Human and equine athletes are reported to have a high prevalence of gastric disease, and anecdotal evidence suggests a similar phenomenon applies to racing sled dogs. To investigate the prevalence of gastric disease in racing sled dogs, we conducted 2 gastroscopy studies on dogs competing in the annual Iditarod Sled Dog Race. A pilot study of dogs that were either dropped from the 2000 Iditarod Sled Dog Race because of illness or that finished the race indicated that, approximately 5 days after competing, 10 of 28 dogs (35%) had endoscopic evidence of gastric ulceration, erosion, or hemorrhage. The next year, an endoscopic study of 73 dogs participating in the 2001 Iditarod race was performed in order to evaluate a larger population of dogs. Data from 70 of these dogs could be used; 34 (48.5%) had ulceration, erosion, gastric hemorrhage, or some combination of these findings. When this group of 70 dogs was compared retrospectively to a control group of 87 dogs presented to the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, the Iditarod sled dogs had a significantly higher prevalence (P = .049) of gastric lesions. These findings suggest that, similar to athletes of other species, elite canine athletes have an increased prevalence of gastric disease compared to the canine population at large. PMID:12774971
Davis, M S; Willard, M D; Nelson, S L; Mandsager, R E; McKiernan, B S; Mansell, J K; Lehenbauer, T W
BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence of dog bites to primary school children between the ages of 8–12 years using a semi-structured interview process. With the increase in the pet population and popularity of dangerous breeds of dog and a high stray dog population combined with a dearth of information on the risk of dog attacks to children in Trinidad, a
Karla Georges; Abiodun Adesiyun
Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in
Andrea Wang; Rebecca Ruch-Gallie; Valeria Scorza; Philip Lin; Michael R. Lappin
The prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) was examined in the southeast region of Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, using a rapid immunomigration (RIM) test kit. Between April 2007 and March 2010, we examined 108 raccoon dogs rescued and housed by the Kanazawa Zoological Garden. D. immitis infection was found in 8 (7.4%) raccoon dogs. This is the first report to reveal the prevalence of D. immitis infection in living raccoon dogs. The prevalence of the infection was lower than previously reported values obtained on postmortem examination. One reason might be that the present study included young raccoon dogs infected with immature worms. Significant high-risk areas of D. immitis infection in the raccoon dogs were not observed. PMID:21293077
Kido, Nobuhide; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko
BACKGROUND: Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. METHODS: In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal
Uade Samuel Ugbomoiko; Liana Ariza; Jorg Heukelbach
Limited information is available about the prevalence and phylogenetic classification of fungal organisms in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Also, the impact of fungal organisms on gastrointestinal health and disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal DNA in the small intestine of healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies. Small intestinal content was analyzed from 64 healthy and 71 diseased dogs from five different geographic locations in Europe and the USA. Fungal DNA was amplified with panfungal primers targeting the internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region. PCR amplicons were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fungal DNA was detected in 60.9% of healthy dogs and in 76.1% of dogs with chronic enteropathies. This prevalence was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.065). Fungal DNA was significantly more prevalent in mucosal brush samples (82.8%) than in luminal samples (42.9%; p=0.002). Sequencing results revealed a total of 51 different phylotypes. All sequences belonged to two phyla and were classified as either Ascomycota (32 phylotypes) or Basidiomycota (19 phylotypes). Three major classes were identified: Saccharomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Hymenomycetes. The most commonly observed sequences were classified as Pichia spp., Cryptococcus spp., Candida spp., and Trichosporon spp. Species believed to be clinically more important were more commonly observed in diseased dogs. These results indicate a high prevalence and diversity of fungal DNA in the small intestine of both healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies. The canine gastrointestinal tract of diseased dogs may harbor opportunistic fungal pathogens. PMID:18586415
Suchodolski, Jan S; Morris, Erin K; Allenspach, Karin; Jergens, Albert E; Harmoinen, Jaana A; Westermarck, Elias; Steiner, Jörg M
The prevalence of parasitic helminths in 20 stray dogs from the area of Baghdad was recorded. Taenia spp. were found in 12 dogs, Dipylidium caninum in ten dogs, Toxocara canis in eight dogs, Ancylostoma caninum in seven dogs and Echinococcus granulosus in five dogs. Spirocerca lupi and Dirofilaria immitis were found in three dogs, Mesocestoides lineatus in two dogs and Strongyloides stercoralis in one dog. PMID:3800471
Tarish, J H; Al-Saqur, I M; Al-Abbassy, S N; Kadhim, F S
Background To estimate the prevalence of dog bites to primary school children between the ages of 8–12 years using a semi-structured interview process. With the increase in the pet population and popularity of dangerous breeds of dog and a high stray dog population combined with a dearth of information on the risk of dog attacks to children in Trinidad, a semi-structured interview process was used to determine risk factors associated with dog attacks. Methods A questionnaire survey of 1109 primary school children between the ages of 8–12 years was conducted in Trinidad from November 2002 to September 2003. The survey was conducted to determine the risk factors such as age, gender, size of dog and relationship of dog and victim, in dog bite incidents. The chi-square statistic and odds ratios were used to estimate risk factors for a bite incident. Results Twenty-eight percent of children were bitten at least once by a dog. Gender (male) and owning a dog were statistically significant risk factors (p = 0.003 and 0.008 respectively, ?2 df, 95% confidence). Most attacks occurred outside of the home (58.0%) followed by the victims' home (42.0%) and were by a dog known but not owned (54.6%) by the victim. Many victims (33.0%) were bitten without having any interaction with the dog and the majority (61.9%) of victims did not receive professional medical assistance. Overall, the lower leg or foot was most often injured (39.3%). Conclusion A public educational campaign is needed on responsible pet ownership. In addition, children must be taught effective ways of avoiding attacks or reducing injury in the event of a dog attack. The Dangerous dogs Act 2000 must be proclaimed in parliament by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to exert more pressure on pet owners to safeguard the public from the menace of dog attacks.
Georges, Karla; Adesiyun, Abiodun
SUMMARY Case reports have indicated transmission of Staphylococcus aureus between humans and pets. We investigated associations between level of contact between dog and owner, and S. aureus colonization. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus was determined for 830 dogs and 736 owners. Relatedness of isolates was investigated using antibiograms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Associations between carriage and demographics or amount of contact between owners and dogs were documented. S. aureus was isolated in 24% of humans and 8·8% of dogs. Antibiotic resistance was significantly more common in canine isolates. Of 17 owner/dog colonized pairs, six were indistinguishable by PFGE. Colonization of dogs was not associated with close human contact, but was strongly associated with health-care occupations (OR 3·29, 95% CI 1·49–7·26, P=0·002). In outbreak situations health-care workers' pets should be considered as a source of S. aureus. High rates of resistance indicate increased monitoring of antibiotic use in veterinary practice is needed.
BOOST, M. V.; O'DONOGHUE, M. M.; JAMES, A.
Background Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. Results 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs and 62 control dogs (large breed dogs with long hair) were included. All dogs were considered healthy according to a questionnaire filled out by the owner, complete blood count, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture. Bernese Mountain Dogs and control dogs were kept in similar environments. Seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by ELISA and Western blot and was 58% in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to 15% in control dogs. This difference was significant. Neither antibodies against leptospires nor vaccination or hair coat color influenced the results. Conclusion The cause of the considerably higher prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain Dogs and it's consequences are not known. A breed predisposition can be suspected.
Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E
• The overall prevalence of dog intestinal parasites detected in this study was 54.33% and most dogs (31.4%) were harbouring only one parasite. • Relevant parasites in terms of zoonotic potential were the most frequently observed, i.e. Ancylostoma spp. (37.8%), Giardia spp.(16.9%) and Toxocara canis (8.7%). • The lack of knowledge showed by dog owners on the zoonotic potential of
S. Katagiri; T. C. G. Oliveira-Sequeira
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray dogs, and dogs with owners was investigated by fecal examinations from 271 dogs employing sedimentation, simple flotation and centrifugation-flotation methods. The centrifugation-flotation method, when compared to simple flotation or sedimentation methods was generally more accurate in the diagnosis of all intestinal parasites, but statistical differences were detected only in relation to Giardia spp.
T. C. G. Oliveira-Sequeira; A. F. T. Amarante; T. B. Ferrari; L. C. Nunes
Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427
Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Morton, Bridget A; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H; Angulo, Noelia P; Brenner, Elliott C; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs.\\u000a To assess the prevalence of the parasite in urban dogs in the Mazovian Voivodeship, Central Poland, serum samples from 257\\u000a dogs were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG antibodies. The examined dogs visited three private veterinary clinics\\u000a located
Katarzyna Go?dzik; Robert Wrzesie?; Adrianna Wielgosz-Ostolska; Justyna Bie?; Monika Kozak-Ljunggren; W?adys?aw Cabaj
Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domes- tic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacteria in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which
K. A. EATON; F. E. DEWHIRST; B. J. PASTER; N. TZELLAS; B. E. COLEMAN
The prevalence of Spirocerca lupi in 260 privately owned dogs with different life and hunting styles in Greece was based on the examination of randomly taken faecal samples using Teleman's sedimentation technique. The dogs did not demonstrate any clinical signs of spirocerciasis. Although the prevalence was 10%, it was found to be significantly higher in trace hunting dogs (21%), than in scent hunting dogs (5%) and household pets (0%). There was no relationship between prevalence and age/sex of dogs. The impact of life and hunting styles on the prevalence of S. lupi in the dog and that of the faecal examination technique, are discussed. PMID:11818054
Mylonakis, M E; Koutinas, A F; Liapi, M V; Saridomichelakis, M N; Rallis, T S
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of cataracts in dogs presented to veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2003. A retrospective study of all dogs presented with cataracts to veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2003 was conducted to determine cataract prevalence. The different decades, breeds, gender, and age at time of presentation with cataract were compared. The prevalence of dogs presented with cataract varied by decade and ranged from 0.95% (1964-73), 1.88% (1974-83), 2.42% (1994-2003), to 3.5% (1984-93). The total number of dogs presented with cataracts over the 40-year period was 39,229. From 1964 to 2003 the prevalence of cataract formation in this patient population increased by about 255%. Fifty-nine breeds of dogs were affected with cataracts above the baseline prevalence of 1.61% seen in mixed-breed/hybrid dogs. The breeds with the highest cataract prevalence included: Smooth Fox Terrier (11.70%), Havanese (11.57%), Bichon Frise (11.45%), Boston Terrier (11.11%), Miniature Poodle (10.79%), Silky Terrier (10.29%) and Toy Poodle (10.21%). The breeds with the largest number of cataractous dogs during the entire four decades were the Boston Terrier (11.11%), Miniature Poodle (10.79%), American Cocker Spaniel (8.77%), Standard Poodle (7.00%), and Miniature Schnauzer (4.98%). Gender ratios of cataractous dogs seemed to affect limited breeds. Age of presentation with cataract diagnosis varied among several breeds. In the mixed-breed/hybrid baseline population, cataract formation appeared to be age related with a higher frequency of cataract formation in dogs after 4-7 years. Cataract formation is one of the most prevalent eye diseases in the dog population, and in about 60 breeds of dogs the prevalence of cataract exceeds that of the baseline mixed-breed/hybrid group. The prevalence of cataract is also influenced by age in most purebred dogs and affects 16.80% of the 7-15+-year-old mixed-breed/hybrid dog population. Total and age-related cataract prevalence in dogs seems very similar to that in man. PMID:15762923
Gelatt, Kirk N; Mackay, Edward O
Estimates of the prevalence of intestinal infection of dogs with Giardia spp. in the United States vary widely. Risk factors for infection in a large sample of dogs over an extended period of time have not been well characterized. A national, electronic database of medical records was used to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for Giardia spp. infection among dogs visiting Banfield Pet Hospital™ located in 43 states in the United States. The overall prevalence of Giardia spp. Infection was 0.44% (95% CI: 0.43-0.45%) in approximately 2.5 million owned dogs who had a fecal flotation test performed from January 2003 to December 2009. A steady decrease in annual prevalence was observed, from a high of 0.61% in 2003 to 0.27% in 2009. Seasonal increases in prevalence were noted during the winter and summer months. Giardia spp. prevalence was highest in the Mountain region, especially Colorado (2.63%; 95% CI: 2.53-2.73%), and in puppies ?0.5 year of age (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64%). It was lowest for dogs of mixed breeding compared with pure breeds. Infection risk was 25-30% greater in sexually intact dogs compared to spayed and neutered dogs. PMID:23337331
Mohamed, Ahmed S; Glickman, Larry T; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elizabeth; Moore, George E
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of parasites in soil and dog feces according to diagnostic tests. We studied soil from 25 public squares in Seropédica, Brazil. Five samples of soil were collected from each square. Eighty-one fresh fecal samples from dogs were analyzed. The technique described by Dunsmore et al. and an adaptation of the
Arisa Mandarino-Pereira; Fábio Silva de Souza; Carlos Wilson G. Lopes; Maria Julia S. Pereira
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a Gram-negative commensal of dog's mouth causing severe human infections. A strain isolated from a human fatal infection was recently shown to have a sialidase, to inhibit the bactericidal activity of macrophages and to block the release of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated macrophages. The present study aimed at determining the prevalence of C. canimorsus in dogs and
Manuela Mally; Cécile Paroz; Hwain Shin; Salome Meyer; Lavinia V. Soussoula; Ueli Schmiediger; Caroline Saillen-Paroz; Guy R. Cornelis
The prevalence and severity of cardiac murmurs consistent with subclinical or clinically detectable aortic stenosis among purebred boxer dogs in Norway and Sweden were evaluated. Two hundred and thirty-one boxers, randomly selected or investigated at dog shows, were examined by phonocardiography by two veterinarians and classified on the basis of the characteristics of their murmurs into categories 0 to 4.
R. Heiene; A. Indrebř; C. Kvart; H. M. Skaalnes; A. K. Ulstad
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray dogs, and dogs with owners was investigated by fecal examinations from 271 dogs employing sedimentation, simple flotation and centrifugation-flotation methods. The centrifugation-flotation method, when compared to simple flotation or sedimentation methods was generally more accurate in the diagnosis of all intestinal parasites, but statistical differences were detected only in relation to Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. (synonym Isospora spp.). The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were diagnosed in the fecal samples: Ancylostoma spp. (23.6%); Toxocara canis (5.5%); Trichuris vulpis (4.8%); Spirocerca lupi (1.9%); Dipylidium caninum (0.7%); Giardia spp. (12.2%); Hammondia heydorni (2.6%); Cystoisospora spp. (8.5%); and Sarcocystis spp. (2.2%). The prevalence of most parasites was similar for dogs of mixed-breed and for dogs of a defined-breed, except for Cystoisospora spp. and T. canis which showed a significantly higher prevalence in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. (17.1%) was significantly lower in stray dogs than in those with an owner (31.9%) and the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was higher in stray dogs (P < 0.05). No effect of season on the occurrence of the different parasite genera could be observed, except for Ancylostoma spp., for which an increase in the percentage of dogs shedding eggs was observed at the beginning of Summer with a peak occurrence during April and May (Autumn). The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp., T. canis, T. vulpis, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was higher in adult males than in adult females, but significant differences between the two groups occurred only with Giardia spp. Young animals were found to more frequently shed Nematode eggs in feces than adult animals. PMID:11750997
Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Amarante, A F T; Ferrari, T B; Nunes, L C
Hospitalized animals and stray dogs were serologically tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the data were examined for the possibility of toxoplasmosis infection being associated with the clinical diagnosis and with the discharge status (alive vs. dead). Among 1056 hospitalized animals, 17 (20%) of 86 cats, 112 (14%) of 804 dogs, 34 (26%) of 133 horses and 6 (18%) of 33 cattle had serological evidence of infection with T. gondii. Only 22 (6%) of 342 young (median age = one year) stray dogs were seropositive. The difference in antibody prevalence between hospitalized and stray dogs was thought to be due to age and dietary factors. Of 249 dogs grouped by clinical diagnosis, there was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher prevalence of seropositives among dogs with diseases of the kidney or with adrenocortical hyperfunction than among dogs hospitalized for other diseases. Of 19 dogs with diseases of the kidney and 12 with adrenocortical hyperfunction 37% and 42%, respectively, were seropositive.. There was higher risk of being discharged from the hospital dead among seropositive dogs, cattle and horses than among seronegative animals of the same species. The exception was cats, where of 69 seronegative cats 29% were dead at discharge and where of 17 seropositive cats 18% were dead at discharge. The possible effects of stress due to hospitalization need further research.
Riemann, H P; Kaneko, J J; Haghighi, S; Behymer, D E; Franti, C E; Ruppanner, R
To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma. PMID:23659343
Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki
Of 92 dogs examined for Echinococcus granulosus at five sites in Libya from April 1985 to September 1988 33 (35.9%) were infected, the prevalences ranging from 60% (Zawiyah) and 52.0% (Tripoli) in the north-west, to 28.6% (Benghazi) and 28.5% (Darna) in the north-east. None of eight dogs at Al-Kufra, in the south-eastern desert, were infected. Twenty dogs each had two to 200 worms, nine had 201-1000 worms and four each had over 1000 worms (one dog in Tripoli had 17,120 worms). Most infections were seen in dogs aged three to four years; 45.4% of bitches and 35.4% of males were infected. PMID:2256769
Awan, M A; Gusbi, A M; Beesley, W N
Blood, saliva, and nail samples were collected from 54 dogs and 151 cats and analyzed for the presence of Bartonella henselae with a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bartonella (B.) henselae was detected in feral cat blood (41.8%), saliva (44.1%), and nail (42.7%) samples. B. henselae was also detected in pet cat blood (33.3%), saliva (43.5%), and nail (29.5%) samples and in pet dog blood (16.6%), saliva (18.5%), and nail (29.6%) samples. Nine samples were infected with B. clarridgeiae and 2 were co-infected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae of blood samples of dogs. This report is the first to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in dogs and cats in Korea, and suggests that dogs and cats may serve as potential Bartonella reservoirs. PMID:19255530
Kim, You-seok; Seo, Kyoung-won; Lee, Jong-hwa; Choi, Eun-wha; Lee, Hee-woo; Hwang, Cheol-yong; Shin, Nam-shik; Youn, Hee-jeong; Youn, Hwa Young
Army dogs, mostly German Sheep-dogs, were tested for antibodies to T. gondii using Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Titers greater than or equal to 4 and 10 were considered as positive in DT and CFT, respectively. Seroprevalences in the group of 720 dogs from the civil sector of different areas in the former Czechoslovakia were 39.3% and 15.4% in DT and CFT, respectively. During dogs' stay in army seroprevalences decreased only slowly. The decrease was probably due to less possibility to contact sources of infection--dogs were fed with cooked food, kept in pens with a high level of hygiene, and cats were very rare there. Nevertheless, some dogs in the army training centre were infected by T. gondii in that way of dog rearing. PMID:7793014
Hejlícek, K; Literák, I; Lhoták, M
To investigate the rabies antigen and antibody prevalences among stray dogs in Bangkok, Thailand, we took both a saliva and serum sample from each of 3314 stray dogs captured once each between December 2003 and June 2004. One 2-year-old female was antigen positive in the latex-agglutination test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The overall antibody seroprevalence from the
S. Kasempimolporn; B. Sichanasai; W. Saengseesom; S. Puempumpanich; S. Chatraporn; V. Sitprija
To investigate the rabies antigen and antibody prevalences among stray dogs in Bangkok, Thailand, we took both a saliva and serum sample from each of 3314 stray dogs captured once each between December 2003 and June 2004. One 2-year-old female was antigen positive in the latex-agglutination test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The overall antibody seroprevalence from the
S. Kasempimolporn; B. Sichanasai; W. Saengseesom; S. Puempumpanich; S. Chatraporn; V. Sitprija
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection, and to examine the relationship between host factors (gender, age and breed) and D. immitis infection in dogs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. A total of 676 dogs were examined for D. immitis infection. Adult worms (necropsy) and blood samples were collected from all animals for diagnosis of D. immitis. Blood samples were examined using a modified Knott's and thick drop techniques. Fifty-six of 676 dogs were diagnosed infected with D. immitis. The odds of infection were 2.85 times higher in female dogs, compared to male dogs (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.5-5.5, P = 0.01). In addition, the odds of infection were 2.11 times higher in > or =3 years old dogs, compared with younger dogs (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.1-4.2, P = 0.03). This information is important for a better understanding of the epidemiology of D. immitis in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. PMID:17630215
Bolio-Gonzalez, M E; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Sauri-Arceo, C H; Gutierrez-Blanco, E; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Colin-Flores, R F
Aggression between dogs is common and can result in injury. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence, evaluate co-occurrence with human-directed aggression, and investigate potential risk factors, using a cross-sectional convenience sample of dog owners. Aggression (barking, lunging, growling or biting) towards unfamiliar dogs was reported to currently occur, by 22 per cent of owners, and towards other dogs in the household, by 8 per cent. A low level of concordance between dog and human-directed aggression suggested most dogs were not showing aggression in multiple contexts. Aggression towards other dogs in the household was associated with increasing dog age, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques, and attending ring-craft classes. Aggression towards other dogs on walks was associated with location of questionnaire distribution, owner age, age of dog, origin of dog, dog breed type, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques and attending obedience classes for more than four weeks. In both, the amount of variance explained by models was low (<15 per cent), suggesting that unmeasured factors mostly accounted for differences between groups. These results suggest general characteristics of dogs and owners which contribute to intraspecific aggression, but also highlight that these are relatively minor predictors. PMID:23193037
Casey, R A; Loftus, B; Bolster, C; Richards, G J; Blackwell, E J
A tibial tuberosity radiolucency is sometimes identified on lateral radiographs of canine stifle joints, however little is known about the cause or significance. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, association with other stifle conditions, and histopathologic characteristics of tibial tuberosity radiolucencies in a group of dogs. Radiographs of all canine stifle joints over 5 years were evaluated. Presence or absence of a tibial tuberosity radiolucency was recorded by an observer who was unaware of clinical status. Patient signalment and presence of other stifle joint conditions were recorded from medical records. A tibial tuberosity radiolucency was found in 145/675 dogs (prevalence = 21.5%). Statistically significant associations were identified between tibial tuberosity radiolucency and stifle condition (P < 0.0001), breed size (P = 0.011), and younger age of presentation (P = 0.001), but not with gender (P = 0.513). Dogs with a tibial tuberosity radiolucency had higher odds of having a medial patellar luxation than dogs without (OR = 9.854, P < 0.0001, 95% CI 6.422-15.120). Dogs with a tibial tuberosity radiolucency had lower odds of having a cranial cruciate ligament rupture than dogs without (OR = 0.418, P < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.287-0.609). Four canine cadavers, two with normal stifles and two with tibial tuberosity radiolucencies, underwent radiographic, computed tomographic, and histologic examination of the stifles. Computed tomography revealed a hypoattenuating cortical defect in the lateral aspect of the proximal tibial tuberosity that corresponded histopathologically to a hyaline cartilage core. Findings indicated that the tibial tuberosity radiolucency may be due to a retained cartilage core and associated with medial patellar luxation in dogs. PMID:23662944
Paek, Matthew; Engiles, Julie B; Mai, Wilfried
This study investigated the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis in Northeastern Brazil, focusing the identification of the Ehrlichia species and vectors involved. Samples were collected from 472 domestic dogs residing in the health districts of Cajazeiras and Itapuă of Salvador city. The average prevalence of antibodies reactive to E. canis by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (titer ? 1:80) was 35.6% (168/472). Blood samples from the E. canis-seropositive animals were tested by nested PCR in order to identify the Ehrlichia species responsible for the infection. Among the seropositives, 58 (34.5%) were found to be PCR-positive for E. canis. Ticks were found in 32 dogs. Nested-PCR analysis showed that 21.9% (7/32) of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus were infected by E. canis. In both dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, nested-PCR for E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis was negative, with no amplification of DNA fragment. PMID:20624344
Souza, Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva; Leal, Danielle Custódio; Barboza, Débora Cristina Portela Medina; Uzęda, Rosângela Soares; De Alcântara, Adriano Costa; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia
Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1 : 20 as cutoff for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%) and females (41.8%) and between pure-breed (42.1%) and mixed-breed dogs (35.2%) were not statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age above 12 mo (odds ratio [OR] ?=? 4.0), chance of eating birds or small mammals (OR ?=? 4.0), housing exclusively outdoors (OR ?=? 1.5), home-cooked meals (OR ?=? 3.0), and eating raw meat or viscera (OR ?=? 7.7) as risk factors for the canine T. gondii infection. Some control measures are suggested based on these findings. PMID:21506866
Lopes, A P; Santos, H; Neto, F; Rodrigues, M; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Cardoso, L
In a series of 3 studies, indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained to define normal variance, identify hypertension, and estimate the prevalence of hypertension in apparently healthy dogs. In part 1, we measured values in 5 clinically normal dogs twice weekly for 5 weeks in a home setting. Mean +/- SD systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) was 150 +/- 16 and 86 +/- 13 mm of Hg, respectively. The DAP significantly (P less than 0.01) decreased with repeated measurements over the 5-week period. In part 2, we assessed the variation between blood pressures measured in a clinic vs those measured in the home. Within a 2-week period, measurements were obtained from 10 clinically normal dogs in a private veterinary clinic and again in their home. Significant differences were not observed between clinic and home measurements of SAP and DAP; however, heart rate was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in the clinic. In part 3, SD about the SAP and DAP mean values were determined in 102 clinically normal dogs. Canine hypertensive status was determined, using statistical methods and data from 102 clinically normal dogs. Values of SAP greater than 202 mm of Hg and DAP greater than 116 mm of Hg were determined to be 2 SD beyond the mean and, therefore, were interpreted to be hypertensive. Approximately 10% of the 102 apparently healthy dogs measured in this study were considered hypertensive on the basis of these criteria. In addition, a border zone of suspected hypertension was estimated, using the mean + 1.282 SD. The SAP border zone was between 183 and 202 mm of Hg, whereas the DAP border zone was between 102 and 113 mm of Hg. Of the 102 dogs, 12 had values within these zones of suspected hypertension. PMID:2053724
Remillard, R L; Ross, J N; Eddy, J B
Background Large regions of central and eastern Europe are recognized as areas where tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is endemic, including countries neighbouring Denmark. It is therefore timely and relevant to determine if TBEV infections occur in Denmark. This study investigates the presence of antibodies against TBEV in a cross-section of the Danish canine population to assess the level of exposure to TBEV and possibly identify TBEV microfoci in Denmark. Methods Blood samples were collected from 125 dogs originating from five regions of Denmark between November 2005 and March 2006. Serum was tested by indirect ELISA. All positive and borderline samples were re-evaluated by neutralisation test (NT). Results The prevalence of TBEV serocomplex antibodies was 30% by ELISA and 4.8% by NT (with 100%-neutralising capacity). The island of Bornholm was the only area in Denmark with NT positive samples. Conclusions The island of Bornholm is an area with a high risk of encountering TBEV microfoci. The presence of TBEV serocomplex antibodies in many sentinel animals from other parts of Denmark points toward existence of other TBEV microfoci. Discrepancies found between ELISA and NT results stress the importance of careful evaluation of serological tests, when interpreting results.
The apparent prevalence of endoparasitic infections of cats and dogs presented to the small animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania was measured between 1984 and 1991. Two thousand feline and 8077 canine fecal samples were examined along with 6830 canine blood samples. The overall mean monthly prevalence of feline infections was 16% for ascarids, 0.9% for hookworms, 4.0%
Thomas J. Nolan; Gary Smith
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of parasites in soil and dog feces according to diagnostic tests. We studied soil from 25 public squares in Seropédica, Brazil. Five samples of soil were collected from each square. Eighty-one fresh fecal samples from dogs were analyzed. The technique described by Dunsmore et al. and an adaptation of the Rugai et al. method were used to recover parasites in soil, and the Willis, Hoffman and Centrifugal-Flotation techniques were used to detect parasites in feces. The chi(2) and Fischer's exact tests were used to analyze the statistical significance of the results. Seven squares were found to be contaminated, and the most prevalent parasites were Ancylostoma spp. (13.6%) and Toxocara spp. (4.0%). The Dunsmore et al. technique and the adaptation of the Rugai et al. method did not differ in the detection of Toxocara spp. (p=0.21), Trichuris spp. (p=0.25), Ascaris spp. (p=0.49) and Strongyloides spp. (p=0.49) in soil. However, the two methods differed in the detection of Ancylostoma spp. eggs (p=0.029) and larvae (p=0.001). According to granulometric analysis, the soil samples consisted mainly of sand (from 96.6% to 82.8%). Parasites were detected in 75 fecal samples, the most frequent being Ancylostoma spp. (80.1%), Toxocara spp. (11.1%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (7.4%). There was no difference between the Willis and Centrifugal-Flotation techniques in the detection of Ancylostoma spp., and both techniques were better than the Hoffman technique for detecting this parasite in feces. The Hoffman and Centrifugal-Flotation techniques were different (p=0.03) in Toxocara spp. detection. No difference was observed among these three for Cryptosporidium spp. detection. The prevalences of zoonotic parasites in both dog feces and soil have implications for the spread of human disease in these areas. PMID:20226595
Mandarino-Pereira, Arisa; de Souza, Fábio Silva; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G; Pereira, Maria Julia S
The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids. PMID:22428309
Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, S?awomir
A Bayesian approach was used to assess the prevalence of Canine leishmaniasis and evaluate three serological diagnostic tests: indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), direct agglutination test, and particle gel immuno-assay (PaGIA) for Canine leishmaniasis (CL) in Algiers. Four hundred and sixty-two dogs were involved in this study and divided in four groups according to their functional type: stray dogs, farm
Amel Adel; Claude Saegerman; Niko Speybroeck; Nicolas Praet; Bjorn Victor; Redgi De Deken; Abdelkrim Soukehal; Dirk Berkvens
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exposure to avian origin influenza virus (AIV) in dogs referred to\\u000a the Veterinary Clinic at Shiraz University. A total of 182 dogs were selected from cases at the Small Animal Clinic from the\\u000a Veterinary Medicine School. Complete history and physical examination was performed and blood samples obtained and submitted
Mohammad Abbaszadeh Hasiri; Saeed Nazifi; Elham Mohsenifard; Maryam Ansari-Lari
In order to determine the prevalence of canine enteric coronavirus (CECoV) in the general dog population, faecal samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study of 249 dogs presenting for any reason at veterinary practices randomly selected from across the UK. Demographic and clinical data was obtained for each of the samples, including signalment, number of dogs in the household, reason for visiting the practice, and any recent history of diarrhoea. The samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of both type I and type II CECoV. Seven samples were positive (three from dogs in the same household), a prevalence of 2.8% (95% confidence intervals 1.1-5.7). Phylogenetic analysis of partial M gene sequences revealed that all seven positive samples grouped with type I CECoV, the first report of this virus in the UK. None of the positive dogs presented for gastrointestinal disease. Interestingly five of the positive dogs from three separate households were aged over 6 years, suggesting that older dogs may play an important role in the persistence of CECoV in such populations. PMID:19647379
Stavisky, J; Pinchbeck, G L; German, A J; Dawson, S; Gaskell, R M; Ryvar, R; Radford, A D
Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal\\u000a parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian\\u000a metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization,\\u000a dogs were
Sven Klimpel; Jörg Heukelbach; David Pothmann; Sonja Rückert
We studied and compared the prevalence of Leishmania infection and the seroprevalence and the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. One hundred dogs living on the island of Mallorca (Spain) were studied. In this study, we clinically examined each dog for the presence of symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis, determined the titer of anti-Leishmania antibodies,
LAIA SOLANO-GALLEGO; PERE MORELL; MARGARITA ARBOIX; JORDI ALBEROLA; LLUIS FERRER
Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Spirocercidae) is a cosmopolitan parasite, principally of domestic dogs and dung beetles are its main intermediate hosts. In South Africa there has recently been growing concern over the upsurge of reported cases of clinical spirocercosis in dogs, while little is known or understood about the dynamics of the host-parasite associations between dung beetles and this nematode. We determined and compared the prevalence of infection in dung beetles between rural, urban and peri-urban areas of Tshwane (Pretoria) Metropole. Dung beetles were sampled during April and October 2006, at various localities in each of these areas. Localities were selected on the basis of being focal areas of high infection with S. lupi in dogs. Pig, dog and cow dung-baited pitfall traps were used for sampling the beetles. Trap contents were collected 48 h after the traps had been set and only dung beetles were collected from the traps. In total, 453 specimens belonging to 18 species were collected from 63 pitfall traps in all three areas. The numbers of species that were collected varied among the three areas. Dung beetles, irrespective of species (18) and numbers (447), predominantly preferred pig dung. The prevalence of dung beetles infected with the larvae of S. lupivaried considerably in the three areas. In the urban area 13.5% of the dung beetles dissected were infected, while the prevalence of S. lupi in dung beetles in the rural area was 2.3%. All the dung beetles that were infected with this nematode showed a preference for omnivore (pig and dog) dung. PMID:19294987
Du Toit, C A; Scholtz, C H; Hyman, W B
Evolutionary forces drive beneficial adaptations in response to a complex array of environmental conditions. In contrast, over several millennia, humans have been so enamored by the running/athletic prowess of horses and dogs that they have sculpted their anatomy and physiology based solely upon running speed. Thus, through hundreds of generations, those structural and functional traits crucial for running fast have been optimized. Central among these traits is the capacity to uptake, transport and utilize oxygen at spectacular rates. Moreover, the coupling of the key systems--pulmonary-cardiovascular-muscular is so exquisitely tuned in horses and dogs that oxygen uptake response kinetics evidence little inertia as the animal transitions from rest to exercise. These fast oxygen uptake kinetics minimize Intramyocyte perturbations that can limit exercise tolerance. For the physiologist, study of horses and dogs allows investigation not only of a broader range of oxidative function than available in humans, but explores the very limits of mammalian biological adaptability. Specifically, the unparalleled equine cardiovascular and muscular systems can transport and utilize more oxygen than the lungs can supply. Two consequences of this situation, particularly in the horse, are profound exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia as well as structural failure of the delicate blood-gas barrier causing pulmonary hemorrhage and, in the extreme, overt epistaxis. This chapter compares and contrasts horses and dogs with humans with respect to the structural and functional features that enable these extraordinary mammals to support their prodigious oxidative and therefore athletic capabilities. PMID:23737162
Poole, David C; Erickson, Howard H
A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of spiral-shaped bacteria in animals as a pos - sible source of pathogens causing chronic changes in the human and animal stomach as well as in other parts of the digestive tract. This study was carried out in three different groups of animals, pigs, cattle and dogs. Swabs from the oral cavity
L. Kolodzieyski; B. Kim; H. S. Yoon; C. W. Lim
Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy.
Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeco, Claudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.
Ticks are important vectors of disease in companion animals and transmit an extensive range of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens to dogs and cats. They may also be vectors of zoonotic pathogens which affect the health of in-contact owners. In recent years, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis have all shown signs of increased prevalence and distribution in various parts of Europe. Here, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. pathogens in Ixodes ticks, collected from dogs in the UK in 2009, were evaluated using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA or 18S rDNA regions respectively. Species identification was performed by alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. After sequencing, 5 out of 677 tick samples (0.74%) contained rDNA which shared 97-100%% sequence homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Of these, three samples came from Ixodes ricinus and two from Ixodes hexagonus. Sixteen out of 742 ticks (2.4%) were positive for Babesia and of these 11 showed 97-100% homology with B. gibsoni. All of these 11 samples were derived from I. ricinus. One sample, again from I. ricinus, showed 99% homology for B. divergens. Four of the Babesia spp sequences were of the "venatorum" or EU1 type, three of which came from I. ricinus and one from an Ixodes canisuga. This strain has been associated with severe human cases of babeisiosis. A further 246 positive results, which appeared to show the presence of Anaplasma following PCR, were shown by sequence analysis to be derived from the bacterium Candidatus "Midichloria mitochondrii", which to date has been assumed to be non-pathogenic. The results are of interest because the presence of B. gibsoni in the UK further confirms the worldwide distribution of this piroplasm and supports the inference that I. ricinus may act as a vector for Babesia of the gibsoni-complex. PMID:24055106
Smith, Faith D; Wall, Lauren Ellse Richard
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in sera of 325 dogs in 11 villages inhabited by the Tapirapé and Karajá ethnic groups in the south of the Brazilian Amazon was determined by the use of an indirect fluorescence antibody test. Antibodies (cutoff 1:16) to T. gondii were found in 169 (52%) and to N. caninum (cut-off 1:50) in 32 (9.8%) of 325 dogs. Seropositivity for both parasitic infections was widely prevalent in dogs from these villages and was higher in older dogs, indicating post-natal transmission. PMID:22551468
Minervino, Antonio H H; Cassinelli, Ana Beatriz M; de Lima, Julia T R; Soares, Herbert S; Malheiros, Antonio F; Marcili, Arlei; Gennari, Solange M
Background Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD) occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Results Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded. Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696) was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ? 0.001). Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050). No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour. Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034) after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Conclusions Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to defects in molecular pigment pathways, the molecular control of embryonic melanoblast migration from ectoderm to skin differs from control of migration from ectoderm to cochlea. In Australian Cattle Dogs, CHSD may be more common in females.
One of the most dangerous parasites, not only for carnivores but also for human being is Toxocara canis. It is presented very commonly all over the world, so spread its into the humans organisms, especially childrens is very easy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis in dogs and red foxes in area of north-west Poland. The dog coproscopy was provided according to Willis-Schlaff method. Post mortem examination of red foxes was conducted according to Eckert and Amman (1990), Eckert et al. (1991) and Ewald (1993). In examined area dogs were infected with Toxocara canis from 2.67 to 55% (Table 1). The highest prevalence was observed in Gorzów Wielkopolski in its neighborhood (villages) and in urban places. The lowest extensity (2.67%) was determined in urban area of S?upsk city. In examined forest regions the prevalence of Toxocara canis in red foxes was 43% (Table 2). To sum up, north-west Poland is a region where Toxocara canis is common, both in domesticated and wild environment. There should be provided regular monitoring of this zoonozis as well as pharmacological treatment of dogs. PMID:16865980
Cisek, Agnieszka; Ramisz, Alojzy; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a; Laurans, Lukasz
Northern Ireland was investigated. A postal questionnaire was completed by 556 people who had purchased a dog from the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (uspcA) to provide information on the diseases suffered by their dog. The majority of the dogs (53.7 per cent) had an ailment, the most common being coughing and diarrhoea. Of the respondents
D. L. Wells; P. G. Hepper
Capnocytophagacanimorsus and Capnocytophagacynodegmi, fastidious gram-negative rods, are commensal microbes thriving in the oral cavities of dogs and cats. C. canimorsus can sometimes cause fatal systemic infections in humans. In the present study, we established a specific PCR which could identify and distinguish C. canimorsus from C. cynodegmi. The prevalence of Capnocytophaga spp. in dogs and cats was determined using this
Michio Suzuki; Masanobu Kimura; Koichi Imaoka; Akio Yamada
The prevalence of helminth species in stray dogs, from the capital city of the state of Queretaro, was evaluated. A total of 378 dogs were captured and examined for the presence of helminths from January to December 2008. The results showed that 275 (72.8%) of examined dogs were infected with one or more helminth species. Single infections were observed in 139 (50.5%) of infected dogs and 136 (49.5%) harboured mixed infections. Out of the 378 dogs examined, 208 (55.2%) presented nematodes and 182 (48.1%) cestodes. The prevalences (confidence interval) and mean intensities of infection ( ± SD) of nematodes and cestodes encountered were: Ancylostoma caninum 42.9% (37.9-47.8) and 22.1 ( ± 34.3); Toxocara canis 15.1% (11.8-19.0) and 8.3 ( ± 15.0); Spirocerca lupi 4.5% (2.7-7.1) and 3.9 ( ± 4.8); Toxascaris leonina 2.3% (1.1-4.5) and 4.8 ( ± 3.5); Physaloptera praeputialis 1.9% (0.8-3.8) and 9.7 ( ± 14.9); Dirofilaria immitis 1.3% (0.4-3.1) and 5.6 ( ± 2.1); Oslerus osleri 0.3% (0.0-1.6) and 5 ( ± 0.0); Dipylidium caninum 44.9% (40.0-50.0) and 18.1 ( ± 27.7); Taenia spp. 6.9% (4.7-9.9) and 6.9 ( ± 7.1). There were no significant differences in prevalences observed either between female (68.5%) and male (76.8%) or between young (70.6%) and adult (74.2%) animals. No differences were observed in the ANOVA test for the mean intensity of infection of any of the parasites (P>0.05). PMID:20849669
Cantó, G J; García, M P; García, A; Guerrero, M J; Mosqueda, J
The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n?=?476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n?=?8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350
Broeckx, Bart J G; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E C; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H; Soetaert, Sandra S A; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter
The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n?=?476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n?=?8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date.
Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter
Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442
Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect T. spiralis infection in dogs, using larval T. spiralis excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. Forty-three (4.3%) dog sera out of 1000 revealed the presence of IgG T. spiralis. The positive sera were distributed in three groups; 21 (2.1%) weakly positive, 14 (1.4%) moderately positive, and eight (0.8%) strongly positive.
S. I. Frydas; A. E. Alexakis; F. van Knapen
Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples. PMID:21247022
Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P
Background In recent years, surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Northwest China. In the present study, the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Lanzhou, China was investigated using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Results In this survey, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28 of 259 (10.81%) pet dogs, with MAT titers of 1:20 in 14 dogs, 1:40 in nine, 1:80 in four, and 1:160 or higher in one dog. The prevalence ranged from 6.67% to 16.67% among dogs of different ages, with low rates in young pet dogs, and high rates in older pet dogs. The seroprevalence in dogs >3 years old was higher than that in dogs ?1 years old, but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). The seroprevalence in male dogs was 12.50% (17 of 136), and in female dogs it was 8.94% (11 of 123), but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). Conclusions A high prevalence of T. gondii infection was found in pet dogs in Lanzhou, Northwest China, which has implications for public health in this region. In order to reduce the risk of exposure to T. gondii, further measures and essential control strategies should be carried out rationally in this region.
K. A. H O E K S T R A A N D R. J. L. P A U L T O N. 2002. Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate whether the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. intermedius varies with the site of isolation, sex or age of dogs. Methods and Results: A total of 867 isolates
K. A. Hoekstra; R. J. L. Paulton
Faecal specimens randomly taken from 232 healthy dogs living in the area of Thessaloniki were screened for internal parasites. In 39.2% of the examined dogs excretion of Sarcocystis bovicanis (1.3%), Isospora ohioensis/burrowsi (3.9%), Giardia lamblia (0.8%), Hammondia heydorni (0.4%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.8%) Diplopylidium nolleri (0.4%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (0.8%), taeniids (0.4%), Toxocara canis (22.4%), Toxascaris leonina (1.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3.0%), Trichuris vulpis (2.6%), Spirocerca lupi (0.4%), or Linguatula serrata (0.4%) was detected. The overall rate of infection did not show any significant difference concerning sex or age. T. canis, however, was significantly more often found in the youngest age group (1-3 months). PMID:3372979
Haralabidis, S T; Papazachariadou, M G; Koutinas, A F; Rallis, T S
The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA-DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA-DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392
Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P
The ability of a chronic high-salt diet to prevent fatal hemorrhagic shock was examined in 36 mongrel dogs. Twenty-one dogs received a dietary supplement of 9 g sodium chloride/day for 6 wk, and 15 dogs received the same basic diet for 6 wk but without the sodium chloride supplement. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in all dogs by bleeding into an overhanging sealed reservoir. After 3 h of shock, salt-pretreated dogs had a lower systemic vascular resistance of 0.70 +/- 0.02 versus 1.44 +/- 0.04 mmHg X ml-1 X min X kg (P less than 0.01) and a higher cardiac output of 53 +/- 3 versus 26 +/- 3 ml X min-1 X kg-1 (P less than 0.01) than was observed in controls. At 2.5 h of shock, the salt-pretreated dogs also experienced an increase in gastrointestinal (P less than 0.01), hepatic arterial, (P less than 0.05), kidney (P less than 0.05), brain (P less than 0.01), and heart blood flows (P less than 0.001) compared with 0.5 h of shock, whereas the control dogs experienced no increased flow during this same period. We also observed that after 3 h of hypotension there was a significantly smaller increase in plasma renin activity in the salt-pretreated dogs. Administration of 0.1 U X kg-1 X min-1 of hog renin eliminated the differences in systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and survival in five salt-pretreated dogs. PMID:3929625
Rocchini, A P; Gallagher, K P; Botham, M J; Lemmer, J H; Szpunar, C A; Behrendt, D
This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status in settings where children are present. Our matched sample consisted of 355 owners of either licensed or cited dogs that represented high or low-risk breeds. Categories of criminal convictions examined were aggressive crimes, drugs, alcohol, domestic violence, crimes involving children, firearm convictions, and major and minor traffic citations. Owners of cited high-risk ("vicious") dogs had significantly more criminal convictions than owners of licensed low-risk dogs. Findings suggest that the ownership of a high-risk ("vicious") dog can be a significant marker for general deviance and should be an element considered when assessing risk for child endangerment. PMID:17065657
Barnes, Jaclyn E; Boat, Barbara W; Putnam, Frank W; Dates, Harold F; Mahlman, Andrew R
The results of parasitological examination of faecal samples from 1,206 cats and 2,319 dogs of known age up to one year were analysed. Eggs of Toxocara canis were detected in dogs for the first time at the beginning of the 3rd week, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. at the beginning of the 4th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (52.5 %) were demonstrated in the 12th week, I. canis (30.0 %) in the 15th week, I. ohioensis complex (44.0 %) in the 6th week, Isospora spp. (50.0 %) in the 7th week and T. canis (22.2 %) in the 4th week p.p. Co-infections with Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (28.0 %), T. canis + Isospora spp. 16.0 %) and T. canis + Giardia spp. (12.0 %) were mainly seen in the 6th week p.p. In cats, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. were seen from the 3rd week and eggs of Toxocara cati from the 5th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (66.7 %) were demonstrated in the 11th week, Isospora spp. (33.3 %) and I. felis (33.3 %) in the 15th week, I. rivolta (10.3 %) in the 10th week and T. cati (11.4 %) in the 8th week p.p. Co-infections with T. cati + Isospora spp. (9.1 %) were found in the 5th week, Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (8.2 %) in the 12th week and T. cati + Giardia spp. (2.5 %) in the 22nd week p.p. PMID:23779224
Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland
Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the fungus Podospora anserina. The het-s locus exists as two antagonistic alleles that constitute an allorecognition system: the het-s allele encoding the protein variant capable of prion formation and the het-S allele encoding a protein variant that cannot form a prion. We document here that het-s alleles, capable of prion formation, are nearly twice as frequent as het-S alleles in a natural population of 112 individuals. Then, we report a 92% prevalence of [Het-s] prion infection among the het-s isolates and find evidence of the role of the [Het-s]/het-S allorecognition system on the incidence of infection by a deleterious senescence plasmid. We explain the het-s/het-S allele ratios by the existence of two selective forces operating at different levels. We propose that during the somatic stage, the role of [Het-s]/HET-S in allorecognition leads to frequency-dependent selection for which an equilibrated frequency would be optimal. However, in the sexual cycle, the [Het-s] prion causes meiotic drive favoring the het-s allele. Our findings indicate that [Het-s] is a selected and, therefore, widespread prion whose activity as selfish genetic element is counteracted by balancing selection for allorecognition polymorphism. PMID:22691498
Debets, Alfons J M; Dalstra, Henk J P; Slakhorst, Marijke; Koopmanschap, Bertha; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Saupe, Sven J
Purpose To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Methods Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1,041 Tohono O’odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Results Astigmatism ? 1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia ? 1.00 diopter (D) spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia ? 1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes ? 1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes ? 1.00 D for M and/or ? 0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference ? 1.41). Conclusions Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.
Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.
The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629
Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E
The nematode Capillaria plica is an ubiquitous parasite of the urinary tract of Canidae and Felidae. It causes a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infections to urinary bladder inflammation, pollacisuria, dysuria, and hematuria. Foxes serve as reservoir hosts and are considered to be a potential source of infection for companion and hunting dogs as well as domestic cats which acquire the infection by ingestion of earthworms which are the intermediate hosts. Despite its importance, epidemiological studies on this parasite are scarce and almost entirely lacking altogether for Central Europe. Therefore, we examined 116 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for the infection of C. plica by pathologic examination of the urinary bladders and microscopy of mucosal smears and urine sediments. The parasite was detected in 90 (78%; 95% CI, 68.9-84.8%) of the foxes, originating from all administrative districts of Bavaria (Southern Germany). Since Bavaria is characterized by a high number of forests and wildlife sanctuaries that provide ideal living conditions for foxes, the corresponding risk of infection of companion and hunting dogs by oral ingestion of earthworms as the intermediate hosts can likewise not be excluded. Because of the scarcity of reports on prevalences of C. plica worldwide, we also include a brief review of the available literature. PMID:21190041
Bork-Mimm, Sabine; Rinder, Heinz
Replication of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in dogs may facilitate their adaptation in humans; however, the data to date on H5N1 influenza virus infection in dogs are conflicting. To elucidate the susceptibility of dogs to this pathogen, we infected two groups of 6 beagles with 106 50% egg-infectious dose of H5N1 AIV A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/05 (BHG/QH/3/05) intranasally (i.n.) and intratracheally (i.t.), respectively. The dogs showed disease symptoms, including anorexic, fever, conjunctivitis, labored breathing and cough, and one i.t. inoculated animal died on day 4 post-infection. Virus shedding was detected from all 6 animals inoculated i.n. and one inoculated i.t. Virus replication was detected in all animals that were euthanized on day 3 or 5 post-infection and in the animal that died on day 4 post-infection. Our results demonstrate that dogs are highly susceptible to H5N1 AIV and may serve as an intermediate host to transfer this virus to humans.
Chen, Ying; Zhong, Gongxun; Wang, Guojun; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhuo; Guan, Yuntao; Jiang, Yongping; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan
Background Dogs are commonly affected by hyperglycemic conditions. Hyperglycemia compromises the immune response and favors bacterial infections; however, reports on the effects of glucose on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and apoptosis are conflicting in humans and rare in dogs. Considering the many complex factors that affect neutrophil oxidative metabolism in vivo, we investigated in vitro the specific effect of high concentrations of glucose on superoxide production and apoptosis rate in neutrophils from healthy dogs. Results The capacity of the neutrophils to reduce tetrazolium nitroblue decreased significantly in the higher concentration of glucose (15.13 ± 9.73% (8 mmol/L) versus 8.93 ± 5.71% (16 mmol/L)). However, there were no changes in tetrazolium nitroblue reduction at different glucose concentrations when the neutrophils were first activated with phorbol myristate acetate. High concentrations of glucose did not affect the viability and apoptosis rate of canine neutrophils either with or without prior camptothecin stimulation. This study provides the first evidence that high concentrations of glucose inhibit the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro in a manner similar to that which occurs in humans, and that the decrease in superoxide production did not increase the apoptosis rate. Conclusions A high concentration of glucose reduces the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro. It is likely that glucose at high concentrations rapidly affects membrane receptors responsible for the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils; therefore, the nonspecific immune response can be compromised in dogs with acute and chronic hyperglycemic conditions.
A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.
This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection. PMID:22706905
Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugęnia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P
Using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and duallaser flow cytometry, we have routinely obtained high-resolution bivariate flow karyotypes of the dog in which 32 peaks are resolved. To allow the identification of the chromosome types in each peak, chromosomes were flow sorted, amplified and labelled by polymerase chain reaction with partially degenerate primers and hybridized onto metaphase spreads of a male
Cordelia F. Langford; Patricia E. Fischer; Matthew M. Binns; Nigel G. Holmes; Nigel P. Carter
In February 2008 an epidemiological field study on arthropod-borne infections in dogs was carried out in Praia, the capital city of Cape Verde. For this purpose 130 dogs were included in the study. Of these, 94.6% were infested with ticks. Altogether, 1293 ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus (in all evaluated cases R. sanguineus) were collected. Examination for haemotropic parasites was performed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lymph node fine-needle aspirates were screened by PCR for Leishmania infantum infections in 20 dogs with enlarged lymph nodes. Our investigation revealed two species of protozoa (Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis) and two species of rickettsiae (Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis). In 101 dogs (77.7%) DNA of one or more pathogens was detected. The PCR examination for H. canis was positive in 83 dogs (63.8%), for E. canis in 34 dogs (26.2%), for A. platys in 10 dogs (7.7%) and for B. canis in five dogs (3.8%), whereas neither B. gibsoni nor L. infantum DNA could be detected. Of the infected dogs, 71.3% had a monoinfection, 27.7% had infections with two pathogens and 1.0% with three pathogens. B. canis, H. canis, E. canis, A. platys and their vector tick R. sanguineus are endemic to Cape Verde and can be present in dogs in high prevalences. These results outline the risk of importing tropical canine diseases when Capeverdian stray dogs are taken to Europe. PMID:19729247
Götsch, S; Leschnik, M; Duscher, G; Burgstaller, J P; Wille-Piazzai, W; Joachim, A
|This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status in…
Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Dates, Harold F.; Mahlman, Andrew R.
Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups.
Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.
Families have been at the forefront of the response to the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in high-prevalence countries. They have also borne the greatest costs associated with the epidemic, including impoverishment, which has strained their capacity to care for vulnerable members. Within this context, there is consensus that strengthening the capacity of families to care for children is one of the most
U. Chandan; L. Richter
Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…
Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa
Cameroon lacks the capacity for routine Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) diagnosis, thus, the prevalence of Cameroonian exposure to this microbe is unknown. It is known that Pneumocystis infecting different mammalian host species represent diverse phylogenetic backgrounds and are now designated as separate species. The highly sensitive nature of ELISA and the specificity afforded by using human-derived P. jirovecii Msg peptides has
Stephenson W. Nkinin; Kieran R. Daly; Peter D. Walzer; Edward S. Ndzi; Tazoacha Asonganyi; Nieves Respaldiza; Francisco J. Medrano; Edna S. Kaneshiro
This study investigated the nature and frequency of the contacts that occur between dogs, and between dogs and people, by means of a questionnaire survey of 260 dog-owning households in a community in Cheshire, uk. The contacts were highly variable and were affected by the size, sex and age of the dog, individual dog behaviours, human behaviours and human preferences
C. Westgarth; G. L. Pinchbeck; J. W. S. Bradshaw; S. Dawson; R. M. Gaskell; R. M. Christley
Avoidance conditioning sessions and isotonic saline (1.3 L\\/day) were administered to dogs for 12 days under conditions of\\u000a a low (0.1%) or high (1.5%) calcium diet. Twenty-four-hour mean arterial pressure increased comparably during the stress-salt\\u000a conditioning periods on both the low (systolic: +16 ± 5 mm Hg; diastolic: +6 ± 2 mm Hg) and high (systolic: +17 ± 4 mm
DAVID Eo ANDERSON; Pamela Murphy; William Kearns
Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis abundance and prevalence data, for domestic dogs of Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, were fitted to mathematical models to evaluate transmission parameters. Abundance models, assuming the presence and absence of immunity, were fit for both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis using Bayesian priors, maximum likelihood, and Monte Carlo sampling techniques. When the models were compared, using the likelihood ratio test for nested models, the model assuming the presence of immunity was the best fit for E. granulosus infection, with a purgation based prevalence of 8% (true prevalence interval of 8-19% based on the sensitivity of purgation) and a mean abundance of 80 parasites per dog, with an average infection pressure of 560 parasites per year. In contrast, the model assuming the absence of immunity was the best fit for E. multilocularis infection, with a purgation based prevalence of 12% (true prevalence interval of 13-33% based on the sensitivity of purgation) and a mean abundance of 131 parasites per dog, with an average infection pressure of 334 or 533 parasites per year assuming a 5 or 3 month parasite life expectancy, respectively. The prevalence data for both parasites was then fit to a set of differential equations modeling the transition between infection states in order to determine number of infectious insults per year. Infection pressure was 0.21, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.12 to 0.41, infections per year for E. granulosus and 0.52, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.29-0.77, infections per year for E. multilocularis assuming a 5 month parasite lifespan or 0.85, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.47-1.25 infections per year, assuming a 3 month E. multilocularis lifespan in dogs. PMID:15710437
Budke, Christine M; Jiamin, Qiu; Craig, Philip S; Torgerson, Paul R
Families have been at the forefront of the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in high-prevalence countries. They have also borne the greatest costs associated with the epidemic, including impoverishment, which has strained their capacity to care for vulnerable members. Within this context, there is consensus that strengthening the capacity of families to care for children is one of the most important strategies for mitigating the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on children's lives in high-prevalence countries. It is argued that evidence-based early intervention programmes that enhance caregiving and link caregivers with supports and services can play a pivotal role in strengthening families. Based on a systematic review, we recommend that two intervention strategies that should be given consideration within the context of high-prevalence countries, because of their demonstrated benefits in other settings, are nurse home visiting for first time, low-income pregnant mothers and their young children as well as early childhood development programmes for low-income children and families.
Chandan, U.; Richter, L.
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital- and antimicrobial-associated diarrhea in hospitalized humans however the role of C. difficile in diarrhea in dogs has not been defined. A prospective study of C. difficile colonization in dogs and cats was conducted in a veterinary teaching hospital intensive care unit (ICU). Rectal swabs were taken from patients upon admission to the ICU and every third day of hospitalization until discharge or death. C. difficile was isolated from 73/402 (18%) animals; 69% of isolates were toxigenic. Community-associated colonization was identified in 39/366 (11%) of animals that were sampled at the time of admission, while C. difficile was subsequently isolated from 27 of the remaining 327 (8.3%) animals that had a negative admission swab. C. difficile was isolated from seven other dogs during hospitalization, but the origin was unclear because the admission swab was not collected. Administration of antimicrobials prior to admission and administration of immunosuppressive drugs during hospitalization were risk factors for hospital-associated colonization (P=0.006, OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.4-10.8). Acquisition of C. difficile during hospitalization in the ICU was associated with the development of diarrhea (P=0.004). Two ribotypes, one toxigenic and one non-toxigenic, predominated. PMID:18164560
Clooten, Jennifer; Kruth, Stephen; Arroyo, Luis; Weese, J Scott
Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans. Pet animals and livestock are discussed as potential natural reservoirs and sources of infection. In this study faecal samples from dogs and cats were collected at 10 animal shelters in Thuringia, Germany. C. difficile was isolated from 9 out of 165 (5.5%) canine and 5 out of 135 (3.7%) feline samples. Five PCR ribotypes (010, 014/020, 039, 045, SLO 066) were identified. PCR ribotypes 010 and 014/020 were detected in more than one shelter and PCR ribotypes 014/020 and 045 were isolated from dogs and cats. MLVA profiles of strains of a PCR ribotype from one shelter were identical or closely related, while strains of the same PCR ribotype from different shelters showed significant differences. This study shows that dogs and cats kept in animal shelters are a reservoir of C. difficile PCR ribotypes which can infect also humans. PMID:22951303
Schneeberg, Alexander; Rupnik, Maja; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian
Porcine Hokovirus (PHoV) was recently discovered in Hong Kong. This new Parvovirus of pigs is closely related to the human Parvoviruses 4 and 5 (PARV4/5) and bovine Hokovirus (BHoV). So far, nothing is known about the presence and prevalence of PHoV in regions of the world other than Hong Kong. A study was initiated to investigate PHoV in German wild boars from five different geographical regions, using a newly established quantitative real-time PCR assay. Analysis of collected liver and serum samples revealed high overall prevalence (32.7%; 51/156) of PHoV in wild boars. The prevalence differed between the regions and increased with age. Two near full-length genomes and a large fragment for three additional isolates from different regions were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The German PHoV sequences from wild boars showed a close relationship with sequences of isolates from Hong Kong.
|Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…
Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.
Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from anal swabs of clinically healthy dogs were examined for the presence of acquired antimicrobial resistance. The strains originated from dogs of 92 different owners and from eight breeding kennels. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the resistance situation in the intestinal flora of the dog to assess the possible role of the dog flora as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. Multiple resistance was rarely found in E. coli strains collected from individually owned dogs, in contrast with strains from kennel dogs. Resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was significantly less prevalent in E. coli from privately owned dogs than in strains from kennel dogs. Resistance rates against tetracycline and macrolides were unexpectedly high in E. faecalis strains. Two and three E. faecalis strains from individually owned dogs and kennel dogs, respectively, were resistant to gentamicin, an antibiotic often used for treating enterococcal infections in humans. This study demonstrates that resistance percentages may fluctuate with the choice of dog population. The observed antimicrobial resistance percentages indicate that the flora of healthy dogs may act as a reservoir of resistance genes. PMID:15140396
De Graef, E M; Decostere, A; Devriese, L A; Haesebrouck, F
Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm that is highly prevalent in the red fox population of Atlantic Canada. Dogs are susceptible to infection with clinical signs consisting primarily of a chronic cough. A recent report of C. vulpis infection in 3 dogs on Prince Edward Island prompted an investigation into the importance of this parasite as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in Island dogs. A general prevalence was determined through the necropsy of dogs euthanized at the local humane society. Lungs were removed and examined for parasites using a lung flush technique. Rectal feces was collected and examined for first-stage larvae using the Baermann technique and zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation. Ten of 310 dogs (3.2%) were positive with 0-35 worms (mean = 11.0 +/- 13.4) recovered. First-stage larvae of C. vulpis were recovered in the rectal feces of the one animal in which no worms were recovered on lung flush. A second survey was conducted examining fecal samples with the Baermann technique from afebrile dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough that had no history of recent anthelmintic treatment and showed no signs of cardiac disease, based on physical examination. Fifteen of 55 dogs examined (27.3%) were definitively diagnosed as C. vulpis-positive. All of the infected dogs were treated with fenbendazole (50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. q24 h for 3-7 days). Clinical signs resolved in all of the dogs and fecal samples were negative 2-4 weeks posttreatment. It was concluded that C. vulpis infection was a significant cause of upper respiratory disease in dogs on Prince Edward Island and should be considered in all dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.
Bihr, T; Conboy, G A
Dogs have been shown to harbor 53 salmonellae serotypes. Multiple simultaneous infections with 2 to 4 serotypes have been observed. The prevalence of canine salmonellosis may be a high as 27 per cent. Salmonella typhimurium and S. anatum are the most common etiologic agents. Dogs commonly experience a sub-clinical course of salmonellosis. Some investigators state that the dog may serve as a source of human infections. A few reports in the literature have documented this fact. The transmissions of S. enteritidis from dog to child is described in this article.
Morse, E V; Duncan, M A; Estep, D A; Riggs, W A; Blackburn, B O
Background\\/Aims: Acquired lactase deficiency is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms but its etiology remains unclear. Celiac disease could lead to lactase deficiency and is much more common than previously suspected. Several studies have highlighted the prevalence of lactose intolerance in celiac disease, but studies assessing the prevalence of celiac disease in lactose intolerance are lacking. We evaluated the prevalence
Veronica Ojetti; Gabriella Nucera; Alessio Migneco; Maurizio Gabrielli; Cristiano Lauritano; Silvio Danese; Maria Assunta Zocco; Enrico Celestino Nista; Giovanni Cammarota; Antonino De Lorenzo; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Antonio Gasbarrini
|Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…
Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira
Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066) were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI), gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN) were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ? 85th percentile) and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.
Urrutia-Rojas, Ximena; Egbuchunam, Christie U; Bae, Sejong; Menchaca, John; Bayona, Manuel; Rivers, Patrick A; Singh, Karan P
Cameroon lacks the capacity for routine Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) diagnosis thus, the prevalence of Cameroonian exposure to this microbe is unknown. It is known that Pneumocystis infecting different mammalian host species represent diverse phylogenetic backgrounds and are now designated as separate species. The highly sensitive nature of ELISA and the specificity afforded by using human-derived P. jirovecii Msg peptides has been shown to be useful for serological analysis of human sera. Thus, sera from patients in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon, were analyzed for anti-P. jirovecii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using three recombinant major surface glycoprotein (Msg) peptide fragments, MsgA1, MsgB, and MsgC1. Based on serum recognition of one or more of the three fragments, 82% of the total samples analyzed was positive for antibodies to P. jirovecii Msg, indicating high prevalence of P. jirovecii infection or colonization among Cameroonians. Different Msg fragments appear to be recognized more frequently by sera from different geographic regions of the globe. Antibodies in the Cameroonian serum samples recognized MsgA>MsgC>MsgB, suggesting that different P. jirovecii strains exist in different parts of the world and/or human populations differ in their response to P. jirovecii. Also, HIV+ patients diagnosed with respiratory infections (such as TB and pneumonia) and maintained on trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol prophylaxis had relatively lower anti-Msg titers. Whether PcP prophylaxis has significant effects on the quality of life among HIV+ patients in Cameroon warrants further investigation.
Nkinin, Stephenson W.; Daly, Kieran R.; Walzer, Peter D.; Ndzi, Edward S.; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Respaldiza, Nieves; Medrano, Francisco J.; Kaneshiro, Edna S.
The double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare congenital cardiac disease in dogs, and its detailed epidemiological and morphological features are not clearly understood. By investigating the profile, clinical signs, and characteristics of examination findings of eleven dogs with DCRV by means of a retrospective study, we attempted to clarify the epidemiology and morphology of the condition. The study group consisted of nine males and two females. Breeds included Pug (n=3), Miniature Dachshund (n=1), French Bull-dog (n=1), Shiba (n=1), and Retrievers (n=5). The attachment site of the anomalous muscular bundle was continuous with the cardiac apex in nine dogs, and it was attached to the right ventricle free wall in the other two dogs. In dogs with DCRV, at least one of the following conditions was present concurrently: congenital or acquired tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR), ventricular septal defect, and atrial septal defect. Also, the pressure difference between the two chambers increased over time, and progressive right-sided heart failure was observed. In summary, DCRV occurs in small breeds of dog as well as in large breeds of dog and it may be more prevalent in males. The existence of two types of DCRV in dogs was established. Dog with DCRVs will have a high incidence of concurrent cardiac abnormalities. Concurrent TR may be either congenital or acquired. DCRV is a congenital disorder, but the clinical condition progresses as the dog develops. PMID:21646754
Fukushima, Ryuji; Tanaka, Ryou; Suzuki, Shuji; Hamabe, Rina; Machida, Noboru; Nakao, Shu; Saida, Yuto; Takashima, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu; Hirose, Hisashi; Yamane, Yoshihisa
Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat a variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 249 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Grenada, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 89 (35.7%) of 249 were seropositive with titers of 25 in seven dogs, 50 in 22 dogs, 100 in 22 dogs, 200 or higher in 38 dogs. Hearts of 76 seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 12 dogs; these isolates were designated TgDogGr1 to TgDogGr12. These isolates were further propagated in cell culture and DNA isolated from cell culture derived tachyzoites of 12 isolates was genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The results revealed six genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #1, #2, #3, #7, #13 and #224, with 1, 6, 1, 2, 1 and 1 isolates, respectively. The result supports previous findings that T. gondii population genetics is highly diverse in Grenada. PMID:24041485
Dubey, J P; Tiwari, K; Chikweto, A; Deallie, C; Sharma, R; Thomas, D; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Su, C
BACKGROUND: Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied
Shahram Sadeghi; Behrooz Kazemi; Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri Shooshtari; Ali Bidari; Peyman Jafari
Microscopy, PCR and a Giardia CELISA test were used to determine the prevalence of Giardia in 40 faecal samples obtained from domestic cats in the Perth metropolitan area. A prevalence of 5, 80 and 60% was found by the tests, respectively. The results show that more sensitive techniques such as PCR may be necessary, and may yield more reliable results,
T. R McGlade; I. D Robertson; A. D Elliot; R. C. A Thompson
The role of increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in the pathogenesis of obesity hypertension and insulin resistance is controversial. Eight dogs were instrumented and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. Dogs were evaluated for changes in weight, blood pressure, insulin resistance, and norepinephrine (NE) kinetics using a two-compartment model. The HFD resulted in weight gain, hypertension, and insulin resistance. During the 6 weeks of the HFD, although plasma NE concentration trended toward increasing (P=.09), SNS, assessed by NE kinetic studies, significantly increased (P=.009). Within 1 week of starting the HFD, NE release into the extravascular compartment (NE(2)) increased from 3.44+/-0.59 microg/mL to 4.87+/-0.80 microg/mL (P<.01) and this increase was maintained over the next 5 weeks of the HFD (NE(2) at week 6 was 4.66+/-0.97 microg/mL). In addition to the increased NE(2) there was also a significant increase in NE clearance (P=.04). There were significant correlations between the increase in NE(2) and both the development of insulin resistance and hypertension. This study supports the hypothesis that activation of the SNS plays a pivotal role in the metabolic and hemodynamic changes that occur with weight gain induced by HFD. PMID:20167039
Rocchini, Albert P; Yang, John Q; Smith, Marla J; Supiano, Mark A
Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania
V. Anna Gyarmathy; Alan Neaigus; Nan Li; Eszter Ujhelyi; Irma Caplinskiene; Saulius Caplinskas; Carl A. Latkin
A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS) was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18–55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort), Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III) was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI) 33.5–37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5–89.7) and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3–35.7) of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.
Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Sabico, Shaun Louie B.; Chrousos, George P.
Variation in breed longevity in the dog has led to the inference that large dogs age at a faster rate than small dogs, possibly because of an increased oxidative load. Potential differences in behavioral aging (the rate of age-related decline in cognito-behavioral performance) across breeds represent a significant challenge to veterinarians and scientists. Using data from a large cross-sectional survey
Hannah E. Salvin; Paul D. McGreevy; Perminder S. Sachdev; Michael J. Valenzuela
The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension. PMID:14665720
Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco
Fifty-seven hawfinches Coccothraustes coccothraustes were caught in May–June 1982–2001 on the Curonian Spit in the Baltic Sea and investigated by microscopical examination of stained blood films. Haemoproteus fringillae, H. tartakovskyi, Leucocytozoon dubreuili, L. fringillinarum, L. majoris, Plasmodium relictum, P. vaughani, Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, and microfilariae were identified. The overall prevalence of infection was 100%. Prevalences of Haemoproteus spp. (89.5%),
G. Valki?nas; T. A. Iezhova; A. P. Shapoval
Chronic natural hypoxia at 2300 m altitude induces mild pulmonary hypertension (PH) in healthy dogs. The influence of more severe hypoxia on the same group of dogs was evaluated by re-examining such dogs at 3500 m, after they had regularly exercised at this altitude level for half a year. Despite severe hypoxaemia at 3500 m (PaO2 52+/-5 mmHg), none of the dogs developed erythrocytosis, and their PCV at 3500 m (48% +/- 4%) did not differ from that at 2300 m (49% +/- 4%). There was a tendency towards an elevated systemic BP, with a significant increase in diastolic BP (105 +/- 13 mmHg at 3500 m versus 98 +/- 17 at 2300 m). Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was detected in 7 dogs at 3500 m compared to 8 dogs at 2300 m. The mean TR Vmax was significantly higher at 3500 m, and all 7 dogs had systolic PH at 3500 m (33.6-54.8 mmHg), when PH was defined as TR Vmax > or = 2.8 m/s, i.e. a peak pressure gradient > 30 mmHg. Hence, in dogs, increasing altitude and the concomitant hypoxia result in a progressively more pronounced PH and an elevated systemic BP. Intermittent severe hypoxaemia of around 50 mmHg may not cause erythrocytosis in healthy dogs, even over a prolonged period. PMID:14672455
Glaus, T M; Hässig, M; Baumgartner, C; Reusch, C E
The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 ?m × 11.9 ?m, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. PMID:21074324
Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D
Using random PCR amplification followed by plasmid subcloning and DNA sequencing, we detected bocavirus related sequences in 9 out of 17 porcine stool samples. Using primer walking, we sequenced the nearly complete genomes of two highly divergent bocaviruses we provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 isolate H18 (PBoV1-H18) and porcine bocavirus 2 isolate A6 (PBoV2-A6) which differed by 51.8% in their NS1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PBoV1-H18 was very closely related to a ?2 Kb central region of a porcine bocavirus-like virus (PBo-LikeV) from Sweden described in 2009. PBoV2-A6 was very closely related to the porcine bocavirus genomes PBoV-1 and PBoV2 from China described in 2010. Among 340 fecal samples collected from different age, asymptomatic swine in five Chinese provinces, the prevalence of PBoV1-H18 and PBoV2-A6 related viruses were 45–75% and 55–70% respectively, with 30–47% of pigs co-infected. PBoV1-A6 related strains were highly conserved, while PBoV2-H18 related strains were more diverse, grouping into two genotypes corresponding to the previously described PBoV1 and PBoV2. Together with the recently described partial bocavirus genomes labeled V6 and V7, a total of three major porcine bocavirus clades have therefore been described to date. Further studies will be required to elucidate the possible pathogenic impact of these diverse bocaviruses either alone or in combination with other porcine viruses.
Li, Linlin; Wang, Chunmei; Cui, Li; Zhang, Wen; Hua, Xiuguo; Zhu, Caixia; Zhao, Wei; Delwart, Eric
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal disease that causes premature death. The present study describes the clinical and molecular epidemiologic findings of NCL in Border Collies in Japan for 12 years, between 2000 and 2011. The number of affected dogs was surveyed, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. In 4 kennels with affected dogs, the dogs were genotyped. The genetic relationships of all affected dogs and carriers identified were analyzed. The survey revealed 27 affected dogs, but there was a decreasing trend at the end of the study period. The clinical characteristics of these affected dogs were updated in detail. The genotyping survey demonstrated a high mutant allele frequency in examined kennels (34.8%). The pedigree analysis demonstrated that all affected dogs and carriers in Japan are related to some presumptive carriers imported from Oceania and having a common ancestor. The current high prevalence in Japan might be due to an overuse of these carriers by breeders without any knowledge of the disease. For NCL control and prevention, it is necessary to examine all breeding dogs, especially in kennels with a high prevalence. Such endeavors will reduce NCL prevalence and may already be contributing to the recent decreasing trend in Japan. PMID:22919312
Mizukami, Keijiro; Kawamichi, Takuji; Koie, Hiroshi; Tamura, Shinji; Matsunaga, Satoru; Imamoto, Shigeki; Saito, Miyoko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Matsuki, Naoaki; Tamahara, Satoshi; Sato, Shigenobu; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu
Prevalences of diseases in purebred dogs are reported from a questionnaire study among members of the Danish Kennel Club (DKC) in 1997. The 4295 dogs in the study represented 24 breeds and 16 breed groups. Sixty percent of the dogs had at least one disease-event during their lifetime with a median of 2 and a maximum of 11. Diseases of
Helle Friis Proschowsky; Helene Rugbjerg; Annette Kjćr Ersbřll
We tested the hypothesis that total body irradiation (TBI) given at a high dose rate would be more immunosuppressive and lead to a higher incidence of stable hematopoietic cell engraftment after suboptimal levels of conditioning irradiation compared with TBI at a low dose rate. We assessed the engraftment success of dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow transplantation in recipients of 100, 150, and 200 cGy TBI administered at a rate of 7 or 70 cGy/min. Dogs received donor marrow on the same day as TBI and were subsequently treated with postgraft immunosuppression consisting of mycophenolate mofetil (for 28 days) and cyclosporine (for 37 days). Donor chimerism was monitored until the end of study and was characterized by either graft rejection or stable engraftment. Increasing the radiation dose rate from the traditional 7 cGy/min to 70 cGy/min did not lead to increased engraftment success at any of the irradiation doses tested. The dose rate of 70 cGy/minute was no more hematotoxic than the rate of 7 cGy/minute. TBI delivered at a high dose rate was well tolerated but was not associated with a better rate of allogeneic hematopoietic cell engraftment compared with TBI delivered at a lower dose rate. PMID:23994246
Graves, Scott S; Storer, Barry E; Butts, Tiffany M; Storb, Rainer
Three different preservative treatments were applied to extruded dog food. After processing the dog foods were placed in bags and stored for 16 wk at 48.8 degrees C for 12 mo at 22.2 degrees C. The preservative treatments were as follows: 1) ethoxyquin and butylated hydroxyanisole (EX/BHA), 2) mixed tocopherols (TC/TC) and 3) ascorbyl palmitate and mixed tocopherols (ATL/TC). There were no significant differences among treatments for thiobarbituric acid values for either the high or ambient temperature tests, whereas peroxide value (PV) showed significant treatment and storage effects. For products stored at 22.2 degrees C, PV increased linearly from week 4 to week 16 in both the TC/TC and ATL/TC preservative treatments and was significantly higher than the PV for EX/BHA. In the ambient temperature test, the PV was also higher for the TC/TC and the ATL/TC treatments compared to the EX/BHA treatment after 5 and 12 mo of storage. Results of the sensory evaluations were closely associated with PV. In both the high and ambient temperature tests the dogs consumed more of the foods with the lowest PV when given a two-bowl choice. Using PV and sensory tests as criteria, we concluded that the ATL/TC and TC/TC preserved dog foods deteriorated during storage compared to the EX/BHA preserved food in both the high and ambient temperature tests. PMID:7996259
Gross, K L; Bollinger, R; Thawnghmung, P; Collings, G F
Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify the medical issues experienced by Military Working Dogs during their period of deployment in Iraq.^ Design. This study was a retrospective cross-sectional survey based on database and medical record abstraction.^ Population. Military Working Dogs (MWDs) that were deployed to Iraq at any time between 20 March 2003 and 31 December 2007
Wendy E. H Mey
ObjectiveWe examined the prevalence and correlates of dog walking among dog owners, and whether dog walking is associated with meeting the American College of Sports Medicine\\/American Heart Association physical activity guidelines.
Katherine D. Hoerster; Joni A. Mayer; James F. Sallis; Nicole Pizzi; Sandra Talley; Latrice C. Pichon; Dalila A. Butler
To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance. PMID:18160223
Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne
Objective: To establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican children 10 to 17 years of age according to the percentiles from both the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF).Research Methods and Procedures: Heights and weights were measured in children from nationally representative, randomly chosen households in the Mexican National Health
Blanca E. del Río-Navarro; Oscar Velázquez-Monroy; Claudia P. Sánchez-Castillo; Agustín Lara-Esqueda; Arturo Berber; Guillermo Fanghänel; Rafael Violante; Roberto Tapia-Conyer; W. Philip T. James
The worldwide increase of celiac disease prompted us to assess its prevalence in the Italian general population. The 3483 inhabitants of Campogalliano were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysial antibodies. Twenty subjects showed antibody positivity and duodenal biopsy detected typical mucosal lesions of celiac disease in 17 of them; the remaining three cases had a normal villous architecture, but the finding
Umberto Volta; Stefano Bellentani; Francesco Bianco Bianchi; Giovanni Brandi; Lucia De Franceschi; Lucia Miglioli; Alessandro Granito; Fiorella Balli; Claudio Tiribelli
The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to mandible in dogs. Eighteen dogs aged 12-13 months were divided equally into six groups (n = 3 in each group) with random allocation, then a high-speed missile projectile (a ball bearing of stainless steel, phi6.0 mm, 0.88 g) was shot at right mandible body (the wound tract was below the fourth premolar, 1 cm or so to the root tips) of each dog, but the teeth were not wounded directly. The dogs were killed 6 h (n = 3), 24 h (n = 3), 3 days (n = 3), 7 days (n = 3), 2 weeks (n = 3) and 4 weeks (n = 3) after the wound, respectively; then ultrastructural change of dental pulp of the fourth premolar and the second premolar of right mandible, and the second premolar of left mandible was observed through transmission electron microscope. The results showed that mean initial velocity of projectiles was 778.0 +/- 33.2 m s(-1) and mean projection energy was 266.1 +/- 19.1 J, which were in conformity with parameters of gunshot wound. On the wound side, dental pulp of the fourth mandibular premolar was injured seriously and irreversible necrosis happened in the end; yet, dental pulp of the second mandibular premolar was injured less seriously, reversibly; on the opposite side, dental pulp of the second mandibular premolar was injured slightly and temporarily. It may be concluded that there are several characteristics in indirect injury of dental pulp caused by high-speed missile projectile to dogs' mandible: the injured area is relatively extensive; traumatic degree decreases progressively and sharply with the distance to the wound tract increasing; ultrastructural change of nerval damage takes place in early stage after wound, etc. PMID:19021656
Ren, Changqun; Liu, Ruifeng; Tian, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Shuxia
Background Genome-wide association scans for genetic loci underlying both Mendelian and complex traits are increasingly common in canine genetics research. However, the demand for high-quality DNA for use on such platforms creates challenges for traditional blood sample ascertainment. Though the use of saliva as a means of collecting DNA is common in human studies, alternate means of DNA collection for canine research have instead been limited to buccal swabs, from which dog DNA is of insufficient quality and yield for use on most high-throughput array-based systems. We thus investigated an animal-based saliva collection method for ease of use and quality of DNA obtained and tested the performance of saliva-extracted canine DNA on genome-wide genotyping arrays. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall, we found that saliva sample collection using this method was efficient. Extractions yielded high concentrations (?125 ng/ul) of high-quality DNA that performed equally well as blood-extracted DNA on the Illumina Infinium canine genotyping platform, with average call rates >99%. Concordance rates between genotype calls of saliva- versus blood-extracted DNA samples from the same individual were also >99%. Additionally, in silico calling of copy number variants was successfully performed and verified by PCR. Conclusions/Significance Our findings validate the use of saliva-obtained samples for genome-wide association studies in canines, highlighting an alternative means of collecting samples in a convenient and non-invasive manner.
Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Hamilton, Steven P.
Indigestible oligosaccharides have been shown to normalize blood glucose and insulin concentration thereby promoting good health and preventing diseases, such as diabetes. Transglucosidase (TG, alpha-glucosidase, enzyme code (EC) 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme capable of converting starch to oligosaccharides, such as iso-malto-oligosaccharides from maltose, via the action of amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oral administration of TG with maltose or dextrin is capable of reducing post-prandial serum glucose concentration in experimentally streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic dogs fed on a high-fiber diet. Five healthy and five STZ-induced diabetic dogs were employed in this study. TG supplementation with dextrin or maltose had no detrimental effect in healthy dogs. In fact, TG and dextrin exhibited a flatlined serum glucose pattern, while reducing mean post-prandial serum insulin and glucose concentration as compared to control diet alone. When TG supplementation was tested in STZ-induced diabetic dogs under the context of a high fiber diet, a 13.8% and 23.9% reduction in mean glucose concentration for TG with maltose and dextrin, respectively was observed. Moreover, TG with dextrin resulted in a 13% lower mean post-prandial glucose concentration than TG with maltose, suggesting that dextrin may be a more efficient substrate than maltose when used at the same concentration (1 g/kg). Our results indicate that TG supplementation with diet can lead to lower postprandial glucose levels versus diet alone. However, the efficacy of TG supplementation may depend on the type of diet it is supplemented with. As such, TG administration may be useful for preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus and in its management in dogs. PMID:20165914
Sako, Toshinori; Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Goto, Hiroshi; Fukuta, Hiroko; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Makino, Yuki; Ishioka, Katsumi; Mizutani, Hisashi; Kojima, Yuzo; Koikeda, Satoshi; Arai, Toshiro
The level of gene polymorphism of 10 microsatellite loci in 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs which have a high value of the percentage of blood and inbreeding coefficient achieved 43.8% was studied. The excess of heterozigosity over expected for this level of inbreeding coefficient was established. Suggestion that the high level of heterozigosity is the result of the selection against homozygotes was made. PMID:20722281
Shinkarenko, L N; Guliakova, O G; Malienko, V A; Mel'nichuk, S D; Spiridonov, V G
The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular,\\u000a of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism\\u000a (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for\\u000a age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation,
Decio Armanini; Davide Nacamulli; Carla Scaroni; Franco Lumachi; Riccardo Selice; Cristina Fiore; Gennaro Favia; Franco Mantero
High-frequency external chest vibration with tracheal insufflation (high-frequency vibration ventilation) has previously been shown to be an effective mode of artificial ventilation in experimental animals. To investigate the intra-airway gas mixing during high-frequency vibration ventilation (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude 0.4 cm), we used an analysis of the single-breath washout curve that gives the vibration-induced mixing coefficient distribution relative to the no-vibration situation. Data from four anesthetized dogs were collected during constant-flow insufflation at six rates (0.05-0.4 l.min-1.kg-1), at three insufflation durations (2, 4, and 7 s), and with the insufflation catheter outlet at three positions (carina, trachea, and a bronchus) while the vibration was on and off. Vibration enhanced intra-airway gas mixing 14.1 +/- 3.9-fold, with the peak of the enhancement distribution located 125 +/- 29 ml from the airway opening and a distribution width of 121 +/- 29 ml. As insufflation flow increased, the position of the peak enhancement shifted toward the alveolar zone and diminished in peak amplitude. Changing the insufflation duration and the catheter position did not affect the intra-airway mixing induced by vibration. External chest vibration causes a substantial increase of intra-airway gas mixing, bringing alveolar gas to central airways. This leads to overall increased pulmonary gas transport when fresh gas is insufflating the tracheal carina area. PMID:7559227
Gavriely, N; Eckmann, D M; Grotberg, J B
BACKGROUND: Shanxi Province has historically reported a high prevalence of NTDs. In order to establish baseline rates for NTDs and discuss the risk factors associated with sociodemographic, maternal characteris- tics, and geographic factors, we performed the present study using an approach combining population and hospital-based methodologies. METHODS: We used v2 and Fisher's exact tests to evaluate variation in the prevalence
Xue Gu; Liangming Lin; Xiaoying Zheng; Ting Zhang; Xinming Song; Jinfeng Wang; Xinhu Li; Peizhen Li; Gong Chen; Jilei Wu; Lihua Wu; Jufen Liu
|Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)|
Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others
Canine distemper is uncommon in the pet trade in the United States, in large part due to effective vaccines against Canine distemper virus (CDV). This is a report of CDV affecting 24 young dogs of multiple breeds shortly after sale by 2 pet stores in Wyoming during August-October 2010. Cases were diagnosed over 37 days. Diagnosis was established by a combination of fluorescent antibody staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, negative stain electron microscopy, and necropsy with histopathology. Viral hemagglutinin gene sequences were analyzed from 2 affected dogs and were identical (GenBank accession no. JF283477). Sequences were distinct from those in a contemporaneous unrelated case of CDV in a Wyoming dog (JF283476) that had no contact with the pet store dogs. The breeding property from which the puppies originated was quarantined by the Kansas Animal Health Department. Puppies intended for sale were tested for CDV. Canine distemper was diagnosed on site in November 2010. At that point 1,466 dogs were euthanized to eliminate dispersal of the disease through commercial channels. The investigation underscores the risks inherent in large-scale dog breeding when vaccination and biosecurity practices are suboptimal. PMID:23012378
Schumaker, Brant A; Miller, Myrna M; Grosdidier, Paul; Cavender, Jacqueline L; Montgomery, Donald L; Cornish, Todd E; Farr, Robert M; Driscoll, Michael; Maness, Lori J; Gray, Tangney; Petersen, Dana; Brown, William L; Logan, Jim; O'Toole, Donal
Background While diabetes mellitus (DM) is a known risk factor for tuberculosis, the prevalence among TB patients in India is unknown. Routine screening of TB patients for DM may be an opportunity for its early diagnosis and improved management and might improve TB treatment outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of TB patients registered from June–July 2011 in the state of Kerala, India, to determine the prevalence of DM. Methodology/Principal Findings A state-wide representative sample of TB patients in Kerala was interviewed and screened for DM using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c); patients self-reporting a history of DM or those with HbA1c ?6.5% were defined as diabetic. Among 552 TB patients screened, 243(44%) had DM – 128(23%) had previously known DM and 115(21%) were newly diagnosed - with higher prevalence among males and those aged >50years. The number needed to screen(NNS) to find one newly diagnosed case of DM was just four. Of 128 TB patients with previously known DM, 107(84%) had HbA1c ?7% indicating poor glycemic control. Conclusions/Significance Nearly half of TB patients in Kerala have DM, and approximately half of these patients were newly-diagnosed during this survey. Routine screening of TB patients for DM using HbA1c yielded a large number of DM cases and offered earlier management opportunities which may improve TB and DM outcomes. However, the most cost-effective ways of DM screening need to be established by futher operational research.
Balakrishnan, Shibu; Vijayan, Shibu; Nair, Sanjeev; Subramoniapillai, Jayasankar; Mrithyunjayan, Sunilkumar; Wilson, Nevin; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Dewan, Puneet K.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Karthickeyan, Durai; Willis, Matthew; Harries, Anthony D.; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate platelet function using in vitro tests based on both high and low shear rates and von Willebrand factor (vWf) multimeric composition in dogs with cardiac disease and turbulent high-velocity blood flow. Client-owned asymptomatic, untreated dogs were divided into 4 groups: 14 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (Cavaliers) with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and no or minimal mitral regurgitation (MR), 17 Cavaliers with MVP and moderate to severe MR, 14 control dogs, and 10 dogs with subaortic stenosis (SAS). Clinical examinations and echocardiography were performed in all dogs. PFA100 closure times (the ability of platelets to occlude a hole in a membrane at high shear rates), platelet activation markers (plasma thromboxane B2 concentration, platelet surface P-selectin expression), platelet aggregation (in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma with 3 different agonists), and vWf multimers were analyzed. Cavaliers with moderate to severe MR and dogs with SAS had longer closure times and a lower percentage of the largest vWf multimers than did controls. Maximal aggregation responses were unchanged in dogs with SAS but enhanced in Cavaliers with MVP (regardless of MR status) compared with control dogs. No significant difference in platelet activation markers was found among groups. The data suggest that a form of platelet dysfunction detected at high shear rates was present in dogs with MR and SAS, possibly associated with a qualitative vWf defect. Aggregation results suggest increased platelet reactivity in Cavaliers, but the platelets did not appear to circulate in a preactivated state in either disease. PMID:16095168
Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Falk, Torkel; Haubro, Lotte; Pedersen, Lotte G; Pedersen, Henrik D
The prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infections in dogs in Nigeria was surveyed using molecular methods. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from 400 dogs. A primer set that amplified the Babesia canis 18S rRNA gene, which has high similarity to the H. canis 18S rRNA gene, was used for the PCR. As a result, samples from 81 dogs (20.3%) produced 757 bp bands, which differed from the 698 bp band that corresponded to B. canis infection. The sequence of the PCR products of 10 samples were determined, all of which corresponded with the H. canis sequence. PMID:18685252
Sasaki, Mizuki; Omobowale, Olutayo; Ohta, Kaisaku; Tozuka, Morito; Matsuu, Aya; Hirata, Haruyuki; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Ikadai, Hiromi; Oyamada, Takashi
OBJECTIVES--To study the prevalence of asthma (asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness) in Swedish cross country skiers compared with non-skiers and monitor changes in symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness during the year. DESIGN--Cross sectional study during the winter ski season and in the summer. SETTING--Six ski clubs for élite skiers (total 47) in two different areas of Sweden. SUBJECTS--42 élite cross country skiers and 29 non-skiing referents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bronchial responsiveness, asthma symptoms, and lung function. RESULTS--Bronchial responsiveness was significantly greater and asthma symptoms more prevalent in the skiers than in the referents. There was no difference in bronchial responsiveness within either group between winter and summer. 15 of the 42 skiers used antiasthmatic drugs regularly and 23 had a combination of asthma symptoms and hyperresponsive airways or physician diagnosed asthma, or both. Altogether 33 skiers had symptoms of asthma or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. One of the referents had symptoms of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and none used antiasthmatic drugs regularly. CONCLUSIONS--Asthma, asthma-like symptoms, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are much more common in cross country skiers than in the general population and non-skiers. Strenuous exercise at low temperatures entailing breathing large volumes of cold air is the most probable explanation of persistent asthma in skiers.
Larsson, K; Ohlsen, P; Larsson, L; Malmberg, P; Rydstrom, P O; Ulriksen, H
The level of DNA polymorphism in 10 microsatellite loci of 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs with high percentage of blood\\u000a and inbreeding coefficients of up to 43.8% was studied. The observed heterozygosity was higher than expected for this inbreeding\\u000a level. The presence of a selection mechanism that prevents gametes from fusing to form a homozygosity genotype is suggested.
L. N. Shinkarenko; O. G. Guliakova; V. A. Malienko; S. D. Melnychuk; V. G. Spyrydonov
The standard method for measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with radioactive microspheres requires processing of selected tissue samples usually from the excised heart, and consequent loss of exact relation to myocardial morphology. A computer-based image processing method was developed by using (99mTc)microspheres (mean particle size 20 microns) for quantitative analysis of MBF in 25 dogs. A computer-controlled gamma camera was used to obtain the images of radioactive microsphere distribution in transaxial slices of the ex vivo heart. Any portion of these slice images could be quantitated by using a computer program based on modification of the formula for determining MBF by the standard microsphere method. Regional myocardial perfusion calculated by this technique correlated well with values obtained with reference microspheres (r = 0.96) over a broad range of MBF. The results show that our new method, accurately and with high resolution, delineated zones of differing MBF and confirmed the increase of MBF in surviving myocardium with healing.
Hung, C.Y.; Burow, R.D.; Scherlag, B.J.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Lazzara, R.
Background: The ventilation ( ) response to inspired CO2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims: These experiments were performed to determine whether would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods: We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO2-balance O2 and to 0 and 10% O2-balance N2. Results: The time delays decreased and response magnitude increased with increasing concentrations (p<0.01), but at higher concentrations the time delays were shorter than expected, i.e., 0.5 s to double at 100% CO2, with the response to 0% O2 being ~3 s slower. Right vagotomy significantly reduced baseline breathing frequency (fR), increased tidal volume (VT) and increased the time delay by ~3 s. Bilateral vagotomy further reduced baseline fR and , and reduced the response to CO2 and increased the time delay by ~12 s. Electro-stimulation of the peripheral right vagus while inspiring CO2 caused a 13 s asystole and further reduced and delayed the response, especially after bilateral vagotomy, shifting the mode from VT to fR. Conclusions: Results indicate that airway or lung receptors responded to the rapid increase in lung H+ and that vagal afferents and unimpaired circulation seem necessary for the initial rapid response to high CO2 concentrations by receptors upstream from the aortic bodies.
Loeppky, Jack A.; Risling, Ray
High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600
Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D
High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.
Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.
PurposeTo report the prevalence of foveal retinal detachment without macular hole in a large number of highly myopic eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to clarify the demographic characteristics associated with foveal retinal detachment in these eyes.
Takayuki Baba; Kyoko Ohno-Matsui; Soh Futagami; Takeshi Yoshida; Kenjiro Yasuzumi; Ariko Kojima; Takashi Tokoro; Manabu Mochizuki
Propofol total intravenous anesthesia should provide stability of the cardiovascular system. In this study, mean arterial pressure and heart rate were evaluated in eight healthy dogs anesthetized with increasing rates of propofol. The cerebral state index (CSI) was studied as an additional parameter. Although the estimated propofol plasma concentration reached a maximal value of 15.3 ?g ml(-1), no hypotension or bradycardia were observed. Exploration of each animal's data revealed high inter-individual variability regarding mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Considering the logarithmic of the concentration, a moderate depressant effect of propofol on mean arterial pressure was revealed in five dogs but the effect was not followed on heart rate. PMID:21276995
Silva, Aura; Ribeiro, Lénio M; Bressan, Nadja; Oliveira, Pedro; Ferreira, David A; Antunes, Luís M
Background: Current guidelines for ?1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) state that adult population screening should only be done in high-risk areas. Up-to-date genetic methods are always recommended. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of AATD in a suspected high-risk area by population screening, applying new genetic analyses and comparing the prevalence of liver and lung abnormalities in subjects with or without AATD. Methods:
Luciano Corda; Daniela Medicina; Giuseppe Emanuele La Piana; Enrica Bertella; Giovanni Moretti; Luca Bianchi; Valentina Pinelli; Gianfranco Savoldi; Paola Baiardi; Fabio Facchetti; Nuccia Gatta; Isabella Annesi-Maesano; Bruno Balbi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu
Andrew A Adjei; Yao Tettey; John T Aviyase; Clement Adu-Gyamfi; Samuel Obed; Julius AA Mingle; Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi; Theophilus K Adiku
Sepsis is difficult to diagnose and remains a common mortality cause worldwide in both humans and animals. The uterine infection pyometra causes sepsis in more than half of affected dogs and therefore allows the natural physiological development of sepsis to be studied. To find a sepsis-specific biochemical marker that could be combined with conventional clinical criteria for a more robust and quick diagnosis of sepsis, we measured systemic concentrations of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in 23 healthy control dogs and in 27 dogs with pyometra, 74% of which had sepsis. We also measured concentrations of the major acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) and an indicator for endotoxaemia, prostaglandin F2? metabolite (PGM) to assess the relative contribution of HMGB1 to the detection of systemic inflammation and endotoxaemia. We found that HMGB1 concentrations, in line with concentrations of CRP and PGM, were significantly increased in dogs with pyometra, and that concentrations of CRP, but not HMGB1, were significantly higher in dogs with sepsis compared to dogs without sepsis. Although serum HMGB1 did not differ between dogs with or without sepsis and was not correlated with either CRP or PGM concentrations, HMGB1 was correlated with the total white blood cell counts, suggesting an independent regulation and involvement in inflammation. PMID:24120445
Karlsson, I; Wernersson, S; Ambrosen, A; Kindahl, H; Södersten, F; Wang, L; Hagman, R
Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de Valčncia, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Dońana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de Valčncia): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones. PMID:9680527
Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart
A complete set of paint probes, with each probe specific for a single type of dog chromosome, was generated by DOP-PCR amplification\\u000a of flow-sorted chromosomes. These probes have been assigned to high-resolution G-banded chromosomes of the dog and Arctic\\u000a fox by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. On the basis of these results we propose improved nomenclature for the G-banded karyotypes of the
A. S. Graphodatsky; F. Yang; P. C. M. O'Brien; N. Serdukova; B. S. Milne; V. Trifonov; M. A. Ferguson-Smith
Objective To determine the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and temporal profile of concurrent ischemic lesions in patients with acute primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods Patients were recruited within a prospective, longitudinal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based study of primary ICH. Clinical, demographic, and MRI data were collected on all subjects at baseline and 1 month. Results Of the 138 patients enrolled, mean age was 59 years, 54% were male, 73% black, and 84% had a history of hypertension. At baseline, ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were found in 35% of patients. At 1 month, lesions were present in 27%, and of these lesions, 83% were new and not present at baseline. ICH volume (p=0.025), intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.019), presence of microbleeds (p=0.024), and large, early reductions in mean arterial pressure (p=0.003) were independent predictors of baseline DWI lesions. A multivariate logistical model predicting the presence of 1 month DWI lesions included history of any prior stroke (p=0.012), presence of 1 or more microbleeds (p=0.04), black race (p=0.641), and presence of a DWI lesion at baseline (p=0.007) Interpretation This study demonstrates that more than 1/3 of patients with primary ICH have active cerebral ischemia at baseline remote from the index hematoma, and 1/4 of patients experience ongoing, acute ischemic events at 1 month. Multivariate analyses implicate blood pressure reductions in the setting of an active vasculopathy as a potential underlying mechanism. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of these lesions on outcome and optimal management strategies to arrest vascular damage.
Menon, Ravi S.; Burgess, Richard E.; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Gibbons, M. Christopher; Shara, Nawar M.; Fernandez, Stephen; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; German, Laura; Sobotka, Ian; Edwards, Dorothy; Kidwell, Chelsea S.
A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.
A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs. PMID:20377869
Lim, Sun; Irwin, Peter J; Lee, Seungryong; Oh, Myunghwan; Ahn, Kyusung; Myung, Boyoung; Shin, Sungshik
The pituitary intermediate lobe of most species is cytologically monotonous, but that of the dog is composed of two immunocytochemically distinct cell types. The predominant A cells are typical pars intermedia cells: they stain immunocytochemically for alpha -melanotropin and, more weakly, for adrenocorticotropin and beta -lipotropin. The B cells are like the corticotrophs of the anterior lobe: they stain intensely
Nicholas S. Halmi; Mark E. Peterson; Gloria J. Colurso; Anthony S. Liotta; Dorothy T. Krieger
Mutations 1 295 228 C>T and 1 295 250 C>T (termed C228T and C250T respectively), corresponding to -124 C>T and -146 C>T from the translation start site in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, have recently been reported in human cancers, but not in thyroid cancers yet. We explored these mutations in thyroid cancers by genomic sequencing of a large number of primary tumor samples. We found the C228T mutation in 0 of 85 (0.0%) benign thyroid tumors, 30 of 257 (11.7%) papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 9 of 79 (11.4%) follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 3 of 8 (37.5%) poorly differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTC), 23 of 54 (42.6%) anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC), and 8 of 12 (66.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. The C250T mutation was uncommon, but mutually exclusive with the C228T mutation, and the two mutations were collectively found in 11 of 79 (13.9%) FTC, 25 of 54 (46.3%) ATC, and 11 of 12 (91.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. Among PTC variants, the C228T mutation was found in 4 of 13 (30.8%) tall-cell PTC (TCPTC), 23 of 187 (12.3%) conventional PTC, and 2 of 56 (3.6%) follicular variant PTC samples. No TERT mutation was found in 16 medullary thyroid cancer samples. The C228T mutation was associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC, being present in 19 of 104 (18.3%) BRAF mutation-positive PTC vs 11 of 153 (7.2%) the BRAF mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). Conversely, BRAF mutation was found in 19 of 30 (63.3%) C228T mutation-positive PTC vs 85 of 227 (37.4%) C228T mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). We thus for the first time, to our knowledge, demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancers, that are particularly prevalent in the aggressive thyroid cancers TCPTC, PDTC, ATC and BRAF mutation-positive PTC, revealing a novel genetic background for thyroid cancers. PMID:23766237
Liu, Xiaoli; Bishop, Justin; Shan, Yuan; Pai, Sara; Liu, Dingxie; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Sun, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Xing, Mingzhao
Mutations 1 295 228 C>T and 1 295 250 C>T (termed C228T and C250T respectively), corresponding to ?124 C>T and ?146 C>T from the translation start site in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, have recently been reported in human cancers, but not in thyroid cancers yet. We explored these mutations in thyroid cancers by genomic sequencing of a large number of primary tumor samples. We found the C228T mutation in 0 of 85 (0.0%) benign thyroid tumors, 30 of 257 (11.7%) papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 9 of 79 (11.4%) follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 3 of 8 (37.5%) poorly differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTC), 23 of 54 (42.6%) anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC), and 8 of 12 (66.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. The C250T mutation was uncommon, but mutually exclusive with the C228T mutation, and the two mutations were collectively found in 11 of 79 (13.9%) FTC, 25 of 54 (46.3%) ATC, and 11 of 12 (91.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. Among PTC variants, the C228T mutation was found in 4 of 13 (30.8%) tall-cell PTC (TCPTC), 23 of 187 (12.3%) conventional PTC, and 2 of 56 (3.6%) follicular variant PTC samples. No TERT mutation was found in 16 medullary thyroid cancer samples. The C228T mutation was associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC, being present in 19 of 104 (18.3%) BRAF mutation-positive PTC vs 11 of 153 (7.2%) the BRAF mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). Conversely, BRAF mutation was found in 19 of 30 (63.3%) C228T mutation-positive PTC vs 85 of 227 (37.4%) C228T mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). We thus for the first time, to our knowledge, demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancers, that are particularly prevalent in the aggressive thyroid cancers TCPTC, PDTC, ATC and BRAF mutation-positive PTC, revealing a novel genetic background for thyroid cancers.
Liu, Xiaoli; Bishop, Justin; Shan, Yuan; Pai, Sara; Liu, Dingxie; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Sun, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Xing, Mingzhao
Studies suggest that infection with highly prevalent Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones in cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with an unfavourable clinical outcome. We studied the clinical characteristics of patients infected with a recently described, highly prevalent P. aeruginosa clone (ST406) in two CF centres in The Netherlands. Multilocus sequence typing data were available for 219 patients, of whom 40 (18.3%) were infected with ST406 and 179 with other sequence types. ST406 infection was independently associated with age, having a sibling with ST406 infection and use of inhaled antibiotics, but not with unfavourable clinical outcome, suggesting that high transmissibility is not necessarily associated with high virulence. PMID:20807225
de Vrankrijker, A M M; Brimicombe, R W; Wolfs, T F W; Heijerman, H G M; van Mansfeld, R; van Berkhout, F T; Willems, R J L; Bonten, M J M; van der Ent, C K
Data pertaining to prevalence and frequency of drug use were obtained from 1,394 Western Australian metropolitan high school students using a self-report questionnaire. Alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, hallucinogens, and amphetamines were reported as the most prevalent substances, with over 50% of “current drug users” using alcohol and marijuana on a frequent basis (i.e., weekly to more than once per day). Significant
Peta Odgers; Stephen Houghton; Graham Douglas
Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders.
Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania. PMID:21996514
Bružinskait?-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šark?nas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome, but data are scarce on the BV prevalence in tropical regions among sexually active and virgin adolescents. To estimate the prevalence of BV among adolescent girls in an Ecuadorian coastal town, girls were asked to complete a questionnaire on risk factors for BV and vaginal samples were examined. Bacterial vaginosis was present in 31.5% of 213 girls, and the prevalence was similar in self-reported virgin and sexually active girls (OR 1.06, 95% CI, 0.51-2.21, P = 0.88), although the power of this analysis was limited. The prevalence of BV was high among Ecuadorian adolescent girls, and did not appear to be associated with sexual activity. PMID:19874295
Vaca, M; Guadalupe, I; Erazo, S; Tinizaray, K; Chico, M E; Cooper, P J; Hay, P
The death rate from heart and blood vessel disease among African Americans is 33.6% higher among African American men and 38.5% higher among African American women. (U.S. 2003: American Heart Association). Excessive rates of hypertension, psychosocial and socio-environmental stresses contribute to high rate of CVD morbidity and mortality in this population. According to Tennessee Primary Care Association in Davidson County,
Nonyerem Rosemary Anachebe
This study was conducted to quantify anabolic steroid use in Illinois, investigate student knowledge and perception of anabolic steroid use, and identify characteristics of the anabolic steroid user. We surveyed 3047 freshman and senior high school students from 38 high schools, randomly selected from three school enrollment sizes and five geographic locations, using a six-page anonymous questionnaire. Anabolic steroid use was reported by 58 (1.9%) of the participants, 44 of 1477 (3%) males and 14 of 1562 (0.9%) females. Thirty-four of 1679 (2%) freshman and 24 of 1366 (1.8%) seniors reported use. Anabolic steroids were used in all possible school enrollment sizes and geographic locations (matrix cells). Four (7%) of the users reported starting at age 10 or younger. A teacher/coach was reported as a primary source by 8 (14%) of the users, as well as identified by 11 (19%) of the users as the individual they knew using anabolic steroids. It appears that anabolic steroids are being introduced to students in elementary and junior high schools, and that teachers/coaches are actively involved in their use. PMID:16558283
Tuttle, L D; Gaa, G L; Griffith, E H; Cahill, B R
Dog bites are among the most frequent causes of nonfatal injuries in the United States. Most dog bites involve children and\\u000a young adults. Infected wounds are polymicrobial in nature; the most prevalent organisms are Pasteurella, streptococci, staphylococci, and Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, and Porphyromonas species. Musculoskeletal and neurovascular injuries, as well as systemic infections, can be complications of dog-bite wounds.\\u000a Treatment includes
Fredrick M. Abrahamian
The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60–100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480–3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage.
Klutsch, C F C; Seppala, E H; Fall, T; Uhlen, M; Hedhammar, A; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P
The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60-100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480-3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage. PMID:20497152
Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, A; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P
The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers. PMID:17924802
Helton, William S
Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.
Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.
|This report explores the prevalence of firearms in the lives of high-school students attending a "safe" campus, and the psychological effects this exposure has on these students. The study sample was 569 students enrolled in a large, ethnically diverse, urban high school. Results show that 51 percent of the students reported that they had easy…
Caty, Caren; Heller, Tracy L.; Guarino, Anthony J.; Michael, William
Photographs are a major aspect of high school science textbooks, which dominate classroom approaches to teaching and learning. It is thus surprising that the function of photographs and their relation to captions and texts have not been the topic of analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, function, and structure of photographs in high school science.
Lilian Leivas Pozzer; Wolff-Michael Roth
Migraine is the most common cause of recurrent headache among children and adolescents resulting in missing of school and disabling their daily life. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and clinical features of headache in junior high school children in Japan. In December 2004, questionnaires were sent to 14 junior high schools. There were multiple-choice type
Naoki Ando; Shinji Fujimoto; Tatsuya Ishikawa; Jun Teramoto; Satoru Kobayashi; Ayako Hattori; Hajime Togari
Formocresol applied to vital pulp tissue may be absorbed systemically. The possible effect of the systemic absorption of formocresol is unknown. The purpose of this project was to determine the acute toxic effect of systemically administered formocresol. Two dogs were anesthetized and Buckley's formocresol was administered i.v. at doses of 0.05 and 0.1 5 ml\\/kg respectively. Blood pressure and heart
David R. Myers; David H. Pashley; Gary M. Whitford; Robert E. Sobel; Ralph V. McKinney
The influence of landscape spatial structure on ecological processes has recently received much attention. Comparisons are made here between the spatial structure of grasslands, and active and extirpated Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni Hollister) towns at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, U.S.A. The spatial structure of bare ground was quatified using a box-counting technique to extract landscape fractal dimensions,
R. K. Bangert; C. N. Slobodchikoff
Incarceration and obesity rates have both increased in the United States. An implication is that there will be more obese inmates, which likely will raise the prevalence of obesity-related diseases, affecting the cost and performance of correctional health care. Other issues include increased costs of transport, restraint, and housing. There is surprisingly little published information on inmate obesity prevalence. The
Meaghan A. Leddy; Jay Schulkin; Michael L. Power
Introduction The Indo-Guyanese population is the largest immigrant minority population in Schenectady, New York. A clinic-based study in Schenectady and surveillance reports from Guyana found high diabetes prevalence and mortality among Guyanese of Indian descent. No community-based study has focused on diabetes among Indo-Guyanese immigrants in the United States. We sought information on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications in Indo-Guyanese adults in Schenectady and compared it with the prevalence among non-Hispanic white adults in Schenectady. Methods We administered a cross-sectional health survey at community venues in Schenectady in 2011. We identified diagnosed diabetes and its complications through self-reports by using a reliability-tested questionnaire. The final data set included 313 Indo-Guyanese and 327 non-Hispanic white adults aged 18 years or older. We compared the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and diabetes complications between Indo-Guyanese and non-Hispanic whites. Results Most Indo-Guyanese participants were born in Guyana, whereas most non-Hispanic whites were born in the United States. The crude prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among Indo-Guyanese participants and non-Hispanic whites was 30.3% and 16.1%, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence was 28.7% among Indo-Guyanese participants, significantly higher than that among non-Hispanic whites (14.5%, P < .001). Indo-Guyanese participants who had diabetes had a lower body mass index and were more likely to report poor or fair general health and eye or vision complications than non-Hispanic whites who had diabetes. Conclusion Our study confirms the higher prevalence of diabetes in Indo-Guyanese adults in Schenectady. The higher prevalence of complications suggests poor control of diabetes. Excess burden of diabetes in this population calls for further research and public health action.
Pratt, David S.; Sen, Kathryn A.; Buckenmeyer, Erin M.; Simao, Alexander; Back, Ephraim E.; Savadatti, Sanghamitra; Kahn, Jennifer L.; Hunt, Glynnis S.
Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems). Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n?=?133) owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n?=?54) reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n?=?36) reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired behaviours do not appear to distinguish between training methods. Rather, owner gender and attendance at training classes appear more important, although explaining a relatively small amount of variance between groups. More owners using reward based methods for recall / chasing report a successful outcome of training than those using e-collars.
Ehrlichia canis has a worldwide distribution, but clinical manifestations may vary geographically. We selected 129 dogs to determine prevalence of ehrlichiosis in dogs with anemia, thrombocytopenia, or ticks presented to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital in South Brazil. Of the 129 dogs, 68 carried the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), 61 had thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000\\/?l), and 19 had anemia (PCV
Ana Silvia Dagnone; Helio S. Autran de Morais; Marilda C. Vidotto; Flavio S. Jojima; Odilon Vidotto
BACKGROUND The prevalence of congenital uterine anomalies in high-risk women is unclear, as several different diagnostic approaches have been applied to different groups of patients. This review aims to evaluate the prevalence of such anomalies in unselected populations and in women with infertility, including those undergoing IVF treatment, women with a history of miscarriage, women with infertility and recurrent miscarriage combined, and women with a history of preterm delivery. METHODS Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane register were performed. Study selection and data extraction were conducted independently by two reviewers. Studies were grouped into those that used ‘optimal’ and ‘suboptimal’ tests for uterine anomalies. Meta-analyses were performed to establish the prevalence of uterine anomalies and their subtypes within the various populations. RESULTS We identified 94 observational studies comprising 89 861 women. The prevalence of uterine anomalies diagnosed by optimal tests was 5.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.5–8.5] in the unselected population, 8.0% (95% CI, 5.3–12) in infertile women, 13.3% (95% CI, 8.9–20.0) in those with a history of miscarriage and 24.5% (95% CI, 18.3–32.8) in those with miscarriage and infertility. Arcuate uterus is most common in the unselected population (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.1–7.1), and its prevalence is not increased in high-risk groups. In contrast, septate uterus is the most common anomaly in high-risk populations. CONCLUSIONS Women with a history of miscarriage or miscarriage and infertility have higher prevalence of congenital uterine anomalies compared with the unselected population.
Chan, Y.Y.; Jayaprakasan, K.; Zamora, J.; Thornton, J.G.; Raine-Fenning, N.; Coomarasamy, A.
Partetravirus is a novel defined genus of animal parvoviruses. Here, we first report the genome sequence of porcine partetravirus strain JSNJ62, which is highly prevalent in mainland China. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine partetravirus.
Ma, Junjie; Xiao, Shaobo; Wen, Libin; Ni, Yanxiu; Zhang, Xuehan; Fang, Liurong
The USDA Household Core Food Security Module was used to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in 1,662 households in 36 counties and parishes in the LMD of Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi. High-risk subgroups were identified and compared to national data. The LMD is a rural agricu...
|This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB…
Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao
Objective: The objective of the present study was to find the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) symptoms in a sample of primary schoolchildren in Qatar and investigate the behaviour of the children with and without ADH symptoms in a highly consanguineous community. Subjects and Methods: A total of 2,500 primary school students, aged 6–12 years, were randomly selected from
Abdulbari Bener; Razna Al Qahtani; Ahmad S. Teebi; Mohammed Bessisso
Purpose: To compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors among Asian American\\/Pacific Islander (AAPI) students and white, black, and Hispanic high school students in the United States.Methods: The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention produced nationally representative samples of students in grades 9 through 12 in
Jo Anne Grunbaum; Richard Lowry; Laura Kann; Beth Pateman
|This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…
Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.
Abstract The rise in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been suggested to be responsible for the increased incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in the Western world. This has boosted interest in oral HPV prevalence and whether HPV vaccines can prevent oral HPV infection. In a previous study we showed oral HPV prevalence to be almost 10% in youth aged 15-23 y attending a youth clinic in Stockholm, Sweden. However, this may not be a generalizable sample within the Swedish population. Therefore, mouthwashes were used to investigate oral HPV prevalence in 335 Swedish high school students aged 17-21 y (median age 18 y), from 1 municipality with 140,000 inhabitants. The presence of HPV DNA in the oral samples, as examined by a Luminex-based assay, was significantly lower in this cohort, only 1.8% (3.1% in females and 0.6% in males), as compared to our previous study. PMID:23957537
Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Haeggblom, Linnea; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Sivars, Lars; Mattebo, Magdalena; Larsson, Margareta; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabeth; Tydén, Tanja; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina
Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 ?m were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 ?m were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.
Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.
Background: Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance, we attempted to determine whether cognitive functions were associated with the prevalence of fatigue. Methods: Participants were 148 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 152 junior high school
Kei Mizuno; Masaaki Tanaka; Sanae Fukuda; Kyoko Imai-Matsumura; Yasuyoshi Watanabe
The prognostic significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) in the early phases of chemotherapy was examined in 36 dogs with multicentric high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Sequences of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene fragments from lymphoma cells were amplified and used to design allele-specific primers and probes for real-time PCR. The dogs were treated with a 6-month modified version of the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol (UW-25) and evaluated for the MRD level at weeks 6 and 11 of UW-25. Of the 31 dogs that remained on the protocol at week 11, 14 were found to be MRD negative (<10tumour cells/10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]), whereas the other 17 were MRD positive (?10tumour cells/10(5) PBMCs). The progression-free survival of the dogs with MRD-negative status at week 11 (median, 337days) was significantly longer than that of the MRD-positive dogs at the same time point (median, 196days) (P=0.0002). These results indicate the clinical significance of MRD as a prognostic marker in the early phase of chemotherapy. PMID:22909955
Sato, Masahiko; Yamzaki, Jumpei; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Takahashi, Masashi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime
The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered. PMID:6730003
MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M
|Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…
Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.
Several toy breed dogs are predisposed to syringomyelia (SM), a spinal cord disorder, characterised by fluid-filled cavitation. SM is a complex trait with a moderately high heritability. Selective breeding against SM is confounded by its complex inheritance, its late onset nature and high prevalence in some breeds. This study investigated the early outcome of existing SM breeding guidelines. Six hundred and forty-three dogs, 550 Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) and 93 Griffon Bruxellois (GB), were identified as having either one (454 dogs) or both parents (189 dogs) with MRI-determined SM status. Offspring without SM were more common when the parents were both clear of SM (SM-free; CKCS 70 per cent, GB 73 per cent). Conversely, offspring with SM were more likely when both parents had SM (SM-affected; CKCS 92 per cent, GB 100 per cent). A mating of one SM-free parent with an SM-affected parent was risky for SM affectedness with 77 per cent of CKCS and 46 per cent of GB offspring being SM-affected. It is recommended that all breeding dogs from breeds susceptible to SM be MRI screened; that the SM status at five years old is established; and all results submitted to a central database that can be used by dog breeders to better enable mate selection based on estimated breeding values. PMID:21998144
Knowler, S P; McFadyen, A K; Rusbridge, C
The tuberculosis (TB) notification rate is high and increasing in 2 communities in Cape Town, South Africa. In 2002, we conducted a prevalence survey among adults >15 years of age to determine the TB prevalence rate; 15% of households in these communities were randomly sampled. All persons living in sampled households were eligible for chest radiography and sputum examination. Of the 3,483 adults who completed a questionnaire, 2,608 underwent chest radiography and sputum examination. We detected 26 bacteriologically confirmed TB cases and a prevalence of 10.0/1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2–13.8 per 1,000). We found 18 patients with smear-positive TB, of whom 8 were new patients (3.1/1,000, 95% CI 0.9–5.1/1,000). More than half of patients with smear-positive TB (10, 56%) had previously been treated. Such patients may contribute to transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the high TB prevalence rate. Successful treatment of TB patients must be a priority.
van Lill, Schalk W.P.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Enarson, Donald A.; Verver, Suzanne; Bateman, Eric D.; Irusen, Elvis; Lombard, Carl J.; White, Neil W.; de Villiers, Christine; Beyers, Nulda
This in vitro study evaluated the temperature rise on the outer root surface of the mandibular first molar following root canal filling using the high-temperature, thermoplasticized, Gutta-Percha technique (HTTG) (BeeFill) in the dog. Twelve extracted dog mandibular first molars were used. After root canal preparation, the teeth were filled with thermoplasticized Gutta-Percha and root canal sealer. Temperature changes on the vestibular surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of mandibular first molars were measured using a thermal imaging camera. The results of this in vitro study showed that using HTTG to fill mandibular first molars in dogs produces a safe temperature rise on the root surface and, therefore, should not damage the periodontal ligament and/or surrounding tissues. PMID:22439330
Lipski, M; Wo?niak, K; Lichota, D; Nowicka, A
BACKGROUND Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with medical and psychological morbidity. The prevalence of PTSD in urban primary care has not been well described. OBJECTIVE To measure the prevalence of PTSD in primary care patients overall and among those with selected conditions (chronic pain, depression, anxiety, heavy drinking, substance dependence (SD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and immigrant status). DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS English-speaking patients aged 18–65 years old, awaiting primary care appointments in an urban academic medical center, were eligible for enrollment to determine PTSD prevalence (N?=?509). Additional eligible participants (n?=?98) with IBS or SD were subsequently enrolled. MEASUREMENTS PTSD (past year) and trauma exposure were measured with Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We calculated the prevalence of PTSD associated with depression, anxiety, heavy drinking, SD, IBS, and chronic pain. Only the analyses on heavy drinking, SD, and IBS used all 607 participants. RESULTS Among the 509 adults in primary care, 23% (95% CI, 19–26%) had PTSD, of whom 11% had it noted in the medical record. The prevalence of PTSD, adjusted for age, gender, race, and marital and socioeconomic statuses, was higher in participants with, compared to those without, the following conditions: chronic pain (23 vs 12%, p?=?.003), major depression (35 vs 11%, p?.0001), anxiety disorders (42 vs 14%, p?.0001), and IBS (34 vs 18%, p?=?.01) and lower in immigrants (13 vs 21%, p?=?.05). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of PTSD in the urban primary care setting, and particularly among certain high-risk conditions, compels a critical examination of optimal approaches for screening, intervention, and referral to PTSD treatment.
Saitz, Richard; Brower, Victoria; Keane, Terence M.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Averbuch, Tali; Samet, Jeffrey H.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lothian and Border Health Board Regions of south east Scotland.?METHODS—Incidence study: all patients were identified in whom a diagnosis of Poser category probable or definite multiple sclerosis was made by a neurologist between 1992 and 1995. Prevalence study: all patients known to have multiple sclerosis who were alive and resident in the study area on 15 March 1995 were recorded.?RESULTS—The crude annual incidence rates of probable or definite multiple sclerosis per 100 000 population were the highest ever reported: 12.2 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 10.8-13.7) in the Lothian Region and 10.1 (95% CI 6.6-13.6) in the Border Region. A total of 1613 patients with multiple sclerosis were resident in the study area, giving standardised prevalence rates per 100 000 population of 203 (95% CI 192-214) in the Lothian Region and 219 (95% CI 191-251) in the Border Region. Prevalent cases were more likely than expected to have a Scottish surname (risk ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.34).?CONCLUSIONS—Orkney and Shetland were previously thought to have by far the highest prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the world: about double that found in England and Wales. However, the prevalence in south east Scotland is equally high, suggesting that the Scottish population as a whole has a genetic susceptibility to the disease, and undermining the hypothesis that patterns of infection specific to small sparsely populated island communities are important in the causation of multiple sclerosis.??
Rothwell, P; Charlton, D
Temporal distribution of positive results of tests for detecting Leishmania infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in the Brazilian tropics: a 13 years survey and association with human disease.
Human visceral leishmaniasis occurs in periodic waves in endemic areas of Brazil. In this study we followed the prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis and of Leishmania infantum infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at periods of time between 1997 and 2010. Prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis had two peaks (40 cases) in 1997 and 2006 with sharp declines to 2 cases in 2001 and to 5 cases in 2008. Similar fluctuations were also observed in the occurrence of positive spleen culture and anti-Leishmania serology in dogs, although the proportion of dogs with active spleen parasitism remained relatively high even in the periods of low prevalence of human disease. These observations support the notion that stray dogs may constitute a renewable source of parasites, capable of sustaining the persistence of the infection in urban areas, even in periods of low transmission by phlebotomines. PMID:22795669
Fraga, Deborah B M; Solcŕ, Manuela S; Silva, Virgínia M G; Borja, Lairton S; Nascimento, Eliane G; Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain C; Veras, Patrícia S T; dos-Santos, Washington L C
A rapidly increasing stray animal population in Bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in Bangkok are a potential reservoir of Hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in Thailand. Blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 Bangkok metropolitan districts. Both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs alone from 4 districts and cats alone from 12 districts. Samples were collected from a total of 308 dogs and 300 cats. Light microscopy and an 18 S rRNA gene-based PCR assay were used to test these samples for evidence of Hepatozoon infection. Gamonts were observed in blood smears for 2.6% of dogs and 0.7% of cats by microscopy. The PCR assay detected Hepatozoon in buffy coats from 11.4% of dogs and 32.3% of cats tested. The prevalence of infection was the same between male and female dogs or cats, and PCR-positive dogs and cats were found in 36.6% and 36.8% of the districts surveyed, respectively. There was an association between the percentages of PCR-positive dogs and cats in districts where both host species were sampled. Sequences of representative amplicons were closest to those reported for H. canis. These results represent the first molecular confirmation that H. canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated. PMID:17135555
Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Rungphisutthipongse, Opart; Maruyama, Soichi; Schaefer, John J; Stich, Roger W
Background Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be a significant cause of morbidity among communities located around Lake Victoria and on its islands. Although epidemiological surveys have been conducted in other areas bordering the lake in western Kenya, Mbita district and its adjacent islands have never been surveyed, largely due to logistical challenges in accessing these areas. Consequently, there is a paucity of data on prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections that are endemic in this region. Methods This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence, intensity of infection and geographical distribution of schistosome and STH infections among 4,065 children aged 5–19?years in 84 primary schools in Mbita and nearby islands of Lake Victoria (Mfangano, Ringiti, Rusinga and Takawiri), in western Kenya. Single stool samples were collected and examined for eggs of Schistosoma mansoni and STHs (Hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) using the Kato-Katz technique. Primary schools were mapped using geographical information system data on PDAs and prevalence maps generated using ArcView GIS software. Results Overall, 65.6% (95% CI?=?64.2-67.1%) of children were infected with one or more helminth species; 12.4% (95% CI?=?11.4-13.4%) of children were infected with one or more STH species. Mean school prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 60.5% (95% CI?=?59.0-62.0%), hookworms 8.4% (95% CI?=?7.6-9.3%), A. lumbricoides 3.3% (95% CI?=?2.7-3.8%), and T. trichiura 1.6% (95% CI?=?1.2-2.0%). Interestingly, the mean S. mansoni prevalence was 2-fold higher on the islands (82%) compared to the mainland (41%) (z?=?5.8755, P?0.0001). Similarly, intensity of infection was 54% higher on the islands (217.2?±?99.3) compared to the mainland (141.3?±?123.7) (z?=?3.9374, P?0.0001). Schools in closest proximity to Lake Victoria had the highest S. mansoni prevalence while prevalence of STHs was more homogenously distributed. Conclusions The very high prevalence of schistosomiasis in Mbita and the 4 islands is quite alarming, and indicates an urgent and critical need for control interventions. Findings from this survey indicate the need to implement treatment in remote areas not previously covered by mass drug administration programs.
Retired greyhound dogs, with low or absent antibody titers to rabies virus following previous vaccinations with commercially available vaccines, were immunized either subcutaneously or intramuscularly with a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein termed Adrab.gp. Immunized animals developed high titers (geometric mean titers of 2630 and 5329) of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) against rabies virus by 10 days
Tanya Tims; Deborah J. Briggs; Rolan D. Davis; Susan M. Moore; Zhiquan Xiang; Hildegund C. J. Ertl; Zhen Fang Fu
Background We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. Methods The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Results Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. Conclusion This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.
Amoli, AA Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, GhR
Background: Italy is characterized by high prevalence of goiter. To date, only limited data about the prevalence of goiter in the Italian adult population are available. Aim. To investigate the prevalence of thyroid ultrasound abnormalities in adults unaware of any thyroid disease and evaluate the rate of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) obtained by this intervention. Methods. US thyroid scan was performed in adult volunteers recruited by advertisement in Modena, Italy. 135 women and 66 men (n= 201), unaware of any thyroid disease (mean age of 46 ± 10.7 years) underwent their first thyroid US scan. Results. US thyroid abnormalities were found in 101 subjects (50.3%): 91 nodular goiters (45.2%) and 13 US-thyroiditis (6.5%) associated with positive auto-antibodies in 11 of them. 17 subjects (18%) with nodules underwent US-FNAB with the following cytological class (C) outcome: 14 patients C2 (82 %), 1 patient C3 (6 %), 2 patients had C4 (12%), the latter received histological confirmation. Conclusions. The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities, is very high in subjects unaware of any thyroid disease. DTC was found in 1% of subjects and in 2% of those affected by nodular goiter. Compared to the detection rate of the well-established screening programs for breast (0.45%) and colorectal (0.27%) cancer, the prevalence of DTC seems to be much higher. Thyroid US screening could allow the detection of DTC in asymptomatic subjects and this diagnosis often includes DTC at an advanced stage. Thus, US screening not necessarily results in the over-diagnosis of clinically not relevant thyroid diseases. PMID:23579962
Gnarini, Valentina L; Brigante, Giulia; Della Valle, Elisa; Diazzi, Chiara; Madeo, Bruno; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo; Simoni, Manuela
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in US adults was shown to be inversely correlated with the socioeconomic status of the family during childhood, and it was suggested that this was additional evidence of transmission occurring in childhood. The present study of H. pylori infection was conducted in South Korea, which has emerged as a developed country in the last
Hoda M. Malaty; Jong G. Kim; Soon D. Kim; David Y. Graham
Each year, 4.7 million people are bitten by dogs. Of those bitten each year, 386,000 are seriously injured and some killed. Consequently, many insurance companies refuse to issue homeowners insurance to owners of specific breeds of dogs considered "vicious" or high risk of causing injury. This study examined whether vicious dog owners were different on antisocial behaviors and personality dimensions. A total of 869 college students completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing type of dog owned, criminal behaviors, attitudes towards animal abuse, psychopathy, and personality. The sample was divided into four groups: vicious dog owners, large dog owners, small dog owners, and controls. Findings revealed vicious dog owners reported significantly more criminal behaviors than other dog owners. Vicious dog owners were higher in sensation seeking and primary psychopathy. Study results suggest that vicious dog ownership may be a simple marker of broader social deviance. PMID:19302402
Ragatz, Laurie; Fremouw, William; Thomas, Tracy; McCoy, Katrina
Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in dogs usually are treated with antimicrobial drugs for 10–14 days. Shorter duration antimicrobial regimens have been evaluated in human patients. Hypothesis A high dose short duration (HDSD) enrofloxacin protocol administered to dogs with uncomplicated UTI will not be inferior to a 14-day treatment regimen with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Animals Client-owned adult, otherwise healthy dogs with aerobic bacterial urine culture yielding ?103 CFU/mL of bacteria after cystocentesis. Methods Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized blinded clinical trial. Enrolled dogs were randomized to group 1 (enrofloxacin 18–20 mg/kg PO q24h for 3 days) or group 2 (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 13.75–25 mg/kg PO q12h for 14 days). Urine cultures were obtained at days 0, 10, and 21. Microbiologic and clinical cure rates were evaluated 7 days after antimicrobial treatment was discontinued. Lower urinary tract signs and adverse events also were recorded. Results There were 35 dogs in group 1 and 33 in group 2. The microbiologic cure rate was 77.1 and 81.2% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The clinical cure rate was 88.6 and 87.9% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Cure rates between groups did not differ according to the selected margin of noninferiority. Conclusions and Clinical Importance HDSD enrofloxacin treatment was not inferior to a conventional amoxicillin-clavulanic acid protocol for the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial UTI in dogs. Further research is warranted to determine if this protocol will positively impact owner compliance and decrease the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
Westropp, JL; Sykes, JE; Irom, S; Daniels, JB; Smith, A; Keil, D; Settje, T; Wang, Y; Chew, DJ
IntroductionMotor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and hospitalisation for Canadian youth. Graduated Drivers Licensing have been implemented in several Canadian provinces.PurposeTo assess the prevalence of compliance with rules and driving distractions among high school students in three Canadian cities (Halifax, Barrie and Vancouver) representing different geographic, socioeconomic and jurisdictional settings.MethodsObservations were made at schools in the three
J Oda; A Macpherson; T Middaugh-Bonney; M Brussoni; S Piedt; I Pike
IntroductionIn high multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST) at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru.MethodsWe enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB
Larissa Otero; Fiorella Krapp; Cristina Tomatis; Carlos Zamudio; Francine Matthys; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Patrick Van der Stuyft; Carlos Seas
Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological\\u000a mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current\\u000a treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may\\u000a present an alternative underlying mechanism, which
Carel Bron; Jan Dommerholt; Boudewijn Stegenga; Michel Wensing; Rob AB Oostendorp
|The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped…
Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.
The nematode worm Spirocerca lupi has a cosmopolitan distribution and can cause the death of its final canid host, typically dogs. While its life cycle, which involves a coprophagous beetle intermediate host, a number of non-obligatory vertebrate paratenic hosts and a canid final host, is well understood, surprisingly little is known about its transmission dynamics and population genetic structure. Here we sequenced cox1 to quantify genetic variation and the factors that limit gene flow in a 300 km(2) area in South Africa. Three quarters of the genetic variation, was explained by differences between worms from the same host, whereas a quarter of the variation was explained by differences between worms from different hosts. With the help of a newly derived model we conclude that while the offspring from different infrapopulations mixes fairly frequently in new hosts, the level of admixture is not enough to homogenize the parasite populations among dogs. Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. PMID:22226763
de Waal, Pamela J; Gous, Annemarie; Clift, Sarah J; Greeff, Jaco M
Background Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi) collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%), Ehrlichia canis (12.7%), Rickettsia spp. (8.8%), Babesia rossi (6.6%), Anaplasma platys (6.6%), Babesia vogeli (0.6%) and Theileria sp. (0.6%) was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%), H. canis (21.1%), Rickettsia spp. (10.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3%) and A. platys (1.9%) was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents.
Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Eyal, Osnat; Guthmann, Yifat; Harrus, Shimon
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) in an outpatient pediatric population with high prevalence of obesity. Design and Methods: eGFR was evaluated in 901 children unselected for chronic kidney disease (CKD) of whom 694 were overweight/obese (6-16 years) and 207 were age- and sex- matched normal weight (NW). We generated three categories of eGFR: mild-low eGFR (< 20(th) percentile), high eGFR (>80(th) percentile) and intermediate eGFR (20-80(th) percentile), considered as the reference category Results: Children with either mild-low or high eGFR category showed a 2-4 fold higher Odds ratio of high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria compared with children of the intermediate eGFR category. In addition, children with mild-low eGFR levels showed a 1.5-2 fold higher Odds ratio of impaired fasting glucose and high white blood cell count compared with children with intermediate eGFR levels. Conclusions: In outpatient children with high prevalence of obesity, children with either mildly reduced or high eGFR have an increased burden of CMRF. Children with eGFR <97 mL/min/1.73 m(2) show a worse CMR profile. This finding supports the usefulness to assess eGFR to identify children with unfavorable CMR profile. PMID:23616281
Di Bonito, Procolo; Sanguigno, Eduardo; Forziato, Claudia; Di Fraia, Teresa; Moio, Nicola; Cavuto, Luigi; Sibilio, Gerolamo; Iardino, Maria Rosaria; Di Carluccio, Carla; Capaldo, Brunella
Objective To assess the efficacy of folic acid (FA) supplementation and fortification in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in a high prevalence region of the US. Study design Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify all fetuses/infants affected by an NTD in South Carolina. Prevalence rates were compared with FA intake to determine the effects of increased intake on NTD occurrence and recurrence. Results From 1992–2009, 916 NTD cases occurred in South Carolina with isolated defects comprising 79% of cases. The NTD rate decreased 58% during this period. There was one NTD-affected pregnancy among 418 subsequent pregnancies (0.2%) in mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies who consumed periconceptional FA supplements and four NTDs among 66 pregnancies (6.1%) in which the mother did not take FA supplements. Folic acid supplementation increased from 8% to 35% from 1992–2007 and knowledge of the protective benefits of FA increased from 8% to 65% in women of childbearing age. Conclusions Increased periconceptional intake of FA appeared to reduce NTDs in a high prevalence region. The rate of spina bifida and anencephaly in South Carolina is now essentially the same (0.69 cases per 1000 live births and fetal deaths) as the 1998–2005 US rate (0.69).
Collins, Julianne S.; Atkinson, Kristy K.; Dean, Jane H.; Best, Robert G.; Stevenson, Roger E.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 towns in Karachi, Pakistan to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of smokeless tobacco among 772 high-school adolescent males. A structured questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic factors and history of cigarette and smokeless tobacco use. Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use (gutka, snuff, niswar) was 16.1% (95% CI: 13.5%-18.9%). On multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors significantly related to smokeless tobacco use among the sample were: attending government school [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 6.3], smoking cigarettes (OR 3.2), not seeing anti-tobacco advertisements (OR 1.5), family history of tobacco use (OR 3.9), use of betel quid (OR 2.9) and use of areca nut (OR 3.2). PMID:17955775
Rozi, S; Akhtar, S
In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in 58 asymptomatic Hispanic adult volunteers (mean age, 41 years; 59% male) by endoscopic biopsy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Forty-six subjects (79%) were found to harbor H. pylori in gastric biopsies, and all had histologic gastritis. Four other subjects were found to have gastritis in the absence of H. pylori. Similar prevalences of H. pylori and gastritis were noted in all age groups and also in American-born and immigrant Hispanics. Biopsy data and serologic studies of H. pylori antibodies correlated well. We conclude that H. pylori infection is an almost universal finding in the gastric mucosa of asymptomatic adult Hispanics, regardless of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown, but we speculate that H. pylori and its associated gastritis could have a role in the high incidence of gastric carcinoma in Hispanic populations.
Dehesa, M; Dooley, C P; Cohen, H; Fitzgibbons, P L; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J
Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880
Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P
A total of 747 Shigella isolates were collected from hospitals in Jiangsu Province of China. Susceptibilities to antimicrobials and integrons were tested. A total of 78.3% of S. flexneri isolates and a total of 74.3% S. sonei isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Of the Shigella isolates, 74.7% had integron I and 82.6% had integron II. The conjunction of the high prevalence of integrons in Shigella and high resistance to antimicrobials will lead to rapid dissemination of resistant genes in this region.
Shen, Yun; Qian, Huimin; Gong, Junjun; Deng, Feifei; Dong, Chen; Zhou, Lu
Objectives We measured the prevalence and incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young female subjects recruited for a safety and immunogenicity trial of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in Tanzania. Methods Healthy HIV negative female subjects aged 10–25?years were enrolled and randomised (2:1) to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine or placebo (Al(OH)3 control). At enrolment, if sexually active, genital specimens were collected for HPV DNA, other reproductive tract infections and cervical cytology. Subjects were followed to 12?months when HPV testing was repeated. Results In total 334 participants were enrolled; 221 and 113 in vaccine and control arms, respectively. At enrolment, 74% of 142 sexually active subjects had HPV infection of whom 69% had >1 genotype. Prevalent infections were HPV-45 (16%), HPV-53 (14%), HPV-16 (13%) and HPV-58 (13%). Only age was associated with prevalent HPV infection at enrolment. Among 23 girls who reported age at first sex as 1?year younger than their current age, 15 (65.2%) had HPV infection. Of 187 genotype-specific infections at enrolment, 51 (27%) were present at 12?months. Overall, 67% of 97 sexually active participants with results at enrolment and 12?months had a new HPV genotype at follow-up. Among HPV uninfected female subjects at enrolment, the incidence of any HPV infection was 76 per 100 person-years. Conclusions Among young women in Tanzania, HPV is highly prevalent and acquired soon after sexual debut. Early HPV vaccination is highly recommended in this population.
Watson-Jones, Deborah; Baisley, Kathy; Brown, Joelle; Kavishe, Bazil; Andreasen, Aura; Changalucha, John; Mayaud, Philippe; Kapiga, Saidi; Gumodoka, Balthazar; Hayes, Richard J; de Sanjose, Silvia
Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) has a significant negative impact on the health, reproduction, and life span of chimpanzees, yet the prevalence and distribution of this virus in wild-living populations are still only poorly understood. Here, we show that savanna chimpanzees, who live in ecologically marginal habitats at 10- to 50-fold lower population densities than forest chimpanzees, can be infected with SIVcpz at high prevalence rates. Fecal samples were collected from nonhabituated eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Issa Valley (n = 375) and Shangwa River (n = 6) areas of the Masito-Ugalla region in western Tanzania, genotyped to determine the number of sampled individuals, and tested for SIVcpz-specific antibodies and nucleic acids. None of 5 Shangwa River apes tested positive for SIVcpz; however, 21 of 67 Issa Valley chimpanzees were SIVcpz infected, indicating a prevalence rate of 31% (95% confidence interval, 21% to 44%). Two individuals became infected during the 14-month observation period, documenting continuing virus spread in this community. To characterize the newly identified SIVcpz strains, partial and full-length viral sequences were amplified from fecal RNA of 10 infected chimpanzees. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Ugalla viruses formed a monophyletic lineage most closely related to viruses endemic in Gombe National Park, also located in Tanzania, indicating a connection between these now separated communities at some time in the past. These findings document that SIVcpz is more widespread in Tanzania than previously thought and that even very low-density chimpanzee populations can be infected with SIVcpz at high prevalence rates. Determining whether savanna chimpanzees, who face much more extreme environmental conditions than forest chimpanzees, are more susceptible to SIVcpz-associated morbidity and mortality will have important scientific and conservation implications.
Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona; Moore, Deborah L.; Learn, Gerald H.; Li, Yingying; Takehisa, Jun; Pintea, Lilian; Shaw, George M.; Moore, Jim; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.
The study here reported aimed to: i) evaluate the prevalence of childhood asthma at a Portuguese rural area with high ozone concentrations through lung function tests, validating the previously estimated one assessed through questionnaires (similar to those of the ISAAC); ii) compare the achieved prevalence with the one reported at an unexposed area (with low ozone concentrations), aiming to evaluate
S. I. V. Sousa; C. Ferraz; M. C. M. Alvim-Ferraz; F. G. Martins; L. G. Vaz; M. C. Pereira
Most pet dogs in urban Australia are confined to their owners’ property in a suburban backyard. Despite the literature on the effect of captive environments on both farm and zoo animals, there is little objective information on the effects of confining pet dogs. The prevalence of behavioural problems in pet dogs may be an indication that dogs are not well
Amanda Jane Kobelt; Paul H. Hemsworth; John L. Barnett; Grahame J. Coleman; Kym L. Butler
Dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several hemopathogens including zoonotic agents and can serve as readily available source of nutrition for many blood-feeding arthropods. Three hemopathogens had been detected for the first time in Jordan. The PCR prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis, and piroplasmid DNA were 39.5%, 28.9%, and 7.9% (n=38) respectively. Sequencing of amplicons of PCR with universal primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasmids shows the highest similarity to equine piroplasmids species Theileria equi from two dogs and Babesia caballi from a single dog. Ticks of two genera Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis, were detected in this study (n=268). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most abundant species (95.1%, n=255), followed by Haemaphysalis erinacei (3%, n=8) and Haemaphysalis parva (1.9%, n=5). The two Haemaphysalis species were detected for the first time from dogs in Jordan. Regarding its high prevalence, we expect R. sanguineus being a possible vector of detected pathogens. PMID:22434363
Qablan, Moneeb Ahmad; Kubelová, Michaela; Siroký, Pavel; Modrý, David; Amr, Zuhair Sami
Background South-Asian's are predisposed to early onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young Sri-Lankans is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine by questionnaire and anthropometry the prevalence of first degree family history (FH) of T2DM, physical inactivity, raised waist circumference (WC) and raised body mass index (BMI) in a representative healthy urban population selected by cluster sampling. Those with ?2 risk-factors were evaluated for metabolic syndrome (MS) and recruited for an intervention trial. Of 23,296 participants screened, 22,507 (53% Female) were eligible [8,497 aged 10–14 yrs, 4,763 aged 15–19 yrs and 9,247 aged 20–40 yrs]. 51% had none of the 4 risk-factors, 26% 1 risk-factor and 23% (5,163) ?2 risk-factors of whom 4,532 were assessed for MS. Raised BMI was noted in 19.7% aged 10–14 yrs, 15.3% between 15–19 yrs, and between 20–40 yrs, 27.4% of males vs. 21.8% of females p<0.001. Prevalence of raised WC was greater in females for each age group: 42.7% vs. 32.1%; 28.1% vs. 16.1%; 34.5% vs. 25.7% (p<0.05 for all) as was physical inactivity: 39.9% vs. 14.5%; 51.7% vs. 20.0%; 62.7% vs. 41.3% which rose in both sexes with age (p<0.05 for all). FH of T2DM was present in 26.2%. In 4532 (50%<16 yrs) with ?2 risk-factors, impaired fasting glycaemia/impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) prevalence was 16%. MS was more prevalent in males [10–16 yrs (13.0% vs. 8.8%), 16–40 yrs (29.5% vs. 20.0%) p<0.001 for both]. Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young urban Sri-Lankans with significant gender differences. A primary prevention intervention trial is ongoing in this cohort. Clinical Trial Registration Number SLCTR/2008/World Health Organization (WHO) international clinical trial registry platform.
Wijesuriya, Mahen; Gulliford, Martin; Charlton, Judith; Vasantharaja, Laksha; Viberti, Giancarlo; Gnudi, Luigi; Karalliedde, Janaka
Context: Limited data are available regarding the prevalence and nature of invalid computerized baseline neurocognitive test data. Objective: To identify the prevalence of invalid baselines on the desktop and online versions of ImPACT and to document the utility of correcting for left-right (L-R) confusion on the desktop version of ImPACT. Design: Cross-sectional study of independent samples of high school (HS) and collegiate athletes who completed the desktop or online versions of ImPACT. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 3769 HS (desktop ?=? 1617, online ?=? 2152) and 2130 collegiate (desktop ?=? 742, online ?=? 1388) athletes completed preseason baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of 5 ImPACT validity indicators, with correction for L-R confusion (reversing left and right mouse-click responses) on the desktop version, by test version and group. Chi-square analyses were conducted for sex and attentional or learning disorders. Results: At least 1 invalid indicator was present on 11.9% (desktop) versus 6.3% (online) of the HS baselines and 10.2% (desktop) versus 4.1% (online) of collegiate baselines; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased this overall prevalence to 8.4% (HS) and 7.5% (collegiate). Online Impulse Control scores alone yielded 0.4% (HS) and 0.9% (collegiate) invalid baselines, compared with 9.0% (HS) and 5.4% (collegiate) on the desktop version; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased the prevalence of invalid Impulse Control scores to 5.4% (HS) and 2.6% (collegiate). Male athletes and HS athletes with attention deficit or learning disorders who took the online version were more likely to have at least 1 invalid indicator. Utility of additional invalidity indicators is reported. Conclusions: The online ImPACT version appeared to yield fewer invalid baseline results than did the desktop version. Identification of L-R confusion reduces the prevalence of invalid baselines (desktop only) and the potency of Impulse Control as a validity indicator. We advise test administrators to be vigilant in identifying invalid baseline results as part of routine concussion management and prevention programs.
Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Solomon, Gary S.; Ott, Summer D.; Karpf, Robin
Objectives: To measure the prevalence of urethral infections including trichomoniasis in rural Tanzanian men, to assess the prevalence of symptoms and signs among men with Trichomonas vaginalis, and to analyse the risk factors for trichomoniasis. Design: A cross sectional study of 1004 men aged 15–54 years in a rural community in north west Tanzania. Methods: Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviour and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases. First fraction urine samples and urethral swabs were collected and used to test for T vaginalis by wet preparation and culture, Neisseria gonorrhoeae by culture, Chlamydia trachomatis by ligase chain reaction and non-specific urethritis by Gram stain. Urine was also tested for the presence of leucocytes using a leucocyte esterase dipstick. Men were re-interviewed 2 weeks later to document new symptoms and signs of urethritis. Results: Complete laboratory results were available on 980 men. One in four men had laboratory evidence of urethritis. T vaginalis was found in 109 individuals (11%), gonorrhoea in eight (0.8%), and chlamydial infection in 15 (1.5%). Over 50% of men with urethritis were asymptomatic. The prevalence of signs and symptoms was similar among men with T vaginalis alone compared with men with other urethral infections. The sensitivity and specificity of the leucocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test for detecting T vaginalis were 80% and 48% respectively in symptomatic men and 60% and 68% in asymptomatic men. Factors associated with trichomoniasis included religion, type of employment, and marital status. Conclusions: A high prevalence of urethritis was found in men in this community based study. More than half of the urethral infections detected were asymptomatic. The most prevalent pathogen was T vaginalis. Studies are needed on the prevalence of trichomoniasis in men presenting to health services with complaints suggestive of urethritis since treatment for T vaginalis is not included in the syndromic management of urethritis in most countries. The performance of the LED test as a screening test for trichomoniasis was unsatisfactory in both symptomatic and asymptomatic men. Improved screening tests are urgently needed to identify urethral infections that are asymptomatic and which are not covered by current syndromic management algorithms. Key Words: urethritis; Tanzania; Trichomonas vaginalis
Watson-Jones, D.; Mugeye, K.; Mayaud, P.; Ndeki, L.; Todd, J.; Mosha, F.; West, B.; Cleophas-Frisch, B.; Grosskurth, H.; Laga, M.; Hayes, R.; Mabey, D.; Buve, A.
People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for running and brachycephalic breeds are more specialized for fighting. Dog breeds rated as highly trainable are instead mesocephalic, morphological generalists. Looking trainable in dogs may reflect differences in physical morphology. PMID:19683035
Helton, William S
This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664
Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, Joăo Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane
The prevalence rates and serovar distributions of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections were investigated in two different groups of women. Group I consisted of 393 asymptomatic young women (aged 17 to 30 years) who were invited to participate in a C. trachomatis screening program. Group II consisted of 734 randomly selected patients (aged 17 to 68 years) attending an inner-city gynecological outpatient clinic. C. trachomatis was detected in cervical scrapes by PCR specific for endogenous plasmid. These plasmid PCR-positive samples were subsequently subjected to genotyping by C. trachomatis-specific omp1 PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (J. Lan, J. M. M. Walboomers, R. Roosendaal, G. J. van Doornum, D. M. MacLaren, C. J. L. M. Meijer, and A. J. C. van den Brule, J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:1060-1065, 1993). The overall prevalence rates of C. trachomatis found in patients younger than 30 years were 9.2 and 11.8% in groups I and II, respectively. A clear age dependency was seen in group II, with the highest prevalence rate (20%) found in patients younger than 20 years, while the rate declined significantly after 30 years of age (5.9%). In women younger than 30 years, the genotyping results showed that serovars E, I, and D (in decreasing order) were frequent in group I, while serovars F, E, and G (in decreasing order) were predominantly found in group II. The study shows that C. trachomatis infections are highly prevalent in asymptomatic young women. The different serovar distributions found most likely reflect the different compositions of the study groups, but additional analysis of the case histories of individual patients suggests that certain serovars might be associated with symptomatic (i.e., serovar G) or asymptomatic (i.e., serovars D and I) infections.
Lan, J; Melgers, I; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M; Roosendaal, R; Burger, C; Bleker, O P; van den Brule, A J
The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of Spirocerca lupi and its associated lesions in owned and stray dogs in Grenada. During 2001-2011 necropsies were carried out on 1022 owned and 450 stray dogs at the pathology diagnostic laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, Grenada. Lesions due to S. lupi characterized by focal to multifocal granulomatous esophagitis with aneurysms, mineralized plaques and nodules in the adjacent thoracic aorta were found in 90 (8.8%; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-10.5%) of owned dogs and 64 (14.2%; 95% CI, 11.2-17.6%) of stray dogs. Stray dogs were significantly more affected by spirocercosis than owned dogs (p=0.0022). Of the 90 owned dogs with spirocercosis, 3 dogs had aberrant migration to the thoracic vertebral column with resultant spondylitis; 1 dog each had aberrant migration involving the stomach and the lung. Two dogs had ruptured aorta with hemothorax. Among the 64 stray dogs with spirocercosis, one dog had an esophageal granuloma that transformed into a fibroblastic osteosarcoma; spondylitis due to aberrant migration of S. lupi and hypertrophic osteopathy. We report spirocercosis for the first time in the dogs from a tropical island of Grenada. PMID:22841904
Chikweto, A; Bhaiyat, M I; Tiwari, K P; de Allie, C; Sharma, R N
AIM: In this study, the prevalence and risk factors of Internet addiction in high school students was investigated. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Mersin Province in 2012. The study sample consisted of students attending high school in the central district of Mersin. The data were summarized by descriptive statistics and compared by a binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Our study population included 1156 students, among whom 609 (52.7%) were male. The mean age of the students was 16.1 ± 0.9 years. Seventy-nine percent of the students had a computer at home, and 64.0% had a home Internet connection. In this study, 175 (15.1%) students were defined as Internet addicts. Whereas the addiction rate was 9.3% in girls, it was 20.4% in boys (P < 0.001). In this study, Internet addiction was found to have an independent relationship with gender, grade level, having a hobby, duration of daily computer use, depression and negative self-perception. CONCLUSION: According to our study results, the prevalence of Internet addiction was high among high school students. We recommend preventing Internet addiction among adolescents by building a healthy living environment around them, controlling the computer and Internet use, promoting book reading and providing treatment to those with a psychological problem. PMID:23722862
Sasmaz, Tayyar; Oner, Seva; Kurt, A Öner; Yapici, Gülçin; Yazici, Aylin Ertekin; Bugdayci, Resul; Sis, Mustafa
The status of Dirofilaria immitis infection was assessed in pet dogs of Busan, Korea, and chemoprophylactic effects of microfilaricidal medication were evaluated. A total of 294 pet dogs older than 6 mo were examined, 217 of which had been maintained indoors, and 77 had been kept outdoors. The SnapR kit and direct microscopic examinations of the peripheral blood were used. The mean overall parasite positive rates were 10.2% and 6.5%, respectively. Outdoor dogs evidenced adult worm infection rate of 31.2% and microfilaria infection rate of 18.2%. The indoor dogs, however, evidenced adult worm infection rate of 2.8% and microfilaria infection rate of 2.3%. The prevalence in males was more than 2 times that of females. The changing pattern of infection rates by age evidenced a gradual increase, from 2- to 6-year-old dogs, after which, a decrease in infection rates was noted. With regard to chemoprophylaxis, the infection rates of complete and incomplete chemoprophylaxis groups were found to be 2-3 times lower than that of the non-chemoprophylaxis group. The results of the present study indicate that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in pet dogs is quite high, particularly in male outdoor dogs, and chemoprophylactic measures were quite effective.
Byeon, Kang Hyun; Kim, Bong Jin; Kim, Sun-Mi; Yu, Hak Sun; Jeong, Hae Jin
Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase-Mediated Modification of Discoidal Peripheral Lymph High Density Lipoproteins: Possible Mechanism of Formation of Cholesterol-Induced High Density Lipoproteins (HDLc) in Cholesterol-Fed Dogs
Peripheral lymph high density lipoproteins (HDL) of the cholesterol-fed dog differ in a number of characteristics from plasma HDL of the same animal. Their high content of free cholesterol, phospholipid, apoprotein E, and apoprotein A-IV, their greater heterogeneity in size, and the presence of many discoidal particles suggest that a portion of lymph HDL is assembled within the interstitial fluid.
L. Dory; C. H. Sloop; L. M. Boquet; R. L. Hamilton; P. S. Roheim
Summary Vitamin K and D deficiency and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) were highly prevalent in patients with inflammatory bowel\\u000a disease (IBD), especially Crohn’s disease (CD). Dietary intakes of these vitamins, however, were above the Japanese adequate\\u000a intakes in IBD patients, suggesting that malabsorption is the basis for hypovitaminosis K and D and decreased BMD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction We have studied the possible involvement
A. Kuwabara; K. Tanaka; N. Tsugawa; H. Nakase; H. Tsuji; K. Shide; M. Kamao; T. Chiba; N. Inagaki; T. Okano; S. Kido
Konzo is a form of spastic paraparesis reported from several rural areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has been attributed to cyanide exposure from exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava roots. We have tested this attribution in a community based epidemiological survey in an area of Bandundu region in Zaire composed of two agro-ecological zones: savanna and forest. In the savanna area with poor soils we found 78 konzo cases in 1,936 inhabitants, a prevalence of 4%; but in the forest area only 9 cases in 5,531 inhabitants (0.2%). This geographical distribution as well as the temporal distribution coincide with frequent short-soaking of cassava roots (only one night) induced by an agro-ecological crisis. High levels of blood cyanide, mean 13.3 mumol/l (range: 0.1-76.3) and serum thiocyanate, mean (+/- SD) 401 (+/- 126) mumol/l, in a sample of 18 subjects from the savanna area confirm high cyanide exposure in this population with high prevalence of konzo. Prevention of konzo in Zaire is possible by promotion of sufficient soaking of cassava with strict adherence to traditional three nights soaking and the use of completely dry flour. PMID:1292426
Banea, M; Bikangi, N; Nahimana, G; Nunga, M; Tylleskär, T; Rosling, H
Background Commensal bacteria represent an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Few community-based studies of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria have been conducted in Southeast Asia. We investigated the prevalence of resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in preschool children in rural Vietnam, and factors associated with carriage of resistant bacteria. Methods We tested isolates of E. coli from faecal samples of 818 children aged 6-60 months living in FilaBavi, a demographic surveillance site near Hanoi. Daily antibiotic use data was collected for participating children for three weeks prior to sampling and analysed with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics extracted from FilaBavi's re-census survey 2007. Descriptive statistics were generated, and a logistic regression model was used to identify contributions of the examined factors. Results High prevalences of resistance were found to tetracycline (74%), co-trimoxazole (68%), ampicillin (65%), chloramphenicol (40%), and nalidixic acid (27%). Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Sixty percent of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Recent sulphonamide use was associated with co-trimoxazole resistance [OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.7], and beta-lactam use with ampicillin resistance [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4]. Isolates from children aged 6-23 months were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4] and co-trimoxazole [OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0]. Associations were identified between geographical areas and tetracycline and ampicillin resistance. Conclusions We present high prevalence of carriage of commensal E. coli resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The identified associations with recent antibiotic use, age, and geographical location might contribute to our understanding of carriage of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria.
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P ? 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P ? 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P ? 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P ? 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices. PMID:22323760
Huet, Catherine; Rosol, Renata; Egeland, Grace M
Background Sexual abuse of boys is a neglected problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. As a result, its prevalence, contributing factors and circumstance in which sexual abuse occurs are largely unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors associated with sexual abuse of male high school students in Addis Ababa city administration. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 884 randomly selected students of nine high schools in Addis Ababa was conducted in March 2009. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. Analysis of the data was made using SPSS for windows version 15. Results This study indicates the life time prevalence of rape and sexual harassment of boys in Addis Ababa were 4.3%, and 68.2%, respectively. The chance of experiencing sexual coercion was higher among students who live alone (AOR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.07, 7.66) and among students who live with others (AOR =1.80; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.11) than those living with both parents. Similarly, the odds of experiencing rape in their life time was higher among students who live with others (AOR=2.20; 95% CI; 1.04, 4.68) than those who live with their parents. Conclusions Sexual abuse of male students is not uncommon in Addis Ababa. It is higher in those living alone or not living with their parents. Due attention is needed by schools, parents and other concerned bodies. Designing a program to fight against sexual abuse should include young school boys.
|Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v.…
Taylor, Kelley R.
A specific and simultaneous assay of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M-3-G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) in monkey and dog plasma has been developed. These methods are based on rapid isolation using solid phase extraction cartridge, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometric (MSMS) detection. Analytes were separated on a semi-micro ODS column in acetonitrile–formic (or acetic) acid mixed solution. The selected
Masanari Mabuchi; Satomi Takatsuka; Masayuki Matsuoka; Kozo Tagawa
Abstract Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages.
Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L.
Background There are few data on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Darfur. We conducted this study in response to reports of 15 laboratory confirmed cases of schistosomiasis and visible haematuria among children from two communities in South Darfur. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the area and to decide on modalities of intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving 811 children and adults from schools and health facilities was conducted in two communities of South Darfur in March 2010. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a sedimentation technique. A semi-structured format was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Eight hundred eleven (811) urine samples were collected, 415 from Alsafia and 396 from Abuselala. Of the collected samples in 56.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI); 52.6-59.4) Schistosoma eggs were found. The prevalence was high in both Abuselala 73.3% (95% CI; 68.9-77.6) and Alsafia 39.5% (95% CI; 34.8-44.2). More males (61.7%, 95%CI; 56.5-64.9) were infected than females (52.1%, 95%CI; 48.2-56.0). Children in the age group 10-14 has the highest (73.0%, 95%CI; 68.7-77.2) infection rate. School age children (6-15 years) are more likely to be infected than those >15 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.70, 95% CI; 1.80-4.06). Individuals in Abuselala are more likely to be infected than those who live in Alsafia (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 3.2-5.9). Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that S. hematobium is endemic in Alsafia and Abuselala South Darfur in Sudan with a high prevalence of infection among older children. This signifies the importance of urgent intervention through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to halt the infection cycle and tailored health messages to targeted groups. Based on the findings MDA was conducted in the villages.
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic disorder of the axial and peripheral skeleton in humans and\\u000a has incidentally been described in dogs. The aims of this retrospective radiographic cohort study were to determine the prevalence\\u000a of DISH in an outpatient population of skeletally mature dogs and to investigate if dogs can be used as an animal model for
H. C. Kranenburg; L. A. Westerveld; J. J. Verlaan; F. C. Oner; W. J. A. Dhert; G. Voorhout; H. A. W. Hazewinkel; B. P. Meij
Objectives To measure the prevalence and to identify risk factors of hearing impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in Peru. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two public hospitals and 1 nonprofit center in Lima, Peru, between August 2009 and April 2010. Subjects A total of 139 HIV-infected children, ages 4 to 19 years. Methods Hearing impairment and otologic health were assessed with pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and otoscopy. The primary outcome was hearing loss, defined as average threshold >25dB for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, in one or both ears. Historical and socioeconomic information was obtained through parental survey and medical chart review. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Fifty-four (38.8%) of 139 children had hearing impairment. On multivariate analysis, risk factors included: tympanic membrane perforation (odds ratio [OR] 7.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-30.5; P = .01), abnormal tympanometry (OR 2.71; 95% CI, 1.09-6.75; P = .03), cerebral infection (OR 11.6; 95% CI, 1.06-126; P = .05), seizures (OR 5.20; 95% CI, 1.21-22.4; P = .03), and CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3 (OR 3.53; 95% CI, 1.18-10.5; P = .02). Conclusions The prevalence of hearing impairment in HIV-infected children in Lima, Peru was 38.8%. Middle ear disease, prior cerebral infection, and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with hearing impairment. The high prevalence of hearing impairment emphasizes the need for periodic hearing assessment in the routine clinical care of HIV-infected children.
Chao, Christina K.; Czechowicz, Josephine A.; Messner, Anna H.; Alarcon, Jorge; Roca, Lenka Kolevic; Rodriguez, Marsi M. Larragan; Villafuerte, Cesar Gutierrez; Montano, Silvia M.; Zunt, Joseph R.
Introduction: Sleep plays an important role in maintaining stability in bipolar disorders, and sleep disturbances can trigger mood episodes. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder, yet the co-occurrence with bipolar disorder has not been methodically studied. Methods: This is a chart review of 482 consecutively seen patients with a bipolar disorder who underwent routine screening for OSA using a self-report sleep apnea questionnaire. Positive screens were referred for a sleep study. Results: A positive screen was found in 214 (44.4%) patients. Sleep studies were obtained on 114 patients, and 101, were diagnosed with OSA: point prevalence 21%. Discussion: The 21% prevalence fails to consider the false negative rate of the questionnaire, or the exclusion of patients who screened positive but failed to get a sleep study. Taking these into consideration it is estimated that the true prevalence of OSA in this study may be as high as 47.5%. The co-occurrence of OSA and bipolar disorders is markedly higher than previously thought. Of note, OSA may play a role in refractory bipolar, disorders, and carries significant mortality and morbidity that overlap, with the mortality and morbidity found with bipolar disorders. Limitations: This was a retrospective study based on a self-report questionnaire. Polysomnographic confirmation was performed in only a subgroup of subjects. Conclusions: The data suggest that unrecognized OSA may play a major role in the mortality and morbidity of bipolar disorders. All patients diagnosed with a bipolar disorder should be screened with an OSA questionnaire. PMID:23769606
Kelly, Tammas; Douglas, Lanny; Denmark, Lawrence; Brasuell, Ginger; Lieberman, Daniel Z
The occurrence of dog hypersensitivity in 203 unselected asthmatic children was investigated by means of skin prick test, provocation test and RAST. The history of past and present exposure to dogs, symptoms in contact with dogs, and the effects of dog avoidance were recorded. The amount of dog dander antigens was measured from dust samples from 67 homes using counter-immunoelectrophoresis. A history of past or present dog hypersensitivity was obtained for 120 subjects (59%). The skin prick test was found to be a sensitive method for diagnosing dog hypersensitivity, when a standardized allergen extract was used. The results of the skin prick test correlated well with the provocation test (r = 0.832) and the RAST (r = 0.777). A positive (greater than or equal to ++) skin reaction was observed in 56% of the subjects, a positive (class greater than or equal to 1) RAST in 69%, and a positive provocation test with the same extract in 41% of the subjects. The occurrence of dog hypersensitivity was not significantly associated with past or present exposure to dog at home. However, the children who were exposed to a dog at home during early childhood developed dog hypersensitivity symptoms significantly earlier and had dog hypersensitivity slightly more often than the subjects with a later exposure or no exposure to dog. Significant amounts of dog dander antigens were found even in dust samples from homes where dogs had never been kept. The effect of dog avoidance on dog dander-specific IgE levels was studied from sera obtained from 24 subjects. Steadily high and even rising levels were observed in cases when a strict avoidance of dogs was reported by the patient. Dog saliva was found to be a more potent and more species-specific source of dog allergens, in comparison with a commercial dander extract, according to skin prick test and RAST inhibition studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4046495
Uberlândia in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil, has 622 000 inhabitants and is located in the Cerrado biome, the South American savannah. The city dog population is estimated at 82 000 and identification of tick species and infestation prevalence on this host has not been determined. A major infectious disease of dogs in the city, canine ehrlichiosis, is transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. At the same time, autochthonous leishmaniosis has been recently described in the city and a role for dog ticks in the disease transmission has been supposed in Brazil. In this work, we present general information on dog ticks in Uberlândia municipality and region. Dogs from 33 farms and 31 districts were examined for ticks from July 2007 to February 2009. On the whole, 413 dogs were examined, 311 (75.3%) from the city and 102 (24.6%) from rural area. Overall infestation rate of dogs from Uberlândia was 37.3% and the mean infestation intensity was 3.25 parasites per dog. In the urban area, 100 dogs (32.2%) had ticks whereas 54 dogs (52.9%) from rural areas were infested. Four tick species were found: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale and Boophilus microplus. In the city, only R. sanguineus and one A. cajennense was found on dogs and R. sanguineus and A. ovale were the main dog ticks in rural areas. PMID:20537111
Szabó, M P J; de Souza, L G A; Olegário, M M M; Ferreira, F A; de Albuquerque Pajuaba Neto, A
The smoking habits of 9,276 high-school students (15–18 years old) in six cities of Northern Greece were studied using a questionnaire in order to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for initiation of smoking. We observed that 29.6% of high-school students (32.6% of boys and 26.7% of girls) were current smokers. A percentage of 43.3% had started smoking before the age of 14. Reactive behaviour towards parents’ and teachers’ advice (40.2%) and the existence of smoking friends (40.1%) were the main reasons of initiation. A well-planned integrated anti-smoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers.
Sichletidis, Lazaros T.; Chloros, Diamantis A.; Tsiotsios, Anastasios I.; Spyratos, Dionisios G.
Despite clinically available methods of diaphragm pacing, most patients with ventilator-dependent tetraplegia are still dependent on mechanical ventilation. Given the significant disadvantages of these devices, additional pacing options are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel and potentially more physiological method of inspiratory muscle activation, which involves the application of high-frequency (>200 Hz) stimulation to the ventral surface of the spinal cord in the high thoracic region. Studies were performed in 13 anesthetized dogs. High-frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) results in the activation of both the diaphragm and inspiratory intercostal muscles, in concert, at physiological firing frequencies and the generation of large inspired volumes. Mean maximum firing frequencies of motor units in the parasternal (2nd interspace), the external intercostal (3rd interspace), and the diaphragm muscles were 10.6 +/- 0.4, 11.7 +/- 0.4, and 10.4 +/- 0.3 Hz, respectively. These values were not significantly different from those occurring during spontaneous breathing at comparable inspired volumes. Maximum inspired volume was 0.93 +/- 0.01 liter, which approximates the inspiratory capacity of these animals. Moreover, ventilation can be maintained on a chronic basis by this method (6 h) without evidence of system fatigue. Our results suggest that HF-SCS results in activation of spinal cord tracts that synapse with the inspiratory motoneuron pools, allowing processing of the stimulus and consequent physiological activation of the inspiratory muscles. HF-SCS has the potential to provide an effective method of inspiratory muscle pacing. PMID:19520839
DiMarco, Anthony F; Kowalski, Krzysztof E
Background The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus can infect a variety of animals and continually poses a threat to animal and human health. While many genotypes of H5N1 virus can be found in chicken, few are associated with the infection of mammals. Characterization of the genotypes of viral strains in animal populations is important to understand the distribution of different viral strains in various hosts. This also facilitates the surveillance and detection of possible emergence of highly pathogenic strains of specific genotypes from unknown hosts or hosts that have not been previously reported to carry these genotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Two H5N1 isolates were obtained from lung samples of two raccoon dogs that had died from respiratory disease in China. Pathogenicity experiments showed that the isolates were highly pathogenic to chicken. To characterize the genotypes of these viruses, their genomic sequences were determined and analyzed. The genetic contents of these isolates are virtually identical and they may come from the same progenitor virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates were genetically closely related to genotype V H5N1 virus, which was first isolated in China in 2003, and were distinct from the dominant virus genotypes (e.g. genotype Z) of recent years. The isolates also contain a multibasic amino acid motif at their HA cleavage sites and have an E residue at position 627 of the PB2 protein similar to the previously-identified avian viruses. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report that genotype V H5N1 virus is found to be associated with a mammalian host. Our results strongly suggest that genotype V H5N1 virus has the ability to cross species barriers to infect mammalian animals. These findings further highlight the risk that avian influenza H5N1 virus poses to mammals and humans, which may be infected by specific genotypes that are not known to infect these hosts.
Qi, Xian; Li, Xihan; Rider, Paul; Fan, Weixing; Gu, Hongwei; Xu, Longtao; Yang, Yonghua; Lu, Sangwei; Wang, Hua; Liu, Fenyong
Data are limited on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Sudan, which became an independent country on July 9, 2011, after decades of civil war. In 2009, estimated HIV prevalence in antenatal clinics across the 10 states that now make up South Sudan was 3.0%, ranging from zero in Northern Bahr el Ghazal to 7.2% in Western Equatoria State (WES). A review of HIV programmatic data in February 2012 suggested consistently higher HIV prevalence in WES than in other states. Because of concerns about the high HIV prevalence and the threat of a worsening epidemic among postconflict communities, the Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to investigate the high HIV prevalence in WES and provide recommendations for the public health response. PMID:23739340
OBJECTIVE To highlight the prevalence and impact of skin disease at the stump site in patients who have undergone amputation. DESIGN A cross-sectional health questionnaire of Vietnam War veterans with stump dermatoses at least 38 years after major limb amputation. SETTING A research registry of veterans with combat-related amputations who agreed to participate. PARTICIPANTS Recruitment began January 1, 2006, and ended December 31, 2009, with a registry of 416 veterans. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Results of a self-reported 35-item questionnaire. Participants were later contacted by telephone or asked to complete a Web survey. RESULTS Of the 247 veterans, 119 (48.2%) reported at least 1 skin problem within the preceding year. The most common were skin breakdown (25.2%), rash (21.8%), and abrasion (21.0%). In addition, 25.2% experienced skin problems more than 50% of the time, and 37.1% had to alter or replace their prosthesis. Stump dermatoses limited or prevented prosthesis use in the preceding year for 55.6% and caused pain or discomfort at the stump site in 61.5%. CONCLUSIONS More than 38 years after major limb amputation, skin complications at the stump site continue to cause significant morbidities and contribute to prosthesis abandonment. The high prevalence of stump dermatoses stresses the importance of disease prevention, early management, and advanced treatment of skin disease. PMID:23165833
Yang, Nicole B; Garza, Luis A; Foote, Carrie E; Kang, Sewon; Meyerle, Jon H
Fatigue is a common symptom of patients with chronic kidney disease, but seldom investigated after transplantation. We determined the prevalence, impact and related factors of severe fatigue in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Medical records and questionnaires were used to assess kidney function, donor characteristics, fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength), functional impairments (Sickness Impact Profile), work status, body mass index (BMI), pain, depressive symptoms, social support and sleeping problems in 180 participating KTRs. KTRs were compared with sex- and age-matched population-based controls. KTRs were significantly more often severely fatigued (39%) compared to matched controls (22%; P = 0.001). Severely fatigued KTRs had significantly more functional impairments than nonseverely fatigued recipients (effect size ? 0.7) P < 0.001, and less often a paid job (27% vs. 48%, P = 0.005). Univariate analysis showed that severely fatigued KTRs received more often a kidney from a deceased donor, had a higher BMI, more pain, discrepancy in social support, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems. In a multivariate analysis (n = 151) the latter two associations remained significant. Severe fatigue is a highly prevalent and disabling symptom in KTRs. Moreover, severe fatigue after kidney transplantation is more strongly related to behavioural and psychosocial factors than specific transplantation-related factors. Findings have implications for fatigue management. PMID:23952141
Goedendorp, Martine M; Hoitsma, Andries J; Bloot, Lotte; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Knoop, Hans
The tuberculin skin test (TST) is an important tool for the detection of latent tuberculosis (TB) and the identification of health care workers (HCWs) who require chemoprophylaxis. Although TST is inexpensive, easily available and the preferred test in most TB-prevalent settings, it has recognised limitations, including subjective interpretation, false positivity, cross reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria, administration errors and the requirement for two visits. Given these limitations and the unavailability of better screening tests in resource-limited settings, the acceptance rate for chemoprophylaxis among HCWs has remained low. Furthermore, chemoprophylaxis in these settings is complicated by the high rate of drug-resistant TB, potential adverse reactions, prescription of chemoprophylaxis in undiagnosed active TB patients and the unavailability of follow-up systems provided by occupational health programmes. In the present article, we provide our viewpoint and a practical approach along with existing evidence supporting or discouraging the use of TST and isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for TB screening and management among HCWs in TB-prevalent settings. PMID:21276291
Khawcharoenporn, T; Apisarnthanarak, A; Sungkanuparph, S; Woeltje, K F; Fraser, V J
Our aim was to describe the treatment and survival characteristics of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) in Canterbury, New Zealand. The medical records of 48 patients diagnosed between 1 July 1997 and 31 December 2008 and fulfilling validated classification criteria for WG were reviewed to characterise survivorship in the province of Canterbury, New Zealand. The age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 20 to 83 years) with an equal number of males and females. Using Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis, the probability of survival at 1 and 10 years was 91% and 62% respectively. Of the 12 deaths in the cohort, four occurred within 12 months of diagnosis: two from pulmonary haemorrhage and two from renal failure. Beyond 12 months, two patients died of renal failure, two of myocardial infarction and one from cardiac arrhythmia, one from cerebrovascular disease and two from colorectal carcinoma. The median time to relapse was 6.75 years, and the probability of relapse within 10 years was 67%. Survivorship, treatment response rate and the rate of relapse from WG in a cohort of patients from this high-prevalence southern hemisphere region were similar to that reported for northern hemisphere cohorts with a similar prevalence. PMID:22498132
Khan, A R; Chapman, P T; Stamp, L K; Wells, J E; O'Donnell, J L
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a women population living within the state of Amazonas, Brazil, and to determine the viral genotypes found. The study included 361 sexually active women over 18 years of age. We performed the Pap test and the molecular diagnosis for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons obtained were sequenced in automatic sequencer for genotyping. The presence of HPV DNA was found in 29.1% (105) of the women. Only 321 women presented satisfactory slides for cytological diagnosis, 97.9% (314) had normal cytology (negative for cancer), and 2.1% (7) had abnormal cytology (4 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, and 2 HSIL). The types more frequently found were HPV 16 (58.1%) and HPV 58 (20.0%). Additionally, we found more 13 types of HPV. Compared with previous studies in Brazil, our data confirmed a high prevalence and genotypic diversity of HPV in Brazilian women.
Rocha, Danielle Albuquerque Pires; Barbosa Filho, Roberto Alexandre Alves; de Queiroz, Francisca Andrade; dos Santos, Cristina Maria Borborema
Dogs are considered a potential risk for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans because they can mechanically transmit oocysts to people and in certain parts of the world dog meat is consumed by humans. The prevalence of T. gondii in 42 unwanted dogs from Vietnam was determined. Antibodies to T...
Neosporosis by Neospora caninum causes losses to livestock production through abortion in cattle while, in dogs, it induces neuromuscolar disease. This study investigated neosporosis seroprevalence associated risk factors (including the seropositivity to leishmaniosis) in dogs of southern Italy, determined the prevalence of N. caninum oocyst shedding and examined the relationship between seroprevalence of neosporosis in farm dogs and cattle. Using
Paola Paradies; Gioia Capelli; Gabriella Testini; Cinzia Cantacessi; Alexander J. Trees; Domenico Otranto
|This book tells the real-life story of Locke High School. Locke High--originally known for its excellence--became one of the toughest, most dysfunctional schools in the nation. Then in 2007 teachers voted to bring in an upstart charter school organization called "Green Dot" to try and restore the Locke Saints' past glory. It was a brave and…
We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative. PMID:22270221
Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M
BACKGROUNDPrevious studies have shown that up to 0.5% of the Caucasian population is homozygous for the HFE gene C282Y mutation. High prevalence values have been reported in Northern Europe. To what extent the presence of this mutation is associated with overt clinical haemochromatosis is unclear.AIMTo determine the prevalence of the C282Y allele in a hospitalised population of an acute medical
S Distante; J P Berg; K Lande; E Haug; H Bell
Background Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Methods Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. Results The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p = 0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services.
Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MetSyn risk factors in high school (HS) and college (College) football players and to examine if the prevalence varied according to body fat percent (%Fat). One hundred twenty-three males (height 179.0 ± 6.7 cm; weight 89.4 ± 19.6 kg) from 7 different high schools and 82 males (height 186.2 ± 6.8 cm; weight 99.6 ± 16.8 kg) from one university participated. All testing occurred in the early morning after an overnight fast. %Fat, waist circumference, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and blood glucose were determined using standard testing procedures. The MetSyn risk factor levels were determined using American Heart Association criteria. Subjects were grouped by position and playing level (HS, College). Independent t-tests, chi-square analysis, 2-way analysis of variance, and path analytic models were used in the statistical analysis. Significance was set at p < 0.05. 6.8% (n = 14) of the sample met the American Heart Association criteria for MetSyn. Offensive and defensive linemen accounted for 92.3% of the players meeting MetSyn criteria with each playing level (HS, College) having 7 subjects. The MetSyn criteria differed significantly across %Fat. Obese players were more likely to meet the criteria for MetSyn. %Fat was a statistically significant predictor of mean arterial blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and waist circumference. The MetSyn exists in both HS- and College-level football players, with almost all cases occurring in the athletes with the highest levels of %Fat (offensive/defensive lineman). Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the prevalence of MetSyn risk factors in offensive and defensive linemen and take appropriate actions to ensure athlete safety. PMID:22996023
Steffes, Gary D; Megura, Alex E; Adams, James; Claytor, Randal P; Ward, Rose M; Horn, Thelma S; Potteiger, Jeffrey A
Objective To determine the prevalence of the female athlete triad (low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density) in high school varsity athletes in a variety of sports compared with sedentary students/controls. Design Prospective study. Setting Academic medical center in the Midwest. Participants Eighty varsity athletes and eighty sedentary students/controls volunteered for this study. Intervention Subjects completed questionnaires, had their blood drawn and underwent bone mineral density testing. Main Outcome Measures Each participant completed screening questionnaires assessing eating behavior, menstrual status and physical activity. Each subject completed a 3-day food diary. Serum hormonal, TSH and prolactin levels were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Low energy availability was present in similar numbers of athletes (36%) and sedentary/control subjects (39%; p=0.74). Athletes suffered more menstrual abnormalities (54%) compared with sedentary students/controls (21%) (p=<0.001). DXA revealed that 16% of the athletes and 30% of the sedentary/controls had low BMD (p=0.03). Risk factors for reduced BMD include sedentary control student, low BMI and increased caffeine consumption. Conclusions A substantial number of high school athletes (78%) and a surprising number of sedentary students (65%) suffer from one or more components of the triad. Given the high prevalence of triad characteristics in both groups, education in the formative elementary school years has the potential to prevent several of the components in both groups, therefore, improving health and averting long-term complications.
Hoch, Anne Z; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Moraski, LuAnn; Carrera, Guillermo F.; Wilson, Charles R.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Schimke, Jane E.; Gutterman, David D.
This Nova website, designed to accompany a television Feature Program on the world of Dogs, asks "How and why did man's best friend evolve from wolves, and why are dogs so remarkably diverse today?" The site showcases a slide show on working dogs and an interactive matching game entitled, Dogs Around the World. Also included at this website are a Teacher's Guide, a Links and Books page, and an Inquiry Article about Dog diversity. Additionally, this site links to the TV program transcript and to a recent "washingtonpost.com discussion with biologist and dog expert Ray Coppinger."
Gray Foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a Potential Reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-Like Bacterium and Domestic Dogs as Part of a Sentinel System for Surveillance of Zoonotic Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Northern California?
Two species of Bartonella, a novel Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, were isolated from rural dogs and gray foxes in northern California. A novel B. clarridgeiae-like species was isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 182 dogs and 22 (42%) of 53 gray foxes, while B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was isolated from 1 dog (0.5%) and 5 gray foxes (9.4%). PCR and DNA sequence analyses of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region suggested that strains infecting dogs and gray foxes were identical. Fifty-four dogs (29%) and 48 gray foxes (89%) had reciprocal titers of antibodies against Bartonella spp. of ?64. The high prevalence of bacteremia and seroreactivity to Bartonella spp. in gray foxes suggests that they may act as a reservoir species for the B. clarridgeiae-like species in this region. Domestic dogs were also tested for other arthropod-borne infectious agents. Fifty-one dogs (28%) were positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, seventy-four (40%) were seroreactive to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and five (2.7%) were seropositive for Yersinia pestis. Fourteen dogs (7.6%) were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the association of Bartonella antibody titer categories with potential risk factors and the presence of other vector-borne agents in domestic dogs. Older dogs were more likely to be seroreactive to Bartonella spp. There was no association between the exposure of dogs to Bartonella and the exposure of dogs to A. phagocytophilum in this study.
Henn, Jennifer B.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Brown, Richard N.; Theis, Jerold H.; Foley, Janet E.; Chomel, Bruno B.
Objective This study examined how demographics, physical activity, weight status, and neighborhood characteristics varied among households with and without dogs. Method Participants aged 20 to 65 years (N = 2199, 52% male, 75% white, Mean age = 45) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods in the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions during 2002 – 2005. Dog ownership, dog walking, education, height, weight, and family income were self-reported. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by 7-day accelerometry. Results Dog walking was associated with a higher proportion of participants who met national recommendations for MVPA (53%) when compared to those who had but did not walk their dog (33%) and to non-dog owners (46%). There were significantly fewer obese dog walkers (17%) when compared to both owners who did not walk their dogs (28%) and non-owners (22%). Dog owners who walked their dogs were more likely to live in high-walkable neighborhoods when compared to dog owners who did not walk their dogs. Conclusion Dog walking may promote physical activity and contribute to weight control. Dog walking appears to be a mechanism by which residents of high-walkable neighborhoods obtain their physical activity.
Coleman, Karen J.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Conway, Terry L.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Cain, Kelli
During spring and fall 2009, 60 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) harvested by Tennessee hunters were surveyed for Borrelia spp. by sampling their blood, tissue, and attached ticks. In both seasons, 70% of turkeys were infested with juvenile Amblyomma americanum; one spring turkey hosted an adult female Ixodes brunneus. Polymerase chain reaction assays followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 58% of the turkeys were positive for the spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, with tissue testing positive more frequently than blood (P = 0.015). Sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer indicated > or = 99% similarity to previously published sequences of the North American strain of this spirochete. Positive turkeys were present in both seasons and from all seven middle Tennessee counties sampled. No ticks from the turkeys tested positive for any Borrelia spp. This is the first report of B. miyamotoi in birds; the transmission pathways and epidemiological significance of this high-prevalence spirochetal infection remain uncertain. PMID:21175079
Scott, M C; Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Baker, E; Edwards, H; Crowder, C; Tsao, J I; Hickling, G J
Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%). Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July) of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i) Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii) histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii) polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2%) newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (?50 per microlitre). In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12%) cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.
Estimates of the proportions of the population who are at high risk of influenza complications because of prior health status or who are likely to have decreased vaccination response because of immunocompromising conditions would enhance public health planning and model-based projections. We estimate these proportions and how they vary by population subgroups using national data systems for 2006-2008. The proportion of individuals at increased risk of influenza complications because of health conditions varied 10-fold by age (4.2% of children <2 years to 47% of individuals >64 years). Age-specific prevalence differed substantially by gender, by racial/ethnic groups (with African Americans highest in all age groups) and by income. Individuals living in families with less than 200% of federal poverty level (FPL) were significantly more likely to have at least one of these health conditions, compared to individuals with 400% FPL or more (3-fold greater among <2 and 30% greater among >64 years). Among children, there were significantly elevated proportions in all regions compared to the West. The estimated prevalence of immunocompromising conditions ranged from 0.02% in young children to 6.14% older adults. However, national data on race/ethnicity and income are not available for most immunocompromising conditions, nor is it possible to fully identify the degree of overlap between persons with high-risk health conditions and with immunocompromising conditions. Modifications to current national data collection systems would enhance the value of these data for public health programs and influenza modeling.
Zimmerman, Richard K.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Tan, Sylvia M.; Wagener, Diane K.
Effective animal models are needed to evaluate the feasibility of new techniques to assess portal hypertension (PH). Here we developed 2 canine models of acute PH by increasing intrasinusoidal resistance and by increasing the portal vein (PV) flow volume to test the efficacy of a noninvasive technique to evaluate PH. The acute low-flow PH model was based on embolization of liver circulation by using a gelatin sponge material. The acute high-flow PH model was based on increasing the PV flow volume by using an arteriovenous (A-V) shunt from the femoral artery and saline infusion. PV pressures and diameters were assessed before and after inducing PH. Pressure values and diameters were obtained from the inferior vena cava in 3 unmanipulated controls. The low-flow model of PH was repeatable and successfully increased PV pressure by an average of 16.5 mm Hg within 15 min. The high-flow model of PH failed to achieve increased PV pressures. However, saline supplementation of the portal circulation in the high-flow model led to mean increases in PV pressures of 12.8 mm Hg within 20 min. Pulsatility in the PV was decreased in the low-flow model and increased in the high-flow model relative to baseline. No changes in PV diameter were noted in either model. These acute PH models are relatively straightforward to implement and may facilitate the evaluation of new techniques to assess PH.
Dave, Jaydev K; Liu, Ji-Bin; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Merton, Daniel A; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Altemus, Joseph; Needleman, Laurence; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming
Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in sled dogs, animals with high energy expenditures that consume high fat (60% of ingested calories) diets. Associations between pre-race plasma [vitamin E] and total antioxidant status (TAS) and risk of developing ER were examined in dogs competing in the 1998 Iditarod race. Pre-race blood samples were collected from 750 dogs and a second sample
Richard J Piercy; Kenneth W Hinchcliff; Paul S Morley; Robert A DiSilvestro; Gregory A Reinhart; Stuart L Nelson; Karin E Schmidt; A. Morrie Craig
Background: This study was performed to compare the prevalence of HPV infection and high risk HPV genotypes [16, 18] between monogamous and polygamous women, in Zabol, Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Zabol in 2006 – 2007. Two hundred sixty five married women attending the Gynecology Clinic for Cervical Disease Screening entered to this study. One hundred sixty two cases had monogamous, and 103 had polygamous husbands. HPV PCR samples were obtained from scrape of papsmear specimens. The biotinylated primers MY09/MY11, GP5+/GP6+, were utilized to enable amplification and detection of positive PCR products. Confirmation of HPV-16 and -18 were done by type-specific PCR primers HPV-16/F, HPV-16/R and HPV-18/F, HPV-18/R. Results: Prevalence of HPV infection in monogamous and polygamous groups was 29% and 37.9%, respectively. The most HPV infection was found in 15–25 years group. The most prevalence of infection in monogamous group was HPV-18 and HPV-non16, 18 in 15–25 years, and HPV-16 in 26–35 years group. In polygamous group the most prevalent type was HPV-16, 18 in 15–25 years group. The most prevalent HPV-16 was seen in sever inflammation and dysplasia cytology in both groups. Conclusion: Prevalence of HPV infection in Zabol is high, and in women with polygamous husbands group is slightly more than monogamous. Screening for this infection must be recommended in this region of Iran.
Shahramian, I; Heidari, Z; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, HR; Moradi, A; Forghani, F
The prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in sheepdogs was studied in 13 provinces of Iran, where 90% of the Iranian sheep and goat populations and, thus, sheepdogs\\u000a are found. Worms were found in 27.17% of 390 dogs successfully purged with 4?mg\\/kg arecoline hydrobromide. The highest prevalence\\u000a was detected in dogs from the rural areas of Isfahan (central part of
Ali Eslami; Seyed Hossein Hosseini
BackgroundGenome-wide association scans for genetic loci underlying both Mendelian and complex traits are increasingly common in canine genetics research. However, the demand for high-quality DNA for use on such platforms creates challenges for traditional blood sample ascertainment. Though the use of saliva as a means of collecting DNA is common in human studies, alternate means of DNA collection for canine
Jennifer S. Yokoyama; Carolyn A. Erdman; Steven P. Hamilton
An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibility and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets cont...
|Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…
Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal
This study aims to examine the prevalence and sociodemographics, family and peer correlates of tattooing among high school students in southern Taiwan, and to examine the associations between tattooing and a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors and depression. A total of 9755 high school students (grades 7 to 12) in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the
Cheng-Fang Yen; Ray C. Hsiao; Ju-Yu Yen; Yi-Chun Yeh; Peng-Wei Wang; Huang-Chi Lin; Chih-Hung Ko
The purpose of this study was to describe pathological changes of the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joints of 16 museum skeletons of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). The subjects had been held in long-term captivity and were probably used for fur farming or research, thus allowing sufficient longevity for joint disease to become recognisable. The prevalence of disorders that include osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis and changes compatible with hip dysplasia, was surprisingly high. Other changes that reflect near-normal or mild pathological conditions, including prominent articular margins and mild bony periarticular rim, were also prevalent. Our data form a basis for comparing joint pathology of captive raccoon dogs with other mammals and also suggest that contributing roles of captivity and genetic predisposition should be explored further in non-domestic canids. PMID:23277118
Lawler, Dennis F; Evans, Richard H; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Smith, Gail K
Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1%) including one female, (2.0%) and 12 males (15.2%), and in only five dogs (12.2%). Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas.
Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), Săo Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires
The advent of specific antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C has increased the importance of establishing the correct etiology of chronic hepatitis in patients, especially because interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) has been reported to exacerbate autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), whereas corticosteroids increase viral replication in chronic hepatitis C. In our medical center, we have treated many patients with apparent chronic hepatitis C and serological or clinical evidence of autoimmunity. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of this association and to learn whether demographic or clinical features distinguished between patients with or without autoimmune markers. We performed a retrospective review of the records of 244 unselected patients seen at the Clinics and Hospital of the University of Massachusetts between May 1991 and November 1993, who had elevated serum aminotransferases. One hundred seventeen patients had chronic hepatitis C defined by elevations of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) for at least 6 months, positive serum antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV; second-generation enzyme immunoassay [EIA2] or recombinant immunoblot assay [RIBA]), and absence of hepatitis B surface antigen in the serum. Records were reviewed for results of autoimmune markers in sera, including anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMAs), rheumatoid factor (RF), antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs), anti-liver and kidney microsomal (LKM) antibodies, and cryoglobulins. We found a high prevalence of positivity, particularly for anti-SMAs (66%) and RF (76%) in both men and women. Forty of 41 patients tested negative for anti-LKM antibodies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7533120
Clifford, B D; Donahue, D; Smith, L; Cable, E; Luttig, B; Manns, M; Bonkovsky, H L
Background Cryptococcal disease is estimated to be responsible for significant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, only scarce epidemiology data exists. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia in Ethiopia. Methods Consecutive adult HIV-infected patients from two public HIV clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study. A CD4 count ?200 cells/?l was required for study participation. Patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were not excluded. A cryptococcal antigen test was performed for all patients along with an interview, physical exam, and medical chart abstraction. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia. Results 369 HIV-infected patients were enrolled; mean CD4 123 cells/?l and 74% receiving ART. The overall prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was 8.4%; 11% in patients with a CD4 count <100 cells/?l, 8.9% with CD4 100 to 150 cells/?l and 5.7% with CD4150-200 cell/?l. 84% of patients with cryptococcal antigenemia were receiving ART. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, self reported fever, CD4 count <100 cells/?l, and site of screening were associated with an increased risk of cryptococcal antigenemia. No individual or combination of clinical symptoms had optimal sensitivity or specificity for cryptococcal antigenemia. Conclusion Cryptococcal antigenemia is high in Ethiopia and rapid scale up of screening programs is needed. Screening should be implemented for HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts regardless of symptoms or receipt of ART. Further study into the effect of location and environment on cryptococcal disease is warranted.
Alemu, Abere Shiferaw; Kempker, Russell R.; Tenna, Admasu; Smitson, Christopher; Berhe, Nega; Fekade, Daniel; Blumberg, Henry M.; Aseffa, Abraham
Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n?=?15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n?=?10), Paraná (PR, n?=?4), Săo Paulo (SP, n?=?3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n?=?1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tania Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires
Background and aims Reduced vitamin D levels may play a significant role in the development of fractures and musculoskeletal pains reported in patients on aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated the vitamin D status in postmenopausal women with non-metastatic breast cancer who were about to start AI therapy. Methods This study was conducted on community dwelling postmenopausal subjects, aged 35–80 years, with early non-metastatic breast cancer (up to stage IIIA), who were about to start therapy using third generation AIs. Symptoms of joint and muscle pains were obtained using a modified Leuven menopausal questionnaire. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was evaluated by radioimmunoassy while bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Results Of the 145 participants (mean age = 60.96 ± 0.88 years), 63/145 (43.5%) had baseline levels of 25(OH)D of < 20 ng/ml (deficient), 50/145 (34.5%) had levels between 20–29 ng/ml (insufficient), and only 32/145 (22%) had > 30 ng/ml (sufficient); thus, 113/145 (78%) had low 25(OH)D levels (i.e. < 30ng/ml). Arthralgias and myalgias were found in 61.3% and 43% of patients, respectively; and of those, 83.3% and 88.1% had 25(OH)D of < 30ng/ml, respectively. Conclusions Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high in breast cancer women and this may increase the risk of bone loss and fractures in those who are going to start AIs. Moreover, musculoskeletal pains are common in breast cancer women, even before the initiation of AIs and in association with low vitamin D in the majority. Future studies may be needed to establish the contribution of low vitamin D, if any, on the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains in women on AIs.
Napoli, N; Vattikuti, S; Ma, C; Rastelli, A; Rayani, A; Donepudi, R; Asadfard, M; Yarramaneni, J; Ellis, M; Armamento-Villareal, R
Background Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four automatic blood pressure readings ?140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure lowering agents, and pre-hypertension by systolic blood pressure ?120–139 or diastolic blood pressure ?80–89 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The association between the shift of work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses that controlled for risk factors for hypertension by covariance analysis and modified Poisson regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.3±9.4 years and 88.2% were women. Night shift workers were older, more frequently married or divorced, and less educated. The prevalence of hypertension in the whole sample was 16%, and 28% had pre-hypertension. Blood pressure (after adjustment for confounding) was not different in day and night shift workers. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension by shift work was not different in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for confounding (all risk ratios ?=?1.0). Conclusion Night shift work did not increase blood pressure and was not associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension in nursing personnel working in a large general hospital.
Sfreddo, Carla; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Merlo, Alvaro Roberto; Fuchs, Flavio Danni
Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult left-heart disease in patients with scleroderma and pulmonary hypertension. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAP) ?25 mmHg), differentiation between pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension has been made according to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) less than or more than 15 mmHg, respectively. We performed a retrospective chart review of 107 scleroderma patients. All patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension had routine right or left heart catheterisation with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurement pre-/post-fluid challenge. We extracted demographic, haemodynamic and echocardiographic data. Patients were classified into one of four groups: haemodynamically normal (mean PAP<25 mmHg); pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) (mean PAP?25 mmHg, PAWP>15 mmHg); occult PVH (mean PAP?25 mmHg, PAWP?15 mmHg, LVEDP>15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge); and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (mean PAP?25 mmHg, PAWP?15 mmHg and LVEDP?15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge). 53 out of 107 patients had pulmonary hypertension. Based on the PAWP-based definition, 29 out of 53 had PAH and 24 out of 53 had PVH. After considering the resting and post-fluid-challenge LVEDP, 11 PAH patients were reclassified as occult PVH. The occult PVH group was haemodynamically, echocardiographically and demographically closer to the PVH group than the PAH group. PVH had high prevalence in our scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension population. Distinguishing PAH from PVH with only PAWP may result in some PVH patients being misclassified as having PAH. PMID:23258775
Fox, Benjamin D; Shimony, Avi; Langleben, David; Hirsch, Andrew; Rudski, Lawrence; Schlesinger, Robert; Eisenberg, Mark J; Joyal, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Boutet, Kim; Serban, Alexandrina; Masetto, Ariel; Baron, Murray
Background Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infection (STI) survey among FSWs. This paper presents the STI prevalence and related risk factors, and discusses prevalence trends in the context of the 100% CUP in Cambodia. Methods From March-May, 1079 FSWs from eight provinces consented to participate, provided specimens for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing, and were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with STIs. STI prevalence was compared with data from the 1996 and 2001 STI surveys. Results Most FSWs were young (55% aged 15–24) and new to sex work (60% had worked 12 ? months). Consistent condom use with clients was reported by 80% of FSWs, but only 38% of FSWs always used condoms with sweethearts or casual partners. Being new to sex work was the only factor significantly associated with "any STI" (OR = 2.1). Prevalence of syphiliwas 2.3%; chlamydia, 14.4%; gonorrhoea, 13.0%; and any STI, 24.4%. Prevalence of each STI in 2005 was significantly lower than in 1996, but essentially the same as prevalence observed in 2001. Conclusion New FSWs were found to have substantially higher prevalence than those with longer experience. The percent of FSWs who used condoms consistently was high with clients but remained low with non-paying sex partners. Because of the high turnover of FSWs, the prevention needs of new FSWs should be ascertained and addressed. Despite 100% CUP implementation, the prevalence of STIs among FSWs was the same in 2005 as it was in 2001. Limited coverage and weak implementation capacity of the programme along with questionable quality of the STI services are likely to have contributed to the sustained high prevalence. The programme should be carefully reviewed in terms of intensity, quality and coverage.
Sopheab, Heng; Morineau, Guy; Neal, Joyce J; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Fylkesnes, Knut
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological scenario of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) among elderly people in rural China is unclear. We seek to describe the distribution, burden and management of major CRFs among older Chinese people living in the rural community. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1538 participants in the Confucius Hometown Aging Project (2010-2011) of people ?60 years of age (mean age 68.6 years; 59.1% women) who lived in a rural community nearby Qufu, Shandong, China. Data were collected through a face-to-face interview, a clinical examination and laboratory tests. We carried out descriptive analysis on the prevalence and management of major CRFs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of current smoking, physical inactivity, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol and obesity were 13.8%, 83.7%, 76.0%, 26.6%, 42.4% and 13.1%, respectively: 82.8% and 50.4% of participants had ?2 and ?3, respectively, of the six CRFs. Prevalence of alcohol consumption was 18.7%. Men were more likely to smoke and consume alcohol than women, whereas women were more likely to be obese and physically inactive than men (p?0.001). Prevalence of physical inactivity and hypertension increased with age, prevalence of alcohol intake and obesity decreased with age, and prevalence of smoking and diabetes was stable. Hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were treated in 60.6%, 68.1% and 41.1% of those with the disease, respectively, but only 11.3%, 13.7% and 31.7% achieved good control. CONCLUSIONS: CRFs are highly prevalent and poorly controlled among elderly people in rural China, where men and women have different CRF profiles. Intervention programs targeting major CRFs may improve the health of older people in China. PMID:23598595
Song, Aiqin; Liang, Yajun; Yan, Zhongrui; Sun, Binglun; Cai, Chuanzhu; Jiang, Hui; Qiu, Chengxuan
Background In recent years, surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Northwest China. In the present study, the prevalence of T. gondii in pet dogs in Lanzhou, China was investigated using the modified agglutination test (MAT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results In this survey, antibodies to
Song-Ming Wu; Si-Yang Huang; Bao-Quan Fu; Guang-Yuan Liu; Jia-Xu Chen; Mu-Xin Chen; Zi-Guo Yuan; Dong-Hui Zhou; Ya-Biao Weng; Xing-Quan Zhu; De-He Ye
Quantitative analysis of phagocytosis and oxidative burst in canine polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells was performed by flow cytometry techniques. Different concentrations of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were used to modulate PMN phagocytosis. A low concentration of PMA (3 nmol) resulted in increased phagocytic activity of canine PMN, which could not be enhanced by higher dosages. Experiments with a reference cell population showed high losses of PMN, most probably by adherence to plastic material. It was possible to avoid this loss by layering all ingredients on cushions of Histopaque. However, Histopaque had a negative influence on the phagocytic activity of canine PMN. The use of PMA led to a dosage-dependent increase in the oxidative burst measured by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cushions of Histopaque were used to avoid cell loss. There was no negative influence of Histopaque on ROS formation. Storage of canine PMN for 24 h at room temperature had no negative influence on phagocytosis or oxidative burst measurements. Variations in the ROS assays conducted by two different examiners could be eliminated by use of a Histopaque-cushion. PMID:15261697
Eickhoff, Sandra; Mironowa, Lilia; Carlson, Regina; Leibold, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea
Summary This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that
Ramiro M. Joly-Mascheroni; Atsushi Senju; Alex J. Shepherd
\\u000a Objective: Evaluate a) the prevalence of developmental disabilities (DD) in children admitted to a general pediatrics inpatient unit, and b) the number of children admitted to the unit with previously undiagnosed developmental disability. Methods: Prevalence was evaluated through retrospective record review. Subjects: One hundred ninety children older than five months of age admitted to a general pediatric unit. Results: Of
Mario C. Petersen; David A. Kube; Frederick B. Palmer
Objective: To determine the prevalence of anemia from 4 to 26 weeks post partum and to examine prenatal predictors of postpartum anemia. Study Design: Retrospective cohort analysis of 59,428 participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 12 US states. Results: The prevalence of postpartum anemia was 27%. Anemia rates were higher among minority women,
Lisa M. Bodnar; Kelley S. Scanlon; David S. Freedman; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Mary E. Cogswell
BACKGROUND: Khat is widely consumed among the youth of Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. However, its prevalence is not well documented. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of khat chewing among college and secondary school students in Jazan region. METHODS: The study was conducted in May 2006 in the colleges and secondary schools
Hussein M Ageely
The reversibility of nutritional osteoporosis was studied in adult dogs. Ten beagles were fed a depletion diet (low Ca-high P) for 42 weeks after which time three dogs were necropsied and the remaining seven dogs were placed on a repletion diet (high Ca-balanced P) for up to 28 weeks. Mobility of incisor teeth occurred in all dogs at the end
LENNART KROOK; LEO LUTWAK; PER-AKE HENRIKSON; FRANCIS KALLFELZ; CARL HIRSCH; BERTIL ROMANUS; JOHN R. MARIER; BEN E. SHEFFY
The Bahamas is a group of islands in the Caribbean with a high incidence of early onset breast cancer. In isolated populations, the identification of founder mutations in cancer predisposing genes may facilitate genetic testing and counseling. To date, six distinct BRCA1 mutations have been found in patients from cancer families from the Bahamas. The frequencies of these mutant alleles have not been measured in a large series of unselected breast cancer patients from Bahamas. We studied 214 Bahamian women with invasive breast cancer, unselected for age or family history of cancer. All patients were screened for six mutations in the BRCA1 gene that have previously been reported in cancer patients from the Bahamas. A mutation was identified in 49 of the 214 breast cancer patients (23%). The mutation frequency was particularly high in women diagnosed before age 50 (33%) in women with a first-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer (41%) and in women with bilateral breast cancer (58%). Approximately 23% of unselected cases of breast cancer in the Bahamian population are attributable to a founder mutation in the BRCA1 gene-this is the highest reported mutation prevalence for any country studied to date. Genetic testing for these mutations is advisable for all women diagnosed with breast cancer in the Bahamas. PMID:20838878
Donenberg, Talia; Lunn, John; Curling, Duvaughn; Turnquest, Theodore; Krill-Jackson, Elisa; Royer, Robert; Narod, Steven A; Hurley, Judith
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) is perceived by the media, by segments of the sports medicine and athletic communities, and by the public to have grown to epidemic proportions. Unfortunately, the incidence and prevalence of AS use among elite, amateur, and recreational athletes is poorly documented. This study was designed to help identify AS use patterns among the male portion of the general adolescent population. The overall participation rate on a schoolwide basis was 68.7% and on an individual basis reached 50.3%. Participants in this investigation were 12th-grade male students (N = 3403) in 46 private and public high schools across the nation who completed a questionnaire that established current or previous use of AS as well as user and nonuser characteristics. Results indicate that 6.6% of 12th grade male students use or have used AS and that over two thirds of the user group initiated use when they were 16 years of age or younger. Approximately 21% of users reported that a health professional was their primary source. The evidence indicates that educational intervention strategies should begin as early as junior high school; the intervention should not be directed only toward those individuals who participate in school-based athletics. PMID:3210283
Buckley, W E; Yesalis, C E; Friedl, K E; Anderson, W A; Streit, A L; Wright, J E
Background Recently, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 has been discovered in animals, livestock farmers and retail meat. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the spread to persons not in direct contact with livestock in areas with a high density of pig farms. Methodology/Principal Findings With a random mailing in 3 selected municipalities in the Netherlands, adult persons were asked to fill in a questionnaire and to take a nose swab. In total, complete information was obtained on 583 persons. Of the 534 persons without livestock-contact, one was positive for MRSA (0.2%; 95% confidence interval, <0.01–1.2). Of the 49 persons who did indicate to be working at or living on a livestock farm, 13 were positive for MRSA (26.5%; 95% confidence interval, 16.1–40.4). All spa-types belonged to CC398. Conclusions/Significance Livestock-associated MRSA has a high prevalence in people with direct contact with animals. At this moment it has not spread from the farms into the community.
Wulf, Mireille W.; Buiting, Anton G.; Voss, Andreas; Huijsdens, Xander W.; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mulders, Mick N.; Kluytmans, Jan A.
Photographs are a major aspect of high school science textbooks, which dominate classroom approaches to teaching and learning. It is thus surprising that the function of photographs and their relation to captions and texts have not been the topic of analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, function, and structure of photographs in high school science. Our motivating research question was, What can students learn from textbooks when they study photographs? To answer this and several subordinate questions, we selected and analyzed four Brazilian biology textbooks. We focus on the use of photographs and the relation among them, various types of texts, and the subject matter presented. Our analysis reveals that the structural elements of text, caption, and photographs and the relations among them differ across the textbooks and at times even within the same book. This, of course, will influence readers' interpretations of the photographs changing their role in the text. The results of our study have implications for textbook authors and textbook readers. We suggest that future studies may focus on students' and teachers' interpretation of photographs in real time.
Leivas Pozzer, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the Murmansk region was investigated in a 2-year, population-based surveillance of the civilian population. During 2003 and 2004, isolates from all culture-positive cases were collected (n = 1,226). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) was extremely high, as 114 out of 439 new cases (26.0%), and 574 out of 787 previously treated cases (72.9%) were resistant to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). Spoligotyping of the primary MDR-TB isolates revealed that most isolates grouped to the Beijing SIT1 genotype (n = 91, 79.8%). Isolates of this genotype were further analyzed by IS6110 RFLP. Sequencing of gene targets associated with INH and RIF resistance further showed that the MDR-TB strains are highly homogeneous as 78% of the MDR, SIT1 strains had the same resistance-conferring mutations. The genetic homogeneity of the MDR-TB strains indicates that they are actively transmitted in Murmansk. PMID:21394425
Mäkinen, J; Marjamäki, M; Haanperä-Heikkinen, M; Marttila, H; Endourova, L B; Presnova, S E; Mathys, V; Bifani, P; Ruohonen, R; Viljanen, M K; Soini, H
There are little information on prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and clinical features in the young military population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea and to identify the risk factors of OSAS. A total of 665 participants (aged 20-23 yr) who visited the Armed Forces Ildong Hospital for regular physical examination were enrolled. All participants completed the Berlin Questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. The participants with high risk for OSAS completed portable sleep monitoring. The prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea was 13.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The prevalence of high arched palate, tongue indentation, long uvula, large tonsil and retrognathia was significantly higher in the high risk OSAS group. High arched palate, long uvula or low lying soft palate, tonsil size III or IV, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10 and obesity (BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) were found to independently predict OSAS. For early identification and treatment of young soldiers with OSAS in a military environment, a precise screening by questionnaire and physical examination is needed. PMID:24015045
Lee, Young Chan; Eun, Young Gyu; Shin, Seung Youp; Kim, Sung Wan
There are little information on prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and clinical features in the young military population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea and to identify the risk factors of OSAS. A total of 665 participants (aged 20-23 yr) who visited the Armed Forces Ildong Hospital for regular physical examination were enrolled. All participants completed the Berlin Questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. The participants with high risk for OSAS completed portable sleep monitoring. The prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea was 13.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The prevalence of high arched palate, tongue indentation, long uvula, large tonsil and retrognathia was significantly higher in the high risk OSAS group. High arched palate, long uvula or low lying soft palate, tonsil size III or IV, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10 and obesity (BMI > 27 kg/m2) were found to independently predict OSAS. For early identification and treatment of young soldiers with OSAS in a military environment, a precise screening by questionnaire and physical examination is needed.
Lee, Young Chan; Eun, Young Gyu; Shin, Seung Youp
Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in sled dogs, animals with high energy expenditures that consume high fat (60% of ingested calories) diets. Associations between pre-race plasma [vitamin E] and total antioxidant status (TAS) and risk of developing ER were examined in dogs competing in the 1998 Iditarod race. Pre-race blood samples were collected from 750 dogs and a second sample was collected from 158 dogs withdrawn from the race at various times. Plasma creatine kinase activity was used to identify withdrawn dogs with ER. There was no association between pre-race plasma [vitamin E] and risk of development of ER. Dogs that developed ER started the race with higher TAS, but when withdrawn, had lower TAS than unaffected dogs and had similar pre-race [vitamin E] but higher [vitamin E] at time of withdrawal. Hence, the risk of ER in sled dogs is not affected by plasma [vitamin E] before the race. PMID:11297943
Piercy, R J; Hinchcliff, K W; Morley, P S; DiSilvestro, R A; Reinhart, G A; Nelson, S L; Schmidt, K E; Craig, A M
BACKGROUND: Increased daytime sleepiness is an important symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA is frequently underdiagnosed, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) can be a useful tool in alerting physicians to a potential problem involving OSA. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence and determinants of daytime sleepiness measured using the ESS in a rural community population. METHODS: A community survey was conducted to examine the risk factors associated with ESS in a rural population in 154 households comprising 283 adults. Questionnaire information was obtained regarding physical factors, social factors, general medical history, family medical history, ESS score, and self-reported height and weight. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis based on the generalized estimating equations approach to account for clustering within households was used to predict the relationship between a binary ESS score outcome (normal or abnormal) and a set of explanatory variables. RESULTS: The population included 140 men (49.5%) and 143 women (50.5%) with an age range of 18 to 97 years (mean [± SD] 52.0±14.9 years). The data showed that 79.2% of the study participants had an ESS score in the normal range (0 to 10) and 20.8% had an ESS score >10, which is considered to be abnormal or high sleepiness. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that obesity was significantly associated with an abnormal or high sleepiness score on the ESS (OR 3.40 [95% CI 1.31 to 8.80). CONCLUSION: High levels of sleepiness in this population were common. Obesity was an important risk factor for high ESS score.
Pahwa, P; Karunanayake, CP; Hagel, L; Gjevre, JA; Rennie, D; Lawson, J; Dosman, JA
Background Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases and people of all age-groups and geographical locations are affected. The impact of disease is even worst in low-resource developing countries due to unaware of the UTIs caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and the possibility of transfer of MDR traits between them. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MDR bacterial isolates from UTI patients, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the conjugational transfer of multidrug resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Results Two hundred and nineteen bacterial isolates were recovered from 710 urine samples at Kathmandu Model hospital during the study period. All samples and isolates were investigated by standard laboratory procedures. Among the significant bacterial growth (30.8%, 219 isolates), 41.1% isolates were MDR. The most prevailing organism, E. coli (81.3%, 178 isolates) was 38.2% MDR, whereas second most common organism, Citrobacter spp. (5%, 11 isolates) was found 72.7% MDR. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) production was detected in 55.2% of a subset of MDR E. coli isolates. Among the 29 MDR E. coli isolates, plasmids of size ranging 2-51 kb were obtained with different 15 profiles. The most common plasmid of size 32 kb was detected in all of the plasmid-harbored E. coli strains. The majority of E. coli isolates investigated for the multidrug resistance transfer were able to transfer plasmid-mediated MDR phenotypes along with ESBL pattern with a frequency ranging from 0.3 × 10-7 to 1.5 × 10-7 to an E. coli HB101 recipient strain by conjugation. Most of the donor and recipient strain showed high levels of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for commonly-used antibiotics. Conclusions The high prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacterial uropathogens was observed. Particularly, resistance patterns were alarmingly higher for amoxycillin, co-trimoxazole, flouroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, which necessitate the re-evaluation of first and second line therapies for UTI. In addition, conjugational co-transfer of MDR phenotypes with ESBL-positive phenotypes was observed in MDR E. coli.
An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI?=?71.8–76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI?=?41.9–47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI?=?10.3–13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe.
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo
The purpose of this study was to characterize light and electron microscopic findings from 9 dogs that had consumed aflatoxin-contaminated commercial dog food from recalled batches. Four dogs died and 5 were euthanized after signs of liver failure. Analysis of feed and liver samples confirmed exposure to aflatoxin. Of the 9 dogs, 8 had classic signs of liver failure, and 1 had signs of liver failure. Enlarged, pale yellow livers were seen macroscopically at necropsy in the dogs with subacute hepatopathy, and cirrhosis was noted in the dog with chronic hepatopathy. Histopathologic findings included hepatic lipidosis, portal fibroplasia, and biliary hyperplasia, which supported a diagnosis of subacute toxic hepatopathy in the 8 symptomatic animals. Marked lobular atrophy, bridging portal fibrosis, and regenerative hepatocellular nodules characterized the dog with chronic hepatopathy. Electron microscopy revealed marked hepatocellular lipid vacuolation and early fibroplasia in the dogs with acute hepatopathy and marked fibrosis and regeneration in the dog with chronic hepatopathy. Analysis of feed for aflatoxin consistently revealed high levels of aflatoxin B1 (range of 223-579 ppb), and hepatic tissue contained elevated levels of aflatoxin B1 metabolite M1 (0.6-4.4 ppb). Although dogs are not commonly affected by aflatoxicosis, they are highly susceptible and can present with classic signs of acute or chronic hepatopathy. Characteristic gross, histologic, and electron microscopic changes help pathologists determine a presumptive toxic insult. Detecting aflatoxins or their metabolites in feed or liver specimens can help confirm the diagnosis of aflatoxicosis. PMID:17402611
Newman, Shelley Joy; Smith, Joanne R; Stenske, Kate A; Newman, Leslie B; Dunlap, John R; Imerman, Paula M; Kirk, Claudia A
Police dog service requires canines that are balanced in social, play, search and aggression behavior as well as physically healthy. Selecting for one or a limited number of genetic traits, such as extraordinarily high energy and aggression, can result in behavior that is counterproductive to police work. In addition to genes, life experience and training determine adult dog behavior. Dogs
The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. This tick can be found on dogs living in both urban and rural areas, being highly adapted to live within human dwellings and being active throughout the year not only in tropical and subtropical
Background Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV)-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men. Methods Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls) were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV classification groups. Results In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%). Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%). The highest antibody detection rate (88,8%) was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease. Conclusion High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies) in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of oncogenic HPV-types. HPV-serology is economic and can detect past or present HPV-infection, independently of an anatomical region. Therefore HPV-serology could help to better understand the natural history of anogenital HPV-infection in HIV-positive men in the era of antiretroviral therapy.
Hopfl, Reinhard; Petter, Anton; Thaler, Petra; Sarcletti, Mario; Widschwendter, Andreas; Zangerle, Robert
Objective: There are few studies regarding the prevalence of seasonal variation in mood among children and adolescents. The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported depressive mood during the winter season among Swedish adolescents and to investigate gender differences. Another aim was to analyze the factor…
Rastad, Cecilia; Ulfberg, Jan; Sjoden, Per-Olow
Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, has shown promise as a vaccine vector for mammals. Here, we generated a recombinant avirulent NDV La Sota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against rabies. The recombinant virus, rL-RVG, retained its high-growth property in chicken eggs, with titers of up to 10?·? 50% egg infective doses (EID??)/ml of allantoic fluid. RVG expression enabled rL-RVG to spread from cell to cell in a rabies virus-like manner, and RVG was incorporated on the surface of the rL-RVG viral particle. RVG incorporation did not alter the trypsin-dependent infectivity of the NDV vector in mammalian cells. rL-RVG and La Sota NDV showed similar levels of sensitivity to a neutralization antibody against NDV and similar levels of resistance to a neutralization antibody against rabies virus. Animal studies demonstrated that rL-RVG is safe in several species, including cats and dogs, when administered as multiple high doses of recombinant vaccine. Intramuscular vaccination with rL-RVG induced a substantial rabies virus neutralization antibody response and provided complete protection from challenge with circulating rabies virus strains. Most importantly, rL-RVG induced strong and long-lasting protective neutralization antibody responses to rabies virus in dogs and cats. A low vaccine dose of 10?·ł EID?? completely protected dogs from challenge with a circulating strain of rabies virus for more than a year. This is the first study to demonstrate that immunization with an NDV-vectored vaccine can induce long-lasting, systemic protective immunity against rabies. PMID:21632762
Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tao, Lihong; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Yang, Chinglai; Chen, Hualan; Bu, Zhigao
The impact of fibromyalgia on the course of pregnancy is not clearly defined. We evaluate the frequency of FMS symptoms among full-term healthy pregnant women and the impact on the course of delivery. The 2011 modification of the ACR 2010 criteria for FMS diagnosis was used as well as the FIQ, SF-36 and AIMS questionnaires. The 1990 ACR classification criteria were documented. Data were collected relating to course of the delivery, induction, length of stage 1, 2 and 3 of delivery, epidural anesthesia, artificial rupture of membranes, instrumental delivery and cesarean section. A VAS recording pain intensity during delivery was documented. Out of 100 women recruited, 27 (27 %) fulfilled Modified FMS criteria. Only one of these women fulfilled ACR 1990 criteria, women who fulfilled the ACR criteria differed significantly from women who did not fulfill these criteria on a broad range of parameters including widespread pain and fatigue, social functioning, emotional well-being, role limitation and physical functioning. A significant correlation was found between length of stage 2 and results of the FIQ as well as with components of the SF-36. The intensity of pain during birth however was not correlated with the presence of FMS criteria. FMS symptoms were highly prevalent among healthy pregnant women at term. The presence of such symptoms may impact on the course of delivery and the need for anesthesia. Evaluating for features of centrally mediated pain may be of clinical relevance for physicians involved in the treatment of pregnant women. PMID:23263499
Saa'd, Sharon; Many, Ariel; Jacob, Giris; Ablin, Jacob N
The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults (= 39 yr) with CD4 counts in the range 300-500 cells/microl and in older subjects (> 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease.
McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M
To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in Gabon. Using a sensitive and specific ELISA method, we found a ZEBOV-specific IgG seroprevalence of 15.3% overall, the highest ever reported. The seroprevalence rate was significantly higher in forested areas (19.4%) than in other ecosystems, namely grassland (12.4%), savannah (10.5%), and lakeland (2.7%). No other risk factors for seropositivity were found. The specificity of anti-ZEBOV IgG was confirmed by Western blot in 138 individuals, and CD8 T cells from seven IgG+ individuals were shown to produce IFN-? after ZEBOV stimulation. Together, these findings show that a large fraction of the human population living in forested areas of Gabon has both humoral and cellular immunity to ZEBOV. In the absence of identified risk factors, the high prevalence of “immune” persons suggests a common source of human exposure such as fruits contaminated by bat saliva. These findings provide significant new insights into ZEBOV circulation and human exposure, and raise important questions as to the human pathogenicity of ZEBOV and the existence of natural protective immunization.
Mahlakoiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonne; Padilla, Cindy; Souris, Marc; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric M.
The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30?S and 50?S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30?S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50?S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30?S and 50?S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study.
Zohoncon, Theodora M.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Yonli, Albert T.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne M.R.; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A.; Simpore, Jacques
To determine the incidence of permanent congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Tehran and Damavand, cord blood spots were collected from February 1998-August 2002 and infants with TSH > or =20 mU/l were recalled. CH was confirmed in neonates (aged > or =7 days) with serum TSH >10 mU/l and T4 <84 nmol/l. Cases were followed up until September 2003. Dysgenesis was detected by thyroid imaging. In eutopic cases, serum TSH and T4 measurements following levothyroxine discontinuation (2-3 years of age) confirmed dyshormonogenesis and transient CH. Of 35,067 neonates, 373 (1.06%) were recalled and 25 (1:1,403 births) had permanent CH (six had transient CH and four remain unknown). Dysgenesis was detected in 18 (1:1,948 births) and dyshormonogenesis in seven (1:5,010 births) infants. Parental consanguinity was present in 10 (55.6%) dysgenetic, three (42.9%) dyshormonogenetic, and overall 6,648 (28.6%) of 23,227 screened infants. Odds ratio (95%CI(OR)) of consanguinity in permanent CH and dysgenesis was 2.75 (1.17-6.47) and 3.74 (1.33-10.52), respectively. The high prevalence of parental consanguinity in infants with permanent CH warrants genetic assessment. PMID:15506679
Ordookhani, Arash; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moharamzadeh, Masoud; Hedayati, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun
The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30'S and 50'S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30'S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50'S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30'S and 50'S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study. PMID:24106609
Zohoncon, Theodora M; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W; Yonli, Albert T; Compaore, Tegwinde R; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouédraogo, Charlemagne M R; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiéma, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A; Simpore, Jacques
This study examined (1) the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), (2) the extent to which psychotropic agents were linked to targeted symptoms, and (3) predictors of psychotropic use. A total of 115 children, ages 6–13, with HFASDs who were enrolled in psychosocial treatment trials were included in this study. Parents completed extensive background and rating forms prior to treatment that included data on demographic characteristics, child health, child medication use, and child ASD-related symptoms. Results indicated that 33% (n = 38) of the sample was taking psychotropic medication with the most common being stimulants (25%; n = 29), antidepressants (10%; n = 12), and neuroleptics (6%; n = 7). All children taking stimulants had target symptoms that were appropriate for stimulant medication, whereas 57% of those taking neuroleptics and 42% of those taking antidepressants did not have targeted symptoms consistent with the medication. Logistic regression for the major psychotropic drug categories indicated that lower IQ was a significant predictor of increased antidepressant and neuroleptic use. A higher level of ASD-related symptoms was related to the likelihood of stimulant use.
Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.
Several studies have demonstrated that viral load is a key factor to determine the development of HBV infection and to assess treatment options for the disease. There is a lack of studies analyzing viral load levels in chronic hepatitis B patients in Argentina and the epidemiologic information is limited. The aim of this study was to determine viral load levels and its distribution in patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B from geographical areas with high prevalence for HBV in Argentina. Fifty-one per cent of the study population had HBV DNA levels > or = 10(4) copies/ml and a median viral load of 11,910 copies/ml. The viral load was significantly higher in HBeAg seropositive patients compared with those seronegative for HBeAg (P < 0.05). Salta and Entre Ríos provinces showed low viral loads, while Chaco, Misiones and Formosa provinces had a median viral load ranging between 10(4) and 10(5) copies/ ml. This is the first study providing detailed information on viral load in chronic hepatitis B patients from Argentina. Availability of viral load levels in chronic hepatitis B enables evaluation of implementation of actions to analyze follow-up and/or treatment options for preventing disease complications, improving health care and diminishing the potential burden on the health care system. PMID:23650829
Amegeiras, Beatriz; González, Jorge Enrique; Jotimliansky, Laura; Zingoni, Carolina; Vulcano, Cristina
Objectives QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype. Methods Adult women with Turner syndrome (n?=?88) were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%), and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett’s (bQTc) and Hodges’s formula (hQTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. Results The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0±25.5 ms) compared to controls (390.4±17.8 ms) was prolonged (p<0.001) and did not change over time (416.9±22.6 vs. 415.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.4). 45,X karyotype was associated with increased hQTc prolongation compared to other Turner syndrome karyotypes (418.2±24.8 vs. 407.6±25.5 ms; p?=?0.055). In women with Turner syndrome and a bQTc >432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2) and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E.
Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian H.; Pedersen, Lisbeth N.; Berglund, Agnethe; Jensen, Henrik K.; Andersen, Niels H.; Gravholt, Claus H.
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of free thyroxine (FT4) measured by chemiluminescence in evaluating thyroid function in dogs. Total thyroxine (TT4) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and FT4 measured by chemiluminescence were evaluated in 30 healthy dogs, 60 euthyroid dogs with concurrent dermatopathies, and 30 hypothyroid dogs before and after intravenous stimulation with 1 or 2 IU of thyrotropin (TSH). Median basal TT4 and median TT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different (P < 0.0001) between healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but were significantly higher than those in hypothyroid dogs. In healthy dogs, the median TT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Median basal FT4 and median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration in healthy dogs were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those in euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but significantly higher than the same parameters in hypothyroid dogs. There was a significant difference between the median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration and median basal FT4 concentrations for healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but not for hypothyroid dogs. Lastly, in healthy dogs, median FT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Free thyroxine measured by chemiluminescence was highly correlated (P < 0.0001; Spearman r = 0.91) with FT4 measured by the reference method for free hormone analysis, namely, equilibrium dialysis, when sera from 56 dogs were used.
Paradis, M; Page, N; Lariviere, N; Fontaine, M
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiologic agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease. Here, we first report the complete genome sequence of PCV2 strain JSTZ, which was isolated from piglet stool samples and is highly prevalent in China. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of PCV2.
Ma, Junjie; Liu, Yanling; Wen, Libin; Yu, Zhengyu; Ni, Yanxiu; Zhang, Xuehan; Zhou, Junming; Guo, Rongli; Wang, Xiaomin; Feng, Zhixin; Hu, Yiyi; Lv, Lixin
The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Adults receiving HAART voluntarily enrolled into the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) cohort. Individual food insecurity was measured using a modified version of the Radimer\\/Cornell Questionnaire. We
A. Anema; S. D. Weiser; K. A. Fernandes; E. Ding; E. K. Brandson; A. Palmer; J. S. G. Montaner; R. S. Hogg
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic has caused a dramatic increase in tuberculosis (TB) in East and southern Africa. Several strategies have the potential to reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, and cost and cost-effectiveness analyses can help to prioritize them when budget constraints exist. However, published cost and cost-effectiveness studies are limited. METHODS: Our objective was to
Christine SM Currie; Katherine Floyd; Brian G Williams; Christopher Dye
Priapism is a persistent penile erection lasting longer than 4 hours, without sexual stimulation. Priapism is categorized as either nonischemic (arterial, high flow) or ischemic (veno-occlusive, low flow). Ischemic priapism is considered an emergency in people. Reports of priapism in dogs are uncommon. This report describes 3 dogs with priapism; the first was considered idiopathic, the second was due to acute disc extrusion and subsequent T12-T13 hemilaminectomy, and the third was secondary to a lumbar meningomyelocoele. All 3 cases were suspected to be nonischemic priapism. The pathophysiology of the canine erection and a review of priapism in dogs and cats are discussed. Distinguishing ischemic versus nonischemic priapism and identifying and treating the underlying cause are important. Aspiration to obtain blood gas analysis may help classify the priapism and may provide pain relief. Ultrasonography aids in evaluation for vascular abnormalities and identifying etiology. If determined to be ischemic, then aspiration with the patient under sedation or anesthesia with or without irrigation should be done. Intracavernosal injections of phenylephrine and lubrication of the exposed penis are also recommended. If intracavernosal drainage and injections are not successful, or significant tissue damage has occurred, then penile amputation and perineal urethrostomy may become necessary. Systemic therapy could be considered if the priapism is not considered an emergency, and if intracavernous injections or surgical treatment are declined. PMID:19501342
Lavely, James A
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of the risk of overweight and overweight in Qatari children ages 9 through 11 and to compare the prevalence using CDC and IOTF cut-offs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample of 1,213 Qatari children was carried out. Weight and height were measured and BMI
Abdelhamid Kerkadi; Abdelmonem S. Hassan; Adil Eltayeb M. Yousef
Objective/Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). Background: A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. Material/Methods: A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is a typical continuous variable, platelets were screened and divided into two categories: low expressers (LEs) and high expressers (HEs). A three-generation family was investigated looking for an inheritance mechanism. Results: The prevalence of the HE platelet phenotype among group A1 donors was 2%. The mean of MFI on platelets of A1 subgroup of EUBs differs from that of AFBs (P = 0·0115), whereas the frequency of the HE phenotype was similar between them (P = 0·5251). A significant difference was found between sexes (P = 0·0039). Whereas the serum glycosyltransferase from HE family members converted significantly more H antigen on group O erythrocytes into A antigens compared with that in LE serum, their ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 genes were consensus. The theoretically favourable, transcriptionally four-repeat ABO enhancer was not observed. Conclusion: The occurrence of HE in several members suggests familial aggregation. Indeed, in repeated measures, stability of the MFI values is suggesting an inherited condition. Factors outside the ABO locus might be responsible for the HE phenotype. Whether the real mechanism of inheritance is either of a polygenic or of a discrete Mendelian nature remains to be elucidated.
Sant'Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; do Nascimento, E M
Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs. PMID:22017049
Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with respiratory diseases and nonrespiratory illnesses like atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) against C. pneumoniae in an asymptomatic population in Jordan and to analyze the immunity state in relation to age and gender. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 588 apparently healthy individuals aged 2-86 years. Using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test, seropositivity was defined as an anti-C. pneumoniae IgG titer ?1:16. Titers from 1:16 to 1:256 were considered indicative for a past infection, whereas 1:512 was considered diagnostic of an acute infection. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. pneumoniae was 54.9%. The mean seropositivity in males was slightly higher than females. The seroprevalence of infection was relatively low in children aged 2-9 years, and steadily increased to reach a plateau of 66.7% at around 30-39 years of age, which remained stable in later years. Recent infection was indicated in 14.3% of study subjects. The seropositivity was highest in males, and more frequent in adults than in children and teenagers. CONCLUSION: A high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae in the asymptomatic population suggests that infection with this pathogen is common in Jordan. Higher seropositivity in males compared to females was observed. The primary infection is acquired during the first four decades of life, and in older ages high antibody levels are likely maintained by reinfection or persistent infection. PMID:23751768
Al-Younes, Hesham M
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs
Enik? Kubinyi; Borbála Turcsán; Ádám Miklósi
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis eggs on the coats of dogs (a potential etiological factor for human toxocariasis) and to see if there were mainly a dog breed and coat type effects for the presence of eggs on the coat. Hair samples were collected from the different breeds of 51 domestic pet dogs and
M. Aydenizöz-Özkayhan; B. B. Ya?c?; S. Erat
Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.
Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.
Objective To estimate the prevalence of radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a remote rural region of northern China and compare these with those reported in Beijing and data from the Framingham (Massachusetts, USA) cohort. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1030 residents of Wuchuan County, Inner Mongolia, aged 50 years and over. Survey participants, mostly farmers reporting heavy physical occupational activity, completed an interviewer-based questionnaire and obtained bilateral weight-bearing posterior-anterior semi-flexed knee radiographs. Results While the overall prevalence of radiographic knee OA was similar to that demonstrated in the Beijing OA study, men in Wuchuan had about double the prevalence of severe radiographic [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.8] and symptomatic knee OA (PR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.9). Women in Wuchuan also had a higher prevalence of both severe radiographic (PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.0) and symptomatic knee OA (PR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1) compared with their Beijing counterparts. The prevalence of bilateral OA and lateral compartment disease were two to three times higher in both Chinese cohorts compared with estimates from the Framingham OA Study. Conclusions The prevalence of symptomatic knee OA in rural areas of China is much higher than reported from urban regions of China or in the Framingham cohort. The higher representation of bilateral and lateral compartment disease in China suggests a unique phenotype to OA. The findings will be useful to guide the distribution of future health care resources and preventive strategies.
Kang, Xiaozheng; Fransen, Marlene; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Hu; Ke, Yan; Lu, Ming; Su, Steve; Song, Xiongying; Guo, Yong; Chen, Jie; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David; Lin, Jianhao
Although Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen, other Candida species such as C. krusei are now recognized as emerging agents, especially in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. C. krusei is inherently resistant to the widely used triazole antifungal fluconazole and poses therapeutic problems, especially in systemic candidiasis. In a surveillance study of leprosy patients (with arrested or burnt-out disease) in a leprosarium in northern Thailand, we found a rate of oral carriage of C. krusei (36%) significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that for a healthy control group (10%). Among the Candida-positive patients, 16 of 35 (46%) carried C. krusei, while C. albicans was the second most common isolate (12 of 35 patients; 34%). The corresponding figures for the control group were 2 of 13 (15%) and 6 of 13 (46%), respectively. Studies of the antifungal resistance of the C. krusei isolates from patients indicated that all except one of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, two isolates were resistant to ketoconazole, and all isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B. Evaluation of their genetic profiles by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis with three different primers and subsequent analysis of the gel profiles by computerized cluster-derived dendrograms revealed that the C. krusei isolates from patients belonged to 10 disparate clusters, despite the origin from a single locale. These nascent findings indicate an alarmingly high prevalence of a Candida species resistant to a widely used antifungal in a part of the world where HIV disease is endemic.
Reichart, P. A.; Samaranayake, L. P.; Samaranayake, Y. H.; Grote, M.; Pow, E.; Cheung, B.
Background It is important to identify and quantify the factors that affect gender differences in high-risk drinking (HRD), from both an academic and a policy perspective. However, little is currently known about them. This study examines these factors and estimates the percentage contribution each makes to gender differences in HRD. Methods This study analyzed information on 23,587 adults obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 1998, 2001, and 2005. It found that the prevalence of HRD was about 5 times higher among men (0.37) than women (0.08). Using a decomposition approach extended from the Oaxaca-Blinder method, we decomposed the gender difference in HRD to an "overall composition effect" (contributions due to gender differences in the distribution of observed socio-economic characteristics), and an "overall HRD-tendency effect" (contributions due to gender differences in tendencies in HRD for individuals who share socio-economic characteristics). Results The HRD-tendency effect accounted for 96% of the gender difference in HRD in South Korea, whereas gender differences in observed socio-economic characteristics explained just 4% of the difference. Notably, the gender-specific HRD-tendency effect accounts for 90% of the gender difference in HRD. Conclusion We came to a finding that gender-specific HRD tendency is the greatest contributor to gender differences in HRD. Therefore, to effective reduce HRD, it will be necessary to understand gender differences in socioeconomic characteristics between men and women but also take notice of such differences in sociocultural settings as they experience. And it will be also required to prepare any gender-differentiated intervention strategy for men and women.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Jamaican adolescents and examine its association with individual and family factors. We used an abbreviated form of the Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) to assess depressive symptoms among 748 students, attending public high schools in the parish of Hanover Jamaica. In the analysis, we classified adolescents with scores in the upper quartile of the depressive symptom score as having depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of depressive symptoms. 14.2% of participants reported depressive symptoms. There was association between engagement in sexual activity [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-2.51], parental monitoring of adolescent activity (OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.33 -3.12), maternal affection and support (OR= 4.07, 95%CI= 2.62-6.33), and paternal affection and support (OR= 1.58, 95%CI= 1.05-2.39) with self reported depressive symptoms at the bivariate level. In the final model, depressive symptoms was associated with perceived lack of maternal affection and support (OR= 4.06, 95%CI= 2.61-6.32) and showed marginal association with being sexually experienced (OR= 1.59, 95%CI= 1.00-2.52). As most homes are female-headed, establishing support systems for the mother to take care of their adolescent children may decrease the odds of depressive symptoms. Sexually experienced adolescents may require screening for depression. Further research is required to fully explore all factors that could predispose Jamaican adolescents to depression. PMID:17525821
Ekundayo, Olaniyi J; Dodson-Stallworth, Joana; Roofe, Michelle; Aban, Inmaculada B; Kempf, Mirjam C; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline E
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging. PMID:23568089
Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard
Prelingual non-syndromic (isolated) deafness is the most frequent hereditary sensory defect. In >80% of the cases, the mode of transmission is autosomal recessive. To date, 14 loci have been identified for the recessive forms (DFNB loci). For two of them, DFNB1 and DFNB2, the genes responsible have been characterized; they encode connexin 26 and myosin VIIA, respectively. In order to evaluate the extent to which the connexin 26 gene (Cx26) contributes to prelingual deafness, we searched for mutations in this gene in 65 affected Caucasian families originating from various countries, mainly tunisia, France, New Zealand and the UK. Six of these families are consanguineous, and deafness was shown to be linked to the DFNB1 locus, 10 are small non consanguineous families in which the segregation of the trait has been found to be compatible with the involvement of DFNB1, and in the remaining 49 families no linkage analysis has been performed. A total of 62 mutant alleles in 39 families were identified. Therefore, mutations in Cx26 represent a major cause of recessively inherited prelingual deafness since according to the present results they would underlie approximately half of the cases. In addition, one specific mutation, 30delG, accounts for the majority (approximately 70%) of the Cx26 mutant alleles. It is therefore one of the most frequent disease mutations so far identified. Several lines of evidence indicate that the high prevalence of the 30delG mutation arises from a mutation hot spot rather than from a founder effect. Genetic counseling for prelingual deafness has been so far considerably impaired by the difficulty in distinguishing genetic and non genetic deafness in families presenting with a single deaf child. Based on the results presented here, the development of a simple molecular test could be designed which should be of considerable help. PMID:9336442
Denoyelle, F; Weil, D; Maw, M A; Wilcox, S A; Lench, N J; Allen-Powell, D R; Osborn, A H; Dahl, H H; Middleton, A; Houseman, M J; Dodé, C; Marlin, S; Boulila-ElGaďed, A; Grati, M; Ayadi, H; BenArab, S; Bitoun, P; Lina-Granade, G; Godet, J; Mustapha, M; Loiselet, J; El-Zir, E; Aubois, A; Joannard, A; Levilliers, J; Garabédian, E N; Mueller, R F; Gardner, R J; Petit, C
The aim of this study was to determine the biliary pattern of conjugated bile acids after stimulation of their enterohepatic circulation. Conjugated bile acids were separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography without prior derivatization. A MicroPak SP-C18-IP-4 column was used as non-polar matrix, and an ionic alkyl compound, tetrabutylammonium phosphate, was added to the mobile phase, which was a mixture of acetonitrile and water. Quantification was made by UV absorption at 210 nm with external standardization. In fourteen human patients with external biliary drainage after papillotomy there was preferential glycine conjugation. The mean values were 36.5% for glycocholic acid, 33% for glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and 10.0% for glycodeoxycholic acid. Only 15.2% of the biliary bile acids were taurine metabolites. Conjugates of ursodeoxycholic acid were below 2.1%. In most cases, conjugated lithocholic acid was not detected. Within 4 h after ingestion of a standardized meal there were no significant changes in the biliary bile acid pattern. In four dogs (beagles), glycine-conjugated bile acids were lacking. The mean values were 74.3% for taurocholic acid, 14.9% for taurodeoxycholic acid, and 5.3% for taurochenodeoxycholic acid. In six rabbits, 87.4% of biliary bile acids was identified as glycodeoxycholic acid and 5.3% as glycocholic acid. In conscious dogs, as well as in rabbits, the stimulation of biliary secretion by cholecystokinin and/or secretin had no effect on the biliary bile acid spectrum. Evidently, there is a difference in the biliary composition of conjugated bile acids between humans, dogs, and rabbits. Because of the different physicochemical behaviour of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile salts, it seems difficult to compare the therapeutic effect of gallstone dissolution in various species. PMID:3700515
Wildgrube, H J; Stockhausen, H; Petri, J; Füssel, U; Lauer, H
In the popular literature, it is often assumed that a single conceptual framework can be applied to both dog–dog and dog–human interactions, including play. We have, through three studies, tested the hypothesis that dog–dog and dog–human play are motivationally distinct. In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (N=402), dogs which were walked together, and had opportunities
Nicola J. Rooney; John W. S. Bradshaw; Ian H. Robinson
An emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in settings affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) has been observed. We investigated the prevalence of DR-TB in P1041, a multicentered, randomised, double-blind trial which compared the administration of isoniazid (INH) to placebo, in HIV-exposed, non-infected and -infected African infants in the absence of any documented TB exposure. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was 22.2% (95%CI 8.5-45.8) and INH monoresistance 5.6% (95%CI 0.1-27.6) among culture-confirmed cases, with all MDR-TB occurring in a single site. There was no association between INH treatment or placebo group, or between HIV infection status, and DR-TB prevalence. There was a high prevalence of DR-TB among HIV-exposed and -infected children. Surveillance of DR-TB among children in high-burden TB-HIV settings should be routine. PMID:22236919
Hesseling, A C; Kim, S; Madhi, S; Nachman, S; Schaaf, H S; Violari, A; Victor, T C; McSherry, G; Mitchell, C; Cotton, M F
Background Caribbean-born blacks (CBB) have been reported to have lower coronary artery disease mortality rates than US-born blacks (UBB). We assessed whether CBB have a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors compared to UBB. Methods Non-Hispanic blacks (n = 275) hospitalized for chest pain who were prospectively enrolled in our Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Group (CORG) study provided clinical and demographic data. Results The study cohort comprised 45% (n = 125) UBB with a mean age of 61 ± 16 years and 55% (n = 150) CBB with a mean age of 63 ± 11 years. Myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 33% of UBB and 36% of CBB. CBB had a lower rate of previous myocardial infarction (14 vs. 24%; p = 0.04). They also smoked less (16 vs. 35%; p = 0.001) and were less likely to have first-degree relatives with coronary artery disease (24 vs. 41%; p = 0.018). However, they had a similarly high prevalence of hypertension (99 vs. 98%; p = 0.99), diabetes (58 vs. 48%; p = 0.11), dyslipidemia (53 vs. 42%; p = 0.08), and obesity (34 vs. 40%; p = 0.29) as UBB. Conclusion A very high prevalence of hypertension exists in non-Hispanic blacks hospitalized for chest pain. CBB and UBB have a similar prevalence of cardiometabolic profile in our study population. Besides smoking, other factors contributing to lower CHD mortality reported for CBB need to be further explored.
Bamimore, Ayotunde; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Demede, Melaku; Zizi, Ferdinand; Browne, Ruth; Brown, Cinton; McFarlane, Samy I.; Jean-Louis, Girardin
A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (HFPDD) in a community sample of teenagers and adults aged 13 and above in the city of Sheffield, UK. 112 possible and definite cases were found, of whom 65 (57%) had a previous diagnosis. The detected prevalence of possible or definite HFPDD was found to be 0.24 per 1000 of the population of Sheffield city aged 13 or over, but the prevalence by year of age fell from a maximum of 1.1 per 1000 in the group aged 13 to 14 years old (1 young adult in every 900 in this age group) to 0.03 per 1000 in the over 60s (1 person in every 38500 in this age group). The results of this study are preliminary and need follow-up investigation in larger studies. We suggest several explanations for the findings, including reduced willingness to participate in a study as people get older, increased ascertainment in younger people, and increased mortality. Another contributory factor might be that the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive development disorder may decline with age. This raises the possibility that AS symptoms might become subclinical in adulthood in a proportion of people with HFPDD.
Balfe, M.; Tantam, D.; Campbell, M.
We estimated the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among injecting and noninjecting drug users treated within public drug-treatment centres in Italy to determine the correlates of infection. In the sample of 1330 drug users, the prevalence of HIV was 14.4% among drug injectors and 1.6% among non-injectors; the prevalence of HBV was 70.4% among injecting drug users and 22.8% among non-injectors and of HCV was 83.2% among injecting drug users and 22.0% among non-injectors. Old age, unemployment, and intravenous drug use were significantly correlated with each of the infections, as well as a longer history of injecting drug use. The results indicate that these infections continue to circulate among drug users, highlighting the need for monitoring of this group in Italy. PMID:20348620
Camoni, Laura; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Canuzzi, Pietro; Magliocchetti, Natalia; Rezza, Giovanni; Suligoi, Barbara
HIV-associated dementia (HAD) has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are no data available from Malawi. We used the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), a cross-cultural, simple and validated screening tool to study the prevalence of suspected HAD, defined as an IHDS score
Patel, V N; Mungwira, R G; Tarumbiswa, T F; Heikinheimo, T; van Oosterhout, J J
We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051
Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita
We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach.
Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita
Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population. PMID:23438265
Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R
We conducted a cross-sectional convenience sampling study of dogs racing in the 2010 Iditarod to determine the seroprevalence of canine influenza virus (CIV) in the sled dog population. Questionnaires were completed detailing medical and CIV vaccination history, kennel size and location, travel history, and social interactions for each team. A total of 399 dogs were tested for CIV antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition assay. None of these, including 39 samples from dogs reported as CIV vaccinated, were seropositive for CIV antibodies. All of the vaccinated dogs were also negative on virus microneutralization assay. Risk factors for CIV seropositivity could not be determined due to a lack of positive samples. This is the first published study investigating the prevalence of CIV in sled dogs and additional studies are warranted to assess CIV infection among racing sled dogs and to evaluate the ecology of CIV and the vaccine efficacy in this population of dogs. PMID:23543928
Pecoraro, Heidi L; Lee, Justin S; Achenbach, Jenna; Nelson, Stuart; Landolt, Gabriele A
We conducted a cross-sectional convenience sampling study of dogs racing in the 2010 Iditarod to determine the seroprevalence of canine influenza virus (CIV) in the sled dog population. Questionnaires were completed detailing medical and CIV vaccination history, kennel size and location, travel history, and social interactions for each team. A total of 399 dogs were tested for CIV antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition assay. None of these, including 39 samples from dogs reported as CIV vaccinated, were seropositive for CIV antibodies. All of the vaccinated dogs were also negative on virus microneutralization assay. Risk factors for CIV seropositivity could not be determined due to a lack of positive samples. This is the first published study investigating the prevalence of CIV in sled dogs and additional studies are warranted to assess CIV infection among racing sled dogs and to evaluate the ecology of CIV and the vaccine efficacy in this population of dogs.
Pecoraro, Heidi L.; Lee, Justin S.; Achenbach, Jenna; Nelson, Stuart; Landolt, Gabriele A.
In order to provide the basis of microvascular anastomosis for reconstruction of maxillofacial defects from firearm injury by using vascularized free tissue transplantation, we studied the mechanism and pathology of microvascular injuries and the possibility of their early anastomosis. The dogs' face were wounded by 0.7 g or 1.03 g steel spheres whose muzzle velocity were 1300 m/s or 1500 m/s. The injury effects of microvascular angiograms were recorded through high speed X-ray camera at the impacting moment the specimens of small vessel were collected for light and electron microscopy at different times after wound. Some dogs were used for performing microvascular anastomosis in the wound region at different times after wound. We found that there were temporary cavity effects in maxillofacial firearm wounds, in and around which small vessel blunt injuries were found, which spread 3 cm from the wound edge. Microvascular anastomosis 3 days after the wound could get higher shortterm patency rate. These results support the conclusion that if we use microsurgical methods to repair defects in maxillofacial firearm wound region, the pedicles of the flap should be laid beyond 3 cm from the wound edge, and the reconstructive operation should be done 3 days after the wound. PMID:2161272
In order to investigate the preclinical pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine, a fast, sensitive and high throughput UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of cefuroxime in dog plasma. Cefuroxime and IS phenacetin were extracted from plasma samples by PPT or LLE procedure, and then separated on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C(18) column with an isocratic elution of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in 10mM ammonium acetate (40:60, v/v). MRM using the fragmentation transitions of m/z 442 ? 364 and 180 ? 110 in positive ESI mode was performed to quantify cefuroxime and IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 2-400 ?g/ml for PPT and 0.01-5 ?g/ml for LLE. The LLOQ was 0.01 ?g/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions in all samples were no more than 8.1%, while the accuracy was within ± 6.2% of nominal values. The method was successfully applied to the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine in beagle dogs. PMID:22284463
Zhao, Longshan; Zhao, Yunli; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiaohui; Xiao, Feng; He, Bosai; Wang, Jie; Bi, Kaishun
Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.
Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.
Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study
Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1) and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5) dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6), E. canis (OR = 4.1) and D. immitis (OR = 2.4) were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in place to protect dogs and limit the risk of transmission of vector-borne agents to humans. This study is expected to give veterinary and public health authorities an increased awareness about CVBDs in Portugal and to serve as a reference for future investigations and control actions.
Background Hepatitis B and C cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Little is known about the existence of hepatitis B and C among high risk groups of the Pakistani population. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in high risk groups, their comparison and the possible mode of acquisition by obtaining the history of exposure to known risk factors. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out in Karachi, from January 2007 to June 2008. HBsAg and Anti HCV screening was carried out in blood samples collected from four vulnerable or at risk groups which included injecting drug users (IDUs), prisoners, security personnel and health care workers (HCWs). Demographic information was recorded and the possible mode of acquisition was assessed by detailed interview. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using the STATA software. Results We screened 4202 subjects, of these, 681 individuals were reactive either with hepatitis B or C. One hundred and thirty three (3.17%) were hepatitis B reactive and 548 (13.0%) were diagnosed with hepatitis C. After adjusting for age, security personnel, prisoners and IV drug users were 5, 3 and 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B reactive respectively as compared to the health care workers. IDUs were 46 times more likely to be hepatitis C positive compared with health care workers. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatitis B and C was considerably higher in IDUs, prisoners and security personnel compared to HCWs group. Hepatitis C is more prevalent than hepatitis B in all these risk groups. Prevalence of hepatitis C increased with the increase in age. Use of unsterilized syringes, used syringes, body piercing and illicit sexual relations were found to be important associated risk factors for higher prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in these groups.
A significantly higher proportion of Los Angeles County (State of California, USA) multiple sclerosis patient than of King-Pierce Counties (State of Washington, USA) patients, interviewed as part of a prevalence survey, reported adverse perceived effects to heat exposure indicators and beneficial effects from cold exposure indicators. The differences might be at least partially due to the greater awareness of this
Barbara R. Visscher; Roger Detels; Virginia A. Clark; Roberta M. Malmgren; Jan P. Dudley; Nora L. Valdiviezo
Cambodia is located in an area of resistance to multiple antimalarials and has been the first country to implement the systematic use of an artesunate-mefloquine combination as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of resistance mutations within the natural parasite populations, impeding rational drug policy in this context. Using direct sequencing of PCR
Nimol Khim; Christiane Bouchier; Marie-Therese Ekala; Sandra Incardona; Pharath Lim; Eric Legrand; Ronan Jambou; Socheat Doung; Odile Mercereau Puijalon; Thierry Fandeur
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence and awareness of traditional CVD risk factors, obesity, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk classification using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) among women attending the 2006 Sister to Sister National Woman’s Heart Day event.
Irene S. Pollin; Brian G. Kral; Teresa Shattuck; Michele Debarthe Sadler; Jennifer R. Boyle; Laurene McKillop; Catherine Campbell; Dominique Ashen; Khurram Nasir; Rita F. Redberg; Karlynn BrintzenhofeSzoc; Roger S. Blumenthal; Erin D. Michos
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Over a period of 30 months, 175 patients with PCOS were recruited to a prospective multi- center study to evaluate thyroid function and morphology; 168 age-matched women without PCOS were studied as a control group. Methods: PCOS was defined as a- or oligomenorrhea,
Onno E Janssen; Nadine Mehlmauer; Susanne Hahn; Alexandra H Offner; Roland Gartner
The ingestion of uncooked infected meat is considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and little is known of the prevalence of viable T. gondii in meat used for human consumption in the U.S. In the present study, viable T. gondii was isolated from 51 of 55 of ...
|Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures.…
Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.
BackgroundDirectly observed treatment short course (DOTS), the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB) transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We
Elizabeth L. Corbett; Tsitsi Bandason; Yin Bun Cheung; Shungu Munyati; Peter Godfrey-Faussett; Richard Hayes; Gavin Churchyard; Anthony Butterworth; Peter Mason
Background\\/Aims: It is estimated that there are 90,000 patients with dementia in the 23 million habitants of Taiwan, with a few institutions specialized in dementia care. To assess the need of institutional care for dementia, we investigated the institution prevalence of dementia. Methods: We performed stratified randomized sampling of elder residents from different types of institutions in different regions of
Ta-Fu Chen; Ming-Jang Chiu; Li-Yu Tang; Yueh-Hsia Chiu; Shu-Feng Chang; Che-Long Su; Shaw-Ji Chen; Chung-Wei Lin; Wan-Yu Shih; Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen; Rong-Chi Chen
We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7-28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8-44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3-49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4-10.4%), respectively. We observed strong heterogeneity for helminthiasis by ethnicity, province, and wealth status, which coincided with a risk profile demonstrating that Mon-Khmer persons and the poorest households are highly vulnerable. Necator americanus was the dominant hookworm species infecting humans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the only Ancylostoma species detected. Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation. PMID:22492147
Conlan, James V; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew
Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and hospital records of children diagnosed with drug-resistant TB were reviewed, including clinical and radiological outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) was performed using the automated liquid broth MGIT™ 960 method. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed using the MGIT™ 960 method for both first and second-line anti-TB drugs. Results 1317 children were treated for tuberculosis in 2008 between the two hospitals where the study was conducted. Drug susceptibility testing was undertaken in 148 (72.5%) of the 204 children who had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. The prevalence of isoniazid-resistance was 14.2% (n = 21) (95%CI, 9.0-20.9%) and the prevalence of MDR-TB 8.8% (n = 13) (95%CI, 4.8-14.6%). The prevalence of HIV co-infection was 52.1% in children with drug susceptible-TB and 53.9% in children with MDR-TB. Ten (76.9%) of the 13 children with MDR-TB received appropriate treatment and four (30.8%) died at a median of 2.8 months (range 0.1-4.0 months) after the date of tuberculosis investigation. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children in Johannesburg in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV co-infection, although no association between HIV infection and MDR-TB was found in this study. Routine HIV and drug-susceptibility testing is warranted to optimize the management of childhood tuberculosis in settings such as ours.
We assessed the relation between different fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and the prevalence and severity of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) in high-risk Chinese patients. Among 512 subjects who were to undergo coronary angiography for the confirmation of suspected myocardial ischemia, 409 subjects were enrolled and categorized into 3 groups based on FPG levels: (1) =5.5 mmol/L, (2) 5.6 to 6.0 mmol/L, and (3) 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L. Each of these groups was further divided into subgroups by sex; the second and third groups were combined as an additional group according to the 2003 definition of impaired fasting glucose (FPG at 5.6-6.9 mmol/L). We analyzed the coronary artery stenosis score, the prevalence of angiographic CAD, and the percentage of stenosis in the 3 main arteries among the groups and examined the risk factors for angiographic CAD prevalence by logistic regression analysis. A higher correlation was observed between angiographic CAD prevalence and FPG levels of 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L as compared with FPG levels =5.5 mmol/L (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-4.10; P = .011). The FPG levels of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L (adjusted OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.65-4.02; P < .001) and 5.6 to 6.0 mmol/L (adjusted OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.58-3.49; P = .008) were modestly correlated with angiographic CAD prevalence. The angiographic CAD prevalence, coronary artery stenosis score, and the percentage of stenosis in the left anterior descending branch increased corresponding to increasing FPG levels from =5.5 mmol/L to 5.6 to 6.0 mmol/L to 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L. We concluded that FPG levels of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L as well as of 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L may be an independent risk factor for angiographic CAD; furthermore, there was a progressive and graded relation between FPG levels of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and angiographic CAD prevalence and severity in high-risk Chinese patients. PMID:18078855
Dong, Xuehong; Zhou, Linuo; Zhai, Yingjiu; Lu, Bin; Wang, Dong; Shi, Haiming; Luo, Xinping; Fan, Weihu; Hu, Renming
Experimental sensitization in dogs has revealed that the capacity to produce high levels of IgE against a variety of allergens (high IgE responders), an essential characteristic of the atopic state, is a genetic trait inherited in a dominant manner. In high IgE responder dogs spontaneous development of IgE to inhaled allergens, such as house dust mites, on the other hand,
Alain L. de Weck; Peter Mayer; Barbara Stumper; Brigitte Schiessl; Louise Pickart
The risk of melanoma is higher in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. Whether the association is disease related or treatment related is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess melanoma prevalence in PD patients in Israel using active dermatologic screening. Consecutive patients with idiopathic PD were recruited by 12 Israeli centers. A movement disorder specialist assessed the severity of PD and obtained a medical, neurological, and medication history. Subsequently, a dermatologist assessed melanoma risk factors, recorded a dermatologic history, proactively performed a whole-body skin examination, and biopsied suspicious skin lesions. Of the enrolled patients (n = 1,395, mean age 69.5 ± 10.6 years, mean PD duration 7.3 ± 6.0 years), 95.3% were treated with dopaminergic agents. Biopsies revealed 8 patients with melanoma in situ and 1 with invasive malignant melanoma; 14 patients reported a melanoma prior to enrollment. The observed 5-year limited duration prevalence of melanoma in PD patients was 4.4 times greater (95% CI 2.6-7.6) than expected from melanoma prevalence in an age- and sex-matched cohort from the Israel National Cancer Registry. The increase was accounted for by an elevated prevalence of melanoma in situ [relative risk 12.5 (95% CI 6.7-23.2)]. Occurrence of melanoma did not correlate with levodopa therapy or time of onset of PD. Melanoma prevalence in PD patients was higher than expected in the general Israeli population. This was not related to levodopa treatment. PD patients should be actively screened for melanoma on a routine basis. PMID:21298300
Inzelberg, R; Rabey, J M; Melamed, E; Djaldetti, R; Reches, A; Badarny, S; Hassin-Baer, S; Cohen, O; Trau, H; Aharon-Peretz, J; Milo, R; Schwartz, M; Huberman, M; Gilead, L; Barchana, M; Liphshiz, I; Fitzer-Attas, C; Giladi, N
The origins of the domestic dog are discussed in relation to the hunting and nurturing behavioral patterns of man and the social canids. While it is accepted that the wolf was the progenitor of the dog the possibility that other species of canid were tamed and interbred with early domestic dogs is not disputed. A description is given of the
The prevalence of TT virus (TTV) infection was investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in low- (blood donors and healthy children/adolescents) and high-risk (hemophiliacs) groups from Săo Paulo, Brazil. Primers based on the untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genome proved to be much more ubiquitous, leading to much higher frequencies for both groups (>or= 81%) than the earlier N22-PCR directed to the open reading frame 1 (blood donors, 5.5%, and hemophiliacs, 42.3%). The UTR-PCR also revealed an interesting profile for healthy children/adolescents: very high prevalence at the early years and significant decrease in male teenagers. The N22-PCR, in turn, demonstrated higher frequency in hemophiliacs treated with fresh blood products (58%), than in those treated with virus-inactivated clotting factors (9.4%) and blood donors (5.5%). PMID:12219117
Bassit, Leda; Takei, Kioko; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Nishiya, Anna S; Sabino, Ester C; Bassitt, Rogério P; Focaccia, Roberto; D'Amico, Elbio; Chamone, Dalton F; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Gabriela
The efficacy of selamectin was evaluated against naturally acquired Trichodectes canis infestations on dogs and against Felicola subrostratus infestations on cats. Twenty dogs and 18 cats were randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo or selamectin (6 mg/kg), administered topically once only on day 0. The treatment had no adverse effects in either the dogs or the cats. Efficacy was assessed by counting the live lice (adults and nymphs) on each animal by using a coat-parting technique on days -3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 for the dogs, and on days -1, 7, 21, 35 and 42 for the cats. On day 43, the number of live lice on each dog was also assessed by using a whole-body combing technique. Selamectin was 100 per cent effective in killing biting lice on the dogs and cats throughout the period of assessment; the louse counts on the treated dogs and cats were significantly lower than the pretreatment counts (P = 0.0001) and were also significantly lower than on the placebo-treated dogs (P < 0.05) and cats (P = 0.0001). There was a marked reduction in the prevalence of clinical signs associated with ectoparasite infestation in the treated dogs and no clinical signs were observed in any of the treated cats. PMID:12625538
Shanks, D J; Gautier, P; McTier, T L; Evans, N A; Pengo, G; Rowan, T G
Sulfation has been thoroughly studied in several species including e.g. man and rat. However, one important species often used for pharmacological drug studies is the dog. Here we describe recent advances as well as older data in the field of dog sulfation. Species differences in sulfation have been reported. Stereoselectivity, inhibition by pentachlorophenol, bioactivation of DNA binding species, and gender differences have also been observed for canine sulfotransferases (SULTs). Several drugs are being sulfated in vivo in dog, e.g. xamoterol, 4'-hydroxypropanolol, paracetamol and salicylamide. However, studies have shown that also e.g. canine hepatocytes and liverslices will sulfate substrates e.g. paracetamol and 7-hydroxycoumarin in in vitro experiments. Recently, three different enzymes have been cloned and characterized from canine liver, cSULT1A1, cSULT1B1 and cSULT1D1. cSULT1A1 being very similar to the human ortholog in terms of substrate specificity and is also ubiquitously expressed in canine tissues. The cSULT1B1 enzyme is also very similar in both distribution pattern as well as substrate preference compared to the human ortholog. The third enzyme, cSULT1D1, sulfates dopamine with high efficiency and it has no counterpart in man since it is found as a pseudogene. The importance of amino acid residue 247 in cSULT1D1 will be discussed since it can alter the ratio of sulfation of dopamine versus para-nitrophenol. In addition, the phenomenon of the high expression of the canine enzymes in colon is discussed. PMID:15975044
Tsoi, C; Swedmark, S
Setting: The applicability of serodiagnosis of tuberculosis using Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex-specific antigens in a Tanzanian population with high prevalence of HIV.Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness, sensitivity and specificity of serology using M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV co-infection.Design: Patients with proven pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis at a major referral
S. Thybo; C. Richter; H. Wachmann; S. Y. Maselle; D. H. Mwakyusa; I. Mtoni; Ĺ. B. Andersen
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the general population and in various high risk groups in south India was assessed. A total of 258 out of 3589 (7.1%) subjects (both general and risk groups) tested positive for HCV RNA by RT-PCR, while the third generation ELISA detected only 6.1% (221\\/3589). This suggests that a number of cases
Mohammed N. Khaja; Chandra Madhavi; Rekha Thippavazzula; Farees Nafeesa; Aejaz M. Habib; Chittoor M. Habibullah; Ramareddy V. Guntaka
BackgroundLittle is known about treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high HIV-prevalence settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe did a retrospective analysis of early outcomes of the first cohort of patients registered in the Lesotho national MDR-TB program between July 21, 2007 and April 21, 2008. Seventy-six patients were included for analysis. Patient follow-up ended when an outcome was recorded,
Kwonjune J. Seung; David B. Omatayo; Salmaan Keshavjee; Jennifer J. Furin; Paul E. Farmer; Hind Satti; Madhukar Pai
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of high risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the states of San Luis Potosí (SLP) and Guanajuato (Gto), Mexico, was determined by restriction fragment length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on the E6 ~250 bp (E6-250) HR-HPV products amplified from cervical scrapings of 442 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma (280 from SLP and 192 from Gto). Fresh
Rubén López-Revilla; Luz A Martínez-Contreras; Mireya Sánchez-Garza
Associations have been reported of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both the personality trait of novelty seeking and attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The increased prevalence of the 7R allele in ADHD probands is consistent with the common variant–common disorder hypothesis, which proposes that the high frequency of many complex genetic disorders is related
D L Grady; H-C Chi; Y-C Ding; M Smith; E Wang; S Schuck; P Flodman; M A Spence; J M Swanson; R K Moyzis
Background Immigrants from the Middle-East are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present survey was to\\u000a measure, in a single deprived neighbourhood, the prevalence rates of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance\\u000a (IGT) and T2D in residents originating from Iraq and to compare them to those in residents born in Sweden. An additional
Louise Bennet; Sven-Erik Johansson; Carl-David Agardh; Leif Groop; Jan Sundquist; Lennart Rĺstam; Kristina Sundquist
Data were collected on the point and lifetime prevalences, 1-year incidence, and comorbidity of depression with other disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [3rd ed., rev.]) in a randomly selected sample (n = 1,710) of high school students at point of entry and at 1-year follow-up (n = 1,508). The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age
Peter M. Lewinsohn; Hyman Hops; Robert E. Roberts; John R. Seeley; Judy A. Andrews
Over the last two decades increasing evidence for an acute sensitivity to human gestures and attentional states in domestic dogs has led to a burgeoning of research into the social cognition of this highly familiar yet previously under-studied animal. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) have been shown to be more successful than their closest relative (and wild progenitor) the wolf, and
Monique A. R. Udell; Nicole R. Dorey; Clive D. L. Wynne
BackgroundThe HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous at the district level in the four Southern states of India most affected by the epidemic and where transmission is mainly heterosexual. The authors carried out an ecological study of the relationship between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women (ANC HIV prevalence).MethodsThe data used in this study included: ANC HIV prevalence
Michel Alary; A A Jayachandran; Catherine M Lowndes; Jan Bradley; Eric Demers; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar
Background Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that is distributed world-wide and infects a variety of hosts. However, the prevalence of T. gondii in the environment (such as soil, water and food) is largely unknown. Due to the technical difficulty in oocyst counting directly, an alternative assay using the serologic status of T. gondii in free-living animals, such as stray or free-living dogs, as an indicator, can be used to evaluate environmental contamination indirectly, as they are exposed to the same risk of infection as humans and other animals. Results In the present study, 231 stray or free-living dogs across an urban-rural gradient were examined to assess the frequency of T. gondii in the environment. Specific antibodies to T. gondii were found in 93 dogs (40.3%) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and no statistically significant differences were observed in seroprevalences of T. gondii between urban dogs (38.7%) and rural dogs (41%) (p > 0.05). Conclusions A high seroprevalence of T. gondii in stray or free-living dogs in the present study indicates that there would be a wide distribution and a constant infection pressure of T. gondii across an urban-rural gradient, and the oocysts of T. gondii in the environment would be an important source of infection for humans and other animals both in urban and rural areas in China.
Objective To examine the distribution of HIV-1 genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) from Dehong, Yunnan province. Materials and Methods Blood samples from a total of 95 HIV-positive IDUs were retrospectively analyzed. Samples were collected between 2005 and 2009 from four cities in Dehong prefecture, western Yunnan province, the geographical origin of the HIV epidemic in China. HIV-1 gag, partial pol, vpr-env fragment, half-genome, or near-full-length sequences were analyzed to determine the HIV-1 genotypes of each subject. Results were compared with findings from past studies of IDUs in Dehong and in neighboring Myanmar. Results We observed a high prevalence of B?/C recombinants (82.4%) among IDUs in Dehong, the structural profiles of which do not match those previously reported in Dehong or in Myanmar. Furthermore, statistically significant differences in geographical and temporal distributions of HIV-1 genotypes were characterized by a predominance of HIV-1 B?/C recombinant forms among older subjects(p?=?0.034), subjects from Longchuan district (p?=?0.022), and subjects diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 (p?=?0.004). Conclusions The increasing prevalence of multiple, new B?/C recombinant forms suggest that HIV-1 intersubtype recombination is substantial and ongoing in western Yunnan. This reflects the high-risk behavior of IDUs in this region and argues the need for stronger monitoring and prevention measures in Dehong and other high-prevalence areas around China.
Han, Xiaoxu; An, Minghui; Zhao, Bin; Duan, Song; Yang, Shaomin; Xu, Junjie; Zhang, Min; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Takebe, Yutaka; Shang, Hong
Intensive breeding and selection on desired traits have produced high rates of inherited diseases in dogs. Hereditary retinal degeneration, often called progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), is prevalent in dogs with disease entities comparable to human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Recent molecular studies in the English Springer Spaniel (ESS) dog have shown that PRA cases are often homozygous for a mutation in the RPGRIP1 gene, the defect also causing human RP, LCA, and cone rod dystrophies. The present study characterizes the disease in a group of affected ESS in USA, using clinical, functional, and morphological studies. An objective evaluation of retinal function using electroretinography (ERG) is further performed in a masked fashion in a group of American ESS dogs, with the examiner masked to the genetic status of the dogs. Only 4 of 6 homozygous animals showed clinical signs of disease, emphasizing the need and importance for more precise studies on the clinical expression of molecular defects before utilizing animal models for translational research, such as when using stem cells for therapeutic intervention.
Narfstrom, Kristina; Jeong, Manbok; Hyman, Jennifer; Madsen, Richard W.; Bergstrom, Tomas F.
Intensive breeding and selection on desired traits have produced high rates of inherited diseases in dogs. Hereditary retinal degeneration, often called progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), is prevalent in dogs with disease entities comparable to human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). Recent molecular studies in the English Springer Spaniel (ESS) dog have shown that PRA cases are often homozygous for a mutation in the RPGRIP1 gene, the defect also causing human RP, LCA, and cone rod dystrophies. The present study characterizes the disease in a group of affected ESS in USA, using clinical, functional, and morphological studies. An objective evaluation of retinal function using electroretinography (ERG) is further performed in a masked fashion in a group of American ESS dogs, with the examiner masked to the genetic status of the dogs. Only 4 of 6 homozygous animals showed clinical signs of disease, emphasizing the need and importance for more precise studies on the clinical expression of molecular defects before utilizing animal models for translational research, such as when using stem cells for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22550515
Narfström, Kristina; Jeong, Manbok; Hyman, Jennifer; Madsen, Richard W; Bergström, Tomas F
OBJECTIVE—To determine the change of incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opportunistic infections in HIV positive patients under treatment since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).?METHODS—The data of all HIV infected patients were retrospectively analysed, who were examined in the HIV outpatients clinic of the neurological department of the University Clinic Essen between 1995 and 1998 (n=563, total number of visits=735). Data from identified patients were divided into two groups according to the time of examination from 1995 to 1996 (334 visits) and from 1997 to 1998(401 visits). The incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders were statistically compared between both time intervals.?RESULTS—Significantly more patients received HAART in 1997-8 (p<0.001) and mean CD4+ cell count was significantly higher in 1997-8 (p<0.001). The prevalence of HIV associated dementia and HIV associated polyneuropathy were significantly lower in 1997-8 (both: p=0.02) and the incidence of toxoplasma encephalitis decreased from 5.7% in 1995-6 to 2.2% in 1997-8 (p=0.015). Based on the small number of patients significant changes in HIV associated myopathy, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, cryptoccocal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus-encephalitis could not be detected.?CONCLUSION—The prevalence of the most frequent HIV associated neurological disorders and incidence of toxoplasma encephalitis decreased since the introduction of HAART. This may be due to the improvement of immunostatus by HAART as demonstrated by the higher CD4+ cell count in the later time interval. Direct antiretroviral effects within the nervous system may be considered causative as well. The prevalence and incidence of HIV associated neurological disorders and opportunistic CNS infections decreased after introduction of HAART.??
Maschke, M.; Kastrup, O.; Esser, S.; Ross, B.; Hengge, U.; Hufnagel, A.
To identify the incidence of Babesia gibsoni (B. gibsoni) in Aomori Prefecture, northeastern Japan, dogs with acute B. gibsoni infection were investigated at the Animal Teaching Hospital, Kitasato University, between April 2002 and March 2003. Eighteen dogs with acute B. gibsoni infection were recognized; they were all male dogs of the fighting dog breed Tosa. Their platelet counts were below normal and their packed cell volumes (PCVs) were at various levels. We collected blood samples from 141 Tosa dogs from Aomori Prefecture and used polymerase chain reaction assay to investigate the incidence of subclinical B. gibsoni infection. We also looked into the serological abnormalities associated with thrombocytopenia or anemia in subclinical infection. Forty-one of 87 dogs (47.1%) with histories of dog fighting, and one dog of 54 without a history of dog fighting were positive for B. gibsoni; that is, 42 of 141 dogs (29.8%) showed a positive result. The mean platelet counts of dogs with subclinical infection were significantly lower and levels of anti-platelet IgG were significantly higher than levels for dogs without infection. Anti-erythrocyte membrane IgG levels were significantly higher in dogs with subclinical infections, although mean PCVs were not significantly different. Tosa dogs from Aomori Prefecture, Japan, were highly infected with B. gibsoni subclinically and this pathogen might be successfully transmitted during dog fighting. Dogs with subclinical infections were at risk of chronic thrombocytopenia, which may be due to autoimmune mechanisms. PMID:15353837
Matsuu, Aya; Kawabe, Akemi; Koshida, Yushi; Ikadai, Hiromi; Okano, Shozo; Higuchi, Seiichi
Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing can be used to identify women at risk of the development of cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of HPV screening is dependent on the type-specific HPV prevalence in the general population. The present study describes the prevalence and spectrum of high-risk HPV types found in a large real-life population-based HPV screening trial undertaken entirely within the cervical screening program offered to middle-aged Swedish women. Cervical brush samples from 6,123 women aged 32-38 years were analyzed using a general HPV primer (GP5+/6+) polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) combined with reverse dot-blot hybridization for confirmation and HPV typing by a single assay. In this study, 6.8% (95% CI 6.2-7.5) (417/6,123) were confirmed as high-risk HPV positive. Infections with 13 different high-risk HPV types were detected, of which HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (2.1%; 128/6,123), followed by HPV 31 (1.1%; 67/6,123). Any one of the HPV types 18, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, or 66 was detected in 3.6% (223/6,123) of the women. Infection with two, three, and five types simultaneously was identified in 32, 5, and 1 women, respectively. The combination of PCR-EIA as a screening test and reverse dot-blot hybridization as a confirmatory test, was found to be readily applicable to a real-life population-based cervical screening. The type-specific HPV prevalence found support in previous modeling studies suggesting that HPV screening may be a favorable cervical screening strategy. PMID:11857534
Forslund, Ola; Antonsson, Annika; Edlund, Karin; van den Brule, Adrian J C; Hansson, Bengt-Göran; Meijer, Chris J L M; Ryd, Walter; Rylander, Eva; Strand, Anders; Wadell, Göran; Dillner, Joakim; Johansson, Bo
The prevalence of lipid abnormalities revealed in a survey done in 417 Mexican cities is described. Information was obtained on 15,607 subjects, aged 20 to 69 years. In this re- port, only samples obtained after a 9- to 12-h fast were in- cluded (2,256 cases: 953 men and 1,303 women). The popula- tion is representative of Mexican urban adults. Mean
Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas; Gustavo Olaiz; Victoria Valles; Juan Manuel Ríos Torres; Francisco J. Gómez Pérez; Juan A. Rull; Rosalba Rojas; Aurora Franco; Jaime Sepulveda
India is experiencing an epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2218 young adults (aged 26–32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in south India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969–1973 in Vellore and
Palany Raghupathy; Belavendra Antonisamy; Caroline H. D. Fall; Finney S. Geethanjali; Samantha D. Leary; Julia Saperia; G. Priya; Abel Rajaratnam; Joseph Richard
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence in the general population of parents' concerns about the development of their child, to identify groups at risk and to assess the association between parents' concerns and professional judgement. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data on a Dutch nationally representative sample of children aged 14 months, 3 3\\/4, 5–6 and
Sijmen A. Reijneveld; Gea de Meer; Carin H. Wiefferink; Matty R. Crone
ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in female sex workers (FSW) in Tunisia.Methods188 prostitutes from three Tunisian towns were enrolled at their weekly medical visit. Demographic and sexual behaviour data were collected. C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were
Abir Znazen; Olfa Frikha-Gargouri; Lamia Berrajah; Sihem Bellalouna; Hela Hakim; Nabiha Gueddana; Adnene Hammami
Ruggiero et al. (2009) have recently reviewed the importance of dissection in the training of physicians, the role played by students' fears of infection, and the evidence that those sometimes extreme fears are unwarranted even respecting HIV and AIDS, whose dangers continue to be featured prominently in popular media as though everyone were at constant risk. It is not especially surprising that the risk of accidental infection by HIV is negligibly low in random dissections in Italy where, as in Europe generally, the prevalence of HIV is only a fraction of a percent. The question arises, however, what the risk might be in regions where the prevalence of HIV is considerably higher. South Africa is an obvious candidate for investigating this issue since the prevalence of HIV there is among the highest reported by UNAIDS and other official bodies. Furthermore, its recordkeeping system is more reliable than that of most other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the global region that is universally regarded as the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In addition, South Africa has a globally recognized reputation in the teaching of human anatomy. Perhaps surprisingly, the risks in South Africa also seem to be much less than might be anticipated on the basis of the conventional wisdom. One reason for this counter-intuitive conclusion is that estimates of HIV prevalence and of AIDS deaths issued by international bodies are significantly overblown, with some estimates being 20 times or more greater than locally recorded numbers. A second basis for the unexpected conclusion is that the possibility of false-positive HIV tests has been ignored despite the considerable range of evidence that false-positives can be a significant part, perhaps even a major part, of positive tests in certain groups or certain regions, saliently among people of African ancestry. PMID:20578674
Prayer Galletti, Matteo; Bauer, Henry H
Anemia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is multi-factorial. We studied the prevalence and type of anemia and its correlation with disease variables in RA patients. Among patients with RA anemia was defined as hemoglobin ? 11 g\\/dl in females and ? 12 g\\/dl in males. Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) was defined as serum ferritin ? 50 ?g\\/dl. Disease activity was assessed by modified Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Of the 214 patients
Sumeet Agrawal; Ramnath Misra; Amita Aggarwal
Purpose: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of street racing among adolescents derived from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), an epidemiological survey of students in Ontario, Canada.Methods: The key response variable, self-reported street racing in past year was examined in relation to grade level, rural\\/urban, school marks, cannabis use, drinking and driving, cannabis use
Evelyn Vingilis; Reginald G. Smart; Robert E. Mann; Angela Paglia-Boak; Gina Stoduto; Edward M. Adlaf
Summary Life expectancy is shorter in the subset of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients who are susceptible to kidney disease.\\u000a Familial factors may be important. In this study the prevalence of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity and of risk\\u000a factors for cardiovascular disease was compared in the parents of 31 IDDM patients with elevated albumin excretion rate (AER\\u000a > 45 ?g\\/min;
S. De Cosmo; S. Bacci; G. P. Piras; M. Cignarelli; G. Placentino; M. Margaglione; D. Colaizzo; G. Di Minno; R. Giorgino; A. Liuzzi; G. C. Viberti
Study design:Cross-sectional study.Objectives:To study the prevalence of incontinence, problem perception and determinants of urinary and faecal incontinence in young adults with spina bifida.Setting:Nation-wide study in the Netherlands.Participants:A total of 179 of 350 invited patients participated, including 37 patients with spina bifida occulta and 142 with spina bifida aperta, of whom 119 had hydrocephalus; 41% were male and mean age was
M Verhoef; M Lurvink; H A Barf; M W M Post; F W A van Asbeck; R H J M Gooskens; A J H Prevo
Background and Objectives: Human parvovirus B19 is a potential risk to hemophiliac patients receiving blood products. Materials and Methods: To determine the prevalence of the corresponding antibody in patients with hemophilia A or B or von Willebrand’s disease, we tested 326 hemophilia patients for anti-B19 IgG. The results were compared with those of 203 age-matched controls (male blood donors and
E. P. Mauser-Bunschoten; H. L. Zaaijer; A. A. J. van Drimmelen; S. de Vries; G. Roosendaal; H. M. van den Berg; P. N. Lelie
The prevalence of asthma was studied in a ice hockey team compared with both a floor ball team and the Swiss population. Lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, asthma symptoms and exercise-induced asthma were measured in a cross-sectional prospective study. A positive response to the methacholine bronchial provocation test was found in 34.6% of the ice hockey players and 20.8%
J. D. Leuppi; M. Kuhn; C. Comminot; W. H. Reinhart
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this study, a prevalence survey of various atherosclerosis risk factors was carried out on hitherto poorly studied rural–urban migrants settled in urban slums in a large metropolitan city in northern India, with the aim of studying anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of this population in socio-economic transition.DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study.SUBJECTS: A total of 532 subjects
A Misra; RM Pandey; J Rama Devi; R Sharma; NK Vikram; Nidhi Khanna
Both dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon 3 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) intron 4 repeat polymorphisms have been linked to activity and impulsivity in German Shepherd dogs (GSDs). However, the results in GSDs may not be generalisable to other breeds, as allelic frequencies vary markedly among breeds. We selected the Siberian Husky for further study, because it is highly divergent from most dog breeds, including the GSD. The study sample consisted of 145 racing Siberian Huskies from Europe and North America. We found that this breed possesses seven DRD4 length variants, two to five more variants than found in other breeds. Among them was the longest known allele, previously described only in wolves. Short alleles of the DRD4 and TH repeat polymorphisms were associated with higher levels of activity, impulsivity and inattention. Siberian Huskies possessing at least one short allele of the DRD4 polymorphism displayed greater activity in a behavioural test battery than did those with two long alleles. However, the behavioural test was brief and may not have registered variation in behaviour across time and situations. Owners also completed the Dog-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (Dog-ADHD RS), a more general measure of activity and attention. Siberian Huskies from Europe with two short alleles of the TH polymorphism received higher ratings of inattention on the Dog-ADHD RS than did those with the long allele. Investigation of the joint effect of DRD4 and TH showed that dogs possessing long alleles at both sites were scored as less active-impulsive than were others. Our results are aligned with previous studies showing that DRD4 and TH polymorphisms are associated with activity-impulsivity related traits in dogs. However, the prevalence of variants of these genes differs across breeds, and the functional role of specific variants is unclear. PMID:23713429
Wan, Michele; Hejjas, Krisztina; Ronai, Zsolt; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Champagne, Frances A; Miklósi, Adám; Kubinyi, Enik?
Assistance dogs are trained to help people with various physical and mental handicaps. These dogs are selected using a test comprising several behavioral components. Anecdotal reports have shown that only about 50% of the dogs so selected successfully complete training and become assistance dogs. Traditionally training centers had used puppies, but recently some trainers have begun to use dogs from
Emily Weiss; Gary Greenberg
This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation. PMID:18682357
Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J