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Sample records for dogs high prevalence

  1. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission. PMID:18828485

  2. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Sixty eight (67.3%) of 101 dogs were seropositive with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 8, 1:100 in 9, 1:200 in 10, 1:400 in 10, 1:800 in 10, 1:1600 in 3, and 1:3200 or higher in 2. None of the dogs’ characteristics studied including age, sex, breed, and history of deworming, rabies vaccination and contact with cats was associated with seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. Conclusion Using the dogs as sentinel animals, the results indicate high contamination with T. gondii of the environment in Veracruz, Mexico. Results have public health implications, and further studies in Veracruz should be conducted to establish the sources of environmental contamination with T. gondii and to determine optimal preventive measures against T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:25134696

  3. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modif...

  4. High prevalence of Hepatozoon-infection among shepherd dogs in a region considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Tánczos, Balázs; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Farkas, Róbert

    2013-09-01

    Blood samples and ticks were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs in southern Hungary, in order to screen them for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. Out of 126 blood samples, 33 were positive (26%). Significantly more shepherd dogs (31%) were infected, than hunting (8%) and stray dogs (7%). Three genotypes of Hepatozoon canis were identified by sequencing, differing from each other in up to six nucleotides in the amplified portion of their 18S rRNA gene. In Dermacentor marginatus larvae/nymphs and Dermacentor reticulatus nymphs, H. canis was present only if they had been collected from PCR-positive dogs, and the genotypes were identical in the ticks and their hosts. However, two Haemaphysalis concinna nymphs removed from a PCR-negative dog were found positive for H. canis, and the genotype detected in specimens of this tick species differed from that in the blood of their respective hosts. These results indicate that canine hepatozoonosis may be highly prevalent in regions where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is considered to be non-endemic. In addition, H. canis was identified for the first time in Hungary, as well as in D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and Ha. concinna ticks. Canine hepatozoonosis was significantly more prevalent west of the Danube river (where higher densities of red fox and golden jackal populations occur), suggesting a role of wild carnivores in its epidemiology. PMID:23499483

  5. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    PubMed Central

    Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2008-01-01

    Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases. PMID:19068110

  6. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hordijk, Joost; Schoormans, Anky; Kwakernaak, Mandy; Duim, Birgitta; Broens, Els; Dierikx, Cindy; Mevius, Dik; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45 and 55% were positive for Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0 and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and Proteus mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly bla CTX-M-1, but also bla CTX-M-14, bla CTX-M-15, bla TEM-52-StPaul, bla SHV-12, and bla CMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore, the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food-producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care. PMID:23966992

  7. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. PMID:23867013

  8. Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  10. High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in <1-year-old dogs were significantly more prevalent than in ≥ 1-year-old dogs (61.0 vs. 19.8 %, P < 0.0001; 7.3 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.0001; and 4.9 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.001; respectively). With respect to fecal condition, the prevalences of T. leonina and T. vulpis were significantly higher in unformed stool dogs than in formed ones (2.4 vs. 0 %, P < 0.01, and 4.3 vs. 0.8 %, P < 0.05, respectively). In all of the breeding kennels except for one kennel, intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %. PMID:25627028

  12. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dogs in Zhanjiang, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Li, Ming-Wei; Xu, Min-Jun; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The present study investigated the prevalence of T. gondii in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China, using both serological and molecular detection. A total of 364 serum samples and 432 liver tissue samples were collected from the slaughter house between December 2012 and January 2013 and were examined for T. gondii IgG antibody by ELISA and T. gondii DNA by semi-nested PCR based on B1 gene, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibody was 51.9%, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 37 of 432 (8.6%) liver tissue samples. These positive DNA samples were analyzed by PCR-RFLP at 3'- and 5'-SAG2. Only 8 samples gave the PCR-RFLP data, and they were all classified as type I, which may suggest that the T. gondii isolates from dogs in Zhanjiang city may represent type I or type I variant. This study revealed the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China. Integrated measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis in dogs in this area for public health concern. PMID:26323850

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dogs in Zhanjiang, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Li, Ming-Wei; Xu, Min-Jun; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The present study investigated the prevalence of T. gondii in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China, using both serological and molecular detection. A total of 364 serum samples and 432 liver tissue samples were collected from the slaughter house between December 2012 and January 2013 and were examined for T. gondii IgG antibody by ELISA and T. gondii DNA by semi-nested PCR based on B1 gene, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibody was 51.9%, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 37 of 432 (8.6%) liver tissue samples. These positive DNA samples were analyzed by PCR-RFLP at 3'- and 5'-SAG2. Only 8 samples gave the PCR-RFLP data, and they were all classified as type I, which may suggest that the T. gondii isolates from dogs in Zhanjiang city may represent type I or type I variant. This study revealed the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China. Integrated measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis in dogs in this area for public health concern. PMID:26323850

  14. Prevalence of dog intestinal parasites and risk perception of zoonotic infection by dog owners in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2008-10-01

    Coprological examination was used to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray and domiciled dogs from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Risk factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. The dog owners completed a questionnaire survey on some aspects of dog parasitism such as parasite species, mechanisms of infection, awareness of zoonotic diseases and history of anthelmintic usage. Parasites were found in the faeces of 138 dogs, with an overall prevalence of 54.3%. Dogs harbouring one parasite were more common (31.4%) than those harbouring two (18.5%), three (3.2%) or four (1.2%). The following parasites and their respective frequencies were detected: Ancylostoma (37.8%), Giardia (16.9%), Toxocara canis (8.7%), Trichuris vulpis (7.1%), Dipylidium caninum (2.4%), Isospora (3.5%), Cryptosporidium (3.1%) and Sarcocystis (2.7%). Stray dogs were found more likely to be poliparasitized (P<0.01) and presented higher prevalence of Ancylostoma, T. canis and Giardia (P<0.01) than domiciled ones. Toxocara canis was detected more frequently in dogs with <6 months of age (P<0.05) and no effect of sex or breed could be observed (P>0.05). Except for Ancylostoma, that showed a significantly higher prevalence in dogs living in a multi-dog household (P<0.01), parasite prevalences were similar in single- and multi-dog household. The answers of dog owners to the questionnaire showed that the majority does not know the species of dog intestinal parasites, the mechanisms of transmission, the risk factors for zoonotic infections, and specific prophylactic measures. The predominance of zoonotic species in dogs in the studied region, associated with the elevated degree of misinformation of the owners, indicates that the risk of zoonotic infection by canine intestinal parasite may be high, even in one of the most developed regions of Brazil. PMID:18811905

  15. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs of Palampur, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, Aman Dev; Mittra, S; Agnihotri, R K; Sharma, Devina; Sen, Divya

    2016-06-01

    A total of 246 faecal/scat samples of the dogs were screened by direct and floatation concentration technique to study the gastrointestinal (GI) tract parasitism in dogs of Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India. Detailed coprological examination targeting different seasons, age groups and living styles of the dogs revealed an overall 28.04 % of GI parasitism with highest prevalence in summer season (37.87 %). Stray dogs harbored 47.29 % GI parasites in comparison to 19.19 % of pet dogs. Highest prevalence of GI parasitism was observed in the pups, below 3 months of age (39.13 %), followed by the dogs with the age ranging from 3 months to 1 year (26.38 %) and lowest in dogs of the age ranging from 1 to 3 years (6.77 %). Amongst all the parasites, Toxocara canis (44.93 %) infection was highest, followed by Dipylidium caninum (17.39 %) and hookworms (15.94 %). PMID:27413283

  17. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. PMID:21890275

  18. A study of the prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting kennelled dogs.

    PubMed

    Scaramozzino, Paola; Di Cave, David; Berrilli, Federica; D'Orazi, Carlo; Spaziani, Alessandra; Mazzanti, Sabrina; Scholl, Francesco; De Liberato, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite of animals that is zoonotic. Given the capacity of this organism to spread via the faecal-oral route, animals held in overcrowded and unhygienic conditions are at high risk of infection. Faecal samples from dogs in three kennels in Rome were examined by microscopy and PCR for G. duodenalis, and the prevalence data generated were correlated with variables such as kennel identity, age of dog, length of time the dog had been kennelled and clinical signs. The overall prevalence of the parasite in the faecal samples was 20.5% and was higher in samples from the largest kennel, which had the greatest turnover of dogs, and in faecal samples from younger animals. Giardia cysts were found more frequently in diarrhoeic animals but were also found in dogs with no clinical signs. Although the finding that the majority of isolates were dog-specific rather than zoonotic genotypes suggests that the zoonotic risk from this pathogen is less than previously thought, the higher prevalence of infection in younger dogs may pose a specific public health issue as such animals are more frequently re-homed with families. PMID:18715807

  19. Genotype identification and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in pet dogs of Guangzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Peiyuan; Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Yuanjia; Meng, Xianglong; Li, Jinping; Guo, Jianchao; Li, Guoqing

    2012-09-10

    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated parasite and is considered one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhea in both humans and animals worldwide. This paper represents the first study of the prevalence of G. duodenalis in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China. Faecal samples (209 specimens) were obtained from young (<6 months old), adult (6 months to 3 years) and elder dogs (>3 years old). 8.61% (18/209) faecal samples were recorded positive using microscopy examination, and 11.00% (23/209) using PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in diarrheic dogs (26.31%) compared with non-diarrheic dogs (5.10%), while it was higher in young (25.58%) than both adult (7.37%) and elder (7.04%) dogs and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The prevalence in male dogs 11.30% (13/115) was higher than females 10.87% (10/92), and in suburban dogs (12.15%) higher than urban 9.80%, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sequence analysis of the 23 PCR-positive samples revealed the presence of Assemblage D (18/23), and zoonotic Assemblage A (5/23). The present investigation reported a high infection rate of G. duodenalis in pet dogs, especially in young dogs. Genotypic characterization demonstrated that the zoonotic Assemblage A was found, a fact that poses a potential risk of G. duodenalis transmission from pet dogs to humans. It is suggested that pet owners should take appropriate hygiene measures to prevent and control giardiasis in this region. PMID:22554420

  20. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic dogs in Tabasco, southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo Margarito; García-Herrera, Ricardo Alfonso; Hernández-Hernández, Melchor; Peralta-Torres, Jorge Alonso; Ojeda-Robertos, Nadia Florencia; Blitvich, Bradley John; Baak-Baak, Carlos Marcial; García-Rejón, Julián Everardo; Machain-Wiliams, Carlos Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. The study population consisted of 302 owned dogs that had limited access to public areas. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and examined for GI parasites by conventional macroscopic analysis and centrifugal flotation. Fecal samples from 80 (26.5%) dogs contained GI parasites. Of these, 58 (19.2%) were positive for helminths and 22 (7.3%) were positive for protozoan parasites. At least seven parasitic species were identified. The most common parasite was Ancylostoma caninum which was detected in 48 (15.9%) dogs. Other parasites detected on multiple occasions were Cystoisospora spp. (n = 19), Toxocara canis (n = 7) and Giardia spp. (n = 3). Three additional parasites, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Uncinaria spp., were each detected in a single dog. No mixed parasitic infections were identified. In summary, we report a moderately high prevalence of GI parasites in owned dogs in Villahermosa, Tabasco. Several parasitic species identified in this study are recognized zoonotic pathogens which illustrates the important need to routinely monitor and treat dogs that live in close proximity to humans for parasitic infections. PMID:26648011

  1. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. PMID:27270383

  2. High prevalence and variability of CTX-M-15-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli observed in stray dogs in rural Angola.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Kubelova, Michaela; Mazancova, Jana; Dolejska, Monika; Literak, Ivan; Cizek, Alois

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area. PMID:24568119

  3. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  4. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  5. A survey of the prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting household and sheltered dogs.

    PubMed

    Solarczyk, Piotr; Majewska, Anna C

    2010-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is an intestinal protozoan parasite that infects humans and a wide range of mammals that includes dogs. Highly significant genetic heterogeneity has been found within this species, while only genotypes from assemblages A and B have zoonotic potential. Although Giardia infection in dogs has been reported worldwide, there is increasing molecular evidence that dogs may be infected with host-specific genotypes (C and D) as well as zoonotic ones (A and B). Therefore, dogs play a role as a potential source of Giardia infection impacting humans and other Canidae. Fecal samples from privately owned dogs and from dogs kept in two shelters in the west-central region of Poland were examined using a microscope and polymerase chain reaction. The total prevalence of Giardia in specimens was 1.9%. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted only from two out of the three Giardia-positive fecal samples. After amplification using the G7 and G759 beta-giardin primers, 753 bp amplicons were obtained, and both amplification products were sequenced. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that both G. duodenalis isolates were dog-specific genotypes (C and D). PMID:20155370

  6. Prevalence of dog intestinal nematode parasites in south central West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Savilla, Tashina M; Joy, James E; May, Jeffrey D; Somerville, Charles C

    2011-05-31

    Coprological examination was used to determine prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in a sample of 231 dogs (117 females and 114 males) during the summer of 2009 at a veterinary clinic in south central West Virginia, USA. Clinical signs (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, weight gain or loss) were noted in addition to a history of anthelmintic usage. A total of 79 dogs (33.6%) were infected with one or more intestinal nematodes. Most dogs (58) were parasitized with a single species, 19 were parasitized with 2 species, and 2 were parasitized by 3 species. There was no significant difference (i.e., X(2)<3.84; P>0.05) in prevalence of infection between female and male dogs for any of the identified nematode species. The chi-square test for equality of proportions was used to determine prevalence of infection in 3 age categories of dogs (females and males combined): young dogs (≤12 months of age); mature dogs (13-83 months); and old dogs >83 months. Prevalences of infection for Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis were significantly (P<0.005) higher in young dogs, whereas there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in prevalence by age category for Trichuris vulpis. Dogs exhibiting clinical signs were no more likely to harbor intestinal nematodes than dogs that were asymptomatic. Additionally, dogs receiving heartworm treatment were significantly less likely to be parasitized than dogs receiving no heartworm prophylaxis. PMID:21277089

  7. Prevalence of Dog Bites in Rural and Urban Slums of Delhi: A Community-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S; Agarwal, A; Khan, AM; Ingle, GK

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a fatal disease of the central nervous system caused by the bites of warm-blooded animals. One of the important methods of controlling rabies is by interventions to limit the number of dog bites, the most common source of transmission of rabies to humans in the community. Community-based data on dog bites are rare from India. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dog bites and knowledge and practices relating to its management and prevention in an urban and a rural slum of North West Delhi, India. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional house to house survey of 500 households covering a population of 2887 individuals was conducted. The families were selected by systematic random sampling. A pretested and a prevalidated questionnaire was used. Chi-square test was applied for comparing proportions related to the categorical variables and t-test was used for comparing means. Results: The dog bite incidence rate for the study population for the last year was 25.2/1000 population with higher rates in urban (30.1/1000) than rural (19.6/1000) slum. Two-fifths of the dog bite patients did not wash the wound with soap and water. The practice of washing the wound with soap and water was significantly higher in urban than rural slum. One-fifth of the patients did not receive anti-rabies vaccine. There was lower coverage in rural than urban slum. A majority (79.0%) of the patients did not receive anti-rabies serum. Conclusion: A high prevalence of dog bites coupled with poor knowledge and dog bite management practices is a worrisome trend which policy makers should take into account to make India rabies free. PMID:27213095

  8. Prevalence of endoparasitic infections of non descript dogs in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Shanker, Daya; Kanojiya, Dharamendra; Sachan, Amreesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate, through cross-sectional survey, the distribution, types and prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites affecting stray dogs in and around Mathura, India. Freshly voided faecal samples of 108 identified, stray, non descript dogs of either sex and different age groups were collected and examined for coprological examination by direct faecal smear method; simple flotation and sedimentation techniques to detect parasitic oocysts and/or eggs. A total of 96 samples (88.9 %) were found positive for helminthic eggs (nematodes and cestodes) while 16 (14.2 %) were found to be positive for protozoan infections with a overall parasitic prevalence of 98 (90.7 %). Single parasite infections (72.2 %) were more common than two or more infections (27.8 %). The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that Ancylostoma caninum eggs were by far the most common (55.6 %). The other detected worm egg species and their respective frequencies were: Toxocara canis (51.9 %), Dypilidium caninim (50.0 %), Taenids (33.3 %), Toxocara leonina (25.9 %), Diphylobothrium latum (5.6 %), Spirocerca lupi (3.7 %) and Physaloptera canis (3.7 %). Eimeria canis oocysts were detected in eight samples (7.4 %) besides, total coccidian oocysts in 16 samples (14.8 %). The prevalence of helminth eggs was higher in puppies compared to adults. The prevalence of different species of helminths also varied in different age groups. The high prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic potential registered in the dogs indicates a potential risk to human health. The public health significance of the encountered parasitic infections is described and the prevalence is compared with the surrounding areas. PMID:26345058

  9. Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum

  10. The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Maha; Halai, Kapil; Jeffreys, Danielle; Hunter, Paul R

    2015-01-30

    Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets. PMID:25583357

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. PMID:24445136

  12. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  13. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Andrea V; Duncan, Colleen; Miles, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. PMID:21846585

  14. Prevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in five provinces of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Ma, Xusheng; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Jia-Ping; Ba, Heng-Xing; Rui-Du; Xing, Xiu Mei; Wang, Quan-Kai; Zhao, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The disease microsporidiosis is found worldwide and is mainly caused by Enterocytozoon bieneusi. E. bieneusi can infect a wide range of hosts; however, information regarding the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi infection in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is limited. Therefore, in 2015, we examined 305 faecel samples from 80 farmed raccoon dogs in Jilin Province, from 54 in Hebei Province, from 72 in Liaoning Province, from 29 in Shandong Province, and from 40 in Heilongjiang Province. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs was 22.30%. Logistic regression analysis suggests that age, gender and region of raccoon dogs were highly related to the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection. Moreover, six E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences, including four known genotypes, namely D, CHN-DC1, NCF2, and CHN-F1, and two novel genotypes (NCR1 and NCR2), were identified in the present study. The present study firstly indicated the existence of E. bieneusi genotypes NCF2, NCR1, NCR2and CHN-F1 in infected raccoon dogs in Northern China. Integrated control strategies should be implemented to limit E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs, and to prevent transmission of this disease to other animals and humans. PMID:27260667

  15. Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and owned-client dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pietro, Simona Di; Bosco, Valentina Rita Francesca; Crinò, Chiara; Francaviglia, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy). Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) in the same endemic area over a 3-year period. Materials and Methods: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological (immune-fluorescent antibody test), and molecular (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) tests. Results: The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs). The most frequent ocular lesion was blepharitis (50%) while anterior uveitis was observed in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs). In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%), but it occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48). In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases (48%; 12/25 dogs), in which follow-up was possible. In more than 1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25), there was an improvement, but it was necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy (16%; 4/25), had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Conclusions: Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more frequent in

  16. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species in cats and dogs from Bydgoszcz (Poland) region.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, M; Szczepańska, B; Klawe, J J; Spica, D; Chudzińska, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cats and dogs as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Rectal swabs from 83 dogs and 71 cats were examined. Samples were obtained from the animals aged between 2 weeks and 24 months living in shelters, private households, farms and from veterinary clinics located in Bydgoszcz region during routine check-up. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 4.81% dogs and 9.86% cats, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in this study. All strains were isolated in autumn and winter from the animals living in farms and private houses. All the animals positive for Campylobacter prevalence had access to small water basins, accidental source of food and had contact with wild birds, poultry or their feaces. Isolates characterization revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter virulence genes-flaA, cadF and cdtB. 91% of isolated strains were susceptible to erythromycin. 81% among isolated strains were susceptible to azithromycin, 64% to tetracycline and 36% to ciprofloxacin. For 2 C. jejuni strains isolated from cats Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling indicated 80% homology between them. PMID:23691584

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in a large national sample of pet dogs visiting veterinary hospitals in the United States (2003-2009).

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Glickman, Larry T; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elizabeth; Moore, George E

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of intestinal infection of dogs with Giardia spp. in the United States vary widely. Risk factors for infection in a large sample of dogs over an extended period of time have not been well characterized. A national, electronic database of medical records was used to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for Giardia spp. infection among dogs visiting Banfield Pet Hospital™ located in 43 states in the United States. The overall prevalence of Giardia spp. Infection was 0.44% (95% CI: 0.43-0.45%) in approximately 2.5 million owned dogs who had a fecal flotation test performed from January 2003 to December 2009. A steady decrease in annual prevalence was observed, from a high of 0.61% in 2003 to 0.27% in 2009. Seasonal increases in prevalence were noted during the winter and summer months. Giardia spp. prevalence was highest in the Mountain region, especially Colorado (2.63%; 95% CI: 2.53-2.73%), and in puppies ≤0.5 year of age (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64%). It was lowest for dogs of mixed breeding compared with pure breeds. Infection risk was 25-30% greater in sexually intact dogs compared to spayed and neutered dogs. PMID:23337331

  19. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from Sri Lanka and genetic characterization of the parasite isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 86 unwanted dogs obtained in two batches (36 in batch 1, 50 in batch 2) from Sri Lanka was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 58 (67.4%) of 86 dogs with titers of 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in four, ...

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  1. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29-2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83-1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53-1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02-1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55-36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0-11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0-6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant "baseline" data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355

  2. Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners' Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amissah-Reynolds, Papa Kofi; Monney, Isaac; Adowah, Lucy Mawusi; Agyemang, Samuel Opoku

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (p = 0.011; χ2 = 9.034) and location (p = 0.02; χ2 = 12.323) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. PMID:26941994

  3. Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners' Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amissah-Reynolds, Papa Kofi; Monney, Isaac; Adowah, Lucy Mawusi; Agyemang, Samuel Opoku

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (p = 0.011; χ (2) = 9.034) and location (p = 0.02; χ (2) = 12.323) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. PMID:26941994

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among dogs and their owners: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Yang, Cheol-Ho; Park, Hee-Myung

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated colonization and association of staphylococci between healthy dogs and their owners. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated staphylococci were determined for 119 dogs and 107 owners. Relatedness of the Staphylococcus isolates in dogs and their owners was investigated using antibiograms, toxin profiles, and genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence type, and spa typing. Risk factors for carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in dogs were also evaluated. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 65 (60.7%) owners and 44 (37.0%) dogs. The following species were isolated, listed in order of decreasing frequency: S. epidermidis, S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. scheiferi subsp. coagulans, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. saprophyticus and S. warneri. S. pseudintermedius (65.9%) was the major isolate in dogs while S. epidermidis (81.5%) was the major type in owners. Among the isolates, 71.6% were methicillin resistant (MR) and 95.4% of the isolates demonstrated multi-drug resistance regardless of the origin. Only one dog-owner pair shared the same Staphylococcus spp. (S. pseudintermedius); however, the organisms were of different PFGE subtypes and exhibited different antibiotic resistance and toxin profiles while both isolates displayed same sequence type (ST365). While the dog-origin isolate showed spa type t02, the owner-origin isolate was negative to PCRs targeting spa gene sequence. Risk factor analysis showed that the presence of cohabitant animals was correlated with the nasal carriage of MR staphylococci in dogs. The cumulative data indicated that animal- and owner-origin staphylococci have various subtypes with high prevalence of MR; however, the bacteria are not shared between healthy dogs and their owners. PMID:27256020

  5. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors. PMID:19934595

  6. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors. PMID:19934595

  7. Prevalence, molecular typing and risk factor analysis for Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in a central London rescue shelter.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, Melissa; Cobb, Charlotte; Monger, Joanne; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin; Fox, Mark

    2010-09-20

    A cross-sectional survey to investigate canine infections with Giardia duodenalis was undertaken at a central London rescue shelter between October 2006 and March 2007. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in dogs admitted to a London dog shelter using a commercially available ELISA-based test kit; (ii) identify the relative importance of potential dog level risk factors for infection; and (iii) identify the occurrence of different G. duodenalis assemblages present in this population in order to identify presence of any potentially zoonotic assemblages. A faecal sample was collected from each dog entering the shelter within 1 day of arrival. Each sample was tested for the presence of parasite cyst wall protein using the Giardia SNAP test kit (Idexx Laboratories). Samples were graded for faecal consistency on a standard scale and data on age, breed, categorized breed group, sex and neutered status were collected for each dog. Associations between infection status and each dog level variable were investigated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Selected G. duodenalis-positive samples were genotyped using previously described primers targeting the 18S rDNA gene and the beta-giardin gene. Samples from a total of 878 dogs were collected and the true prevalence found to be 21.0% (95% CI 16.7-25.4%). In the present study, the odds of infection decreased with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.80, p<0.0001) and was increased for Rottweilers (adjusted odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.03-4.34, p=0.04). Of the 51 samples selected for genotyping, 41 samples yielded a good amplification at one or both of the targeted genes, demonstrating the occurrence of mainly dog-specific assemblages C and D. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A and a mixed template C/D were found in two individual dogs. The results of the present study illustrate the high prevalence of G. duodenalis in shelter dogs. Although

  8. Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emmanuel S; Miran, Miran B; Kasuku, Ayubu A; Nzalawahe, Jahashi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of taeniasis was determined during the period January to April 2013 in a cross-sectional study of non-descript domestic dogs from the livestock-wildlife ecosystem of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Taeniid eggs were determined by screening faecal samples using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Predisposing factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. Of the 205 faecal samples screened, 150 (73.2%) were positive for taeniid eggs. The prevalence of dogs harbouring taeniid eggs was 80%, 30.2% and 75.3% in the less than 1 year, 1-3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. Age group and sex prevalence in dogs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), although the females showed a marginally higher prevalence (73.8%) in comparison to the males (72.7%). Taeniid eggs were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of dogs located in Waso (80.6%) and Endulen (75%) than in Malambo (63.2%, P < 0.05). The study revealed that dogs owned and raised by agro-pastoralists were at a lower risk of acquiring Taenia spp. infection (P = 0.001) than those that were raised by pastoralists. The majority of dog owners were not aware of the predisposing factors and the mode of transmission of taeniids. Dogs were frequently fed on viscera, trimmings and the heads of slaughtered animals, and they were not treated for parasitic infections. The findings of this study indicate that taeniasis is prevalent among non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, underscoring the need for further research and active surveillance to better understand the transmission cycle of Taenia spp. in a wider geographical area in Tanzania. PMID:27247069

  9. Prevalence of borreliosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs and vectors in Voronezh Reserve (Russia).

    PubMed

    Volgina, N S; Romashov, B V; Romashova, N B; Shtannikov, A V

    2013-12-01

    Most of the dogs studied for the prevalence of CVBD have previously received acaricidal and insecticidal treatments. In the present work, a very specific population of dogs (Group 1) that had never been treated against ticks and mosquitoes was studied. Moreover, the territory occupied by this population has also never been treated, because it is a protected area--Voronezh Natural Reserve. Canine patients from veterinary clinics (Group 2) that had been treated against VBD vectors were studied for comparison. Eighty-two dogs (Group 1) were enrolled in June, 2008. Blood samples were tested using the IDEXX SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test. A specific heartworm antigen was detected in 12.2% samples. The seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found to be 34.1%. The antibodies to Borrelia C6 peptide and to Ehrlichia canis were detected in 2.4% of the samples. Almost all dogs with infections had no clinical signs. Only 3 mixed-infected dogs showed non-specific clinical signs. During the tick season, 358 Ixodes ricinus were collected; the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 21.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Four hundred and forty dogs (Group 2) were studied for comparison. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected only in one dog, seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum represented 1.1%, no E. canis seropositive dogs were identified, and 8.2% dogs were found infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Fifty-six percent of dogs with dirofilariosis had clinical signs. All dogs with anaplasmosis showed specific clinical signs--fever, anemia, splenitis. Three dogs died within a few days. PMID:24054985

  10. Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  11. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F., Jr.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  12. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Doherty, Paul F; Gage, Kenneth L; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Long, Dustin H; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

  13. Hip dysplasia in Estrela mountain dogs: prevalence and genetic trends 1991-2005.

    PubMed

    Ginja, M M D; Silvestre, A M; Colaço, J; Gonzalo-Orden, J M; Melo-Pinto, P; Orden, M A; Llorens-Pena, M P; Ferreira, A J

    2009-11-01

    Three hundred and thirteen Estrela mountain dogs were examined for hip dysplasia (HD) using the standard ventrodorsal hip extended view, and graded into five categories (A, B, C, D and E) using the Fédération Cynologique Internationale's (FCI) scoring system. The Ortolani method was performed to evaluate hip joint laxity. Pedigree information was obtained from the Portuguese Kennel Club and the genetic trend was evaluated by calculating the mean breeding values (BVs) for the last 15 years, using the threshold model. HD was found in 66% of the dogs. There was low-moderate correlation between the results of the Ortolani test and FCI hip scores (r(s)=0.386; P<0.001). Grades of hip dysplasia were equal in both males and females (P=0.14) and in the animals' right and left sides (P=0.51). The mean BVs for HD were stable in dogs born between 1991 and 2003, and showed an improvement in 2004 and 2005. The data confirm the high prevalence and severity of HD in predisposed breeds that do not have breeding programmes in place. It also confirms an initial favourable change in BVs that is a likely consequence of the voluntary radiographic hip-screening programme. PMID:18722145

  14. Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis from dogs in Spain: possible zoonotic transmission and public health importance.

    PubMed

    Dado, Diana; Montoya, Ana; Blanco, María Alejandra; Miró, Guadalupe; Saugar, José María; Bailo, Begoña; Fuentes, Isabel

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was determinate in faecal samples from dogs and cats in Madrid, Spain and molecular characterisation of isolates. A total of 604 and 144 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analysed by routine coprological methods. The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 16.4 % (99/604) in dogs and 4.2 % (6/144) in cats. Sixty-four G. duodenalis isolates (63 from dogs and 1 from a cat) were characterised using glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes by PCR-RFLP. The single cat sample showed a mixed infection by assemblages A + F. The assemblages found in the dog samples were A, B, C, D and E, both as single and as mixed infections. The zoonotic assemblages A and B were found in 56 (88.8 %) G. duodenalis-positive samples with 15.9 % of samples having assemblage A (10/63) and 73 % of samples with assemblage B (46/63), indicating high potential zoonotic risk and public health significance. PMID:22983168

  15. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagné, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137

  16. Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Viguier, E; Carozzo, C; Collard, F; Cachon, T; Maitre, P; Fau, D

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) from radiographs that were submitted for authorative grading, and its changes over the time in 31 breeds of dogs in France, a 14 year-retrospective study was conducted. Significant differences were observed between breeds, with HD prevalence ranging from 59.7% (Cane Corso) to 3.9% (Siberian Husky). When comparing the 1993-1999 with the 2000-2006 period in 15 breeds, a significant decrease in HD prevalence was detected in Berger Picard, Bernese Mountain dog, Briard, Gordon Setter, White Swiss Sheepdog and Rottweiler. Modifications observed in the other breeds were not statistically significant. PMID:18288340

  17. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagné, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137

  18. Prevalence of endoparasites in stray and fostered dogs and cats in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Becker, A-C; Rohen, M; Epe, C; Schnieder, T

    2012-08-01

    To get an overview of the current state of endoparasite prevalences in stray and not well-cared dogs and cats, faecal samples of 445 stray and foster dogs and 837 stray and foster cats were collected at their arrival at animal shelters in Lower Saxony (Germany). They were investigated for infections with endoparasites by the use of sedimentation-flotation method. Additionally, 341 canine and 584 feline samples were investigated by IDEXX SNAP® Giardia test. Stages of endoparasites were found coproscopically in 9.4 % (n = 42) of the canine samples, 4.0 % were positive for Toxocara canis, 0.9 % for hookworms, 0.4 % for Toxascaris leonina and 0.2 % for Hammondia-like oocysts. Giardia-coproantigen was detected in 11.4 % of the canine samples. In cats, 33.6 % (n = 281) were coproscopically positive for helminths and/or protozoa. Toxocara cati was found in 27.1 %, Isospora spp. in 7.5 %, Capillaria spp. 5.0 %, Taeniidae in 2.0 %, hookworms in 1.1 %, Giardia sp. in 0.7 %, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in 1.0 % and Toxoplasma-like oocysts in 0.1 %. Coproantigen specific for Giardia sp. was detected in 6.8 % of the feline samples. Dogs and cats up to 1 year of age were more frequently infected with endoparasites than animals over 1 year of age (p < 0.001). Toxocara spp. and Isospora spp. were detected significantly more often in younger dogs and cats, respectively (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). Stray dogs or cats older than 1 year were significantly more frequently infected with endoparasites than dropped off animals of the same age group (p < 0.05). Using the faecal egg count reduction test, the therapeutic efficacy of some anthelmintics was tested. All tested anthelmintics showed high efficacy and no suspected anthelmintic resistance was found. However, endoparasite-infected stray and free-roaming cats and dogs may contribute considerably to the contamination of public parks, playgrounds and sandpits with zoonotic parasites and therefore have to be

  19. Prevalence of naturally occurring antibodies against dog erythrocyte antigen 7 in a population of dog erythrocyte antigen 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Viñals Flórez, Luis Miguel; Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Maria; Serra Y Gómez de la Serna, Blanca; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of naturally occurring anti-dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy. ANIMALS 252 DEA 7-negative dogs from a population of 312 dogs that were previously tested for DEA 1, DEA 4, and DEA 7. PROCEDURES A plasma sample was obtained from each dog and evaluated for anti-DEA 7 antibodies by the use of gel column agglutination. Each plasma sample underwent major crossmatching with RBCs from DEA 7-positive dogs. Samples that resulted in agglutination were then crossmatched with RBCs from DEA 1-negative, DEA 4-positive, and DEA 7-negative dogs to confirm the presence of anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Results were then used to calculate the risk for a delayed transfusion reaction in a DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies after a transfusion with blood that was not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. RESULTS 96 of 252 (38.1%) plasma samples contained anti-DEA 7 antibodies. A DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies had a 5.9% chance of developing a delayed hemolytic reaction after transfusion with blood not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that canine blood used for transfusion should be crossmatched with the blood or plasma of the intended recipient prior to transfusion to minimize the likelihood that the recipient will develop a hemolytic reaction associated with anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Ideal canine blood donors should be negative for both DEA 1 and DEA 7. PMID:27463551

  20. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Schuller, S; Arent, Z J; Gilmore, C; Nally, J

    2015-08-01

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies to serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six per cent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for problems unrelated to leptospirosis showed evidence of prior exposure to leptospiral serovars belonging to the serogropus Ballum, Australis, Pomona and Sejroe. One unvaccinated dog suspected to have leptospirosis showed seroconversion to serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. Based on these results the authors conclude that canine exposure to serogroup Ballum should be monitored because dogs may serve as sentinels for this serovar in the environment. Vaccination with multivalent vaccines containing serovar Bratislava in addition to serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola is advisable. PMID:26198210

  1. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats and dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-seok; Seo, Kyoung-won; Lee, Jong-hwa; Choi, Eun-wha; Lee, Hee-woo; Hwang, Cheol-yong; Shin, Nam-shik; Youn, Hee-jeong; Youn, Hwa Young

    2009-03-01

    Blood, saliva, and nail samples were collected from 54 dogs and 151 cats and analyzed for the presence of Bartonella henselae with a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bartonella (B.) henselae was detected in feral cat blood (41.8%), saliva (44.1%), and nail (42.7%) samples. B. henselae was also detected in pet cat blood (33.3%), saliva (43.5%), and nail (29.5%) samples and in pet dog blood (16.6%), saliva (18.5%), and nail (29.6%) samples. Nine samples were infected with B. clarridgeiae and 2 were co-infected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae of blood samples of dogs. This report is the first to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in dogs and cats in Korea, and suggests that dogs and cats may serve as potential Bartonella reservoirs. PMID:19255530

  2. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei Infection in Pet Dogs in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29–2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83–1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53–1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02–1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55–36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0–11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0–6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant “baseline” data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355

  3. Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 in dogs in Switzerland evaluated with the gel column technique.

    PubMed

    Riond, B; Schuler, E; Rogg, E; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

    2011-08-01

    Canine blood typing has become an established and essential laboratory test due to the rising demand for safe and efficient blood transfusions. The most immunogenic and clinically important blood type is DEA 1.1. Little is known about DEA 1.1 frequencies or special characteristics among different canine breeds. 304 dogs were tested for DEA 1.1. DEA 1.1-typing was performed using a commercial gel column technique (ID-Gel Test Canine DEA 1.1, DiaMed, Cressier, Switzerland). Fifty-three percent of all tested dogs reacted positive for DEA 1.1, whereas 49 % of the mixed breeds tested DEA 1.1-positive. All Bernese mountain dogs (n = 22) and Rottweilers (n = 9) tested positive for DEA 1.1, while all Boxers (n = 8), Flat-Coated Retrievers (n = 9), and Border Collies (6) tested negative for DEA 1.1. The prevalence of DEA 1.1 in dogs in Switzerland was found to be comparable to that reported from other countries. The tested breeds were found to differ considerably in the frequency of DEA 1.1. This knowledge is useful for selection of blood donors. However, DEA 1.1 blood typing of donor and recipient prior to transfusion and cross matching in sensitized dogs is unavoidable. PMID:21780065

  4. Effects of incision closure method on infection prevalence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Chase; Maxwell, Mac; Butler, Ryan; Wills, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the effect of incisional closure with either stainless steel skin staples or intradermal poliglecaprone 25 on the prevalence of surgical site infection following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs treated with unilateral tibial plateau leveling osteotomy at Memphis Veterinary Specialists between 2006 and 2013. Procedures (n = 306) from 242 dogs were included in the study. The association of potential risk factors with the occurrence of postoperative infection was assessed using logistic regression. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Weight and administration of postoperative antimicrobials were found to significantly influence surgical site infection prevalence. No significant association was noted between closure method and prevalence of postoperative infection. PMID:25829557

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence. PMID:26899636

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.

    PubMed

    Mircean, Viorica; Györke, Adriana; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-03-23

    The protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. A survey to investigate canine infections with G. duodenalis in Romania was undertaken between June 2008 and December 2009. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit; (ii) to establish the level of agreement and characteristics of the tests; and (iii) to identify risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression models. Faecal samples were collected from 614 dogs aged from 1 month to 16 years (mean ± SD=2.88 ± 2.86 years). Each sample was tested for the presence of cysts using a flotation method with saturated sodium chloride solution and 416 out of 614 stool samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis specific antigens using Giardia Microwell ELISA (SafePath™ Laboratories). Giardia cysts were identified in 8.5% of total dogs (52/614) and statistical significantly more frequently in dogs living in communities. The cysts prevalence according with dog populations was as follows: 7.2%(9/125) in kennel dogs; 16.5%(27/164 in shelter dogs; 4.3%(2/46) in shepherd dogs; 4.8%(4/84) in household dogs from urban areas; and 5.1%(10/195) in household dogs from rural areas. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection by ELISA was 34.6% (144/416). The prevalence was significantly higher in kennel dogs (50%; 13/26), shelter dogs (47.7%; 74/155) and shepherd dogs (40.5%; 17/42) than in household dogs from urban areas (34.1%; 15/44) and household dogs from rural areas (16.8%; 25/149). It was noticed poor agreement between microscopy and ELISA (k=0.19). The microscopy performed best, with an Youden Index of 0.74, a Se of 73.68% and a Sp of 100%. ELISA had 100% Sp, but only 19.44% Se. Young dogs (up to 12 months age) and living

  7. Prevalence of canine influenza virus A (H3N8) in dogs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Bianka; Klinkenberg, Christina; Fux, Robert; Anderson, Tara; de Benedictis, Paola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CIV H3N8 in dogs in Germany. Blood samples from 272 clinically healthy dogs and 35 dogs with acute respiratory signs were screened for antibodies against influenza virus by ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay; positive samples were further tested by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and subtype-specific HI assay. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs from all sick dogs were submitted for real-time (RT)-PCR for influenza virus RNA; PCR results were negative in all cases. One healthy and one sick dog tested positive for antibodies against influenza virus nucleoprotein by ELISA, but both were negative by subtype-specific HI assay and FAT, and were therefore considered false positive results. Thus, antibody prevalence against CIV H3N8 was 0% (0-1.24%, 95% CI). Currently, the risk for CIV H3N8 infection in the German dog population seems very low. PMID:25155218

  8. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in young dogs using a combination of two diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Alves, João; Santos, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, prevalence of the protozoan parasites from the genus Giardia spp, with zoonotic potential and worldwide dissemination, was accessed in young dogs, which are reported as having higher prevalence rates. With that purpose, 49 animals from the Grupo de Intervenção Cinotécnico of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (Portuguese Gendarmerie Canine Unit) were chosen. They were housed individually in areas with a high number of kennels (up to 100), with ages ragging from newborns to 10 years old. Dogs were divided in four groups, according their age: under 6 months (n = 16), 6-12 months (n = 6), 12-18 months (n = 13) and 18-24 months (n = 14), comprising 22 females and 27 males. Fecal samples were collected from every animal and all were submitted to two different diagnostic tests, a passive flotation technique with a ZnSO4 solution and a detection of fecal antigen using a commercially available ELISA test (Witness® Giardia - Zoetis). From the 49 samples, 5 (10.2%) were considered positive with ZnSO4 flotation technique and 6 (12.24%) with the Witness® Giardia test. When considering the combination of both tests, 5 animals (10.2%) were considered positive. Of these, 3 (60%) were from the group under 6 months old, 1 (20%) from the 6-12 months and 1 from the 18-24 (20%) months. Within each group, in the under 6 months group 18.75% (n = 16) were considered positive, 16.67% in the 6-12 month group (n = 6), 0% in the 12-18 month group (n=13) and 7.14% in 18-24 month group (n = 14). None of the animals had clinical signs and no significant differences were found when comparing prevalence according to age, breed or gender. A combination of fecal flotation and antigen ELISA tests have good sensitivity and are easy to perform in practice and, therefore, could be a good choice to perform a diagnostic and small animal veterinarians should have this possible diagnostic in mind when in the present of clinical signs, particularly in young dogs. PMID:27078649

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Riedl, M; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Hartmann, K

    2015-12-12

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to assess current prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) in adult, healthy dogs, including risk factors associated with lack of antibodies, and reaction to revaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). One hundred dogs routinely presented for vaccination were included in the study and vaccinated with a single dose of a combined MLV. Information was collected on signalment, origin, environment, vaccination history and side effects. Prevaccination and postvaccination antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression, was used to investigate association between different variables and presence of antibodies as well as titre increase. Protective CPV antibodies were present in 86.0 per cent of dogs. Intervals of more than four years since the last vaccination and rare contacts with other dogs were determined as main risk factors for the absence of antibodies. An increase in titres only occurred in 17.0 per cent of dogs. Dogs without protective titres before vaccination or with bodyweight <10 kg were more likely to have an adequate titre increase. Based on these findings, antibody status should be determined instead of periodic vaccinations to ensure reliable protection without unnecessary vaccinations in adult dogs. PMID:26514756

  10. Analysis of risk factors and prevalence of haemoplasma infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Aquino, L C; Kamani, J; Haruna, A M; Paludo, G R; Hicks, C A; Helps, C R; Tasker, S

    2016-05-15

    Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (CMhp) are canine haemoplasma species that can induce anaemia in immunocompromised and/or splenectomised dogs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogeny of canine haemoplasma species in dogs from Nigeria and describe any risk factors for infection. Canine haemoplasma species-specific and generic haemoplasma qPCR assays were used. The species-specific qPCR assays found Mhc infection in 18 of 245 dogs (7.3%), and CMhp infection in only one dog (0.4%). The generic haemoplasma qPCR assays were positive in 44 of 245 (17.9%) dogs. Twenty-five dogs had discordant qPCR results in that they were generic haemoplasma qPCR positive but species-specific qPCR negative. Further evaluation of these dogs by 16S rDNA sequencing gave limited results but 5 were confirmed to be infected with non-haemoplasma species: 2 Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 1 Anaplasma ovis, 1 Serratia marcescens and 1 Aerococcus spp. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from Mhc species showed>99.8% identity with each other and>99.6% identity with GenBank sequences, and resided in a single clade with other global Mhc and Mycoplasma haemofelis sequences, indicating low 16S rRNA genetic variability amongst this canine haemoplasma species. PMID:27084481

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs from Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cañón-Franco, W A; Bergamaschi, D P; Labruna, M B; Camargo, L M A; Souza, S L P; Silva, J C R; Pinter, A; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-07-10

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of this parasite because they are the only hosts known to excrete N. caninum oocysts. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed in serum samples from 157 dogs from Monte Negro, Rondônia, Amazon, Brazil using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 13 (8.3%) of dogs in titers of 1:50 in 1, 1:100 in 2, 1:200 in 5, 1:800 in 1, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2 dogs. These data indicate that N. caninum infection is prevalent even in remote areas of the Amazon. PMID:12860070

  12. The prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A

    2009-03-01

    A study of gastrointestinal parasites in 269 faecal samples from dogs (Canis familiaris) collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and December 2004, revealed seven helminth species: Toxocara canis 33.8%, Ancylostoma sp. 34.6%, Toxascaris leonina 3.3%, Trichuris vulpis 3.7%, Dipylidium caninum 4.1%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.7% and Taenia sp. 1.1%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean eggs per gram of faeces ( +/- SEM) were: T. canis 393.8 +/- 83.4, Ancylostoma sp. 101.5 +/- 32.8, T. leonina 14.3 +/- 7.9, T. vulpis 3.4 +/- 1.5, D. caninum 2.2 +/- 0.8, U. stenocephala 0.2 +/- 0.2. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in dogs of age 0-6 months than in older age groups. There was no significance difference in overall prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites between male (58.3%) and female (50.0%) dogs (P>0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in free-ranging than in kennelled dogs. The prevalence of helminth parasites was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in African shepherds than in Alsatians and other exotic breeds. Each helminth parasite had similar prevalences and intensities among both genders (P>0.05) except in T. vulpis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for dog care in Ile-Ife. Therefore, there is the need to establish a veterinary facility in Ile-Ife. PMID:18838021

  13. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Langoni, Helio; Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Monti, Elis Talita; Villa, Fausto Baptista

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are parasitic diseases of global importance. The present study had the objective to determine the influence of age, sex and breed in the prevalence of antibodies against both diseases in dogs from Brotas city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood samples of 342 dogs were collected, and the age, sex and breed of each animal were recorded. The serological diagnosis for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were performed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The Fischer’s test was used to calculate the association probability of the variables, with α = 5%. For toxoplasmosis the prevalence of antibodies was 26.9% (CI 95% 22.4–31.8%), and for neosporosis 4.97% (CI 95% 3.1–7.8%). The statistical analysis revealed a higher risk of infection for T. gondii in dogs with more than five years. PMID:24688530

  14. Prevalence of echinococcosis in street dogs in Tripole District, Libya.

    PubMed

    Ben Musa, Najla A; Sadek, Gehan S

    2007-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis due to E. granulosus is a serious public health and livestock economy problem in Libya. Kato thick smear examination of 50 street dogs stools showed that they had Echinococcus granulosus (58%), Taenia spp. (14%), Diplydium caninum (16%), Toxocara canis (121%) and 20% were parasite-free. The stool examination using Kato thick smear was more sensitive and more specific that the indirect haemaggutination test. The results were discussed with general review of the disease in Libya. PMID:18383781

  15. Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England

    PubMed Central

    O′Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence

  16. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    PubMed

    O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported

  17. Molecular prevalence and genetic characterization of piroplasms in dogs from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Rjeibi, Mohamed R; Amairia, Safa; Rouatbi, Mariem; Ben Salem, Fatma; Mabrouk, Moez; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the prevalence of piroplasms in dogs was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Babesia and Theileria species in 200 dogs from Northern and Central Tunisia between spring and autumn 2014. The overall molecular prevalence for piroplasms was 14·5% ± 0·05 (29/200); PCR detected 2 species, namely Babesia vogeli and Theileria annulata with an overall prevalence of 12·5 ± 0·04 and 2% ± 0·02, respectively. No differences in the molecular prevalences of B. vogeli were revealed for age and sex (P > 0·05). The molecular prevalence of B. vogeli was significantly higher in central Tunisia (26·5% ± 0·01) compared with the North (9·6% ± 0·04) (P 0·05). Comparison of the partial sequences of 18S rRNA and Tams 1 genes confirmed the presence of 2 novel B. vogeli and T. annulata genotypes. This is the first molecular detection of T. annulata and genetic characterization of dogs' piroplasms in Tunisia. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiological feature of piroplasms infection in North Africa. PMID:27417681

  18. [Current prevalence of toxocariasis and other intestinal parasitoses among dogs in Bratislava].

    PubMed

    Totková, A; Klobusický, M; Holková, R; Friedová, L

    2006-02-01

    Contamination of public open spaces with dog feces was monitored in five Bratislava districts. Only two of 459 fecal samples collected originated from cats and tested positive for Toxocara cati while the remaining samples were dog feces. Intestinal parasites were detected in 215 (46.8%) samples, with Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati being recovered from 86 (18.7%) and 2 (0.4%) samples, respectively. Taenia sp., Dipilidium caninum, Ancylostoma sp., Capillaria sp., Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides sp. were also among intestinal worms detected. Of these, parasitic helminths of the genera Ancylostoma, Taenia and Strongyloides appeared to be of epizootic importance. Giardia was the significantly most frequent genus among intestinal protozoans while Isospora, Sarcocystis and Cryptosporidium were considerably less common. Toxocara canis showed similar distribution in all districts monitored. The prevalence rates ranged from 18.6% to 20.7% in districts I to IV. The lowest prevalence rate of 16.1% was found in district V situated on the other bank of the Danube, which can be explained by a particular epizootic process in the city district separated by the river. The detection rates of parasites from dog feces suggested a seasonal trend, ranging from 40.5% in winter to 50% in autumn. Toxocara canis also showed 10% higher prevalence rates in autumn (23.5%) compared to winter (13.5%). Significantly higher rates of parasites were recovered from fresh dog feces. PMID:16528895

  19. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Pet Dogs in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei-Feng; Yan, Wen-Chao; Wang, Tian-Qi; Zhai, Kai; Han, Li-Fang; Lv, Chao-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Henan Province, Central China was investigated. A total of 125 blood samples were collected from pet dogs during April to June 2013, and all samples were examined by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA) and nested PCR. The overall T. gondii prevalence in pet dogs was 24.0% (30/125), with 20.8% (26/125) in IHA and 10.4% (13/125) in PCR, respectively. No statistical associations were found between animal gender and age and the prevalence of T. gondii infection. Thirteen positive DNA samples were genotyped using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, (3’+5’) SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Of these, only 2 samples were genotyped with complete data for all loci, and a novel genotype (type III at SAG3 and GRA6 loci, and type I at other loci) was identified. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in dogs in China. PMID:25748720

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Faecal Shedding of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Dogs in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olabanji, Gbemisola Magaret; Maikai, Beatty Viv; Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrhoeal illness in man and animals worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with faecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in dogs in FCT Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 276 dog faecal samples were examined using Modified Acid Fast (MAF) technique and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Fifteen (5.4%) and 51 (18.5%) out of the 276 dog faecal samples examined were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and coproantigens, respectively. There was a fair agreement (0.371) between the two tests used in this study. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was highest in 4 dogs (21.0%) between 3 and 9 months of age. Ten diarrhoeic dogs (30.3%) and 31 dogs from rural settlements were more infected (22.46%) with Cryptosporidium oocysts. There was statistical association between prevalence of Cryptosporidium and confinement of dogs (OR = 0.41; 95% CI on OR: 0.21 < OR < 0.80). However, there was no statistical association (P > 0.05) between prevalence of Cryptosporidium and age, diarrhoeic status of the dogs, sex, breed, and location. A total of 62.7% respondents did not have prior knowledge about dogs harbouring organisms that can infect humans. The finding of this research is of public health significance. PMID:26881184

  1. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in domestic and stray dogs in a rural area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Motevalian, Abbas; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Razmjou, Elham

    2013-04-01

    Certain zoonotic parasites are enteropathogens in dogs that cause serious human disease such as cystic echinococcosis, human alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans. This study investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs in the Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. Sampling was carried out randomly in 17 villages from November 2009 to January 2010. Seventy-seven fecal samples from 28 domestic and 49 stray dogs were examined using sieving/flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Intestinal parasites were found in 51 of the 77 (66%) dogs most common being Toxascaris leonina (29%, 22/77), Toxocara spp. (25%, 19/77), Eimeria spp. (19%, 15/77), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (18%, 14/77), Sarcocystis spp. (17%, 13/77), and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (14%, 11/77). Lower infection rates of parasites were observed for Trichuris vulpis (6%, 5/77), Cryptosporidium spp. (5%, 4/77), and Physaloptera spp. (3%, 2/77). Prevalence of infection by Dipylidium caninum, Capillaria spp., Cystoisospora spp., and hookworms was similar (1%, 1/77). This study is the first report of the prevalence of intestinal parasites of domestic and stray dogs in Chenaran County, Northeast Iran. The higher prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites such as Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara spp. and Taenia/Echinococcus spp. compared to other parasites indicates the need for control programs to minimize the risk of transmission of zoonotic disease, particularly cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans to people living in these areas. PMID:23044475

  2. Prevalence and diagnosis of Giardia infection in dogs and cats using a fecal antigen test and fecal smear.

    PubMed

    Olson, Merle E; Leonard, Nancy J; Strout, Jessie

    2010-06-01

    The SNAP fecal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Giardia test was used to determine the prevalence of Giardia in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs. The test was positive in 241 (13.0%) dogs and 16 (4.1%) cats. Giardia cysts were detected in only 61 of the 241 dogs and 4 of the 16 cats that were test positive. PMID:20808578

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Santos, H; Neto, F; Rodrigues, M; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Cardoso, L

    2011-06-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1 : 20 as cutoff for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%) and females (41.8%) and between pure-breed (42.1%) and mixed-breed dogs (35.2%) were not statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age above 12 mo (odds ratio [OR]  =  4.0), chance of eating birds or small mammals (OR  =  4.0), housing exclusively outdoors (OR  =  1.5), home-cooked meals (OR  =  3.0), and eating raw meat or viscera (OR  =  7.7) as risk factors for the canine T. gondii infection. Some control measures are suggested based on these findings. PMID:21506866

  4. Prevalence of the generalist flea Pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, USA: the importance of considering imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Antolin, Michael F; Long, Dustin H; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-04-01

    If a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. We fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (Siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) during June-August 2012 in the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico, USA. With the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: Oropsylla hirusta (a prairie dog specialist) and Pulex simulans (a generalist). Detection probability was <100% for both species and about 21% lower for P. simulans. Pulex simulans may be especially difficult to detect because it is about half the size of O. hirusta. Monthly occupancy (prevalence) for P. simulans was estimated at 24% (June, 95% confidence interval = 19-30), 39% (July, 32-47), and 56% (August, 49-64) in new prairie dog colonies, and 43% (32-54), 61% (49-71), and 79% (70-87) in old colonies. These results suggest P. simulans can attain high prevalence on prairie dogs, especially in old colonies. If P. simulans is highly prevalent on prairie dogs, it may serve as a "bridge vector" between Cynomys and other mammalian hosts of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, and even function as a reservoir of Y. pestis between outbreaks. PMID:25588009

  5. Prevalence of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in dogs from West of Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharekhani, Jamal; Heidari, Heidar; Hajian-Bidar, Hassan; Abbasi-Doulatshahi, Ehsan; Edalati-Shokat, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of present study was to determine the sero-prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) among stray and owner shepherd dogs in Hamedan province, West of Iran. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2013 using enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). Blood samples (n = 380) were collected randomly from 170 stray and 210 owner shepherd dogs in different regions of Hamedan province. All of animals were asymptomatic. Antibodies to Leishmania infantum were found 3.95 % (0.95 CI: 2-5.9 %). The sero-prevalence rate of infection in stray dogs (6.47 %) was reported higher than owner shepherd dogs (1.9 %) (P = 0.023). There was significant differences among age groups (P = 0.003); unlike to different gender (P = 0.11). This is the first report of CVL in western Iran. Further comprehensive studies in infection rate and predominant Leishmania species in humans, sand flies and animals hosts (wild canines and rodents) is recommended in this region. PMID:27605819

  6. Combined prevalence of inherited skeletal disorders in dog breeds in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Coopman, F; Broeckx, B; Verelst, E; Deforce, D; Saunders, J; Duchateau, L; Verhoeven, G

    2014-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD), canine elbow dysplasia (CED), and humeral head osteochondrosis (HHOC) are inherited traits with uneven incidence in dog breeds. Knowledge of the combined prevalence of these three disorders is necessary to estimate the effect of the currently applied breeding strategies, in order to improve the genetic health of the population. Official screening results of the Belgian National Committee for Inherited Skeletal Disorders (NCSID) revealed that an average of 31.8% (CHD, CED, or both; n = 1273 dogs) and 47.2% (CHD, CED, HHOC, or a combination of these three diseases; n = 250 dogs) of dogs are mildly to severely affected by at least one skeletal disorder. According to the current breeding recommendations in some dog breeds in Belgium, these animals should be restricted (mild signs) or excluded (moderate to severe signs) from breeding. The introduction of genetic parameters, such as estimated breeding values, might create a better approach to gradually reduce the incidence of these complex inherited joint disorders, without compromising genetic population health. PMID:25078710

  7. Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Nilima N.; Patel, P. V.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Pandya, Suchit S.; Joshi, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of ancylostomosis in dogs by a collection of fecal samples from Anand district. Materials and Methods: The fecal samples were collected from the dogs brought to the Hospital of Veterinary College (Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex) and the surrounding areas of Anand district. On the day of collection, fecal samples were collected and brought to the Department of Veterinary Parasitology and processed for standard qualitative examination. The sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in the samples. Result: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of May (36.66% fecal samples) and the lowest in the month of December (13.79% fecal samples) at Anand district. Conclusion: It can be concluded that heavy infection is present in Anand district especially in the season of summer followed by monsoon and the least in winter. PMID:27047052

  8. PREVALENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC COLONIC MUSCULARIS HYPERECHOIC BAND PARALLELING THE SEROSAL LAYER IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Lim, Chee Kin; Miller, Margaret A; Broman, Meaghan M

    2015-01-01

    The muscularis layer of the canine colon has been reported to appear homogeneously hypoechoic on ultrasonography. A hyperechoic band in the muscularis layer paralleling the serosal surface has been observed by authors in routine canine abdominal ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this prospective and retrospective cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of this lesion, characterize its ultrasonographic and postmortem histologic features, and correlate its presence with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. In the prospective study, all dogs that underwent routine abdominal ultrasonography by one of two observers during a 4-week period were included without any exclusion criteria. One observer reviewed ultrasound images and recorded the presence or absence of this lesion and its distribution, e.g. focal (< 2 cm long) or diffuse (> 2 cm long). In the retrospective study, all dogs that had both abdominal ultrasonography and necropsy from January 2011 to December 2013 were included without any exclusion criteria. Histologic examinations were performed by two observers and Masson's trichrome stain was used to identify fibrous collagen. Prevalence for the hyperechoic band was 32% in the prospective and 4.8% in the retrospective sample populations, respectively. The hyperechoic band appeared as diffuse, focal, or a combination of both. Histologic sections were available for six dogs. In a few cases, the lesion corresponded to the presence of fibrous tissue in the myenteric plexus or in the tunica muscularis. None of the dogs had a history of diarrhea. Findings supported the hypothesis that a colonic muscularis hyperechoic band paralleling the serosal layer in dogs could be a normal variant rather than a marker of disease. PMID:26180007

  9. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs in a highly endemic area of Poland.

    PubMed

    Karamon, Jacek; Samorek-Pierog, Malgorzata; Kochanowski, Maciej; Dabrowska, Joanna; Sroka, Jacek; Golab, Elzbieta; Umhang, Gerald; Cencek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to estimate the epizootic situation concerning infection by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus) from a Polish region where this parasite is highly prevalent in red foxes. Faecal samples (n = 148) were collected from rural dogs in Podkarpackie Province. Samples were examined through nested PCR (for E. multilocularis), multiplex PCR (E. multilocularis, species of Taenia Linnaeus, 1758) and PCR [E. granulosus (Batsch, 1786)]. Specific products were sequenced. Faeces were also examined coproscopically. In samples from two dogs (1.4%), there were positive PCR results for E. multilocularis. Taenia-specific PCR products were found in nine dogs (6.1%). Sequencing identified Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847), T. hydatigena Pallas, 1766, T. pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786). One sample (0.7%) was identified as Mesocestoides litteratus (Batsch, 1786). All samples were negative for E. granulosus with PCR. Taking into account coproscopic and PCR results, 28% of dogs were infected with helminths (8% with tapeworms). It should be stressed that one of the infected with E. multilocularis dogs shed eggs of the Taenia type and had a habit of preying on rodents. This investigation revealed the presence of E. multilocularis in dogs for the first time in Poland. PMID:27311792

  10. Rabies and Dog Bites Cases in Lagos State Nigeria: A Prevalence and Retrospective Studies (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K. P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rabies antigen in brain of dogs slaughtered for consumption and those that died in veterinary clinics as well as to obtain a 6-year retrospective data on dog bites/suspected dog rabies cases in Lagos State. Dog brain samples were collected from dog slaughter slabs and veterinary clinics (for dogs that died in clinics) across the Lagos state while data for retrospective studies (2006-2011) of dog bite/suspected rabies cases were collected from public (government owned) and private veterinary clinics across the state. Out of the 444 brain samples collected and tested for presence of rabies antigen using the direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT) only 7 (1.58%) were positive for the rabies antigen. A total of 196 dog bites/suspected rabies cases were encountered between January 2006 and December, 2011 in the veterinary clinics with adults been the major (55.61%) victims. Majority (96.43%) of the offending dogs were not quarantined at the time of bite and only one out of the quarantined dogs died and was confirmed positive for rabies antigen. The result of this study indicates that rabies antigen is present among dogs slaughtered in Lagos State and may pose a threat to public health. Though, available records showed that provocation of dogs was the major cause of dog bites and both children and adults fell victim of dog bites, there was a poor record keeping practice in the veterinary clinics across the state. PMID:24373270

  11. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in non-diarrhoeic dogs in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Seepersadsingh, N; Adesiyun, A A; Seebaransingh, R

    2004-09-01

    The estimated prevalence and antimicrobial resistances of Salmonella spp. in non-diarrhoeic dogs across Trinidad was determined. The serotypes of Salmonella spp. isolated were also identified. Of a total of 1391 dogs sampled, 50 (3.6%) were positive for Salmonella spp. with 28 different serotypes, the predominant serotypes were Javiana (12), Newport (6), Arechavaleta (5) and Heidelberg (5). Fifty-seven (85.1%) of 67 isolates exhibited resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents. Of eight antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was exhibited to streptomycin (80.6%), cephalothin (37.3%), neomycin (38.8%) and gentamicin (9.0%). All isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, norfloxacin, choramphenicol and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the isolation of the Salmonella spp. from non-diarrhoeic dogs could pose health hazard to their owners as most serotypes are known to be virulent. Furthermore, the prevalence of resistance to antimicrobial agents amongst the Salmonella isolates from these animals indicates susceptibility testing may influence chemotherapeutic choices when treating these isolates. PMID:15525361

  13. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  14. Prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs and rodents and their possible role in human leptospirosis from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Patil, D; Dahake, R; Roy, S; Mukherjee, S; Chowdhary, A; Deshmukh, R

    2014-01-01

    A total of 100 blood and 18 urine samples of rodents and suspected dogs were collected from Mumbai, India during 2006-2008. In order to determine the role of animals in transmission of the disease to humans, all the samples were screened retrospectively by real-time polymerase chain reaction for leptospiral DNA and antibodies were detected using microscopic agglutination test. Leptopsiral DNA was detected from two blood and five urine samples from rodents. Of a total of 71 rodent and dog samples investigated for anti-Leptospira antibodies, 14 (19.7%) were positive. Pyrogenes was the predominant serovar found in 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7) from suspected canine cases and rodents, respectively; followed by Icterohemorrhagiae, which was found in one rodent sample 14.28% (1/7). The study proves that there is high prevalence of leptospirosis in rodents and dogs in this region, which proves possible role of these animals in transmission of leptospires to humans. Hence it is imperative to necessary control measures to prevent human leptospirosis. PMID:24399392

  15. Prevalence estimation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in dogs from Finland using novel dog anti-TBEV IgG MAb-capture and IgG immunofluorescence assays based on recombinant TBEV subviral particles.

    PubMed

    Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Pérez; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Åland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Åland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans. PMID:27189583

  16. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (p<0.0001). Thirty five percent (51/146) of the dogs were infested with ticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (p<0.029). This is the first description of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the

  17. Seasonal fluctuations in prevalence of dog intestinal parasites in public squares of Mar del Plata city, Argentina and its risk for humans.

    PubMed

    Andresiuk, V; Sardella, N; Denegri, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze whether there is a seasonal prevalence of parasites in dog feces from public squares in Mar del Plata city, Argentina, and to evaluate the climatic conditions that promote the development of parasites and allow the transmission to people. The study was performed in 21 squares from June 2001 to May 2002. Samples were processed by the Willis technique. Differences in prevalence of parasites were examined for significance by the Chi-square test. Climatic data were obtained from the Library of the National Meteorological Service of Argentina. Total parasitic prevalence was higher in winter than in summer. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was higher in the summer-autumn period. For Toxocara canis, the prevalence was higher in winter whereas for Trichuris vulpis, it was higher in winter, spring and summer. This work shows high prevalence of total parasites throughout the year. For Ancylostoma spp., summer and autumn might be the seasons with higher sanitary risk. On the other hand, T. canis could present the higher risk to people in winter and, T. vulpis, would be transmitted throughout the whole year. The seasonal variation in prevalence of dog parasites results in continuous exposure to people visiting the squares, not only Mar del Plata residents but also tourists from other regions of Argentina and the world, with at least one species of parasite with sanitary risk. PMID:18390156

  18. Prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens in dogs from the Stretto di Messina area (Italy).

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Caprì, Alessandra; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Lombardo, Gabriella; Torina, Alessandra; Masucci, Marisa

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence for Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia canis in outdoor-kennelled dogs (n=249) from the Stretto di Messina (Italy) and to compare seroprevalence in 2 public shelters and 4 privately-owned kennels where different tick-preventive measures were implemented in order to focus on the specific sanitary risk posed by public shelters in southern Italy for tick-borne pathogens. R. conorii (72%) and B. canis (70%) were the most prevalent infections when compared to E. canis (46%) and A. phagocytophilum (38%). Seroprevalence for R. conorii, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher in public shelters than in private kennels. However, B. canis seropositivity was similar in both types of kennels. In addition, in private kennels where a regular ectocide treatment was carried out by means of spot-on devices, dogs did not present E. canis and A. phagocytophilum antibodies. One hundred fifty-one dogs out of 249 (61%) were seropositive to more than one pathogen with R. conorii and B. canis the most common ones. Coinfections were more frequently found in public-shelter dogs. This study demonstrated high seroprevalences against R. conorii, B. canis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in kennelled dogs from both coastal sites of the Stretto di Messina and the importance of regular tick-bite prevention by means of individual spot-on devices. PMID:23140895

  19. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from stray pet dogs and hospitalized pet dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Hee-Soo; Byun, Jae-Won; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Jung, Suk-Chan; Joo, Yi-Seok; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2010-03-01

    A total of 628 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from 877 intestinal samples of stray pet dogs (n = 565) and hospitalized pet dogs (n = 312) in Korea were analyzed for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. Most common resistance observed in E. coli isolated from both groups of dogs was to tetracycline (52.4-53.6%), streptomycin (35.8-41.7%), ampicillin (32.9-47.1%), nalidixic acid (21.6-37.4%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (19.7-36.4%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin was observed in 19.4% (17.1-24.3%), 18% (16.1-21.8%), and 16.1% (13.5-21.4%) of the isolates, respectively. No E. coli isolated from hospitalized dogs showed resistance to imipenem and cefepime, whereas three (0.7%) isolates from stray dogs were resistant to cefepime. Some of the isolates from both groups showed resistance to cefotaxime (2.4-3.9%) and amikacin (0.5-1.5%). In general, the frequency of resistance tended to be higher in isolates from hospitalized dogs than isolates from stray dogs against most antimicrobials tested. Around 39% (162/422) and 27% (55/206) of E. coli isolates from stray dogs and hospitalized dogs were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, respectively. Multiresistance (> or = 3 subclasses of antimicrobials) was observed in 32% and 48% of E. coli isolates from stray dogs and hospitalized dogs, respectively. More attention should be paid to the use of antimicrobials and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in companion animals. PMID:20192822

  20. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs in Moroto and Bukedea districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Oba, Peter; Ejobi, Francis; Omadang, Leonard; Chamai, Martin; Okwi, Andrew Livex; Othieno, Emmanuel; Inangolet, Francis Olaki; Ocaido, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in Moroto and Bukedea districts of Uganda from May to September 2013 to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs. Fresh dog faecal samples were collected, preserved in 70 % ethanol, and later screened for presence of taeniid eggs using zinc chloride floatation method. Positive samples were confirmed by a copro-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for E. granulosus using NADH dehydrogenase sub-unit 1 gene (NADH1) as a target molecular marker. Structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data for risk factor identification. Study sub-counties were selected by simple random sampling. Overall apparent prevalence of taeniid infection in dogs of 14.9 % (39/261, confidence interval 10.6-19.2) in both districts was recorded using the faecal floatation test. The sensitivity of the faecal floatation test was found to be 78 % (25/32), while the specificity was 93 % (215/229). Copro-PCR results revealed a true prevalence of 14.4 % (9.91-19.0, 95 % CI) in dogs in Moroto district and 7.4 % (2.14-12.60, 95 % CI) in Bukedea district. The overall true prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was 12.2 % (8.70-15.76, 95 % CI) in both districts. The major risk factors identified using logistic regression were uncontrolled access of dogs to animal slaughter facilities, higher cattle herd sizes and lack of knowledge about the disease. It was recommended that restricting dog access to infected tissues and public health education about epidemiology of CE should be done. PMID:26526956

  2. Highly athletic terrestrial mammals: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Poole, David C; Erickson, Howard H

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary forces drive beneficial adaptations in response to a complex array of environmental conditions. In contrast, over several millennia, humans have been so enamored by the running/athletic prowess of horses and dogs that they have sculpted their anatomy and physiology based solely upon running speed. Thus, through hundreds of generations, those structural and functional traits crucial for running fast have been optimized. Central among these traits is the capacity to uptake, transport and utilize oxygen at spectacular rates. Moreover, the coupling of the key systems--pulmonary-cardiovascular-muscular is so exquisitely tuned in horses and dogs that oxygen uptake response kinetics evidence little inertia as the animal transitions from rest to exercise. These fast oxygen uptake kinetics minimize Intramyocyte perturbations that can limit exercise tolerance. For the physiologist, study of horses and dogs allows investigation not only of a broader range of oxidative function than available in humans, but explores the very limits of mammalian biological adaptability. Specifically, the unparalleled equine cardiovascular and muscular systems can transport and utilize more oxygen than the lungs can supply. Two consequences of this situation, particularly in the horse, are profound exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia as well as structural failure of the delicate blood-gas barrier causing pulmonary hemorrhage and, in the extreme, overt epistaxis. This chapter compares and contrasts horses and dogs with humans with respect to the structural and functional features that enable these extraordinary mammals to support their prodigious oxidative and therefore athletic capabilities. PMID:23737162

  3. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  4. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection of Dogs from an Urban Area of Brazil as Identified by Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2011-01-01

    Background Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and “in house”), and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n = 1,213) animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n = 296) and PCR-negative (n = 917) for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. Principal Findings Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9%) were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7%) were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family incomedog staying predominantly in the backyard (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.1–4.1), and a lack of previous serological examination for VL (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.1–2.3). Conclusions PCR detected a high prevalence of L. infantum infection in dogs in an area under the Control Program of VL intervention. Socioeconomic variables, dog behavior and the knowledge of the owner regarding the vector were

  5. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of canine kobuviruses in diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Chunqiu; WEI, Shan; GUO, Donghua; WANG, Zhihui; GENG, Yufei; WANG, Enyu; ZHAO, Xiwen; SU, Mingjun; WANG, Xinyu; SUN, Dongbo

    2015-01-01

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses that have been recently detected in dogs in the U.S.A., Italy, U.K., the Republic of Korea and Tanzania. To trace the evolution of CaKV strains, a total of 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs, which were obtained from May 2014 to April 2015 in northeast China, were detected by reverse transcription-PCR targeting a partial (504 bp) fragment of the 3D gene. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of the CaKV strains identified in northeast China was conducted based on the partial 3D gene sequence. The results indicated that 36 fecal samples (17.91%, 36/201) were positive for CaKV, in which the co-infection rates of canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus-2 and canine bocavirus were 58.33%, 41.67%, and 11.11%, respectively. Sequence comparison of the partial 3D gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 94.4–100%, 95.6–98.6%, 94.3–97.6%, 94.4–96.3% and 93.3–95.1% within the 36 Chinese CaKV strains, and between the 36 Chinese CaKV strains and four CaKV reference strains from South Korea, Italy, U.S.A. and Tanzania, respectively. A phylogenetic tree revealed that the 36 Chinese CaKV strains formed one specific CaKV lineage with CaKVs that have recently been identified in other countries. The 36 Chinese CaKV strains were closely related to CaKV reference strains from Asia and Europe, but differed genetically from CaKV reference strains from North America and Africa. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoetic dogs in China and that they exhibit substantial genetic diversity and high co-infection rates with other enteric viruses. PMID:26256044

  6. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of canine kobuviruses in diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunqiu; Wei, Shan; Guo, Donghua; Wang, Zhihui; Geng, Yufei; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Su, Mingjun; Wang, Xinyu; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-02-01

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses that have been recently detected in dogs in the U.S.A., Italy, U.K., the Republic of Korea and Tanzania. To trace the evolution of CaKV strains, a total of 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs, which were obtained from May 2014 to April 2015 in northeast China, were detected by reverse transcription-PCR targeting a partial (504 bp) fragment of the 3D gene. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of the CaKV strains identified in northeast China was conducted based on the partial 3D gene sequence. The results indicated that 36 fecal samples (17.91%, 36/201) were positive for CaKV, in which the co-infection rates of canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus-2 and canine bocavirus were 58.33%, 41.67%, and 11.11%, respectively. Sequence comparison of the partial 3D gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 94.4-100%, 95.6-98.6%, 94.3-97.6%, 94.4-96.3% and 93.3-95.1% within the 36 Chinese CaKV strains, and between the 36 Chinese CaKV strains and four CaKV reference strains from South Korea, Italy, U.S.A. and Tanzania, respectively. A phylogenetic tree revealed that the 36 Chinese CaKV strains formed one specific CaKV lineage with CaKVs that have recently been identified in other countries. The 36 Chinese CaKV strains were closely related to CaKV reference strains from Asia and Europe, but differed genetically from CaKV reference strains from North America and Africa. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoetic dogs in China and that they exhibit substantial genetic diversity and high co-infection rates with other enteric viruses. PMID:26256044

  7. Prevalence and risk factors associated with endoparasitosis of dogs and cats in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Diefrey Ribeiro; Oliveira, Luanna Castro; de Siqueira, Daniele Fassina; Perin, Lívia Reisen; Campos, Nayara Camatta; Aptekmann, Karina Preising; Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for the occurrence of endoparasitosis in dogs and cats in Espírito Santo, Brazil. For the study, 345 dogs and 160 cats were examined. Faecal samples from the animals were collected, and owners were interviewed about their handling of their animals. For the diagnosis of the infections, the Willis-Molley, simple centrifugal flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques were performed. The data found in the tests were tabulated and analysed with a chi-square test (p <0.05), and calculation of odds ratios (OR) with confidence intervals of 95% were then performed to determine the association between the variables and the outcome of stool examinations. The prevalence of parasites was 59% for dogs and 54% for cats. The genus Ancylostoma was the most prevalent (45%). Supplying filtered water, not feeding raw foods, standardisation of a defecation site and cleaning up the faeces reduced the chances of developing intestinal parasites. An increased frequency of deworming was also shown to be a protective factor; specifically animals which received anthelmintic more than once a year had a lower predisposition for intestinal parasites. PMID:27447218

  8. The prevalence of nine genetic disorders in a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Bart J G; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E C; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H; Soetaert, Sandra S A; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n = 476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n = 8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  9. The Prevalence of Nine Genetic Disorders in a Dog Population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n = 476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n = 8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  10. Prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens 1, 4, and 7 in Podenco Ibicenco (Ibizan Hounds) from Ibiza Island

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Daniela; Viñals Flórez, Luis Miguel; Serra Gómez de la Serna, Blanca; del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Maria; Baggiani, Luciana; Perego, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens (DEA) 1, 4, and 7 in Ibizan hounds, to compare the results with the prevalence of DEA in Spanish greyhounds, and to determine the risk of sensitization following the first transfusion of blood not typed for DEA 1 and the probability of an acute hemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion using untyped DEA 1 blood. DEA 1, 4, and 7 status was determined in 92 Ibizan hounds. Results were compared with the previously reported prevalence in Spanish greyhounds. The risks of sensitization and of a hemolytic transfusion reaction were determined amongst Ibizan hounds and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds. The prevalence of DEA 1, 4, and 7 was 75%, 98.9%, and 25%, respectively. There was a significantly higher expression of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in Spanish greyhounds. The probability of sensitization of a recipient dog to DEA 1 with transfusions amongst Ibizan hounds was 18.5% and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds was 13.7%. The probability of an acute hemolytic reaction in each group was 3.5% and 1.9%, respectively. There is a higher prevalence of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in other sighthounds. PMID:27034890

  11. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Dhanani, Naila; Markel, Melissa E; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been suspected as an enteropathogen in dogs. However, its exact role in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in dogs remains unknown. Recent studies suggest the importance of an altered intestinal microbiota in the activation of virulence factors of enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between diarrhea, dysbiosis, and the presence of C. perfringens and its enterotoxin (CPE). Fecal samples were collected prospectively from 95 healthy control dogs and 104 dogs with GI disease and assessed for bacterial abundances and the presence of CPE using quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. C. perfringens was detected in all dogs. Potentially enterotoxigenic C. perfringens were detected in 33.7% (32/95) of healthy control dogs and 48.1% (50/104) diseased dogs, respectively. CPE was detected by ELISA in 1.0% (1/95) of control dogs and 16.3% (17/104) of diseased dogs. Abundances of Fusobacteria, Ruminococcaceae, Blautia, and Faecalibacterium were significantly decreased in diseased dogs, while abundances of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli were significantly increased compared to control dogs. The microbial dysbiosis was independent of the presence of the enterotoxigenic C. perfringens or CPE. In conclusion, the presence of CPE as well as fecal dysbiosis was associated with GI disease. However, the presence of C. perfringens was not indicative of GI disease in all cases of diarrhea, and the observed increased abundance of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens may be part of intestinal dysbiosis occurring in GI disease. The significance of an intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with GI disease deserves further attention. PMID:25458422

  12. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  13. Prevalence of rabies antibodies in street and household dogs in Chandigarh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mini P; Goyal, Kapil; Majumdar, Manasi; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the first survey for the detection of antirabies antibodies in street and household dogs in India. We aimed to check the efficacy of control programs for the disease in the Union territory of Chandigarh. The serum samples were collected from 100 street and 50 household dogs and tested for the presence of antirabies antibodies by ELISA. As per WHO criteria, a titre of >0.5 IU/ml of antirabies antibody in serum samples was taken as the protective level. Protective antirabies antibody titre was found only in 1% of the street dogs and 16% of the pet dogs. The awareness among the pet dog owners about the antirabies vaccination schedule was low as 18% did not know the vaccination status of the dog and 66% had got the initial immunization done with only three doses and annual boosters were not given. A National Rabies Elimination Program needs to be launched as a collaborative venture by both medical and veterinary practitioners to curb this deadly disease. Also periodic surveys to test the status of antirabies IgG among dogs need to be carried out to ascertain the attainment of WHO protective levels. PMID:20676764

  14. Prevalence of ectoparasites in owned dogs in Kerman city, southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Khovand, Hosein; Akhtardanesh, Baharak

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the intensity and distribution of natural infestation of ectoparasites in owned dogs during June to November 2011 in Kerman city, southeast of Iran. One hundred two domestic dogs (63 males, 39 females) with age ranged between 45 days to 13 years were examined for ectoparasites infestation including (tick, lice, flea and mite) in Kerman city. Detailed questionnaire about grooming and bathing interval, keeping place (outdoor, indoor) and purpose of keeping were obtained from owners. After complete skin examination, animals hairs were combed and their skin rubbed with a piece of cotton soaked in alcohol to remove the ectoparasites in apparently normal cases, and deep skin scratching were prepared from all type of lesions in symptomatic dogs. A total number of 149 ectoparasites were collected. The most common ectoparasite was Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, which infested 27 of the 102 dogs (26.47 %). Ctenocephalides canis was identified on two dogs (1.96 %) and 5 dogs infested with Hippobosca spp (4.9 %) that the highest infestation rate was seen in September (14.2 %). Studied samples were routinely checked for clinical symptoms. Itching and scratching lesions were the only reported signs which seen in flea infested dogs (6.4 %) and other infested dogs (93.5 %) had no clinical symptoms. Ectoparasites were significantly higher in outdoor dogs in compare with indoor group and the most tick infested location was ear (61.3 %) (P < 0.05). PMID:27413320

  15. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in cats and dogs in Heilongjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Jinping; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Siwen; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-15

    This study investigated 319 fecal specimens of cats (n=52) and dogs (n=267) from Heilongjiang province, China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene identified C. felis and C. parvum in one cat each (3.8%) and C. canis and C. ubiquitum in 6 dogs (2.2%). Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and phylogenetic analysis characterized zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, NED1, and NED2 and host-adapted ones NED3, NED4, and PtEb IX in 18 dogs (6.7%) and human-pathogenic genotypes D and IV in 3 cats (5.8%). Genotyping based on the hypermutation of G. duodenalis triosephosphate isomerase gene (TPI) facilitated identification of assemblage F in a cat (1.9%) and assemblages C and E in 12 dogs (4.5%). Subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates were determined by measuring the diversity of both TPI nucleotide and amino acid sequences. C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV, and G. duodenalis assemblage C identified herein have been documented in human infections in China. C. canis, C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, and E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV carried by cats or dogs also existed in wastewater in China. The finding suggested pet animals could be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis and potential sources of water contamination in China. PMID:25665462

  16. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  17. Prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hun

    2005-01-01

    The intestines and hearts of dogs were examined for Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Dirofilaria immitis, after necropsy between June 26 and September 29, 2004 in Chuncheon, Korea. Of the 662 dogs examined, 6 were infected with T. canis (0.9%), 86 with T. leonina (13.0%). Fifty dogs were infected with D. immitis among 500 dogs examined (10.0%). Five were co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina, and three were co-infected with T. leonina and D. immitis. The cumulative positive infection rate for three species was 134/662(20.2%). Considering previously reported seropositive rates of T. canis excretory-secretory antigen, i.e., 5% in the adult population in Korea, the possibility of toxocariasis caused by T. leonina should be reevaluated. PMID:15951642

  18. The prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs in Nueva Ecija, Philippines based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay.

    PubMed

    Corales, Joyce Marielle I; Viloria, Victoria V; Venturina, Virginia M; Mingala, Claro N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs. It describes the practice of veterinarians in detecting tick-borne diseases in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Seventy blood samples were collected and were subjected to multiplex PCR for the detection of E. canis, Babesia spp. and A. platys. The prevalence of babesiosis is the highest in Cabanatuan City (2/10), while a 10% prevalence (1/10) was observed in Science City of Muñoz, Talavera and Sta. Rosa. E. canis were only detected in Cabanatuan City. However, no anaplasmosis was detected in any area. The prevalence of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in Nueva Ecija is 7.14% (5/70) and 2.85% (2/70) respectively. In addition, 70% (7/10) of the Nueva Ecija veterinary practitioners encountered cases of suspected ehrlichiosis in their practice. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is based primarily on presented clinical signs and complete blood counts, which include a platelet count. Of the 10 respondents, half utilized test kits while 90% interpreted blood samples. Meanwhile, only 60% of the respondents used an ELISA test kit for ehrlichiosis. For some practitioners, the main reason for not utilizing a kit is the high cost. None of the respondents had previously attended cases of suspected anaplasmosis. Only one respondent diagnosed a case of babesiosis by blood smear microscopy. PMID:25706424

  19. Prevalence and risks for fishborne zoonotic trematode infections in domestic animals in a highly endemic area of North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Anh; Nguyen, Thi Phuong; Johansen, Maria Vang; Murrell, K Darwin; Phan, Thi Van; Dalsgaard, Anders; Luong, To Thu; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2009-11-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are endemic in humans and cultured fish in Vietnam but little is known about FZT in domestic animals. A study was designed to determine FZT prevalence and species diversity, and risk factors for infection, in dogs, cats and pigs. Faecal samples from 186 dogs, 94 cats and 168 pigs belonging to 132 households in Nghia Hung district, Nam Dinh province, were examined for small trematode eggs; those were trematode eggs with length less than 50 microm. Prevalence of FZT varied significantly between cats (70.2%), dogs (56.9%) and pigs (7.7%). Forty-nine of the egg-positive animals (25 dogs, 20 cats and 4 pigs) were necropsied to obtain adult trematodes for identification. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, and 11 species of intestinal flukes including Haplorchis, Stellantchasmus, Stictodora and Centrocestus were recovered from the infected animals. The practice of feeding raw fish to the animals was a significant risk factor for infection; this risk was reduced if the animals were periodically treated with anthelmintics. Based on the high prevalence of FZT and certain risky husbandry practices, domestic animals are likely to be major contributors of FZT eggs to the environment. Therefore, education of farmers to avoid feeding raw fish and to perform regular anthelmintic treatment of dogs, cats and pigs is needed in integrated FZT control programs. PMID:19660428

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia doudenalis in dogs from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dubao; Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Limei; Dong, Hong; Jing, Zhihong; Li, Zhan; Liu, Jianzhu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey for the presence of Giardia duodenalis infection in canine using ELISA and PCR and to identify risk factors for infection. Samples from 318 dogs' feces living in nine cities in China were used in the present study. Each sample was tested for the presence of G. duodenalis-specific antigens using ELISA and 197 out of 318 samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis using PCR. The overall rate of canines infected with giardiasis in the present study was 16.04% and 15.22% using ELISA and PCR, respectively. No significant difference was found between sex and Giardia positivity. Young dogs (up to one year) and living in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, giardiasis in dogs was present in nine cities in China; as risk factors, young dogs (up to one year) and living in communities were of great significance. Giardia-infected canine should be treated for hygienic management to prevent transmission of the infection from dog to human. PMID:24814763

  1. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples. PMID:21247022

  2. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Ballweber, Lora R; Allen, Kelly; Little, Susan E; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs. PMID:25686301

  3. Prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from Western Amazon, Brazil, in association with some possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Cavalcante, Guacyara T; Rodrigues, Aline A R; Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Camargo, Erney P; Gennari, Solange M

    2006-11-30

    For evaluation of the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and its associated risk factors, serum samples from 2109 cattle (11 beef, 50 dairy and 25 mixed farms) and 174 dogs were examined in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. An inquiry was applied in each farm. Sera were examined by the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT) using cut off dilution of 1:25 for cattle and 1:50 for dogs. Statistical association between the serologic status and several variables were analyzed by linear and logistic regression. The overall herd prevalence of anti-N. caninum antibodies for 86 farms was 72% (61.3-81.2%). Prevalence values were 100, 70 and 64% in beef, dairy and mixed herds, respectively. Herd prevalence in beef herds was significantly different (P<0.05) from dairy and mixed herds. The overall animal prevalence of N. caninum in cattle was 8.8%. Prevalence values by animal were similar in different production types (P>0.05), with values of 9.5, 11.2 and 9.7% for beef, dairy or mixed cattle, respectively. Antibodies were found in 12.6% of the 174 examined dogs. Sixteen (22.8%) out of 70 farms with dogs had at least one dog with anti-N. caninum antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies in cattle was statistically associated with farms having more than 25 cows (OR 9.7, 95% IC 2.9-32.2; P=0.0002). There was no significant association between the presence of the dogs, jungle contact or reproductive variables with the occurrence of antibodies in cattle. PMID:16857319

  4. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible. PMID:20532563

  5. Prevalence and genetic diversity of the intestinal parasites Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs in France and evaluation of zoonotic transmission risk.

    PubMed

    Osman, Marwan; Bories, Jessica; El Safadi, Dima; Poirel, Marie-Thérèse; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delhaes, Laurence; Hugonnard, Marine; Certad, Gabriela; Zenner, Lionel; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2015-11-30

    Several parasites including the protozoa Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. may be causative agents of gastrointestinal symptoms in domestic dogs, and there may be a potential risk of transmission to owners. While France is one of the largest European countries in terms of its canine population, little data is available about the molecular epidemiology of these two parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in household dogs in France, and to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by genotyping the corresponding isolates. To this end, 116 faecal samples were collected from household dogs regardless of breed, age or gender, living in the Lyons area, France. Various intestinal protozoa and helminths were identified by light microscopy. Screening for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were subsequently performed by PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rDNA coding region, followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and analysis of the sequences obtained for genotyping. The overall prevalence of dogs infected with at least one gastrointestinal parasite was 42.2% (49/116). After light microscopy examination of faecal samples, the most common parasites found were the protozoa Giardia sp. (25.0%) and Cystoisospora sp. (19.8%). Using molecular methods, four dogs (3.4%) were shown to be infected by Blastocystis sp. and carried either subtype (ST) 2, commonly identified in various animal groups, or ST10, frequently found in bovids. Three dogs (2.6%) were positive for C. canis, infecting humans episodically. The low prevalence of both parasites, combined with the identification of C. canis and Blastocystis sp. ST2 and ST10 in the canine population, strongly suggests that dogs play a negligible role as zoonotic reservoirs for both parasites and do not seem to be natural hosts of Blastocystis sp. PMID:26395822

  6. Risk factors associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in a metapopulation of black-tailed prairie dogs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Arteaga, Ana; Atilano, Daniel; Ayanegui, Alejandra; Ceballos, Gerardo; Suzán, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of infectious diseases of wildlife has grown in recent decades and now focuses on understanding host-parasite dynamics and factors involved in disease occurrence. The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a useful species for this type of investigation because it lives in heterogeneous landscapes where human activities take place, and its populations are structured as a metapopulation. Our goal was to determine if colony area, density, and proximity to human settlements are associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in black-tailed prairie dogs of northwestern Chihuahua State, Mexico. We captured 266 prairie dogs in 11 colonies in 2009 and analyzed 248 serum samples with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody to any of the 12 pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans. Serologically positive test results for only serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Celledoni, and Tarassovi were considered for statistical analysis. Almost 80% of sera were positive for at least one pathogenic serovar (MAT titer ≥1∶80). The highest recorded antibody prevalences were to serovars Bratislava and Canicola. Correlation analysis showed a negative relationship between L. interrogans antibody prevalence and colony area (r = -0.125, P<0.005), suggesting that animals living in larger colonies were at a lower risk than those in smaller colonies. The correlation between the serovar Canicola and distance was negative (r = -0.171, P<0.007), and this relationship may be explained by the presence of domestic dogs associated with human dwellings. This is the first study of Leptospira spp. antibody prevalence in prairie dogs, and it provides valuable insights into the dynamics of leptospirosis in threatened wildlife species. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of Leptospira serovars in metapopulations of prairie dogs and other domestic and wild mammals in grassland communities. PMID:25380365

  7. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    PubMed

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. PMID:27234542

  8. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  9. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  10. Zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. and prevalence of intestinal parasites in young dogs from different populations on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; McClure, J Trenton; Conboy, Gary; O'Handley, Ryan; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-09-23

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs <1 year old from Prince Edward Island, Canada. Fecal samples were collected from the local animal shelter (n=62), private veterinary clinics (n=78) and a pet store (n=69). Intestinal parasites isolated included G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxocara canis, Isospora spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala. To estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections, genotypes of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were determined using 16S rRNA and Hsp70 gene sequencing, respectively. Dogs from the pet store had the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites (78%, 95% CI: 68-88%), followed by the private veterinary clinics (49%, 95% CI: 37-60%), and the local animal shelter (34%, 95% CI: 22-46%). The majority G. duodenalis belonged to host-adapted assemblages D (47%, 95% CI: 31-64%) and C (26%, 95% CI: 13-43%), respectively. Zoonotic assemblages A and B were isolated alone or in mixed infections from 16% (95% CI: 6-31%) of G. duodenalis-positive dogs. All Cryptosporidium spp. were the host-adapted C. canis. While host-adapted, non-zoonotic G. duodenalis genotypes were more common, the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, T. canis, and U. stenocephala suggests that these dogs may present a zoonotic risk. The zoonotic risk from Cryptosporidium-infected dogs was minimal. PMID:23601666

  11. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex. PMID:26804633

  12. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures. PMID:19728899

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Ali, C N; Harris, J A; Watkins, J D; Adesiyun, A A

    2003-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii agglutinins and to investigate the relationship between various risk factors and occurrence of toxoplasmosis in dogs in Trinidad. Of a total 250 dogs, comprising domestic, hunting and stray dogs, 80 (32.0%) were positive for T. gondii agglutinins at a titre of > or =1:32 using a latex agglutination test. Stray dogs (60.5%) had statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) seroprevalence for toxoplasmosis than hunting dogs (30.5%) and domestic dogs (25.5%). Amongst dogs whose ages were known, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly highest (P=0.037) in dogs in the >2-3 years age group compared with other age groups. Dogs that consumed home-cooked foods had a seroprevalence of 32.9% compared with those fed commercial dog foods (17.2%) and dogs fed both home-cooked and commercial foods (21.0%). However, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05; chi(2)). The rather high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray dogs is a good indication of the extent of the infection in the environment. PMID:12719132

  14. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  15. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  16. Prevalence and co-occurrence of hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia in Dutch pure-bred dogs.

    PubMed

    Lavrijsen, I C M; Heuven, H C M; Meij, B P; Theyse, L F H; Nap, R C; Leegwater, P A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-05-01

    Hip as well as elbow dysplasia (HD, ED) are developmental disorders leading to malformation of their respective joints. For a long time both disorders have been scored and targeted for improvement using selective breeding in several Dutch dog populations. In this paper all scores for both HD and ED, given to pure bred dogs in the Netherlands from 2002 to 2010, were analyzed. Heritabilities and correlations between HD and ED were calculated for the 4 most frequently scored breeds. Heritabilities ranged from 0.0 to 0.37 for HD related traits (FCI-score, osteoarthritis, congruity, shape and laxity (Norberg angle); FCI: Fédération Cynologique Internationale) and from 0.0 to 0.39 for ED related traits (IEWG score, osteoarthritis, sclerosis and indentation; IEWG: International Elbow Working Group). HD related traits showed high genetic and residual correlations among each other but were only to a minor extent correlated with ED related traits, which also showed high correlations among each other. Genetic correlations were higher than residual correlations. Phenotypic and genetic trends since 2001 for the four most scored breeds were slightly positive but decreasing over time, indicating that selection over the past decade has not been effective. PMID:24588976

  17. MHC variability supports dog domestication from a large number of wolves: high diversity in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P

    2013-01-01

    The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA–DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA–DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392

  18. Prevalence of ultrasound-determined cystic endometrial hyperplasia and the relationship with age in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Rachel; Whiteside, Helen; England, Gary C W

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential relationship between age and diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the bitches, 348 ultrasound examinations from 240 bitches (Labradors, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, Flat Coated Retrievers, or crosses of those breeds aged between 1.6 and 7.2 years at examination) were examined. A subpopulation of 32 bitches that had completed their breeding careers at 6 years or more of age was also identified. Of all, 18.3% of the bitches were diagnosed with CEH; these cases were newly diagnosed when bitches were between 2.5 years and 7.3 years of age. The proportion of ultrasound examinations in which CEH was identified increased from 6.8% of examinations on 2-year-old breeding bitches to 60.0% of examinations on 6-year-old bitches. Logistic regression identified a positive correlation between mean age at the examination and presence of CEH (χ(2) = 30.74, degrees of freedom = 1, P < 0.001). For 32 bitches that had completed their breeding career, the prevalence of CEH was 56.3%, age at the diagnosis ranged from 3.8 to 7.3 years, and the proportion of bitches affected with CEH increased from 6.3% at 3 years of age to 56.3% at 7 years of age. These data support the contention that the prevalence of CEH increases with age. PMID:27087536

  19. Prevention of fatal hemorrhagic shock in dog by pretreatment with chronic high-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Rocchini, A P; Gallagher, K P; Botham, M J; Lemmer, J H; Szpunar, C A; Behrendt, D

    1985-09-01

    The ability of a chronic high-salt diet to prevent fatal hemorrhagic shock was examined in 36 mongrel dogs. Twenty-one dogs received a dietary supplement of 9 g sodium chloride/day for 6 wk, and 15 dogs received the same basic diet for 6 wk but without the sodium chloride supplement. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in all dogs by bleeding into an overhanging sealed reservoir. After 3 h of shock, salt-pretreated dogs had a lower systemic vascular resistance of 0.70 +/- 0.02 versus 1.44 +/- 0.04 mmHg X ml-1 X min X kg (P less than 0.01) and a higher cardiac output of 53 +/- 3 versus 26 +/- 3 ml X min-1 X kg-1 (P less than 0.01) than was observed in controls. At 2.5 h of shock, the salt-pretreated dogs also experienced an increase in gastrointestinal (P less than 0.01), hepatic arterial, (P less than 0.05), kidney (P less than 0.05), brain (P less than 0.01), and heart blood flows (P less than 0.001) compared with 0.5 h of shock, whereas the control dogs experienced no increased flow during this same period. We also observed that after 3 h of hypotension there was a significantly smaller increase in plasma renin activity in the salt-pretreated dogs. Administration of 0.1 U X kg-1 X min-1 of hog renin eliminated the differences in systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and survival in five salt-pretreated dogs. PMID:3929625

  20. Age-dependant prevalence of endoparasites in young dogs and cats up to one year of age.

    PubMed

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2013-08-01

    The results of parasitological examination of faecal samples from 1,206 cats and 2,319 dogs of known age up to one year were analysed. Eggs of Toxocara canis were detected in dogs for the first time at the beginning of the 3rd week, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. at the beginning of the 4th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (52.5 %) were demonstrated in the 12th week, I. canis (30.0 %) in the 15th week, I. ohioensis complex (44.0 %) in the 6th week, Isospora spp. (50.0 %) in the 7th week and T. canis (22.2 %) in the 4th week p.p. Co-infections with Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (28.0 %), T. canis + Isospora spp. 16.0 %) and T. canis + Giardia spp. (12.0 %) were mainly seen in the 6th week p.p. In cats, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. were seen from the 3rd week and eggs of Toxocara cati from the 5th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (66.7 %) were demonstrated in the 11th week, Isospora spp. (33.3 %) and I. felis (33.3 %) in the 15th week, I. rivolta (10.3 %) in the 10th week and T. cati (11.4 %) in the 8th week p.p. Co-infections with T. cati + Isospora spp. (9.1 %) were found in the 5th week, Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (8.2 %) in the 12th week and T. cati + Giardia spp. (2.5 %) in the 22nd week p.p. PMID:23779224

  1. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  2. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    GÜRTLER, R. E.; CECERE, M. C.; LAURICELLA, M. A.; CARDINAL, M. V.; KITRON, U.; COHEN, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41–42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8·2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats. PMID:17032467

  3. High natural prevalence of a fungal prion

    PubMed Central

    Debets, Alfons J. M.; Dalstra, Henk J. P.; Slakhorst, Marijke; Koopmanschap, Bertha; Hoekstra, Rolf F.; Saupe, Sven J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the fungus Podospora anserina. The het-s locus exists as two antagonistic alleles that constitute an allorecognition system: the het-s allele encoding the protein variant capable of prion formation and the het-S allele encoding a protein variant that cannot form a prion. We document here that het-s alleles, capable of prion formation, are nearly twice as frequent as het-S alleles in a natural population of 112 individuals. Then, we report a 92% prevalence of [Het-s] prion infection among the het-s isolates and find evidence of the role of the [Het-s]/het-S allorecognition system on the incidence of infection by a deleterious senescence plasmid. We explain the het-s/het-S allele ratios by the existence of two selective forces operating at different levels. We propose that during the somatic stage, the role of [Het-s]/HET-S in allorecognition leads to frequency-dependent selection for which an equilibrated frequency would be optimal. However, in the sexual cycle, the [Het-s] prion causes meiotic drive favoring the het-s allele. Our findings indicate that [Het-s] is a selected and, therefore, widespread prion whose activity as selfish genetic element is counteracted by balancing selection for allorecognition polymorphism. PMID:22691498

  4. Genotypic characterisation of Giardia from domestic dogs in the USA.

    PubMed

    Covacin, C; Aucoin, D P; Elliot, A; Thompson, R C A

    2011-04-19

    The first large-scale urban survey of Giardia infections in dogs was undertaken in the USA. It involved several locations in the Western United States with Giardia isolates from microscopy-positive samples characterised by multi-locus PCR and sequencing. A high prevalence of Giardia was confirmed in asymptomatic domestic dogs, and for the first time, provides evidence that zoonotic assemblages/subgroups of Giardia occur frequently in domestic dogs living in urban environments, and more frequently than the dog specific assemblages. PMID:21146935

  5. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Sophie; Bregeras, Olivier; Puaux, Didier; Gervais, Rémi; Ferry, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately. PMID:26863620

  6. High prevalence of Capillaria plica infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bork-Mimm, Sabine; Rinder, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The nematode Capillaria plica is an ubiquitous parasite of the urinary tract of Canidae and Felidae. It causes a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infections to urinary bladder inflammation, pollacisuria, dysuria, and hematuria. Foxes serve as reservoir hosts and are considered to be a potential source of infection for companion and hunting dogs as well as domestic cats which acquire the infection by ingestion of earthworms which are the intermediate hosts. Despite its importance, epidemiological studies on this parasite are scarce and almost entirely lacking altogether for Central Europe. Therefore, we examined 116 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for the infection of C. plica by pathologic examination of the urinary bladders and microscopy of mucosal smears and urine sediments. The parasite was detected in 90 (78%; 95% CI, 68.9-84.8%) of the foxes, originating from all administrative districts of Bavaria (Southern Germany). Since Bavaria is characterized by a high number of forests and wildlife sanctuaries that provide ideal living conditions for foxes, the corresponding risk of infection of companion and hunting dogs by oral ingestion of earthworms as the intermediate hosts can likewise not be excluded. Because of the scarcity of reports on prevalences of C. plica worldwide, we also include a brief review of the available literature. PMID:21190041

  7. Association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies: A case-control study in dogs from a Brazilian endemic area.

    PubMed

    Paz, Gustavo F; Ribeiro, Múcio F B; de Magalhães, Danielle F; Sathler, Kelly P B; Morais, Maria Helena F; Fiúza, Vanessa O P; Brandão, Silvana T; Werneck, Guilherme L; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto S

    2010-11-01

    The association between the prevalence of infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis and the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has been evaluated in dogs located in a city of Brazil endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Blood samples from 5556 domestic dogs domiciliated in the urban area of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais state) were submitted to enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFAT) assays, and 432 (7.8%) animals tested positive. Seropositive (n=200) and seronegative (n=200) dogs were randomly selected and examined for the presence of ticks and fleas, the results of which were expressed qualitatively as infested or non-infested, irrespective of the intensity of infestation. The prevalence of infestation by R. sanguineus was significantly greater (ρ=0.04) among seropositive dogs (38.5%) compared with their seronegative counterparts (29.0%). Similarly, the prevalence of infestation by C. felis felis was significantly greater (ρ<0.01) within the seropositive group (36.5%) than within the seronegative group (15.0%). Moreover, the probability of seropositivity for Leishmania was 53% higher in tick-infested dogs and 300% higher in flea-infested dogs in comparison with non-infested animals. Our data provide evidence of the vectorial capacity of these ectoparasites in transmitting Leishmania to the canine population, although further studies are needed to confirm or reject this hypothesis. PMID:20869131

  8. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

  9. Dogs and intestinal parasites: a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S. K.; Hucal, G.; Law, C.

    1975-01-01

    The stools of 239 stray dogs were examined for intestinal parasites. Of the helminths found, Toxocara canis (43.5%), tapeworms (25.5%), Ascaris species (21.3%) and hookworms (12.5%) were the commonest. Of the protozoans found, Isospora species and Entamoeba coli were the most prevalent. An unusual feature of the present study was the finding of Ascaris species. The importance of the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs, the close contact of humans with dogs' excreta and the possible role of this environmental pollution in the spread of human disease are discussed. PMID:1125888

  10. Dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhong, Gongxun; Wang, Guojun; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhuo; Guan, Yuntao; Jiang, Yongping; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2010-01-01

    Replication of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in dogs may facilitate their adaptation in humans; however, the data to date on H5N1 influenza virus infection in dogs are conflicting. To elucidate the susceptibility of dogs to this pathogen, we infected two groups of 6 beagles with 106 50% egg-infectious dose of H5N1 AIV A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/05 (BHG/QH/3/05) intranasally (i.n.) and intratracheally (i.t.), respectively. The dogs showed disease symptoms, including anorexic, fever, conjunctivitis, labored breathing and cough, and one i.t. inoculated animal died on day 4 post-infection. Virus shedding was detected from all 6 animals inoculated i.n. and one inoculated i.t. Virus replication was detected in all animals that were euthanized on day 3 or 5 post-infection and in the animal that died on day 4 post-infection. Our results demonstrate that dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 AIV and may serve as an intermediate host to transfer this virus to humans. PMID:20580396

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Police Dogs in Shenyang, Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Wu; He, Jian-Bin; Mu, Ming-Yang; Yang, Min; Sun, Ning; Li, Hong-Kui

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, worldwide surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported. However, only limited surveys of T. gondii infection in police dogs have been available, including China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii in police dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China. Sera from 291 police dogs were examined for T. gondii antibodies with the modified agglutination test (MAT), and 30.9% animals were tested seropositive. The results of the present study indicated a relatively high prevalence of T. gondii infection in police dogs in Shenyang, China. PMID:24327786

  12. Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis from faecal samples of stray dogs in Hualien city of eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Y C; Ho, G D; Chen T, T W; Huang, B F; Cheng, P C; Chen, J L; Peng, S Y

    2014-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea through waterborne transmission or fecal-oral infection. The cysts are chlorine-resistant and, therefore, can pollute drinking water and induce a pandemic disease. In this study, we aimed to detect G. duodenalis infection in stray dogs in Hualien, Taiwan. We collected faecal samples from 118 dogs and amplified DNA sequences of the β-giardin gene by nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR). Eleven of the 118 faecal samples tested positive for the parasite. The genotype analysis of the 11 samples indicated that 7 samples belonged to assemblage C and four samples belonged to assemblage D. Our study provided a better understanding of the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in dogs from Hualien City, and human infection could not be induced by this zoonotic infection pathway in Hualien City. PMID:25134899

  13. The molecular characterisation of Giardia from dogs in southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, S; Pfister, K; Beelitz, P; Wielinga, C; Thompson, R C A

    2007-11-30

    Faecal samples were obtained randomly from asymptomatic dogs visiting veterinary clinics (kept individually) and sanctuaries (kept in groups) in southern Germany. Of 60 Giardia positive samples, 55 samples successfully amplified at the 18S rDNA locus. In both dogs kept individually and dogs kept in groups, assemblage A was most prevalent (overall, n=33, 60%), followed by mixed infections with assemblages A&C (overall, n=15, 27.3%), while assemblages C&D alone were less often detected (overall, n=5, 9.1% and n=2, 3.6%). The occurrence of zoonotic genotypes was more prevalent in individual than in group dogs. Genotyping at the gdh locus confirmed the 18S results and clustered the assemblage A isolates into A-I. This is the first large-scale urban survey in Central Europe, which has not only confirmed the high prevalence of Giardia in asymptomatic domestic dogs, but has also shown that the zoonotic assemblage A occurs commonly in domestic dogs living in urban environments, and more frequently than the dog-specific assemblage. Although it was not possible to obtain samples from pet owners in this study, the results demonstrate that a significant proportion of dogs in urban areas of southern Germany harbour zoonotic Giardia, and should thus be considered a potential reservoir for infection in humans. PMID:17913365

  14. Ownership of High-Risk ("Vicious") Dogs as a Marker for Deviant Behaviors: Implications for Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Dates, Harold F.; Mahlman, Andrew R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status in settings…

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Highly Prevalent Amyloid A Amyloidosis Endemic to Endangered Island Foxes

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Patricia M.; Imai, Denise M.; Clifford, Deana L.; Ghassemian, Majid; Sasik, Roman; Chang, Aaron N.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Coppinger, Judith; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer; Munson, Linda; Sigurdson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA). Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34%) in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%), spleen (58%), oral cavity (45%), and vasculature (44%) and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-α chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ≤0.05). Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins. PMID:25429466

  16. Heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum Infection: Using Skin Parasite Burdens to Identify Highly Infectious Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Bado, Leo; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Quinnell, Rupert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. Tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential. Methods Parasite numbers were measured by qPCR in bone marrow and ear skin biopsies of 82 dogs and 34 crab-eating foxes collected during a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil, for which previous data was available on infectiousness (by xenodiagnosis) and severity of infection. Results Parasite numbers were highly aggregated both between samples and between individuals. In dogs, total parasite abundance and relative numbers in ear skin compared to bone marrow increased with the duration and severity of infection. Infectiousness to the sandfly vector was associated with high parasite numbers; parasite number in skin was the best predictor of being infectious. Crab-eating foxes, which typically present asymptomatic infection and are non-infectious, had parasite numbers comparable to those of non-infectious dogs. Conclusions Skin parasite number provides an indirect marker of infectiousness, and could allow targeted control particularly of highly infectious dogs. PMID:24416460

  17. The prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of stray and refuge dogs in four locations in India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Pednekar, Riddhi P; Cuttell, Leigh; Porter, Ronald B; Abd Megat Rani, Puteri Azaziah; Gatne, Mukulesh L

    2014-09-15

    A gastrointestinal parasite survey of 411 stray and refuge dogs sampled from four geographical and climactically distinct locations in India revealed these animals to represent a significant source of environmental contamination for parasites that pose a zoonotic risk to the public. Hookworms were the most commonly identified parasite in dogs in Sikkim (71.3%), Mumbai (48.8%) and Delhi (39.1%). In Ladakh, which experiences harsh extremes in climate, a competitive advantage was observed for parasites such as Sarcocystis spp. (44.2%), Taenia hydatigena (30.3%) and Echinococcus granulosus (2.3%) that utilise intermediate hosts for the completion of their life cycle. PCR identified Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum to occur sympatrically, either as single or mixed infections in Sikkim (Northeast) and Mumbai (West). In Delhi, A. caninum was the only species identified in dogs, probably owing to its ability to evade unfavourable climatic conditions by undergoing arrested development in host tissue. The expansion of the known distribution of A. ceylanicum to the west, as far as Mumbai, justifies the renewed interest in this emerging zoonosis and advocates for its surveillance in future human parasite surveys. Of interest was the absence of Trichuris vulpis in dogs, in support of previous canine surveys in India. This study advocates the continuation of birth control programmes in stray dogs that will undoubtedly have spill-over effects on reducing the levels of environmental contamination with parasite stages. In particular, owners of pet animals exposed to these environments must be extra vigilant in ensuring their animals are regularly dewormed and maintaining strict standards of household and personal hygiene. PMID:25139393

  18. Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in High Risk Infants.

    PubMed

    Vashistha, Ishika; Aseri, Yogesh; Singh, B K; Verma, P C

    2016-06-01

    Hearing impairment is prevalent in the general population, early intervention facilitates proper development. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of hearing impairment in high-risk infants born between 2013 and 2014. 100 newborns were evaluated using evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion produce and auditory behavior. Tests were reported if the results were altered. If altered results persisted, the child was referred for impedance testing and when necessary for medical evaluation. Infants referred for BOA and OAE undergone Brainstem auditory evoked potential testing. Of 100 children, 85 children have hearing within normal limits. Hearing impairment was found in 15 out of which 7 had unilateral hearing loss and 8 had bilateral hearing loss. The high prevalence of hearing impairment in this population underlines the importance of early audiological testing. PMID:27340640

  19. A high prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders in Iranian instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman

    2004-01-01

    Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied. PMID:15485578

  20. High Malaria Prevalence among Schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Kuboza, Josephat; Mnyeshi, Peter; Changalucha, John M; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the status of malaria among schoolchildren on Kome Island (Lake Victoria), near Mwanza, Tanzania, a total of 244 schoolchildren in 10 primary schools were subjected to a blood survey using the fingerprick method. The subjected schoolchildren were 123 boys and 121 girls who were 6-8 years of age. Only 1 blood smear was prepared for each child. The overall prevalence of malaria was 38.1% (93 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable. However, the positive rate was the highest in Izindabo Primary School (51.4%) followed by Isenyi Primary School (48.3%) and Bugoro Primary School (46.7%). The lowest prevalence was found in Muungano Primary School (16.7%) and Nyamiswi Primary School (16.7%). These differences were highly correlated with the location of the school on the Island; those located in the peripheral area revealed higher prevalences while those located in the central area showed lower prevalences. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species (38.1%; 93/244), with a small proportion of them mixed-infected with Plasmodium vivax (1.6%; 4/244). The results revealed that malaria is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania, and there is an urgent need to control malaria in this area. PMID:26537036

  1. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Sophie; Bregeras, Olivier; Puaux, Didier; Gervais, Rémi; Ferry, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs’ greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately. PMID:26863620

  2. Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

  3. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  4. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity. PMID:26541211

  5. Ventilation by high-frequency chest wall compression in dogs with normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Zidulka, A; Gross, D; Minami, H; Vartian, V; Chang, H K

    1983-06-01

    In 6 anesthetized and paralyzed supine dogs, ventilation by high-frequency chest wall compression (HFCWC) was accomplished by a piston pump rapidly oscillating the pressure in a modified double blood pressure cuff wrapped around the lower thorax. Testing applied frequencies at 3, 5, 8, and 11 Hz, applied peak cuff pressures ranged from 30 to 230 cmH2O. This produced swings of esophageal pressure as high as 18 cmH2O and peak oscillatory air flow ranging from 0.7 to 1.6 L/s. Oscillatory tidal volume declined with increasing frequency and ranged from a mean of 61 to 45 ml. After 30 min of applied HFCWC, arterial blood gas determinations revealed a mean PaCO2 of 29.3 mmHg at 5 Hz, 35 mmHg at 3 Hz, 36 mmHg at 8 Hz, and 51 mmHg at 11 Hz. Mean PaO2 improved from ventilator control values at 3 Hz, remained unchanged at 5 and 8 Hz, and declined at 11 Hz. In 2 dogs breathing spontaneously, HFCWC applied at 5 and 11 Hz resulted in a reduction in spontaneous minute ventilation, mainly by a reduction in spontaneous tidal volume, whereas arterial blood gas values changed slightly. One dog ceased to breath spontaneously within 5 min of application of HFCWC as the PaCO2 fell below control values. We conclude that in dogs with normal lungs, HFCWC may assist spontaneous ventilation. In paralyzed dogs, HFCWC may be of sufficient magnitude to cause hyperventilation. PMID:6407373

  6. Babesia gibsoni internal transcribed spacer 1 region is highly conserved amongst isolates from dogs across Japan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingming; Cao, Shinuo; Vudriko, Patrick; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Soma, Takehisa; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-06-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne apicomplexan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic anemia with highly variable clinical outcome. In this study, we sequenced the 254bp Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region (ITS1) of 54 B. gibsoni isolates from 14 different geographical regions of Japan. The 54 isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni isolates reported in GenBank database (97.2-100%). Consistent with previous reports, phylogenetic analysis showed that B. gibsoni isolates from Japan formed the same clade with those from U.S.A., Australia, India and Taiwan. Our finding indicates that B. gibsoni ITS1 region is highly conserved among isolates from dogs in Japan, making it a useful genetic marker for molecular epidemiology of the parasite. PMID:26806537

  7. Babesia gibsoni internal transcribed spacer 1 region is highly conserved amongst isolates from dogs across Japan

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Mingming; CAO, Shinuo; VUDRIKO, Patrick; SUZUKI, Hiroshi; SOMA, Takehisa; XUAN, Xuenan

    2016-01-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne apicomplexan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic anemia with highly variable clinical outcome. In this study, we sequenced the 254bp Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region (ITS1) of 54 B. gibsoni isolates from 14 different geographical regions of Japan. The 54 isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni isolates reported in GenBank database (97.2–100%). Consistent with previous reports, phylogenetic analysis showed that B. gibsoni isolates from Japan formed the same clade with those from U.S.A., Australia, India and Taiwan. Our finding indicates that B. gibsoni ITS1 region is highly conserved among isolates from dogs in Japan, making it a useful genetic marker for molecular epidemiology of the parasite. PMID:26806537

  8. Discospondylitis and Orchitis Associated with High Brucella Titre in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G. I.; Binnington, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    A case of discospondylitis and orchitis associated with high Brucella titre in a dog is presented. Clinical signs included intermittent pain, poor appetite and a decreased level of physical activity. Radiographic evidence of discospondylitis was found. Histopathological findings on the testes are included. Treatment regime and clinical progress are given. Diagnosis and treatment of B. canis are described and a brief review of the treatment of discospondylitis is presented. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422294

  9. Prevalence of canine coronavirus (CCoV) in dog in Japan: detection of CCoV RNA and retrospective serological analysis

    PubMed Central

    TAKANO, Tomomi; YAMASHITA, Saya; MURATA-OHKUBO, Michiko; SATOH, Kumi; DOKI, Tomoyoshi; HOHDATSU, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We collected rectal swabs from dogs in Japan during 2011 to 2014, and canine coronavirus (CCoV) nucleocapsid gene was detected by RT-PCR. The relationship between CCoV infection and the manifestation of diarrhea symptoms was investigated, and a correlation was noted (df=1, χ2=8.90, P<0.005). The types of CCoV detected in samples from CCoV-infected dogs were CCoV-I in 88.9% and CCoV-II in 7.4%, respectively. We retrospectively investigated the seroprevalence of CCoV-I in dogs in Japan during 1998 to 2006. The sera were tested with a neutralizing antibody test. In the absence of CCoV-I laboratory strain, we used feline coronavirus (FCoV)-I that shares high sequence homology in the S protein with CCoV-I. 77.7% of the sera were positive for neutralizing anti-FCoV-I antibodies. PMID:26460314

  10. High cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-10 attained by AAV in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pleticha, J; Malkmus, S A; Heilmann, L F; Veesart, S L; Rezek, R; Xu, Q; Yaksh, T L; Beutler, A S

    2015-02-01

    Intrathecal (IT) gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) may be clinically promising as a treatment for chronic pain if it can produce sufficiently high levels of a transgene product in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although this strategy was developed in rodents, no studies investigating CSF levels of an analgesic or antiallodynic protein delivered by IT AAV have been performed in large animals. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an antiallodynic cytokine for which target therapeutic levels have been established in rats. The present study tested IT AAV8 encoding either human IL-10 (hIL-10) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a dog model of IT drug delivery. AAV8/hIL-10 at a dose of 3.5 × 10(12) genome copies induced high hIL-10 levels in the CSF, exceeding the target concentration previously found to be antiallodynic in rodents by >1000-fold. AAV8/EGFP targeted the primary sensory and motor neurons and the meninges. hIL-10, a xenogeneic protein in dogs, induced anti-hIL-10 antibodies detectable in the CSF and serum of dogs. The high hIL-10 levels demonstrate the efficacy of AAV for delivery of secreted transgenes into the IT space of large animals, suggesting a strong case for further development toward clinical testing. PMID:25354684

  11. Lungworm (Crenosoma vulpis) infection in dogs on Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed Central

    Bihr, T; Conboy, G A

    1999-01-01

    Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm that is highly prevalent in the red fox population of Atlantic Canada. Dogs are susceptible to infection with clinical signs consisting primarily of a chronic cough. A recent report of C. vulpis infection in 3 dogs on Prince Edward Island prompted an investigation into the importance of this parasite as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in Island dogs. A general prevalence was determined through the necropsy of dogs euthanized at the local humane society. Lungs were removed and examined for parasites using a lung flush technique. Rectal feces was collected and examined for first-stage larvae using the Baermann technique and zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation. Ten of 310 dogs (3.2%) were positive with 0-35 worms (mean = 11.0 +/- 13.4) recovered. First-stage larvae of C. vulpis were recovered in the rectal feces of the one animal in which no worms were recovered on lung flush. A second survey was conducted examining fecal samples with the Baermann technique from afebrile dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough that had no history of recent anthelmintic treatment and showed no signs of cardiac disease, based on physical examination. Fifteen of 55 dogs examined (27.3%) were definitively diagnosed as C. vulpis-positive. All of the infected dogs were treated with fenbendazole (50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. q24 h for 3-7 days). Clinical signs resolved in all of the dogs and fecal samples were negative 2-4 weeks posttreatment. It was concluded that C. vulpis infection was a significant cause of upper respiratory disease in dogs on Prince Edward Island and should be considered in all dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:12001335

  12. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. PMID:25951986

  13. Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010–2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce

  14. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Jay-Russell, Michele T; Hake, Alexis F; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce

  15. Whole-genome sequencing of six dog breeds from continuous altitudes reveals adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Ze; Yan, Dawei; Yang, Shuli; Jia, Jia; Kong, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zehui; Lu, Shaoxiong; Lian, Linsheng; Wu, Changxin; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Guozhi; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Qiang; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Baohong; Wei, Dongkai; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianfa; Yan, Yulin; Zhao, Guiying; Dong, Xinxing; Li, Mingli; Deng, Weidong; Leng, Jing; Wei, Chaochun; Wang, Chuan; Mao, Huaming; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Guohui; Li, Yixue

    2014-01-01

    The hypoxic environment imposes severe selective pressure on species living at high altitude. To understand the genetic bases of adaptation to high altitude in dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 60 dogs including five breeds living at continuous altitudes along the Tibetan Plateau from 800 to 5100 m as well as one European breed. More than 150× sequencing coverage for each breed provides us with a comprehensive assessment of the genetic polymorphisms of the dogs, including Tibetan Mastiffs. Comparison of the breeds from different altitudes reveals strong signals of population differentiation at the locus of hypoxia-related genes including endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1) and beta hemoglobin cluster. Notably, four novel nonsynonymous mutations specific to high-altitude dogs are identified at EPAS1, one of which occurred at a quite conserved site in the PAS domain. The association testing between EPAS1 genotypes and blood-related phenotypes on additional high-altitude dogs reveals that the homozygous mutation is associated with decreased blood flow resistance, which may help to improve hemorheologic fitness. Interestingly, EPAS1 was also identified as a selective target in Tibetan highlanders, though no amino acid changes were found. Thus, our results not only indicate parallel evolution of humans and dogs in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, but also provide a new opportunity to study the role of EPAS1 in the adaptive processes. PMID:24721644

  16. Serological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Zhang, Nian; Wang, Dong; Ma, Jingbo; Liu, Shiguo; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Kuo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176). No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05). The infection rate in rural dogs (18%) was higher (p < 0.05) than in urban dogs (11%). The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p < 0.05) with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs. PMID:27317461

  17. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    N. mikurensis for the second time. In spleen samples of red foxes with 47.5% a high prevalence of piroplasms was found. Sequencing of 11 samples identified 10 as Theileria annae. Despite the high prevalence of this pathogen in its reservoir host, it was absent in dog samples. In one dog (0.1%), Babesia canis was detected but there was no further information about the dog's origin. Evaluation of the questionnaire identified a high proportion of dogs (74.2%, n=233) which was not protected by ectoparasiticides. Moreover, 21.2% (n=236) of the dogs originated from inland or abroad shelters, and therefore might potentially come from areas endemic for dirofilariosis or babesiosis. PMID:27270389

  18. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  19. A Systematic Review of Toxocariasis: A Neglected But High-Prevalence Disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Paula Mayara Matos; Corrêa, Carlos Roberto Silveira

    2016-06-01

    Toxocariasis is an anthropozoonosis that occurs in all parts of the world. In particular, this disease can often be found in developing countries and in regions, where basic sanitation conditions are poor. However, industrialized countries have reported seroprevalence rates as high as 14.2% in humans. The definitive hosts of the disease are dogs and cats, whereas humans are a paratenic host. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in Brazil, we followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to conduct a systematic review of the literature. Using keywords and applying the established criteria, we identified 160 publications and selected 22 articles for further analysis. The seroprevalence of toxocariasis in various regions of the country ranged from 4.2% to 65.4%. The highest prevalence was found in the northeast region, although the majority of the studies identified were from the southeast region. The findings suggest the importance of raising awareness among health professionals and public authorities about the fact that toxocariasis is a health problem. PMID:26834201

  20. Domestic dog as a human health hazard in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mahdi; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Azami, Davood; Marhaba, Zahra; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Mizani, Azadeh

    2016-09-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminthic parasites of domestic dogs using stool samples in north of Iran in 2013. Stool samples (n = 100) were collected from domestic dogs of different ages and genders. Different techniques including wet smear, formalin-ether sedimentation method and flotation technique in saturated zinc chloride solution were performed on collected stools to detect eggs and larval stage of helminthes parasites. The overall prevalence of helminthic parasites of examined stools of dogs was 57 %. The examined domestic dogs harbored eggs of eight species of helminthes including: Taenia spp., Diyplidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Capillaria aerophila, Mesostesphanus spp. and Trichuris volpis. T. canis and T. volpis were the most and least prevalent eggs, respectively. No significant statistical differences were observed between infection by helminthic parasites and both gender and age of the dogs (P > 0.05). Considering high level of helminthic infection in the stool of examined domestic dogs, a contiguous educational program to increase awareness of dog owners and an effective anti-parasite control programmed is highly recommended in order to reduce the danger of zoonotic diseases in north of Iran. This is the first report of C. aerophila and Mesostesphanus spp. from dog in Iran. PMID:27605812

  1. High prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in foxes from western Austria.

    PubMed

    Hodžić, Adnan; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the two westernmost provinces (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) of Austria were therefore examined for the presence of E. boehmi at necropsy. Eggs and adult nematodes were identified morphologically and molecularly (cox1) as E. boehmi. These nematodes were found in 26 (78.8 %) and 13 (92.9 %) foxes from Tyrol and Vorarlberg, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 83.0 % (39/47). The prevalence rate of infection recorded in this study is among the highest in Europe. These results suggest that foxes may represent an important source of infection for dogs and other canids, but further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics. PMID:27230019

  2. High prevalence of esophageal dysmotility in asymptomatic obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Daigneault, Justin; Leclerc, Pierre; Joubert, Josette; Bouin, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important health problem affecting >500 million people worldwide. Esophageal dysmotility is a gastrointestinal pathology associated with obesity; however, its prevalence and characteristics remain unclear. Esophageal dysmotilities have a high prevalence among obese patients regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of esophageal dysmotility among obese patients. The secondary goals were to characterize these pathologies in obese patients and identify risk factors. METHOD: A prospective study from January 2009 to March 2010 at the University of Montreal Hospital Centre (Montreal, Quebec) was performed. Every patient scheduled for bariatric surgery underwent preoperatory esophageal manometry and was included in the study. Manometry was performed according to a standardized protocol with the following measures: superior esophageal sphincter – coordination and release during deglutition; esophageal body – presence, propagation, length, amplitude and type of esophageal waves of contraction; lower esophageal sphincter – localization, tone, release, intragastic pressure and intraesophageal pressure. All reference values were those used in the digestive motility laboratory. A gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaire was completed on the day manometry was performed. Chart reviews were performed to identify comorbidities and treatments that could influence the results. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were included (mean [± SD] age 43±10 years; mean body mass index 46±7 kg/m2; 70% female). Esophageal manometry revealed dysmotility in 51% (n=27) of the patients. This dysmotility involved the esophageal body in 74% (n=20) of the patients and the inferior sphincter in 11% (n=3). Mixed dysmotility (body and inferior sphincter) was found in 15% (n=4) of cases. The esophageal body dysmotilities were hypomotility in 85% (n=23) of the patients, either from insignificant waves (74% [n=20]), nonpropagated waves (11

  3. High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

  4. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  5. The effects of positioning, reason for screening and the referring veterinarian on prevalence estimates of canine hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, B J G; Verhoeven, G; Coopman, F; Van Haeringen, W; Bosmans, T; Gielen, I; Henckens, S; Saunders, J H; van Bree, H; Van Ryssen, B; Verbeke, V; Van Steendam, K; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Deforce, D

    2014-09-01

    Although the prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (HD) has been the subject of a number of published studies, estimates vary widely. This study evaluated several possible causes for these differences. Sixty Belgian, Dutch and German veterinarians were asked to submit all hip radiographs obtained for screening purposes (irrespective of HD status) over a 2-year period, resulting in a database of 583 dogs. Each set of radiographs was accompanied by information on the reason for screening (breeding soundness examination, clinical complaint, assistance dogs, or other reasons), and dog breed, date of birth and age. Dog positioning exerted an effect at multiple levels. The agreement among different observers regarding correct or incorrect positioning was limited and incorrect positioning itself reduced the inter-observer agreement for radiographic hip conformation. Dysplastic dogs were more commonly positioned incorrectly than non-dysplastic dogs. The clinical complaint population had a high prevalence of dysplastic dogs (>70%) compared with the breeding population (11%) and the assistance dogs (6%). There was a significantly lower prevalence of HD among cases referred by veterinarians who frequently submitted hip-extended radiographs for evaluation (P = 0.002) compared to those who refer less frequently. However, this was likely to be selection bias, as radiographs that were from dogs suspected to be dysplastic were not submitted by frequent senders. The prevalence of dysplastic dogs varied widely between breeds (16.7-71.4%). Dogs diagnosed with dysplasia were significantly older than dogs considered healthy (P = 0.001) and dogs classified as borderline dysplastic (P = 0.035). Inter-observer agreement for hip conformation was moderately low, resulting in >7% variation in prevalence estimates for dysplasia. PMID:24986314

  6. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates from police and farm dogs in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Song, Mingxin; Xiao, Lihua; Zhang, Xichen

    2013-10-01

    To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs in China, a total of 205 fecal specimens from dogs were screened for Giardia duodenalis using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase gene. The prevalence of G. duodenalis in dogs was 13.2% (27/205). The potentially zoonotic assemblage A and the dog-specific assemblage C was identified in 25 (12.2%) and two (1.0%) dogs, respectively. All assemblage A isolates belonged to sub-assemblage AI, genotype AI-1. Likewise, one subtype was found in assemblage C. The high occurrence of potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis subtype AI-1 in dogs that are in close contact with humans is of public health concern. PMID:23891941

  7. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Junior High and Senior High School Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…

  8. Pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in dogs: application of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Barbhaiya, R H; Papp, E A; Van Harken, D R; Smyth, R D

    1984-09-01

    A normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of mitomycin C in plasma and urine. The method involves extraction of mitomycin C from plasma or urine into ethyl acetate-2-propanol-chloroform (70:15:15) with UV detection at 365 nm. Quantitation was performed with an internal standard (porfiromycin) by the peak height ratio method. Excellent correlation was obtained between the HPLC assay and the established microbiological cup-plate bioassay. The pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C were investigated in beagle dogs following a 1-mg/kg iv (22-mg/m2) bolus dose. The plasma mitomycin C concentration versus time data were analyzed by using an open three-compartment model. The average volume of distribution was 1.90 L or 17% of body weight for the central compartment and 7.7 L or 68% of body weight for the terminal elimination phase. The volumes of distribution at steady state, calculated by model-dependent and -independent methods, compared very well with each other and were 6.5 L or 58% of body weight. Total body clearance averaged 112 mL/min, and the mean terminal plasma half-life was 53 min. The 0-24-h urinary excretion of intact mitomycin C accounted for 19% of the dose. The terminal half-life and percent urinary recovery of mitomycin C in dogs is similar to that in humans. Based on these observations, the dog appears to be a good model for studying the disposition of mitomycin C. PMID:6436466

  9. High Prevalence of Prothrombotic Abnormalities in Multifocal Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Pilar; Reverter, Joan Carles; Espinosa, Gerard; Martinez-Ferrer, Angeles; Monegal, Ana; Monteagudo, Juan; Tàssies, Dolors; Guañabens, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal or multiple osteonecrosis (ON), defined by the involvement of 3 or more anatomic sites, is unusual, being observed in only 3%–10% of patients diagnosed with ON. We report the clinical characteristics of a cohort of 29 patients with multifocal ON from a single center and evaluate the prevalence of associated prothrombotic abnormalities in 26 of these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with multifocal ON evaluated in our institution during the last 20 years. We recorded clinical manifestations and underlying diagnoses. A wide thrombophilic profile was performed, including antithrombin, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden, mutation G-20210-A of the prothrombin gene, and factor VIII. Coagulation test results were compared with those in a healthy control group and a group of patients with history of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 ± 15 years (range, 28–81 yr). The mean number of ON localizations per patient was 5.2 ± 2.3 (range, 3–11). Hips were the most commonly affected joint (82%), followed by knees (58%), shoulders (37%), and ankles (13%). Most patients had an underlying disease process, and 12 of 25 (48%) patients had coagulation test abnormalities. The most common alterations were high factor VIII levels and antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in 24% and 20% of cases, respectively. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with multifocal ON compared with patients in the control groups. Sixty-one percent of patients had a history of corticosteroid treatment. Patients with coagulation abnormalities had a higher number of ON localizations per patient (6.5 ± 2.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.8; p = 0.002) and a higher prevalence of atypical ON localizations (25% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). In conclusion, in the present cohort of patients with multifocal ON, 48% of the patients had at

  10. Pathologic factors affecting postsplenectomy survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1997-01-01

    The apparently high prevalence of splenomegaly in dogs, along with the surgical accessibility of the spleen, results in a relatively large number of splenectomies in dogs in clinical veterinary practice. Splenic nodular lesions are widely considered to be indicative of hemangiosarcoma and thus a disease that is ultimately fatal. This study correlates the results of complete pathologic evaluation and classification of 500 spleens obtained by splenectomy with survival information for each dog. Among the spleens examined, 257 of 500 (51.4%) were classified nonneoplastic and 241 (48.2%) were neoplastic; 2 (0.4%) were unclassified. Miscellaneous non-nodular splenomegaly accounted for 46 of 257 (18%) of the nonneoplastic lesions; nodular splenomegaly accounted for 206 of 257 (79%) of nonneoplastic splenic lesions and was composed of lymphoid hyperplastic nodules and associated hematomas, hyperplastic lymphoid nodules alone, or hematomas with no apparent underlying cause. Nodular neoplastic diseases of the spleen were divided among benign tumors (11.5%) and a variety of primary sarcomas. Hemangiosarcoma made up 51% of splenic malignancies but accounted for less than 25% of the spleens evaluated. Survival of dogs with hematomas associated with nonneoplastic conditions of the spleen was markedly different from that in dogs with hemangiosarcoma-associated hematomas, even though most could not be effectively differentiated on gross inspection. Two month postoperative survival was 83% for dogs with nonneoplastic-related hematomas, whereas only 31% of dogs with hemangiosarcoma, with or without associated hematomas, were alive after 2 months. Twelve-month survival times were 64% and 7%, respectively. An overall postsplenectomy survival rate of 52% was based on the number of dogs surviving for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. PMID:9183768

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in dogs: is high seroprevalence indicative of a reservoir role?

    PubMed

    Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; González, Kadir; Rigg, Chystrie; Pineda, Vanessa; Santamaría, Ana María; Rodríguez, Indra; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Laurenti, Marcia D; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-08-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. parasites. We did our research in Panamá, at a village that has undergone significant ecosystem level transformations. We found an ACL seroprevalence of 47% among dogs, and their exposure was positively associated with dog age and abundance of sand fly vectors in the houses of dog owners. Using mathematical models, which were fitted to data on the proportion of positive tests as function of dog age, we estimated a basic reproductive number (R 0 ± s.e.) of 1·22 ± 0·09 that indicates the disease is endemically established in the dogs. Nevertheless, this information by itself is insufficient to incriminate dogs as ACL reservoirs, given the inability to find parasites (or their DNA) in seropositive dogs and previously reported failures to experimentally infect vectors feeding on dogs with ACL parasites. PMID:25990429

  12. Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

  13. Low prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Jilin, Henan and Anhui Provinces of the People’s Republic of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are consider...

  14. Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis in Border Collie Dogs in Japan: Clinical and Molecular Epidemiological Study (2000–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Kawamichi, Takuji; Koie, Hiroshi; Tamura, Shinji; Matsunaga, Satoru; Imamoto, Shigeki; Saito, Miyoko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Matsuki, Naoaki; Tamahara, Satoshi; Sato, Shigenobu; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal disease that causes premature death. The present study describes the clinical and molecular epidemiologic findings of NCL in Border Collies in Japan for 12 years, between 2000 and 2011. The number of affected dogs was surveyed, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. In 4 kennels with affected dogs, the dogs were genotyped. The genetic relationships of all affected dogs and carriers identified were analyzed. The survey revealed 27 affected dogs, but there was a decreasing trend at the end of the study period. The clinical characteristics of these affected dogs were updated in detail. The genotyping survey demonstrated a high mutant allele frequency in examined kennels (34.8%). The pedigree analysis demonstrated that all affected dogs and carriers in Japan are related to some presumptive carriers imported from Oceania and having a common ancestor. The current high prevalence in Japan might be due to an overuse of these carriers by breeders without any knowledge of the disease. For NCL control and prevention, it is necessary to examine all breeding dogs, especially in kennels with a high prevalence. Such endeavors will reduce NCL prevalence and may already be contributing to the recent decreasing trend in Japan. PMID:22919312

  15. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs in Japan: clinical and molecular epidemiological study (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Kawamichi, Takuji; Koie, Hiroshi; Tamura, Shinji; Matsunaga, Satoru; Imamoto, Shigeki; Saito, Miyoko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Matsuki, Naoaki; Tamahara, Satoshi; Sato, Shigenobu; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal disease that causes premature death. The present study describes the clinical and molecular epidemiologic findings of NCL in Border Collies in Japan for 12 years, between 2000 and 2011. The number of affected dogs was surveyed, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. In 4 kennels with affected dogs, the dogs were genotyped. The genetic relationships of all affected dogs and carriers identified were analyzed. The survey revealed 27 affected dogs, but there was a decreasing trend at the end of the study period. The clinical characteristics of these affected dogs were updated in detail. The genotyping survey demonstrated a high mutant allele frequency in examined kennels (34.8%). The pedigree analysis demonstrated that all affected dogs and carriers in Japan are related to some presumptive carriers imported from Oceania and having a common ancestor. The current high prevalence in Japan might be due to an overuse of these carriers by breeders without any knowledge of the disease. For NCL control and prevention, it is necessary to examine all breeding dogs, especially in kennels with a high prevalence. Such endeavors will reduce NCL prevalence and may already be contributing to the recent decreasing trend in Japan. PMID:22919312

  16. Transmission cycles of Giardia duodenalis in dogs and humans in Temple communities in Bangkok--a critical evaluation of its prevalence using three diagnostic tests in the field in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Inpankaew, Tawin; Reid, Simon A; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Robertson, Ian D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia duodenalis in canine and human populations in Temple communities of Bangkok, Thailand were determined by evaluating three common diagnostic methods utilised to detect Giardia, namely zinc sulphate flotation and microscopy, an immunofluoresence antibody test and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the SSU-rDNA gene. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity together with the negative and positive predictive values of each test were evaluated in the absence of a gold standard using a Bayesian approach. The median estimates of the prevalence of infection with G. duodenalis in dogs and humans in Thailand were 56.8% (95% PCI, 30.4%, 77.7%) and 20.3% (95% PCI, 7.3%, 46.3%) respectively. PCR and immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) were the most accurate tests overall with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.4% (95% PCI, 88.5%, 99.9%) and 56.2% (95% PCI, 40.4%, 82.9%) for the PCR and 61.8% (95% PCI, 40.8%, 99.1%) and 94.7% (95% PCI, 87.4%, 99.1%) for IFAT respectively Three cycles, anthroponotic, zoonotic and dog-specific cycles of G. duodenalis were shown to be operating among the human and canine populations in these Temple communities in Bangkok, supporting the role of the dog as a potential reservoir for Giardia infections in humans. PMID:19524080

  17. [Prevalence of asymmetrical blood pressure in uncontrolled hypertensive patients is high and highly related with cardiovascular diseases prevalence].

    PubMed

    Allaert, F-A; Fouchères, G; Elias-Billon, I; Maigret, P

    2016-06-01

    A meta-analysis has shown that an asymmetry of the blood pressure (ABP) between arm≥15mmHg and perhaps≥10mmHg is associated with an increase of cardiovascular diseases. To describe the prevalence of ABP in patients presenting an uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) under treatment, an observational cross sectional study was conducted. Factors influencing prevalence of ABP were identified and relation of ABP with the frequency of the cardiovascular diseases or subclinicals organs damages was evaluated. A total of 2417 patients, 63.3±11.0years old, presenting uncontrolled BP (according ESC criteria) by a previous antihypertensive therapy were included. Only 36.8% (95% CI [34.9-38.7]) were presenting a between-arm difference in systolic blood pressure≥10mmHg, and 17.1% (95% CI [15.6-18.6])≥15mmHg. MRA shows systolic ABP≥10mmHg prevalence was influenced by dyslipidemia (OR: 1.5 [1.2-1.7], P<0.0001) and by family history of early cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.6 [1.3-1.9], P<0.0001). MRA adjusted on CVRF shows that besides the dyslipidemia effect, systolic ABP≥10mmHg influences the frequency of sub-clinical impairment of target organ (OR: 1.6 [1.3-1.9], P<0.0001), of coronary heart disease (OR: 1.8 [1.4-2.4], P<0.0001), and globally the presence of a cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1], P<0.0001). The effect on stroke frequency was showed with an systolic ABP≥15mmHg (OR: 1.6 [1.1-2.4], P<0.02). In uncontrolled hypertensive patients, screening of an ABP should help to identify clinically patients with high risk of cardiovascular diseases or with subclinical organs damages. PMID:27211351

  18. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  19. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. PMID:27387730

  20. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

    2003-11-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension. PMID:14665720

  1. Diabetic cataracts: different incidence between dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Salgado, D; Reusch, C; Spiess, B

    2000-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrinopathies in the dog and cat. Diabetic cataract primarily affects the canine species and is rarely observed in the cat. It has been proposed that the incidence of cataracts in diabetic dogs is high because many of these patients have significant hyperglycemia despite insulin therapy. Age, gender, levels of serum glucose (before and during insulin therapy) and cataract formation were evaluated, retrospectively, in 23 dogs and 22 cats with diabetes mellitus. In the canine population, the groups with the highest frequency of presentation were females and sexually intact animals. In contrast, males and neutered animals were the most prevalent groups in the feline diabetic population. Over 80% of diabetic cats and dogs were older than 7 years. Our results confirm the almost total lack of cataracts in diabetic cats, while they were present in more than half of the dogs. A relation between the incidence of cataracts and the correspondent level of hyperglycemia in the canine and feline species could not be established. The estimation of the relative risk for the development of cataracts in diabetic dogs shows that some population groups have a higher probability for suffering from this ocular alteration. A relation between relative risk and the correspondent level of hyperglycemia in the various groups was not found. This fact indicates that other factors are involved in the unequal appearance of diabetic cataracts in dogs and cats. PMID:10892302

  2. Effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill on hemorheology in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Yuhui; Zeng, Zhu; Sun, Dagong; Ka, Weibo; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Zhixin; Wen, Zongyao

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill (CDRDP) (Tasly Group, Tianjing, China) on hemorheology and biorheology of dogs suffering from hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet. Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into two groups: the high-fat diet group (H group); the control group (C group), fed with a standard laboratory diet. Six month later, six dogs in the H group were chosen as the drug-taking group (D group), to which CDRDP was administered, fed with the same diet as H group. In the 4th month, blood was taken from the veins of the dogs, and blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), RBC hemorheological indexes as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione transferase (GSH-ST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in plasma and erythrocytes were measured. Compared with H group, TC, TG, plasma MDA levels, the whole blood viscosity, RBC osmotic fragility and the value of CHOL (cholesterol)/PL (phospholipid) of the membrane of D group decreased, however, erythrocyte GSH-ST, histopathological changes in liver, deformation index (DI), orientation index (DI)or, small deformation index (DI)d, electrophoresis ratio and microfluidity of the membrane lipid bilayer of RBCs, increased distinctly. CDRDP can improve micro-hemorheological characteristics, therefore has a significant therapy application of hyperlipidemia. PMID:15665423

  3. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balint, Elisabeth M; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  4. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Elisabeth M.; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  5. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  6. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF. PMID:27160397

  7. A high-resolution integrated map of copy number polymorphisms within and between breeds of the modern domesticated dog

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural variation contributes to the rich genetic and phenotypic diversity of the modern domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, although compared to other organisms, catalogs of canine copy number variants (CNVs) are poorly defined. To this end, we developed a customized high-density tiling array across the canine genome and used it to discover CNVs in nine genetically diverse dogs and a gray wolf. Results In total, we identified 403 CNVs that overlap 401 genes, which are enriched for defense/immunity, oxidoreductase, protease, receptor, signaling molecule and transporter genes. Furthermore, we performed detailed comparisons between CNVs located within versus outside of segmental duplications (SDs) and find that CNVs in SDs are enriched for gene content and complexity. Finally, we compiled all known dog CNV regions and genotyped them with a custom aCGH chip in 61 dogs from 12 diverse breeds. These data allowed us to perform the first population genetics analysis of canine structural variation and identify CNVs that potentially contribute to breed specific traits. Conclusions Our comprehensive analysis of canine CNVs will be an important resource in genetically dissecting canine phenotypic and behavioral variation. PMID:21846351

  8. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF. PMID:27160397

  9. A single-centre, open-label, controlled, randomized clinical trial to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis in a high prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, David; Llinás, Jorge; Homedes, Josep; Sust, Mariano; Ferrer, Lluís

    2014-07-01

    The innate immune response acting immediately after initial infection with Leishmania parasites is known to play a relevant role in prevention against clinical progression of the disease. Domperidone is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that has shown to enhance the innate cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the preventive efficacy of a domperidone-based treatment programme against clinical canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a high prevalence area. The study was performed with 90 healthy, seronegative dogs of different sex, age, weight and breed from a single veterinary clinic located in Valencia (Spain). Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs in one group (domperidone-treated group; n=44) were administered an oral suspension of domperidone at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day during 30 consecutive days, every 4 months. Dogs in the other group (negative control group; n=46) were left untreated. A 21-month follow-up period was implemented covering two seasonal phases of the sand fly vector. During this period all animals underwent periodic clinical examinations and blood samplings for anti-Leishmania serological testing. Dogs seropositive for Leishmania (IFAT antibody titre≥1:80) plus at least one clinical sign consistent with CanL (indicative of active infection and incipient disease progression) were categorized as a 'prevention failure'. These dogs were withdrawn from the study after confirming the infection by direct observation of the parasite in smears of lymph nodes and/or bone marrow aspirates. The cumulative percentage of 'prevention failure' after 12 months was significantly lower in the domperidone-treated group than in the negative control group (7% versus 35%, p=0.003). Differences between groups persisted after 21 months (11% versus 48%, p<0.001). The prevention rate provided by domperidone was 80% during the first 12 months and 77% throughout the complete 21-month follow-up period, with odds ratios of 7.3 (p=0.001) and 7.15 (p

  10. Dog Age and Breeds Associated with High Plasma Cholesterol and Triglyceride Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    USUI, Shiho; MIZOGUCHI, Yasushi; YASUDA, Hidemi; ARAI, Nobuaki; KOKETSU, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to set specific dog breed and sex standards for total cholesterol (T-Cho) and total triglyceride (T-TG) concentrations in dogs and to quantify the associations between dog age and concentrations of both lipids for different breeds. Increased age was associated with higher T-Cho and T-TG concentrations in all five breed groups (P<0.05); T-Cho concentrations increased by 62.5 mg/dl between 9 and 16 years of age, and T-TG concentrations increased by 4.8 mg/dl per year of age (P<0.05). Miniature Schnauzers had the highest T-Cho concentrations of the studied breeds, while Miniature Dachshunds had the lowest concentrations (P<0.05). Veterinarians should consider dog age and breed when they use the lipid concentrations for diagnostic purposes. PMID:24107429

  11. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L. Y., Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  12. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    PubMed

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P <0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  13. Prevalence of canine dirofilariasis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Cheng; Fan, Ping-Chin

    2003-03-01

    Between 1993 and 1997, 837 stray dogs from North Taiwan were necropsied and examined for dog heartworm infections. A thick smear from 20 ml of peripheral blood from each dog was also prepared and examined for microfilariae (mf). The overall prevalence of adult worms in the dog population was 57%. The prevalence of mf in 1228 house dogs from different parts of Taiwan was also determined from 20 ml of peripheral blood in the same way. The overall prevalence of mf was 25%, with a value of 30% in the main island of Taiwan, this being 15 times higher than that in the offshore islands (2%). In Taiwan, the prevalence ranged from 4% in Hualien County, East Taiwan, to 41% in Nantou County, Central Taiwan. The mf prevalences on offshore islands were 1% on Liuchiu and 2% on Lanyu. The mf density per 20 ml blood in 82 house dogs was found to be 23 mf per dog, with a range of 3-97 mf per dog. A total of 477 stray dogs were found to be infected with adult worms of Dirofilaria immitis. The mean number of 7 worms per dog was obtained, with a range of 1-55 worms per dog. These results indicate that the prevalence of canine dirofilariasis has increased in Taiwan over the past 10 years. Moreover, the prevalence may be related to the wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and altitude in the different areas surveyed. PMID:12590670

  14. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in south-eastern Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) more asymptomatic cases were recorded among participants older than 15 years as compared to younger participants, whereas prevalence and parasite density were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients younger than 15 years. Spleen rate and malaria prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and

  15. Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992).

    PubMed

    Panciera, D L

    1994-03-01

    Sixty-six dogs with hypothyroidism were identified from dogs examined over a 5-year period. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed only if the dog had a low, resting serum thyroxine concentration and serum thyroxine concentration was not higher than the lower limits of the reference range 6 hours after IV administration of bovine thyrotropin. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 0.2%. Neutering was determined to be the most significant gender-associated risk factor for development of hypothyroidism. Neutered male and spayed female dogs had a higher relative risk of developing hypothyroidism than did sexually intact females. Sexually intact females had a lower relative risk. Breeds with a significantly increased risk, compared with other breeds, were the Doberman Pinscher and Golden Retriever. The most common clinical findings were obesity (41%), seborrhea (39%), alopecia (26%), weakness (21%), lethargy (20%), bradycardia (14%), and pyoderma (11%). Low voltage R-waves were found on 58% of ECG. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included hypercholesterolemia (73%), nonregenerative anemia (32%), high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (30%), and high serum creatine kinase activity (18%). Serum total triiodothyronine concentrations were within reference ranges in 15% of the hypothyroid dogs. Response to treatment was good in most dogs, but those with severe concurrent disease or neurologic abnormalities were less likely to respond with complete resolution of clinical signs. PMID:8175472

  16. The dog genome.

    PubMed

    Galibert, F; André, C

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few centuries, several hundred dog breeds have been artificially selected through intense breeding, resulting in the modern dog population having the widest polymorphism spectrum in terms of body shape, behavior and aptitude among mammals. Unfortunately, this diversification has predisposed most breeds to specific diseases of genetic origin. The highly fragmented nature of the dog population offers a great opportunity to track the genes and alleles responsible for these diseases as well as for the various phenotypic traits. This has led to a thorough analysis of the dog genome. Here, we report the main results obtained during the last ten years, culminating in the recent publication of a complete dog genome sequence. PMID:18753768

  17. High prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in reservoir hosts in four districts of Khon Kaen Province, an opisthorchiasis endemic area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aunpromma, Surasit; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Papirom, Pittaya; Kanjampa, Prapan; Tesana, Smarn; Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn

    2012-03-01

    Khon Kaen, a northeastern province of Thailand, has been considered as one of the human opisthorchiasis endemic areas with continuing high prevalence. Unsuccessful eradication of the disease is probably from the culture of eating raw and undercooked fish of local residence and the parasitic persistency in animal reservoir hosts, such as cats and dogs. In cooperation with the other human opisthorchiasis control programs in an endemic area of 29 villages in Ban Haet, Ban Phai, Chonnabot and Muncha Khiri Districts, Khon Kaen, this study investigated the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection using a formalin-ether sedimentation method as the gold standard, and hematology and blood chemistry of the reservoir hosts in this endemic area. The results showed that cats had much higher prevalence (76 of 214, 35.51%) than dogs (3 of 821, 0.37%). Hematology between the infected and uninfected cats was not different. Complete blood count and biochemistry reflected some altered hepatic functions. However, only severely infected cats showed apparent clinical signs, including lethargy, diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharges. Moreover, the ultrasonogram of infected cats with very high egg per gram (>1500 EPG) showed apparent thickening of the gall bladder wall with hyperechoicity of hepatic parenchyma. This study suggests that cat is the most important animal reservoir of human opisthorchiasis, especially in this endemic area. It is also interesting that villages with infection are mostly located in the vicinity of Chi River and two large water reservoirs (Lawa and Nong Kongkaew Lakes), but people without infection were away from Chi River, on the south of Kudkhow Lake. Further investigation on this particular geofactor is essential for effective opisthorchiasis control programs. PMID:21843654

  18. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  19. Ventilatory response to high inspired carbon dioxide concentrations in anesthetized dogs

    PubMed Central

    Loeppky, Jack A.; Risling, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ventilation ( ) response to inspired CO2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims: These experiments were performed to determine whether would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods: We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO2-balance O2 and to 0 and 10% O2-balance N2. Results: The time delays decreased and response magnitude increased with increasing concentrations (p<0.01), but at higher concentrations the time delays were shorter than expected, i.e., 0.5 s to double at 100% CO2, with the response to 0% O2 being ~3 s slower. Right vagotomy significantly reduced baseline breathing frequency (fR), increased tidal volume (VT) and increased the time delay by ~3 s. Bilateral vagotomy further reduced baseline fR and , and reduced the response to CO2 and increased the time delay by ~12 s. Electro-stimulation of the peripheral right vagus while inspiring CO2 caused a 13 s asystole and further reduced and delayed the response, especially after bilateral vagotomy, shifting the mode from VT to fR. Conclusions: Results indicate that airway or lung receptors responded to the rapid increase in lung H+ and that vagal afferents and unimpaired circulation seem necessary for the initial rapid response to high CO2 concentrations by receptors upstream from the aortic bodies. PMID:22540067

  20. High prevalence of asthma in cross country skiers.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, K; Ohlsén, P; Larsson, L; Malmberg, P; Rydström, P O; Ulriksen, H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the prevalence of asthma (asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness) in Swedish cross country skiers compared with non-skiers and monitor changes in symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness during the year. DESIGN--Cross sectional study during the winter ski season and in the summer. SETTING--Six ski clubs for élite skiers (total 47) in two different areas of Sweden. SUBJECTS--42 élite cross country skiers and 29 non-skiing referents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bronchial responsiveness, asthma symptoms, and lung function. RESULTS--Bronchial responsiveness was significantly greater and asthma symptoms more prevalent in the skiers than in the referents. There was no difference in bronchial responsiveness within either group between winter and summer. 15 of the 42 skiers used antiasthmatic drugs regularly and 23 had a combination of asthma symptoms and hyperresponsive airways or physician diagnosed asthma, or both. Altogether 33 skiers had symptoms of asthma or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. One of the referents had symptoms of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and none used antiasthmatic drugs regularly. CONCLUSIONS--Asthma, asthma-like symptoms, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are much more common in cross country skiers than in the general population and non-skiers. Strenuous exercise at low temperatures entailing breathing large volumes of cold air is the most probable explanation of persistent asthma in skiers. PMID:8257888

  1. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. PMID:24929882

  2. High prevalence of celiac disease in Italian general population.

    PubMed

    Volta, U; Bellentani, S; Bianchi, F B; Brandi, G; De Franceschi, L; Miglioli, L; Granito, A; Balli, F; Tiribelli, C

    2001-07-01

    The worldwide increase of celiac disease prompted us to assess its prevalence in the Italian general population. The 3483 inhabitants of Campogalliano were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysial antibodies. Twenty subjects showed antibody positivity and duodenal biopsy detected typical mucosal lesions of celiac disease in 17 of them; the remaining three cases had a normal villous architecture, but the finding of increased gamma/delta intraepithelial lymphocytes in all and the heterodimer DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 in two of them was consistent with potential celiac disease. Only one patient had an overt malabsorption syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and severe weakness. In eight subjects atypical symptoms of celiac disease, such as dyspepsia and depression, were present, whereas the remaining subjects were silent. Celiac disease was more frequent in younger age groups. Our cross-sectional design study demonstrates that celiac disease prevalence in the Italian general population is 4.9 per 1000 (95% CI 2.8-7.8), increasing up to 5.7 per 1000 (95% CI 3.5-8.8) with the inclusion of potential cases. PMID:11478502

  3. Salmonellae and campylobacters in household and stray dogs in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H-J; Huang, H-C; Lin, C-M; Lien, Y-Y; Chou, C-H

    2007-11-01

    Rectal swabs were collected from 437 household and 491 stray dogs in northern Taiwan from May 2003 to June 2005 to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of salmonellae and campylobacters. The results revealed that 2.1% of household dogs and 6.3% of stray dogs were positive for salmonellae, with Salmonella Duesseldorf being the most dominant serotype in both. Additionally, 2.7% of the household dogs and 23.8% of the stray dogs were positive for campylobacters. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (86.8%), followed by C. upsaliensis (9.3%) and C. coli (3.9%). Both salmonella and campylobacter isolation rates from the stray dogs were significantly higher than those from the household dogs (p < 0.01). The susceptibility of 33 C. jejuni isolates to eight antimicrobials was studied by the E-test. A high rate of resistance was observed to azithromycin (93.9%), clindamycin (87.9%), erythromycin (81.8%), tetracycline (78.8%), chloramphenicol (69.7%), nalidixic acid (51.5%), gentamicin (33.3%), and ciprofloxacin (18.2%). The susceptibility of 40 Salmonella isolates to 15 antimicrobials was also studied by the disc-diffusion method. All the Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Resistance was observed most frequently to tetracycline (77.5%), chloramphenicol (52.5%), and ampicillin (50%). PMID:17285243

  4. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  5. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

  6. The High Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Han, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinqi; Xia, Liangyu; Li, Shijun; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Wang, Liang; Hou, Li’an; Qin, Xuzhen; Li, Pengchang; Zhang, Ruiping; Su, Wei; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D deficiency, which is usually detected by using immunoassays or the more reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, has recently been considered a public health problem worldwide. However, the vitamin D status in Chinese populations, as measured using the LC-MS/MS method, is not available. The objective of this multicenter study was to determine the vitamin D status and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency by using a reliable method in 5 large cities in China. From May 1 to September 31, 2013, we conducted a multicenter study on 2173 apparently healthy adults who were recruited from 5 Chinese cities. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25OHD2 and 25OHD3 levels were measured using the LC-MS/MS method. Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphate levels were also measured using an automatic analyzer. The mean 25OHD level of all participants was 19.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL (2.5–97.5%: 7.9–32.6 ng/mL), and only 109 (5.0%) participants had a 25OHD2 level >2.5 ng/mL (maximum, 22.4 ng/mL). In this study, the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), vitamin D deficiency (10–20 ng/mL), vitamin D insufficiency (20–30 ng/mL), and vitamin D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL) was 5.9%, 50.0%, 38.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Women had a significant higher rate of deficiency than men (66.3% vs 45.3%, P < 0.01). Participants aged 18 to 39 years had a lower 25OHD level than elderly individuals (>59 years). Lifestyle may influence the 25OHD level more than the latitude, with participants in Dalian having the highest 25OHD level and the lowest deficiency rate. The serum iPTH level showed a significant negative correlation with the 25OHD level (r = −0.23, P < 0.01) after correcting for age and sex. In conclusion, the present study evaluated the vitamin D status using a reliable method, and our results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among all age groups in China

  7. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs. PMID:20377869

  8. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  9. The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

  10. The serological and virological investigation of canine adenovirus infection on the dogs.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188-54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188-45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

  11. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  13. High Prevalence of Y Chromosome Partial Microdeletions in Overweight Men

    PubMed Central

    Biabangard zak, Atefeh; Golalipour, Masoud; Hadadchi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microdeletions of the Y chromosome are one of the most frequent genetic causes of spermatogenic failure in infertile men. But their role in gaining weight is unclear. The present study investigated the possible association of these partial microdeletions and obesity. Methods: In a case-control study, 180 males were selected. The prevalence of microdeletions was assessed using PCR in AZFc area of Y chromosome and statistical analysis was done using the Fisher exact test and Pearson correlation. Results: In our study, inverse relationship was observed between body mass index and testosterone level (p-value: 0.005). Fisher exact tests showed that there was a significant association between gr/gr mutation and BMI (p-value: 0.044). Conclusion: Our study revealed that Y chromosome microdeletions are more common in obese men. Furthermore, microdeletions such as gr/gr, which were observed in normal men, could cause decreased testosterone level. So, they may contribute to gaining weight. PMID:26306148

  14. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  15. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  16. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05); reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001); and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered. PMID:26496073

  17. Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ≤ 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

  18. The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems). Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n = 133) owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n = 54) reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n = 36) reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired behaviours do not appear to

  19. Laryngeal structure and function in dogs with cough.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and type of laryngeal abnormalities in dogs examined because of cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease and to compare the prevalence of those abnormalities among dogs with various respiratory tract diseases. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 138 dogs with cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease. PROCEDURES The study was conducted between July 2001 and October 2014 and included dogs examined for cough that had laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic examinations performed by 1 examiner. Laryngeal hyperemia and swelling were recorded, and laryngeal function was assessed before and after doxapram stimulation when indicated. Results were compared among dogs on the basis of cough duration (acute [< 2 weeks], subacute [2 weeks to 2 months], and chronic [> 2 months]) and disease diagnosed (inflammatory airway disease, airway collapse, lower respiratory tract infection, and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy). RESULTS Laryngeal hyperemia was detected in 73 of 134 (54%) dogs with cough of subacute or chronic duration, and its prevalence did not vary significantly among dogs with various diseases. Thirteen dogs had laryngeal paresis, and 13 dogs had laryngeal paralysis; dysphonia (n = 2) and stridor (1) were uncommon findings in those dogs. The prevalence of laryngeal dysfunction (paresis or paralysis) did not differ significantly among diseases. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that 26 of 138 (19%) dogs examined because of cough alone had laryngeal dysfunction, which suggested that a complete laryngoscopic examination should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with cough. PMID:27379595

  20. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Tribal Land Locked Population at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Prasher, Chaman Lal; Raina, Sujeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8) were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9%) as compared to females (8/131; 6%). Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30–39 among males (16/35; 45.7%) while it was the highest in the age group of 40–49 among females (7/8; 87%). Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations. PMID:26989560

  1. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Tribal Land Locked Population at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Prasher, Chaman Lal; Raina, Sujeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8) were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9%) as compared to females (8/131; 6%). Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30-39 among males (16/35; 45.7%) while it was the highest in the age group of 40-49 among females (7/8; 87%). Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations. PMID:26989560

  2. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

  3. Relatively High Prevalence of Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Patients from Henan, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingnuo; Sun, Binlian; Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Zhiwu; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To elucidate the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug resistance in Henan, central China, HIV-1-positive blood samples from 187 antiretroviral-naive patients were collected in our study from August 2009 to November 2010. Subtype B′ (92.0%, 172 of 187) remains the predominant HIV-1 subtype in Henan province and was prevalent in all risk populations and geographic regions. Of 98 pol sequences 67 (68.4%) harbored drug resistance mutations, and only 14 (14.3%, 14 of 98) sequences have mutations associated with significantly reduced phenotypic susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. The unexpectedly high percentage of drug resistance in Henan province is mainly due to the prevalence of minor mutations in the protease and integrase regions, especially A71T/V and L68V/I/IM/LV. In all, we detected a relatively high prevalence of drug resistance with unique mutation distributions among antiretroviral-naive patients from Henan province. PMID:23800338

  4. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of <11th grade, and had ≤2 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes. PMID:25724537

  5. Regional occurrence, high frequency but low diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup d1 suggests a recent dog-wolf hybridization in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, Å; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P

    2011-01-01

    The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60–100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480–3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage. PMID:20497152

  6. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  7. Co-Circulation of Canine Coronavirus I and IIa/b with High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyu; Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Shan; Geng, Yufei; Wang, Enyu; Wang, Zhihui; Zhao, Xiwen; Su, Mingjun; Liu, Qiujin; Zhang, Siyao; Feng, Li; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    To trace the evolution of canine coronavirus (CCoV), 201 stool samples from diarrheic dogs in northeast China were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) targeting the partial M and S genes of CCoV, followed by an epidemiological analysis. M gene RT-PCRs showed that 28.36% (57/201) of the samples were positive for CCoV; of the 57 positive samples, CCoV-I and CCoV-II accounted for 15.79% (9/57) and 84.21% (48/57), respectively. A sequence comparison of the partial M gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 88.4%–100% among the 57 CCoV strains, and 88.7%–96.2% identity between the 57 CCoV strains and the Chinese reference strain HF3. The CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains exhibited genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. The 57 CCoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with canine kobuvirus (CaKV) (33.33%) and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) (31.58%). The CCoV prevalence in diarrheic dogs differed significantly with immunization status, regions, seasons, and ages. Moreover, 28 S genes were amplified from the 57 CCoV-positive samples, including 26 CCoV-IIa strains, one CCoV-IIb strain, and one CCoV-I strain. A sequence comparison of the partial S gene revealed 86.3%–100% nucleotide identity among the 26 CCoV-IIa strains, and 89.6%–92.2% identity between the 26 CCoV-IIa strains and the Chinese reference strain V1. The 26 CCoV-IIa strains showed genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. Our data provide evidence that CCoV-I, CCoV-IIa, and CCoV-IIb strains co-circulate in the diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China, high co-infection rates with CaKV and CPV-2 were observed, and the CCoV-II strains exhibited high prevalence and genetic diversity. PMID:26771312

  8. Co-Circulation of Canine Coronavirus I and IIa/b with High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Shan; Geng, Yufei; Wang, Enyu; Wang, Zhihui; Zhao, Xiwen; Su, Mingjun; Liu, Qiujin; Zhang, Siyao; Feng, Li; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    To trace the evolution of canine coronavirus (CCoV), 201 stool samples from diarrheic dogs in northeast China were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) targeting the partial M and S genes of CCoV, followed by an epidemiological analysis. M gene RT-PCRs showed that 28.36% (57/201) of the samples were positive for CCoV; of the 57 positive samples, CCoV-I and CCoV-II accounted for 15.79% (9/57) and 84.21% (48/57), respectively. A sequence comparison of the partial M gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 88.4%-100% among the 57 CCoV strains, and 88.7%-96.2% identity between the 57 CCoV strains and the Chinese reference strain HF3. The CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains exhibited genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. The 57 CCoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with canine kobuvirus (CaKV) (33.33%) and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) (31.58%). The CCoV prevalence in diarrheic dogs differed significantly with immunization status, regions, seasons, and ages. Moreover, 28 S genes were amplified from the 57 CCoV-positive samples, including 26 CCoV-IIa strains, one CCoV-IIb strain, and one CCoV-I strain. A sequence comparison of the partial S gene revealed 86.3%-100% nucleotide identity among the 26 CCoV-IIa strains, and 89.6%-92.2% identity between the 26 CCoV-IIa strains and the Chinese reference strain V1. The 26 CCoV-IIa strains showed genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. Our data provide evidence that CCoV-I, CCoV-IIa, and CCoV-IIb strains co-circulate in the diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China, high co-infection rates with CaKV and CPV-2 were observed, and the CCoV-II strains exhibited high prevalence and genetic diversity. PMID:26771312

  9. Self-expandable and highly flexible nitinol stent: immediate and long-term results in dogs.

    PubMed

    Grenadier, E; Shofti, R; Beyar, M; Lichtig, H; Mordechowitz, D; Globerman, O; Markiewicz, W; Beyar, R

    1994-11-01

    We sought to investigate the acute and long-term patency rates and the histologic response of coronary arteries to a self-expandable nitinol coil stent. Twenty-two stents were implanted. Angiographic patency was demonstrated acutely in all but one dog, in which the stent was released in a small branch (1 mm); mismatch in stent-to-artery diameters resulted in vessel closure. Two dogs died from anesthesia overdose and two from bleeding within 24 hours. All dogs were treated with aspirin (80 mg/day) and warfarin (2.5 mg/day) for up to 1 month. Sixteen dogs were monitored for 1 to 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and underwent subsequent angiography and histopathologic examination. Angiographic artery dimensions measured immediately after stent implantation (2.72 +/- 0.4 mm) did not differ from those noted at follow-up (2.68 +/- 0.44 mm, p not significant). Histologic examination showed outward stent pressure compressing the internal elastic membrane and media in most cases. Intimal hyperplasia started at 2 weeks and was most apparent at 3 and 6 months. Mean intimal thickness was 30.7 +/- 10.9 mu, 141.8 +/- 105.4 mu, 227.1 +/- 104.1 mu, 211.8 +/- 99.1 mu, and 170.1 +/- 42.7 mu at 1 to 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Therefore the nitinol self-expandable stent provokes a moderate cellular proliferative response that reaches its maximum in 3 to 6 months without further progression. PMID:7942477

  10. An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Katie M.; Shelton, G. Diane; Patterson, Edward E.; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso

    2014-01-01

    An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw = 1.16×10−10, Pgenome, corrected = 0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3′-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5′-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3′-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species. PMID:25275565