN. The prevalence of CIN3 remained constant across age groups due to absence of screening. PMID:22907663
Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Bhaumik, Suchismita; Mandal, Shyam Sunder; Samaddar, Anusree; Ray, Chinmayi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Biswas, Jaydip; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy
Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7 ± 0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during evaluation of Hb levels. PMID:22791127
Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka
Dyslipidaemia exists frequently after renal transplantation (RTx) and promotes atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the association between daily intake of nutrients and serum lipids after paediatric RTx. We studied 45 children with acceptably functioning kidney grafts and adequately completed food records at a median age of 10.6 years (range 4.3-17.2 years), a median 5.2 years (range 1.0-11.0) after RTx, and 178 healthy controls at a median age of 9.0 years (range 3.2-18.7 years). Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and apolipoprotein B concentrations were higher in the RTx patients than in the controls (P < 0.001), despite similar dietary intakes of saturated and polyunsaturated fats, and cholesterol. Both the RTx patients and controls ingested a low amount of polyunsaturated fats [mean (SD) percent of total calories (E%) 4.8 (1.3) and 4.6 (1.5), respectively] and an excessive amount of saturated fats [mean (SD) E% 14.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (2.8), respectively]. In multiple regression analyses, dietary fibre was negatively associated with serum TC concentration. The standard deviation score for body mass index was negatively associated with serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein diameter, and positively with serum triglyceride concentration. In addition, dietary total fat intake was positively associated with serum HDL-C. In conclusion, the higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia in our paediatric RTx patients than in the controls was not explained by the diet. However, the type of fat consumed implicates the counselling for a healthier dietary lifestyle, with an increase in the ingestion of polyunsaturated fats and a decrease in that of saturated fats. PMID:18004597
Siirtola, Arja; Virtanen, Suvi M; Ala-Houhala, Marja; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Solakivi, Tiina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Holmberg, Christer; Antikainen, Marjatta; Salo, Matti K
Despite many recent advances in genotype characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi worldwide and the exploration of the extent of cross-species transmission of microsporidiosis between humans and animals, the epidemiology of this neglected disease in China is poorly understood. In this study, a very high prevalence (60.3%; 94/156) of E. bieneusi infections in farmed pigs in Jilin province was detected by PCR of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). DNA sequence analysis of 88 E. bieneusi-positive specimens identified 12 distinct genotypes (11 known: CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EbpA, EbpB, EbpC, EbpD, EBITS3, G, and Henan-I; one novel: CS-9). Frequent appearance of mixed genotype infections was seen in the study animals. Weaned (74.6%; 53/71) or pre-weaned (68.8%; 22/32) pigs have infection rates significantly higher than growing pigs (35.8%; 19/53) (p<0.01). Likewise, E. bieneusi was detected in 2 of 45 sheep fecal specimens (4.4%) in Heilongjiang province, belonging to the known genotype BEB6. Genotypes EbpA, EbpC, EbpD, and Henan-I examined herein have been documented in the cases of human infections and BEB6, EbpA, EbpC, and EbpD in wastewater in central China. Infections of EbpA and EbpC in humans were also reported in other areas of the world. The other known genotypes (CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EBITS3, EbpB, and G) and the new genotype CS-9 were genetically clustered into a group of existing E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential. Thus, pigs could be a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China. PMID:24845247
Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Li, Weizhi; Yang, Jinping; Song, Mingxin; Diao, Ruinan; Jia, Honglin; Lu, Yixin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua
Despite many recent advances in genotype characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi worldwide and the exploration of the extent of cross-species transmission of microsporidiosis between humans and animals, the epidemiology of this neglected disease in China is poorly understood. In this study, a very high prevalence (60.3%; 94/156) of E. bieneusi infections in farmed pigs in Jilin province was detected by PCR of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). DNA sequence analysis of 88 E. bieneusi–positive specimens identified 12 distinct genotypes (11 known: CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EbpA, EbpB, EbpC, EbpD, EBITS3, G, and Henan-I; one novel: CS-9). Frequent appearance of mixed genotype infections was seen in the study animals. Weaned (74.6%; 53/71) or pre-weaned (68.8%; 22/32) pigs have infection rates significantly higher than growing pigs (35.8%; 19/53) (p<0.01). Likewise, E. bieneusi was detected in 2 of 45 sheep fecal specimens (4.4%) in Heilongjiang province, belonging to the known genotype BEB6. Genotypes EbpA, EbpC, EbpD, and Henan-I examined herein have been documented in the cases of human infections and BEB6, EbpA, EbpC, and EbpD in wastewater in central China. Infections of EbpA and EbpC in humans were also reported in other areas of the world. The other known genotypes (CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EBITS3, EbpB, and G) and the new genotype CS-9 were genetically clustered into a group of existing E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential. Thus, pigs could be a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China.
Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Li, Weizhi; Yang, Jinping; Song, Mingxin; Diao, Ruinan; Jia, Honglin; Lu, Yixin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging. PMID:23568089
Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard
Intensive breeding and selection on desired traits have produced high rates of inherited diseases in dogs. Hereditary retinal degeneration, often called progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), is prevalent in dogs with disease entities comparable to human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Recent molecular studies in the English Springer Spaniel (ESS) dog have shown that PRA cases are often homozygous for a mutation in the RPGRIP1 gene, the defect also causing human RP, LCA, and cone rod dystrophies. The present study characterizes the disease in a group of affected ESS in USA, using clinical, functional, and morphological studies. An objective evaluation of retinal function using electroretinography (ERG) is further performed in a masked fashion in a group of American ESS dogs, with the examiner masked to the genetic status of the dogs. Only 4 of 6 homozygous animals showed clinical signs of disease, emphasizing the need and importance for more precise studies on the clinical expression of molecular defects before utilizing animal models for translational research, such as when using stem cells for therapeutic intervention.
Narfstrom, Kristina; Jeong, Manbok; Hyman, Jennifer; Madsen, Richard W.; Bergstrom, Tomas F.
The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined. PMID:9452292
Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S
We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach.
Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita
We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051
Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita
Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population. PMID:23438265
Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R
The aim of this study was to determine the biliary pattern of conjugated bile acids after stimulation of their enterohepatic circulation. Conjugated bile acids were separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography without prior derivatization. A MicroPak SP-C18-IP-4 column was used as non-polar matrix, and an ionic alkyl compound, tetrabutylammonium phosphate, was added to the mobile phase, which was a mixture of acetonitrile and water. Quantification was made by UV absorption at 210 nm with external standardization. In fourteen human patients with external biliary drainage after papillotomy there was preferential glycine conjugation. The mean values were 36.5% for glycocholic acid, 33% for glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and 10.0% for glycodeoxycholic acid. Only 15.2% of the biliary bile acids were taurine metabolites. Conjugates of ursodeoxycholic acid were below 2.1%. In most cases, conjugated lithocholic acid was not detected. Within 4 h after ingestion of a standardized meal there were no significant changes in the biliary bile acid pattern. In four dogs (beagles), glycine-conjugated bile acids were lacking. The mean values were 74.3% for taurocholic acid, 14.9% for taurodeoxycholic acid, and 5.3% for taurochenodeoxycholic acid. In six rabbits, 87.4% of biliary bile acids was identified as glycodeoxycholic acid and 5.3% as glycocholic acid. In conscious dogs, as well as in rabbits, the stimulation of biliary secretion by cholecystokinin and/or secretin had no effect on the biliary bile acid spectrum. Evidently, there is a difference in the biliary composition of conjugated bile acids between humans, dogs, and rabbits. Because of the different physicochemical behaviour of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile salts, it seems difficult to compare the therapeutic effect of gallstone dissolution in various species. PMID:3700515
Wildgrube, H J; Stockhausen, H; Petri, J; Füssel, U; Lauer, H
.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis: There has been no reported national survey of diabetes in India in the last three decades, although several regional studies\\u000a show a rising prevalence of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose\\u000a tolerance in six major cities, covering all the regions of the country. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Using a stratified random
A. Ramachandran; C. Snehalatha; A. Kapur; V. Vijay; V. Mohan; A. K. Das; P. V. Rao; C. S. Yajnik; K. M. Prasanna Kumar; Jyotsna D. Nair
Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45 years. Lumbar osteoarthritis is epidemic in Beijing and will become a more severe problem in aging society. Different populations have different features that require targeted interventions. Level of Evidence: 2
Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao
Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca. PMID:9177091
Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S
Assistance dogs are trained to help people with various physical and mental handicaps. These dogs are selected using a test comprising several behavioral components. Anecdotal reports have shown that only about 50% of the dogs so selected successfully complete training and become assistance dogs. Traditionally training centers had used puppies, but recently some trainers have begun to use dogs from
Emily Weiss; Gary Greenberg
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure with electrochemical detection was developed to analyze MDL 74,405 (I), the (-)-(S)-enantiomer of an alpha-tocopherol analogue, in dog plasma and heart tissue after infusion (0.3 mg/kg/h). The sample preparation involved the addition of an internal standard to either the dog plasma and heart tissue prior to protein precipitation. After centrifugation, the resulting supernatant was directly analyzed by HPLC with a Zorbax Rx C8 column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.04 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.0 (70:30, v/v). The concentration of I found was ca. 100 ng/ml in plasma and ca. 3 micrograms/g in heart tissue. A chiral separation with an Ultron ES-OVM column and a mobile phase of methanol-0.025 M potassium phosphate, pH 6.5 (17:83, v/v) was also used to investigate the enantiomeric conversion of I. Preliminary results of a probe study indicated that I is not inverted to the (+)-(R)-enantiomer in vivo. PMID:7987488
Chan, K Y; Dusterhoft, D A; Chen, T M
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality.
Golob, Barbara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko
RB51 vaccination can minimise the diagnostic problems associated with S19 vaccination of adult cattle, but its use for bovine brucellosis (BB) control remains controversial. Here, the evolution of BB prevalence in five high prevalence areas in Spain subjected to different control measures is described: herd depopulation of infected herds (I-III) or mass vaccination with RB51 and S19-RB51 vaccination of replacement heifers (IV-V). Annual data from the eradication campaigns were analysed at the special incidence area (SIA) level and the time to obtain herd prevalence levels of <1 per cent ('controlled status') was obtained at the local veterinary unit (LVU) level and compared using Cox's proportional hazard model. A higher annual rate of decrease in herd prevalence was observed in the SIAs subjected to vaccination (46.9%, 95% CI 43.5% to 50.0%) compared with those managed using stamping out (14.9%, 95% CI 9.6% to 19.9%). No significant differences in the time to achieve controlled status were observed between the stamping-out and vaccination strategies used at the LVU level, with median times of 60 (stamping-out LVUs) and 63 (vaccination LVUs) months. These results suggest that RB51 mass vaccination, in combination with the S19-RB51 vaccination of replacement heifers and strict implementation of other eradication measures, may provide results at least comparable with those resulting from a herd depopulation based strategy. PMID:24836427
Saez, J L; Sanz, C; Durán, M; García, P; Fernandez, F; Minguez, O; Carbajo, L; Mardones, F; Perez, A; Gonzalez, S; Dominguez, L; Alvarez, J
Background Autoimmunity appears to be associated with the pathophysiology of Meniere's disease (MD), an inner ear disorder characterized by episodes of vertigo associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. However, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with MD has not been studied in individuals with uni or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods and Findings We estimated the prevalence of AD in 690 outpatients with MD with uni or bilateral SNHL from otoneurology clinics at six tertiary referral hospitals by using clinica criteria and an immune panel (lymphocyte populations, antinuclear antibodies, C3, C4 and proinflammatory cytokines TNF?, INF?). The observed prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was higher than expected for the general population (1.39 for RA, 0.87 for SLE and 0.70 for AS, respectively). Systemic AD were more frequently observed in patients with MD and diagnostic criteria for migraine than cases with MD and tension-type headache (p?=?0.007). There were clinical differences between patients with uni or bilateral SNHL, but no differences were found in the immune profile. Multiple linear regression showed that changes in lymphocytes subpopulations were associated with hearing loss and persistence of vertigo, suggesting a role for the immune response in MD. Conclusions Despite some limitations, MD displays an elevated prevalence of systemic AD such as RA, SLE and AS. This finding, which suggests an autoimmune background in a subset of patients with MD, has important implications for the treatment of MD.
Gazquez, Irene; Soto-Varela, Andres; Aran, Ismael; Santos, Sofia; Batuecas, Angel; Trinidad, Gabriel; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Gonzalez-Oller, Carlos; Acosta, Lourdes; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.
Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…
Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.
Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon.
Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michele Tagni; Njouom, Richard
Objectives. Reliable prevalence data would be useful in assessing the impact of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes on the community and designing effective preparticipation screening strategies.Background. The frequency with which these catastrophes occur is largely unknown.Methods. We utilized a circumstance unique to Minnesota in which the precise number of participants and deaths due to cardiovascular disease could be
Barry J Maron; Thomas E Gohman; Dorothee Aeppli
Mycoplasma equigenitalium and M. subdolum have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of horses. The reporte