These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

High prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from an Indian reservation in northeastern Arizona.  

PubMed

We evaluated the serological and molecular prevalence of selected organisms in 145 dogs during late spring (May/June) of 2005 and in 88 dogs during winter (February) of 2007 from the Hopi Indian reservation. Additionally, in 2005, 442 ticks attached to dogs were collected and identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Infection with or exposure to at least one organism was detected in 69% and 66% of the dogs in May/June 2005 and February 2007, respectively. Exposure to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was detected in 66.4% (2005) and 53.4% (2007) of dogs, but rickettsial DNA was not detected using polymerase chain reaction. Active Ehrlichia canis infection (by polymerase chain reaction) was identified in 36.6% (2005) and 36.3% (2007) of the dogs. E. canis infection was associated with SFG rickettsiae seroreactivity (p < 0.001). Anaplasma platys DNA was detected in 8.3% (2005) and 4.5% (2007) of the dogs. Babesia canis and Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii seroprevalences were 6.7% and 1% in 2005, whereas in 2007 prevalences were 0% and 1.1%, respectively. No Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia chaffeensis, or Ehrlichia ewingii DNA was detected. Dogs on this Hopi Indian reservation were most frequently infected with E. canis or A. platys; however, more than half of the dogs were exposed to a SFG-Rickettsia species. PMID:19469667

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Beall, Melissa J; Omark, Karina; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Daniluk, Daryn A; Cyr, Katie E; Koterski, James F; Robbins, Richard G; Lalo, Pamela G; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2010-03-01

2

High prevalence of Hepatozoon-infection among shepherd dogs in a region considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.  

PubMed

Blood samples and ticks were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs in southern Hungary, in order to screen them for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. Out of 126 blood samples, 33 were positive (26%). Significantly more shepherd dogs (31%) were infected, than hunting (8%) and stray dogs (7%). Three genotypes of Hepatozoon canis were identified by sequencing, differing from each other in up to six nucleotides in the amplified portion of their 18S rRNA gene. In Dermacentor marginatus larvae/nymphs and Dermacentor reticulatus nymphs, H. canis was present only if they had been collected from PCR-positive dogs, and the genotypes were identical in the ticks and their hosts. However, two Haemaphysalis concinna nymphs removed from a PCR-negative dog were found positive for H. canis, and the genotype detected in specimens of this tick species differed from that in the blood of their respective hosts. These results indicate that canine hepatozoonosis may be highly prevalent in regions where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is considered to be non-endemic. In addition, H. canis was identified for the first time in Hungary, as well as in D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and Ha. concinna ticks. Canine hepatozoonosis was significantly more prevalent west of the Danube river (where higher densities of red fox and golden jackal populations occur), suggesting a role of wild carnivores in its epidemiology. PMID:23499483

Hornok, Sándor; Tánczos, Balázs; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Farkas, Róbert

2013-09-01

3

Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases. PMID:19068110

Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg

2008-01-01

4

Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

2014-01-01

5

High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

2015-01-01

6

High prevalence of Yersinia pestis in black-tailed prairie dog colonies during an apparent enzootic phase of sylvatic plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was introduced into North America over 100 years ago. The disease causes high mortality and extirpations in black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), which is of conservation concern because prairie dogs provide habitat for the critically endangered black-footed ferret\\u000a (Mustela nigripes). Our goal was to help elucidate the mechanism Y. pestis uses to persist in prairie ecosystems during

David A. Hanson; Hugh B. Britten; Marco Restani; Leigh R. Washburn

2007-01-01

7

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in living raccoon dogs assessed by hematological examination.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) was examined in the southeast region of Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, using a rapid immunomigration (RIM) test kit. Between April 2007 and March 2010, we examined 108 raccoon dogs rescued and housed by the Kanazawa Zoological Garden. D. immitis infection was found in 8 (7.4%) raccoon dogs. This is the first report to reveal the prevalence of D. immitis infection in living raccoon dogs. The prevalence of the infection was lower than previously reported values obtained on postmortem examination. One reason might be that the present study included young raccoon dogs infected with immature worms. Significant high-risk areas of D. immitis infection in the raccoon dogs were not observed. PMID:21293077

Kido, Nobuhide; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

2011-06-01

8

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs  

E-print Network

observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus–epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus–IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus–epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic. *Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville,

Human Risk; Loïs Allela; Olivier Bourry; Régis Pouillot; André Délicat; Brice Kumulungui; Pierre Rouquet; Jean-paul Gonzalez; Eric M. Leroy

9

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in dogs and cats in subtropical southern China  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is one of the major parasitic zoonoses in China, particularly in China's southern Guangdong province where the prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans is high. However, little is known of the prevalence of C. sinensis infection in its reservoir hosts dogs and cats. Hence, the prevalence of C. sinensis infection in dogs and cats was investigated in Guangdong province, China between October 2006 and March 2008. Results A total of 503 dogs and 194 cats from 13 administrative regions in Guangdong province were examined by post-mortem examination. The worms were examined, counted, and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. The average prevalences of C. sinensis infection in dogs and cats were 20.5% and 41.8%, respectively. The infection intensities in dogs were usually light, but in cats the infection intensities were more serious. The prevalences were higher in some of the cities located in the Pearl River Delta region which is the most important endemic area in Guangdong province, but the prevalences were relatively lower in seaside cities. Conclusions The present investigation revealed a high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in its reservoir hosts dogs and cats in China's subtropical Guangdong province, which provides relevant "base-line" data for conducting control strategies and measures against clonorchiasis in this region. PMID:21929783

2011-01-01

10

Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus) in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273) canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion), age (young or adult), and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273). There was significant difference (P < 0.05) between hunting (15.94%) and companion dogs (1.52%) but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases) in the region. PMID:24900911

Adediran, Oyeduntan Adejoju; Kolapo, Temitope Ubaidat; Uwalaka, Emmanuel Chibuike

2014-01-01

11

Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

2014-01-01

12

A prevalence survey and risk analysis of filariosis in dogs from the Mt. Vesuvius area of southern Italy.  

PubMed

A dog microfilariae prevalence and risk factor survey was conducted in 51 contiguous municipalities of the Mt. Vesuvius area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding filarial worms in this zone. Between May 1999 and June 2000, blood samples were collected from 351 asymptomatic dogs. Blood samples were examined using a modified Knott's technique and histochemical staining in order to count and identify microfilariae. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and choroplethic municipal maps (MMs) were drawn by a geographical information system (GIS) software. Microfilariae were detected in 63 of the 351 dogs surveyed, constituting a total filarial prevalence of 17.9%. In particular, 56 dogs (15.9%) showed only microfilariae of Dipetalonema reconditum; three dogs (0.8%) only microfilariae of Dirofilaria repens; two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both D. reconditum and D. repens and two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. High D. reconditum prevalence was associated with hunting practice, masculine gender and older dogs. There was also a tendency to find high prevalence in dogs sampled in the afternoon. In conclusion, the presence of microfilariae of D. reconditum in 92% of microfilaraemic dogs indicates that this filarial worm was the predominant filarial species in dogs in the Mt. Vesuvius area. In addition, the general trends of the MMs showed that D. immitis and D. repens were present only in a few municipalities, whereas D. reconditum was widely and homogeneously spread throughout the entire study area. PMID:11777604

Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Capelli, G

2001-12-13

13

Increased prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in Bernese Mountain Dogs: a possible breed predisposition  

PubMed Central

Background Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. Results 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs and 62 control dogs (large breed dogs with long hair) were included. All dogs were considered healthy according to a questionnaire filled out by the owner, complete blood count, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture. Bernese Mountain Dogs and control dogs were kept in similar environments. Seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by ELISA and Western blot and was 58% in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to 15% in control dogs. This difference was significant. Neither antibodies against leptospires nor vaccination or hair coat color influenced the results. Conclusion The cause of the considerably higher prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain Dogs and it's consequences are not known. A breed predisposition can be suspected. PMID:17626630

Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

2007-01-01

14

The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples.  

PubMed

Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets. PMID:25583357

Bouzid, Maha; Halai, Kapil; Jeffreys, Danielle; Hunter, Paul R

2015-01-30

15

Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

16

Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.  

PubMed

Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum. PMID:22245069

King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

2012-06-01

17

Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.  

PubMed

Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. PMID:25046431

Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

18

Toxocara canis in household dogs: prevalence, risk factors and owners' attitude towards deworming.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and risk factors for shedding of Toxocara eggs were determined for 916 Dutch household dogs older than 6 months. Additionally, the owners answered a questionnaire about their dogs and their attitude towards routine deworming was assessed. Faecal samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. The overall prevalence of dogs shedding Toxocara eggs was 4.6 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk for 1-7-year-old dogs to shed Toxocara eggs was significantly lower (OR 0.38) than that of 6-12-month-old dogs. Compared to dogs walking ?20 % of the time off-leash, those ranging freely 50-80 % and 80-100 % of the time had a significantly higher risk (OR 10.49 and 13.52, respectively) of shedding Toxocara eggs. Other risk factors were coprophagy (OR 2.44) and recently being kenneled (OR 2.76). Although the applied deworming frequency was not significantly associated with shedding Toxocara eggs, there was a trend towards no shedding in dogs under strict supervision that were dewormed 3-4 times a year. Most dog owners (68 %) recognized 'dog's health' as the main reason for deworming. Only 16 % of dogs were dewormed four times a year. It was concluded that the prevalence of Toxocara egg-shedding household dogs is almost unchanged over recent years and that the knowledge of owners is insufficient to expect sound decisions on routine deworming. PMID:25468379

Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

2015-02-01

19

Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6%) and hunting dogs (1.7%). The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs. PMID:24972327

Maia, Carla; Cortes, Helder; Brancal, Hugo; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Pimenta, Paulo; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

2014-01-01

20

Factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico. The study was carried out in 200 stray dogs of Mérida capital city of Yucatán, Mexico. Four samples (head, thoracic-abdominal area, extremities and ear) were taken from each animal by skin scraping and examined microscopically in 10%

R. I. Rodriguez-Vivas; A. Ortega-Pacheco; J. A. Rosado-Aguilar; G. M. E. Bolio

2003-01-01

21

The prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii among hospitalized animals and stray dogs.  

PubMed Central

Hospitalized animals and stray dogs were serologically tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the data were examined for the possibility of toxoplasmosis infection being associated with the clinical diagnosis and with the discharge status (alive vs. dead). Among 1056 hospitalized animals, 17 (20%) of 86 cats, 112 (14%) of 804 dogs, 34 (26%) of 133 horses and 6 (18%) of 33 cattle had serological evidence of infection with T. gondii. Only 22 (6%) of 342 young (median age = one year) stray dogs were seropositive. The difference in antibody prevalence between hospitalized and stray dogs was thought to be due to age and dietary factors. Of 249 dogs grouped by clinical diagnosis, there was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher prevalence of seropositives among dogs with diseases of the kidney or with adrenocortical hyperfunction than among dogs hospitalized for other diseases. Of 19 dogs with diseases of the kidney and 12 with adrenocortical hyperfunction 37% and 42%, respectively, were seropositive.. There was higher risk of being discharged from the hospital dead among seropositive dogs, cattle and horses than among seronegative animals of the same species. The exception was cats, where of 69 seronegative cats 29% were dead at discharge and where of 17 seropositive cats 18% were dead at discharge. The possible effects of stress due to hospitalization need further research. PMID:743598

Riemann, H P; Kaneko, J J; Haghighi, S; Behymer, D E; Franti, C E; Ruppanner, R

1978-01-01

22

Prevalence of borreliosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs and vectors in Voronezh Reserve (Russia).  

PubMed

Most of the dogs studied for the prevalence of CVBD have previously received acaricidal and insecticidal treatments. In the present work, a very specific population of dogs (Group 1) that had never been treated against ticks and mosquitoes was studied. Moreover, the territory occupied by this population has also never been treated, because it is a protected area--Voronezh Natural Reserve. Canine patients from veterinary clinics (Group 2) that had been treated against VBD vectors were studied for comparison. Eighty-two dogs (Group 1) were enrolled in June, 2008. Blood samples were tested using the IDEXX SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test. A specific heartworm antigen was detected in 12.2% samples. The seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found to be 34.1%. The antibodies to Borrelia C6 peptide and to Ehrlichia canis were detected in 2.4% of the samples. Almost all dogs with infections had no clinical signs. Only 3 mixed-infected dogs showed non-specific clinical signs. During the tick season, 358 Ixodes ricinus were collected; the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 21.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Four hundred and forty dogs (Group 2) were studied for comparison. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected only in one dog, seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum represented 1.1%, no E. canis seropositive dogs were identified, and 8.2% dogs were found infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Fifty-six percent of dogs with dirofilariosis had clinical signs. All dogs with anaplasmosis showed specific clinical signs--fever, anemia, splenitis. Three dogs died within a few days. PMID:24054985

Volgina, N S; Romashov, B V; Romashova, N B; Shtannikov, A V

2013-12-01

23

Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs?  

PubMed Central

Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

2013-01-01

24

Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: An example with fleas on prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always <1.00 during each primary combing occasion, highlighting the importance of considering imperfect detection. The combing method (removal of fleas) caused a decline in detection during primary occasions, and we accounted for that decline to avoid inflated estimates of occupancy. Regarding prairie dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions. PMID:24533343

Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Doherty, Paul F; Gage, Kenneth L; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Long, Dustin H; Antolin, Michael F

2013-12-01

25

Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

26

Prevalence and public health implications of Echinococcus granulosus in rural dogs in Eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in rural dogs in Eastern Nigeria was determined. Of the 182 dogs examined, 8 (4.4%) had Echinococcus granulosus infection. The number of Echinococcus granulosus recovered was 80, of which 16 (20%) were from faeces and 64 (80%) were derived from intestinal mucosa. Of the localities surveyed, Eke-Uke had the highest number of infected dogs, 13 out of 38 (34.3%). The females accounted for 94 out of 182 dogs (51.6%) examined, while 98 (53.8%) were males. E. granulosus was present in 7 out of 94 (7.4%) females and in 10 out of 98 (10.2%) males. Parts of the body of thd dogs (anal region, outside of the mouth and coat) examined were positive for taeniid ova. Other cestodes recovered were Taenia hydategina, Taenia ovis, and Taenia pisiformis. PMID:3759352

Okolo, M I

1986-03-01

27

Can heartworm prevalence in dogs be used as provisional data for assessing the prevalence of the infection in cats?  

PubMed

Cats are considered a susceptible host for Dirofilaria immitis; however, increased host resistance is reflected by relatively low adult worm burdens in natural and experimental infections; the prolonged prepatent period (8 months); the low level and short duration of microfilaremia; and the short life span of adult worms (2-3 years). From April to September 2006, 212 cats and 608 dogs, all exposed for at least one transmission season, were screened for D. immitis infection in a multi-center study in the Po River Valley in northern Italy. Cats were initially evaluated by antibody testing; positive subjects were followed up by antigen testing and echocardiography (and necropsy if death occurred). The prevalence in dogs was 29% by a modified Knott test and antigen testing compared with a prevalence of 4.7% in cats by an antibody test; six of these infections (2.8%) were confirmed by the follow-up evaluations. This field study demonstrated that the prevalence of heartworm infection in cats in this area is within the expected limits of 9-18% of the prevalence in dogs. Antibody testing likely underestimates the real prevalence of D. immitis infection in cats. These results also emphasize the importance of preventive treatment in cats. PMID:21292401

Venco, L; Genchi, M; Genchi, C; Gatti, D; Kramer, L

2011-03-22

28

Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are parasitic diseases of global importance. The present study had the objective to determine the influence of age, sex and breed in the prevalence of antibodies against both diseases in dogs from Brotas city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood samples of 342 dogs were collected, and the age, sex and breed of each animal were recorded. The serological diagnosis for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were performed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The Fischer's test was used to calculate the association probability of the variables, with ? = 5%. For toxoplasmosis the prevalence of antibodies was 26.9% (CI 95% 22.4-31.8%), and for neosporosis 4.97% (CI 95% 3.1-7.8%). The statistical analysis revealed a higher risk of infection for T. gondii in dogs with more than five years. PMID:24688530

Langoni, Helio; Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Monti, Elis Talita; Villa, Fausto Baptista

2013-12-01

29

Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England  

PubMed Central

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O?Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

2014-01-01

30

Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.  

PubMed

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

2014-01-01

31

PREVALENCE OF INCIDENTAL THYROID NODULES IN ULTRASOUND STUDIES OF DOGS WITH HYPERCALCEMIA (2008-2013).  

PubMed

Ultrasound is commonly used to evaluate the cervical region in dogs with hypercalcemia due to suspected hyperparathyroidism. Incidental thyroid nodules may be detected during these studies, however little information has been published to guide clinical decision-making when this occurs. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in hypercalcemic dogs undergoing cervical ultrasound at our hospital during the period of 2008-2013. Dogs with a palpable neck mass were excluded. Cervical ultrasound images for each dog were retrieved and reviewed by a board certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of patient outcome. Presence, number, and dimensions of thyroid nodules were recorded. Results of thyroid nodule aspirate, biopsy or necropsy were recorded from medical records when available. Ninety-one dogs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 14/91 (15%) dogs had at least one thyroid nodule. Mean (± standard deviation) thyroid gland nodule length, width, and height were 1.51 ± 0.74, 0.96 ± 0.73, and 0.75 ± 0.36 cm, respectively. A histologic diagnosis was available for the incidental thyroid lesions in eight dogs, including one dog with two nodules. Confirmed diagnoses for these nodules were thyroid cyst (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenoma (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenocarcinoma (2/9, 22%) and nodular hyperplasia (1/9, 11%). Findings indicated that incidental thyroid nodules may be present in hypercalcemic dogs with no palpable neck mass and no clinical signs of thyroid disease. Some of these nodules may be malignant and therefore a recommendation for cytology or biopsy may be justified. PMID:24935646

Pollard, Rachel E; Bohannon, Laurie K; Feldman, Edward C

2014-06-17

32

Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high  

E-print Network

Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high performance liquid of selamectin in dog plasma, using High-Per- formance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and its suitability was demonstrated by a pharmacokinetic study on a dog receiving the therapeutic dose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

A prevalence survey and risk analysis of filariosis in dogs from the Mt. Vesuvius area of southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dog microfilariae prevalence and risk factor survey was conducted in 51 contiguous municipalities of the Mt. Vesuvius area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding filarial worms in this zone. Between May 1999 and June 2000, blood samples were collected from 351 asymptomatic dogs. Blood samples were examined using a

G Cringoli; L Rinaldi; V Veneziano; G Capelli

2001-01-01

34

Prevalence and characterization of small tympanic bone spicules and drumstick-like hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules in the middle ear cavity of dogs.  

PubMed

Rounded, sessile, hyperattenuating structures detected in computed tomography (CT) studies of canine tympanic bullae have been termed "otoliths." These have been proposed to represent dystrophic mineralizations or heterotopic bone formations in the middle ear that are potentially related to chronic otitis media. Aims of the current study were to describe the prevalence, macroscopic, and histological features of structures consistent with "otoliths" in the canine tympanic cavity. Tympanic bullae from 50 routinely necropsied dogs and 139 retrospectively retrieved CT scans of canine clinical cases were examined. Small tympanic bone spicules with pointed or clubbed tips essentially arising from the free margin of the septum bullae were bilaterally present in the tympanic cavities of all 50 of the necropsied dogs. In 48% of the dogs, "otolith"-like CT-detectable bone spicules carrying drumstick-like hyperostoses that were 1-6 mm in diameter were also present. In the retrospective survey of bulla CT scans of 139 cases, the prevalence of hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules (HTBS) was 20%. Findings from the current study indicated that the presence of small tympanic bone spicules in adult dogs is most likely due to physiological bone growth in the septum bullae and that HTBS represent osseous proliferations of small tympanic bone spicules. However, the factors inducing formation of hyperostotic spicules from small tympanic bone spicules remain unknown. The high prevalence of HTBS displaying a similar appearance in bulla CT scans in dogs suggests that these spicules should be included in a differential diagnosis list for "otoliths." PMID:25138894

Parzefall, Birgit; Rieger, Alexandra; Volk, Holger A; Maierl, Johann; Brühschwein, Andreas; Blutke, Andreas

2015-01-01

35

Prevalence, outcome and risk factors for postoperative pyothorax in 232 dogs undergoing thoracic surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence, outcome and risk factors for postoperative pyothorax in dogs undergoing thoracic surgery. Methods Case records were reviewed retrospectively to identify dogs with post thoracic surgery pyothorax, defined as septic neutrophilic inflammation within the pleural space based on cytology and/or a positive bacterial culture of pleural fluid. Those identified were reviewed for potential risk factors for postoperative pyothorax based on biological plausibility and previously published data. These potential risk factors were explored by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 232 dogs undergoing thoracic surgery, 15 (6·5%) dogs developed pyothorax. Bacteria cultured included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-resistant Escherichia coli. Of these dogs, six died, four were euthanased and five were treated successfully. A diagnosis of idiopathic chylothorax [Odds Ratio (OR)=12·5, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=2·7-58·5, P=0·001], preoperative intrathoracic biopsy (OR=14·3, 95% CI=1·7-118·7, P=0·014) and preoperative thoracocentesis (OR=11·2, 95% CI=1·6-78·2, P=0·015) were identified as independent risk factors for development of postoperative pyothorax. Clinical Significance Idiopathic chylothorax, intrathoracic biopsy and prior thoracocentesis are independent risk factors for postoperative pyothorax, which was associated with a 67% mortality rate. PMID:23581608

Meakin, L B; Salonen, L K; Baines, S J; Brockman, D J; Gregory, S P; Halfacree, Z J; Lipscomb, V J; Lee, K C

2013-01-01

36

Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates.

Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

2015-01-01

37

Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs  

PubMed Central

We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered. PMID:23820161

Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

2013-01-01

38

Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.  

PubMed

Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (p<0.0001). Thirty five percent (51/146) of the dogs were infested with ticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (p<0.029). This is the first description of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

2014-01-31

39

Prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens in dogs from the Stretto di Messina area (Italy).  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence for Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia canis in outdoor-kennelled dogs (n=249) from the Stretto di Messina (Italy) and to compare seroprevalence in 2 public shelters and 4 privately-owned kennels where different tick-preventive measures were implemented in order to focus on the specific sanitary risk posed by public shelters in southern Italy for tick-borne pathogens. R. conorii (72%) and B. canis (70%) were the most prevalent infections when compared to E. canis (46%) and A. phagocytophilum (38%). Seroprevalence for R. conorii, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher in public shelters than in private kennels. However, B. canis seropositivity was similar in both types of kennels. In addition, in private kennels where a regular ectocide treatment was carried out by means of spot-on devices, dogs did not present E. canis and A. phagocytophilum antibodies. One hundred fifty-one dogs out of 249 (61%) were seropositive to more than one pathogen with R. conorii and B. canis the most common ones. Coinfections were more frequently found in public-shelter dogs. This study demonstrated high seroprevalences against R. conorii, B. canis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in kennelled dogs from both coastal sites of the Stretto di Messina and the importance of regular tick-bite prevention by means of individual spot-on devices. PMID:23140895

Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Caprì, Alessandra; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Lombardo, Gabriella; Torina, Alessandra; Masucci, Marisa

2012-12-01

40

Prevalence of Biofilms on Surgical Suture Segments in Wounds of Dogs, Cats, and Horses.  

PubMed

The formation of biofilms on surgical implants is thought to play a major role in chronic infection and wound-healing disorders and has been rarely described in veterinary medicine. Due to poor and unreliable results from bacterial culturing, histology may be an economic tool for the detection of biofilms. In this study, the prevalence of biofilms on surgical suture materials and swabs with chronic wound-healing complications in dogs, cats, and horses was assessed by histologic examination using hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, and Giemsa stains, as well as periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Of the 91 tissue samples with intralesional suture material or swab residues associated with inflammation, only 2 contained bacterial colonies arranged in an extracellular polymeric matrix consistent with a biofilm. The results of this study suggest that biofilms on suture material may occur in veterinary medicine. PMID:24994621

König, L; Klopfleisch, R; Kershaw, O; Gruber, A D

2014-07-01

41

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection of Dogs from an Urban Area of Brazil as Identified by Molecular Methods  

PubMed Central

Background Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and “in house”), and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n?=?1,213) animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n?=?296) and PCR-negative (n?=?917) for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. Principal Findings Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9%) were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7%) were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family incomedog staying predominantly in the backyard (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.1–4.1), and a lack of previous serological examination for VL (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.1–2.3). Conclusions PCR detected a high prevalence of L. infantum infection in dogs in an area under the Control Program of VL intervention. Socioeconomic variables, dog behavior and the knowledge of the owner regarding the vector were factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The absence of previous serological examination conducted by the control program was also associated with L. infantum infection. It is necessary to identify the risk factors associated with CVL to understand the expansion and urbanization of VL. PMID:21858243

Coura-Vital, Wendel; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Mariângela

2011-01-01

42

High anemia prevalence in western China.  

PubMed

We assessed the prevalence of anemia among schoolchildren in western China as determined by seven cross-sectional surveys involving 12,768 children aged 8-12 years. Subjects were selected randomly from 283 primary schools in 41 economically disadvantaged counties of Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires and hemoglobin levels were measured. The anemia prevalence was 34% using the WHO hemoglobin cutoff of < 120 g/l. Boarding students and girls were more likely to be anemic. The prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren was high. Iron deficiency is a significant nutrition issue in China. PMID:22299447

Luo, Renfu; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Miller, Grant; Rozelle, Scott; Yu, Elaine; Martorell, Reynaldo

2011-09-01

43

Serum concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in leishmaniotic dogs.  

PubMed

In order to assess whether the concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) changes in leishmaniotic dogs before and after treatment, HDL cholesterol (HDL-Chol and HDL%), C reactive protein (CRP) and activity of the antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase (PON-1) were measured in sera from 10 controls and 10 leishmaniotic dogs. Seven of these latter were sampled also 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment with antimonials and allopurinol. HDL-chol, and PON-1 were low in leishmaniotic dogs at admission and increased after treatment. HDL-chol and HDL% correlated positively with PON-1 and negatively with CRP suggesting that HDLs decrease through an oxidative mechanism. Therefore, HDLs may be used to monitor the magnitude of oxidation associated with inflammation in leishmaniotic dogs. PMID:25440996

Ibba, Fabrizio; Rossi, Gabriele; Meazzi, Sara; Giordano, Alessia; Paltrinieri, Saverio

2015-02-01

44

High-resolution electrical mapping of depolarization and repolarization alternans in an ischemic dog model.  

PubMed

Cardiac electrical alternans have been associated with spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias during myocardial ischemia. The study aims were to use a new algorithm to measure depolarization and repolarization alternans from epicardial electrograms in an ischemia model and to evaluate which features are predictive of ventricular fibrillation (VF). The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded in 21 dogs, of which 6 developed spontaneous VF. Four seconds of unipolar epicardial electrograms was recorded before and 5 min after occlusion from an 8 x 14-electrode plaque placed on the anterior left ventricle. Alternans amplitudes were estimated with a triangular wave-fitting algorithm and for each unipolar electrogram for various measurements of the QRS and ST-T wave amplitude. The root mean square error was computed for each fit. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were used to determine whether prevalence of alternans having estimated alternans amplitude-to-error ratio (A/E) above a given threshold could distinguish the dogs who had and did not have spontaneous VF. The prevalence of alternans after ischemia was highly predictive of VF when measured both during depolarization (sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 87%) and during repolarization (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 73%). The optimal alternans A/E ranged from 1 to 4. There were no differences in the level of discordance or alternans amplitude between dogs who developed VF versus dogs who did not. The prevalence of alternans in the ventricles may be the key risk factor for developing VF during myocardial ischemia when short-term recordings are used. PMID:19915171

Gordon, David; Kadish, Alan H; Koolish, Daniel; Taneja, Taresh; Ulphani, Joseph; Goldberger, Jeffrey J; Ng, Jason

2010-02-01

45

The Prevalence of Nine Genetic Disorders in a Dog Population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n?=?476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n?=?8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E. C.; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Soetaert, Sandra S. A.; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

2013-01-01

46

The prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria repens in dogs in the The prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria repens in dogs in the Mazovian Province of Central-Eastern Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of canine dirofilariosis from different districts of the Mazovian Province in central-eastern Poland. 462 dogs aged from 1.5-14 years were examined for dirofilariosis. Blood samples were examined for the presence of microfilariae using the Knott method, as well as the method of Kingston and Morton, after centrifugation in haematocrit microtubes in order to determine the intensity of infection as the number of microfilariae in 60 microliters of blood. The species of microfilariae found were determined after staining on the basis of the morphological characters. Samples were also examined using Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit SNAP HTWM (IDEXX, USA) that allows the detection of circulating antigens of females of Dirofilaria immitis. The positive samples were examined using multiplex PCR assay for species confirmation. Microfilariae belonging to the species D. repens were found in the blood samples of dogs originating from the city of Warsaw and from 18 districts of Mazovian Province. The mean prevalence of that species observed in the province was 25.8%. The range of intensity counted with the number of microfilariae found in 60 microliters of blood amounted to between 1 - 150; median intensity 9 microfilariae. The highest prevalence, reaching 52.9% and the highest median intensity of infection reaching 28 microfilariae, was found in Radom district. The lowest prevalence, amounting to 4.2%, was registered in Grójec district; however, the lowest median intensity reaching 6 microfilariae was noted in ?yrardów district. The infected dogs had not been outside of Poland, which means that this is an autochthonous infection. Microfilariae and antigens of D. immitis were not found in any examined blood samples. Results of the presented study show that autochthonous dirofilariosis caused by nematodes D. repens commonly occurs in the area of the Mazovian Province. PMID:25528905

Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander Wiaczes?aw; Pola?czyk, Gra?yna; Osi?ska, Barbara; Pyziel, Anna Maria; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek; Sikorski, Adam

2014-11-26

47

Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013.  

PubMed

We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

Schurer, Janna M; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J

2014-12-01

48

The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.  

PubMed

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

49

The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

50

Updated canine infection rates for Dirofilaria immitis in areas of Brazil previously identified as having a high incidence of heartworm-infected dogs.  

PubMed

BackgroundCanine heartworm infections were frequently diagnosed in Brazil before the new millennium. After the year 2000, the frequency of diagnosis showed a sharp decline; however, a few years later, new evidence indicated that the parasite was still present and that canine infection rates seemed to be increasing. Therefore, an updated survey of canine heartworm prevalence was conducted in several locations in south, southeast, and northeast Brazil.MethodsDogs from 15 locations having previously reported a high prevalence of heartworm infection were included in the survey according to defined criteria, including the absence of treatment with a macrocyclic lactone for at least 1 year. Blood samples from 1531 dogs were evaluated by an in-clinic immunochromatography test kit (Witness® Heartworm, Zoetis, USA) for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. At each location, epidemiologic data, including physical characteristics and clinical signs reported by owners or observed by veterinarians, were recorded on prepared forms for tabulation of results by location, clinical signs, and physical characteristics.ResultsThe overall prevalence of canine heartworm infection was 23.1%, with evidence of heartworm-infected dogs detected in all 15 locations studied. There was a tendency for higher prevalence rates in environmentally protected areas, despite some locations having less-than-ideal environmental temperatures for survival of vector mosquitoes. Among physical characteristics, it was noted that dogs with predominantly white hair coats and residing in areas with a high (¿20%) prevalence of heartworm were less likely to have heartworm infection detected by a commercial heartworm antigen test kit than were dogs with other coat colors. In general, dogs older than 2 years were more frequently positive for D. immitis antigen than were younger dogs. Clinical signs of heartworm infections were rare or owners were unable to detect them, and could not be used for reliable prediction of the presence of heartworm.ConclusionsThese results indicate that the prevalence of D. immitis has increased in these areas of Brazil over the past few years. Small animal practitioners in these areas should include routine screening tests for heartworm infections in every dog¿s annual evaluation protocol and make sure to have uninfected dogs on prevention. PMID:25376238

Vollmer Labarthe, Norma; Pereira Paiva, Jonimar; Reifur, Larissa; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Merlo, Alexandre; Carvalho Pinto, Carlos; Juliani, Paulo; Ornelas de Almeida, Maria; Câmara Alves, Leucio

2014-11-01

51

Risk factors associated with prevalence of antibodies to leptospira interrogans in a metapopulation of black-tailed prairie dogs in Mexico.  

PubMed

Abstract Interest in the study of infectious diseases of wildlife has grown in recent decades and now focuses on understanding host-parasite dynamics and factors involved in disease occurrence. The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a useful species for this type of investigation because it lives in heterogeneous landscapes where human activities take place, and its populations are structured as a metapopulation. Our goal was to determine if colony area, density, and proximity to human settlements are associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in black-tailed prairie dogs of northwestern Chihuahua State, Mexico. We captured 266 prairie dogs in 11 colonies in 2009 and analyzed 248 serum samples with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody to any of the 12 pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans. Serologically positive test results for only serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Celledoni, and Tarassovi were considered for statistical analysis. Almost 80% of sera were positive for at least one pathogenic serovar (MAT titer ?1?80). The highest recorded antibody prevalences were to serovars Bratislava and Canicola. Correlation analysis showed a negative relationship between L. interrogans antibody prevalence and colony area (r?=?-0.125, P<0.005), suggesting that animals living in larger colonies were at a lower risk than those in smaller colonies. The correlation between the serovar Canicola and distance was negative (r?=?-0.171, P<0.007), and this relationship may be explained by the presence of domestic dogs associated with human dwellings. This is the first study of Leptospira spp. antibody prevalence in prairie dogs, and it provides valuable insights into the dynamics of leptospirosis in threatened wildlife species. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of Leptospira serovars in metapopulations of prairie dogs and other domestic and wild mammals in grassland communities. PMID:25380365

Montiel-Arteaga, Ana; Atilano, Daniel; Ayanegui, Alejandra; Ceballos, Gerardo; Suzán, Gerardo

2015-01-01

52

Hydatid disease in the Turkana District of Kenya, IV. The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infections in dogs, and observations on the role of the dog in the lifestyle of the Turkana.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs in the Turkana District of Kenya was 39.4% of 695 examined. Of these, 98 (35.8%) had heavy Echinococcus worm burdens (10(3)-5 X 10(4) ), while 54 (19.7%) and 122 (44.5%) had medium (201-1000) and light (1-200) burdens. The possible sources of these infections are discussed. The prevalence rate differed in various parts of the district, ranging from 63.5% in the northwest, where the highest incidence of human hydatidosis also occurs, to nil along the shores of Lake Turkana. Infection rates of 32.0% and 16.7% were recorded at Lokitaung (north-east) and Lodwar (central), while in the south 48.9% of dogs harboured Echinococcus. This latter figure is surprising as the area has a low incidence of human hydatidosis. The Turkana keep a large number of dogs, and the reasons for this and the social role of the dog in the district is discussed. No difference in susceptibility was found between Turkana-type dogs and those of mixed breeds from Nairobi when they were experimentally infected with hydatid protoscolices from man, camels, cattle, sheep and goats. However, it proved difficult to infect the Turkana-type of dogs with viable protoscolices of cattle origin. The reasons for this and its epidemiological implications remain unclear. It is suggested that droughts, which affect Turkana every six to ten years, may play an important role in the perpetuation of hydatid disease in the area. PMID:3985706

Macpherson, C N; French, C M; Stevenson, P; Karstad, L; Arundel, J H

1985-02-01

53

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis among shelter dogs in Tokyo, Japan, after a decade: comparison of 1999–2001 and 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Changes in the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection among shelter dogs between a decade ago and the present were evaluated. Serum samples were collected from 200 adult dogs in urban and suburban areas in Tokyo, Japan, during two 2-year periods (April 1999 to March 2001 and April 2009 to March 2011). Sera were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using a specific commercialized kit. The seroprevalence of D. immitis infection was 46% in 1999–2001 and 23% in 2009–2011. A decrease was observed in the prevalence of infection between 1999–2001 and 2009–2011; in particular, the prevalence in urban areas decreased significantly compared with that in suburban areas (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in prevalence between the sexes in each period, but there was a significant difference between mixed-breed and purebred dogs (P < 0.01). The decrease in prevalence of canine heartworm disease in urban areas could be related to better veterinary care. PMID:24581552

Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Matsumoto, Jun; Nogami, Sadao

2014-01-01

54

High Prevalence Disorders in Urban and Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: High prevalence disorders (anxiety, depressive and substance use) are generally assumed to be more common in urban than rural dwellers. The aims of this paper are (i) to critically review studies measuring prevalence in rural as opposed to urban location, and (ii) to argue the need to look beyond the ‘quantity’ question to the quality question: how does urban

Fiona K Judd; Henry J Jackson; Angela Komiti; Greg Murray; Gene Hodgins; Caitlin Fraser

2002-01-01

55

Prevalence and co-occurrence of hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia in Dutch pure-bred dogs.  

PubMed

Hip as well as elbow dysplasia (HD, ED) are developmental disorders leading to malformation of their respective joints. For a long time both disorders have been scored and targeted for improvement using selective breeding in several Dutch dog populations. In this paper all scores for both HD and ED, given to pure bred dogs in the Netherlands from 2002 to 2010, were analyzed. Heritabilities and correlations between HD and ED were calculated for the 4 most frequently scored breeds. Heritabilities ranged from 0.0 to 0.37 for HD related traits (FCI-score, osteoarthritis, congruity, shape and laxity (Norberg angle); FCI: Fédération Cynologique Internationale) and from 0.0 to 0.39 for ED related traits (IEWG score, osteoarthritis, sclerosis and indentation; IEWG: International Elbow Working Group). HD related traits showed high genetic and residual correlations among each other but were only to a minor extent correlated with ED related traits, which also showed high correlations among each other. Genetic correlations were higher than residual correlations. Phenotypic and genetic trends since 2001 for the four most scored breeds were slightly positive but decreasing over time, indicating that selection over the past decade has not been effective. PMID:24588976

Lavrijsen, I C M; Heuven, H C M; Meij, B P; Theyse, L F H; Nap, R C; Leegwater, P A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

2014-05-01

56

Prevalence of and risk factors for increased serum levels of allergen-specific IgE in a population of Norwegian dogs.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe importance of different allergens in association with IgE production and canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) has been poorly studied and few studies exist on factors influencing allergen-specific IgE antibodies in serum. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of elevated IgE levels to different environmental allergens in Norwegian dogs with a suspicion of CAD. The secondary aim was to identify risk factors associated with elevated serum levels of allergen-specific IgE.ResultsThe study sample consisted of serum from 1313 dogs of 161 different breeds. All samples were submitted for serologic IgE-testing (Fc epsilon R1 alpha-based ELISA) based on suspicion of CAD. Overall, 84.3% of the dogs had elevated IgE levels to one or more of the allergen(s). The predominant allergens amongst the positive results were the indoor allergens (Acarus siro 84.0%, Dermatophagoides farinae 80.2%, Tyrophagus putrescentiae 79.9%). Sheep sorrel was the most commonly encountered outdoor allergen (40.0%). Only 2.6% of the dogs with elevated IgE levels were positive to flea saliva.The test results varied significantly depending on when the serum samples were taken. Samples taken during summer and autumn more often came out positive than samples taken during winter and spring. Geographical variations were also demonstrated. A greater proportion of females than males had positive test results, and more females than males tested positive to outdoor allergens. The mean age was significantly higher in the dogs testing positive than amongst the dogs testing negative. The allergen-specific IgE levels varied with breed. The boxer was the only breed with a significantly higher proportion of positive test results compared to the other breeds. Boxers also had a higher prevalence of elevated IgE levels to outdoor allergens, whereas the Rottweiler had a higher prevalence of elevated IgE levels to indoor allergens compared to the other breeds.ConclusionsIgE hypersensitivity was most often associated with indoor allergens. Outdoor allergens were of minor importance and IgE reactivity to flea saliva was rare. Breed differences in allergen-specific IgE levels were identified. Season of sampling, and the dogs¿ geographical localisation, sex and age also affected the results of the IgE analysis. PMID:25475748

Bjelland, Annelin A; Dolva, Frederik L; Nødtvedt, Ane; Sævik, Bente K

2014-12-01

57

Greater virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in cats than in dogs.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus continues to infect animals and humans. We compared the infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 virus in domestic cats and dogs to find out which animal is more susceptible to H5N1 influenza virus. When cats and dogs were infected with the H5N1 virus, cats suffered from severe outcomes including death, whereas dogs did not show any mortality. Viruses were shed in the nose and rectum of cats and in the nose of dogs. Viruses were detected in brain, lung, kidney, intestine, liver, and serum in the infected cats, but only in the lung in the infected dogs. Genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Toll-like receptors, and apoptotic factors were more highly expressed in the lungs of cats than in those of dogs. Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats. PMID:25416494

Kim, Heui Man; Park, Eun Hye; Yum, Jung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

2015-01-01

58

Origin of high slow-wave frequency in the dog colon J. FIORAMONTI, L. BUENO, S. K. SARNA Y. RUCKEBUSCH  

E-print Network

Origin of high slow-wave frequency in the dog colon J. FIORAMONTI, L. BUENO, S. K. SARNA Y activities were simultaneously recorded in dogs under pentobarbital anaesthesia to study the temporal electrodes in dog, was an « artefact » of duodenal activity acting as an electric dipole and (ii

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

60

MHC variability supports dog domestication from a large number of wolves: high diversity in Asia  

PubMed Central

The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA–DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA–DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392

Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P

2013-01-01

61

MHC variability supports dog domestication from a large number of wolves: high diversity in Asia.  

PubMed

The process of dog domestication is still somewhat unresolved. Earlier studies indicate that domestic dogs from all over the world have a common origin in Asia. So far, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity has not been studied in detail in Asian dogs, although high levels of genetic diversity are expected at the domestication locality. We sequenced the second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA-DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs and compared our data with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, mostly from European dogs. Our results show that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs. We also estimated that there is only a small probability that new alleles have arisen by mutation since domestication. Based on the assumption that all of the currently known 102 DLA-DRB1 alleles come from the founding wolf population, we simulated the number of founding wolf individuals. Our simulations indicate an effective population size of at least 500 founding wolves, suggesting that the founding wolf population was large or that backcrossing has taken place. PMID:23073392

Niskanen, A K; Hagström, E; Lohi, H; Ruokonen, M; Esparza-Salas, R; Aspi, J; Savolainen, P

2013-01-01

62

Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ? 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ? 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. PMID:22261239

Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

2012-05-25

63

Proteomic Analysis of Highly Prevalent Amyloid A Amyloidosis Endemic to Endangered Island Foxes  

PubMed Central

Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA). Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34%) in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%), spleen (58%), oral cavity (45%), and vasculature (44%) and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-? chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ?0.05). Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins. PMID:25429466

Gaffney, Patricia M.; Imai, Denise M.; Clifford, Deana L.; Ghassemian, Majid; Sasik, Roman; Chang, Aaron N.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Coppinger, Judith; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer; Munson, Linda; Sigurdson, Christina

2014-01-01

64

Proteomic analysis of highly prevalent amyloid a amyloidosis endemic to endangered island foxes.  

PubMed

Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA). Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34%) in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%), spleen (58%), oral cavity (45%), and vasculature (44%) and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-? chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ? 0.05). Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins. PMID:25429466

Gaffney, Patricia M; Imai, Denise M; Clifford, Deana L; Ghassemian, Majid; Sasik, Roman; Chang, Aaron N; O'Brien, Timothy D; Coppinger, Judith; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer; Munson, Linda; Sigurdson, Christina

2014-01-01

65

Asymptomatic dogs are highly competent to transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi to the natural vector.  

PubMed

We evaluated the ability of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi to transfer the parasite to the vector and the factors associated with transmission. Thirty-eight infected dogs were confirmed to be infected by direct observation of Leishmania in lymph node smears. Dogs were grouped according to external clinical signs and laboratory data into symptomatic (n=24) and asymptomatic (n=14) animals. All dogs were sedated and submitted to xenodiagnosis with F1-laboratory-reared Lutzomyia longipalpis. After blood digestion, sand flies were dissected and examined for the presence of promastigotes. Following canine euthanasia, fragments of skin, lymph nodes, and spleen were collected and processed using immunohistochemistry to evaluate tissue parasitism. Specific antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody levels were found to be higher in symptomatic dogs compared to asymptomatic dogs (p=0.0396). Both groups presented amastigotes in lymph nodes, while skin parasitism was observed in only 58.3% of symptomatic and in 35.7% of asymptomatic dogs. Parasites were visualized in the spleens of 66.7% and 71.4% of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs, respectively. Parasite load varied from mild to intense, and was not significantly different between groups. All asymptomatic dogs except for one (93%) were competent to transmit Leishmania to the vector, including eight (61.5%) without skin parasitism. Sixteen symptomatic animals (67%) infected sand flies; six (37.5%) showed no amastigotes in the skin. Skin parasitism was not crucial for the ability to infect Lutzomyia longipalpis but the presence of Leishmania in lymph nodes was significantly related to a positive xenodiagnosis. Additionally, a higher proportion of infected vectors that fed on asymptomatic dogs was observed (p=0.0494). Clinical severity was inversely correlated with the infection rate of sand flies (p=0.027) and was directly correlated with antibody levels (p=0.0379). Age and gender did not influence the transmissibility. Our data show that asymptomatic dogs are highly infective and competent for establishing sand fly infection, indicating their role in maintaining L. (L.) infantum chagasi cycle as well as their involvement in VL spreading in endemic areas. PMID:23562649

Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; da Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paulocci; Marcondes, Mary

2013-09-23

66

High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. METHODS: Elementary school children (n = 1,066) were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI), gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN) were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood

Ximena Urrutia-Rojas; Christie U Egbuchunam; Sejong Bae; John Menchaca; Manuel Bayona; Patrick A Rivers; Karan P Singh

2006-01-01

67

Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

2009-01-01

68

Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Among Older Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096

Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.

2009-01-01

69

High prevalence of headaches in patients with epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the association between headaches and epilepsy. Methods Consecutive adult epileptic patients who went to the outpatient clinic of the Epilepsy Center of PLA General Hospital between February 01, 2012, and May 10, 2013, were recruited into this study. A total of 1109 patients with epilepsy completed a questionnaire regarding headaches. Results Overall, 60.1% of the patients (male: 57.2%; female: 63.8%) reported headaches within the last year. The age-weighted prevalence of interictal migraine was 11.7% (male 8.9%, female 15.3%), which is higher than that reported in a large population-based study (8.5%, male 5.4%, female 11.6%) using the same screening questions. The prevalence of postictal headaches was 34.1% (males 32.7%, females 35.2%), and the presence of preictal headaches was 4.5% (males 4.3%, females 5.2%). The prevalence of headache yesterday in the general population was 4.8% (male 3.0%, female 6.6%). Thus, the prevalence of headaches, including migraine, is higher in epileptic patients in China. Conclusions The high prevalence of postictal headaches confirms the frequent triggering of a headache by a seizure. A much lower frequency of preictal headaches, a condition in which the real triggering effect of the headache on the seizure might be difficult to prove. PMID:25366245

2014-01-01

70

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Police Dogs in Shenyang, Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

In recent years, worldwide surveys of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs have been reported. However, only limited surveys of T. gondii infection in police dogs have been available, including China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii in police dogs in Shenyang, northeastern China. Sera from 291 police dogs were examined for T. gondii antibodies with the modified agglutination test (MAT), and 30.9% animals were tested seropositive. The results of the present study indicated a relatively high prevalence of T. gondii infection in police dogs in Shenyang, China. PMID:24327786

Liu, Cheng-Wu; He, Jian-Bin; Mu, Ming-Yang; Yang, Min; Sun, Ning; Li, Hong-Kui

2013-01-01

71

Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).  

PubMed

Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts. PMID:18605787

Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

2008-06-01

72

Prevalence, sites of colonization, and antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada.  

PubMed

In dogs, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a common colonizer and is associated with pyoderma, otitis externa, and urinary tract infections. In the current study, nasal, pharyngeal, and rectal swabs were taken from 175 healthy dogs and cultured for S. pseudintermedius. The organism was found in 153 dogs (87.4%), including individuals in which it exclusively colonized in the nares (n ?=? 1), pharynx (n ?=? 16), and rectum (n ?=? 17). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that a remarkably susceptible population, 46.4% of isolates, was susceptible to all drugs tested, and resistance to penicillin (39.9%) and tetracycline (23.5%) were most common. No methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant isolates were identified. Although 3.3% of isolates were erythromycin resistant, no inducible clindamycin resistance was found. The data provide a baseline for future resistance surveillance and indicate that multiple body sites, including at least the pharynx and rectum, should be tested. PMID:21398462

Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel

2011-03-01

73

Estimating the probability of identity in a random dog population using 15 highly polymorphic canine STR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dog DNA-profiling is becoming an important supplementary technology for the investigation of accident and crime, as dogs are intensely integrated in human social life. We investigated 15 highly polymorphic canine STR markers and two sex-related markers of 131 randomly selected dogs from the area around Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria, which were co-amplified in three PCR multiplex reactions (ZUBECA6, FH2132, FH2087Ua, ZUBECA4,

Cordula Eichmann; Burkhard Berger; Martin Steinlechner; Walther Parson

2005-01-01

74

Modeling the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs for a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis abundance and prevalence data, for domestic dogs of Shiqu County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, were fitted to mathematical models to evaluate transmission parameters. Abundance models, assuming the presence and absence of immunity, were fit for both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis using Bayesian priors, maximum likelihood, and Monte Carlo sampling techniques. When the

Christine M. Budke; Qiu Jiamin; Philip S. Craig; Paul R. Torgerson

2005-01-01

75

High Prevalence of Low-Trauma Fracture in Chronic Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is associated with risk factors that may negatively impact bone and mineral metabolism. The important clinical end point of osteoporosis is “low-trauma” fracture. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of “low-trauma” fracture in patients with CP, compared with fracture rates in “high-risk” gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses, for which metabolic bone disease screening guidelines are

April S Tignor; Bechien U Wu; Tom L Whitlock; Rocio Lopez; Kathryn Repas; Peter A Banks; Darwin Conwell

2010-01-01

76

Migraine in Thai Children: Prevalence in Junior High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of migraine in seventh grade Thai students in 4 junior high schools in Bangkok, Thailand, according to the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the Classification of Headache of the International Headache Society was conducted in July 2004. The study included a screening self-administered questionnaire and face-to-face interview with physical examination. The

Anannit Visudtibhan; Vorasith Siripornpanich; Chaiyos Khongkhatithum; Surang Chiemchanya; Suthatip Sirijunpen; Suwanna Ruangkanchanasetr; Pongsakdi Visudhiphan

2007-01-01

77

High concentrations of glucose reduce the oxidative metabolism of dog neutrophils in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs are commonly affected by hyperglycemic conditions. Hyperglycemia compromises the immune response and favors bacterial infections; however, reports on the effects of glucose on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and apoptosis are conflicting in humans and rare in dogs. Considering the many complex factors that affect neutrophil oxidative metabolism in vivo, we investigated in vitro the specific effect of high concentrations of glucose on superoxide production and apoptosis rate in neutrophils from healthy dogs. Results The capacity of the neutrophils to reduce tetrazolium nitroblue decreased significantly in the higher concentration of glucose (15.13 ± 9.73% (8 mmol/L) versus 8.93 ± 5.71% (16 mmol/L)). However, there were no changes in tetrazolium nitroblue reduction at different glucose concentrations when the neutrophils were first activated with phorbol myristate acetate. High concentrations of glucose did not affect the viability and apoptosis rate of canine neutrophils either with or without prior camptothecin stimulation. This study provides the first evidence that high concentrations of glucose inhibit the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro in a manner similar to that which occurs in humans, and that the decrease in superoxide production did not increase the apoptosis rate. Conclusions A high concentration of glucose reduces the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro. It is likely that glucose at high concentrations rapidly affects membrane receptors responsible for the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils; therefore, the nonspecific immune response can be compromised in dogs with acute and chronic hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:23388121

2013-01-01

78

Chromosome-specific paints from a high-resolution flow karyotype of the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and duallaser flow cytometry, we have routinely obtained high-resolution bivariate flow karyotypes of the dog in which 32 peaks are resolved. To allow the identification of the chromosome types in each peak, chromosomes were flow sorted, amplified and labelled by polymerase chain reaction with partially degenerate primers and hybridized onto metaphase spreads of a male

Cordelia F. Langford; Patricia E. Fischer; Matthew M. Binns; Nigel G. Holmes; Nigel P. Carter

1996-01-01

79

Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.  

PubMed

Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was signi?cantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans. PMID:24280028

Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

2015-03-01

80

Ownership of High-Risk ("Vicious") Dogs as a Marker for Deviant Behaviors: Implications for Risk Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status in settings…

Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Dates, Harold F.; Mahlman, Andrew R.

2006-01-01

81

High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

2009-01-01

82

Heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum Infection: Using Skin Parasite Burdens to Identify Highly Infectious Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. Tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential. Methods Parasite numbers were measured by qPCR in bone marrow and ear skin biopsies of 82 dogs and 34 crab-eating foxes collected during a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil, for which previous data was available on infectiousness (by xenodiagnosis) and severity of infection. Results Parasite numbers were highly aggregated both between samples and between individuals. In dogs, total parasite abundance and relative numbers in ear skin compared to bone marrow increased with the duration and severity of infection. Infectiousness to the sandfly vector was associated with high parasite numbers; parasite number in skin was the best predictor of being infectious. Crab-eating foxes, which typically present asymptomatic infection and are non-infectious, had parasite numbers comparable to those of non-infectious dogs. Conclusions Skin parasite number provides an indirect marker of infectiousness, and could allow targeted control particularly of highly infectious dogs. PMID:24416460

Calvo-Bado, Leo; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Quinnell, Rupert J.

2014-01-01

83

Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

2002-01-01

84

Heinz body hemolytic anemia associated with high plasma zinc concentration in a dog.  

PubMed

Acute zinc toxicosis from the ingestion of pennies was diagnosed in a dog with Heinz body hemolytic anemia (PCV = 14%), leukocytosis (51,000 cells/ml) with a left shift (3,060 band neutrophils; 37,740 segmented neutrophils) and monocytosis (4,080 cells/ml), azotemia (BUN = 60 mg/dl), bilirubinemia (total bilirubin = 5.3 mg/dl), hypokalemia (3.0 mEq/L), high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (691 U/L), high total plasma solids (8.1 g/dl), hemoglobinuria, and proteinuria. Despite aggressive medical treatment, renal failure ensued, and the dog died of cardiac arrest. The clinical signs, clinical course, and laboratory findings in this dog were similar to what has been reported in other cases of acute zinc toxicosis in dogs, with the exception of a history of generalized seizures and the findings of Heinz bodies. Although a causative relationship between plasma zinc values and Heinz body formation cannot be proven, their association suggests that oxidative damage to erythrocyte hemoglobin and cell membrane proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of zinc-induced hemolysis. PMID:2266050

Luttgen, P J; Whitney, M S; Wolf, A M; Scruggs, D W

1990-11-15

85

High frequency components of bone strain in dogs measured during various activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubin et al. [J. Biomechanics23, 43–54 (1990)] proposed that high frequency bone strains in the 15–30 Hz range might have significant influence on the morphological adaptation of bone tissue. We sought to further their findings by determining the magnitude of high frequency strains during various activities. We measured strains in the forelimbs of dogs during walking, standing and with their

Charles H. Turner; Tomoaki Yoshikawa; Mark R. Forwood; T. C. Sun; David B. Burr

1995-01-01

86

Association between passive smoking and atopic dermatitis in dogs.  

PubMed

Onset of atopic dermatitis and occurrence of related skin lesions are influenced by various environmental factors in humans, and companion animals. Several studies have demonstrated an association between passive smoking and the development of atopic dermatitis in children. This association has never been investigated in the dog to our knowledge. We enrolled 161 dogs seen at dermatology and vaccination consultations over a six-month period for this study. Dog owners were asked to complete a questionnaire, to evaluate the exposure of the dog to tobacco smoke. The atopic or non-atopic status of the dog was assessed on the basis of Favrot's criteria (history, clinical examination and cutaneous cytology for Malassezia). Analysis of the data for the 161 dogs enrolled revealed a significant association between high levels of passive exposure to tobacco smoke (cigarette consumption divided by the area of the home) and the presence of atopic dermatitis in the dogs (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.10-17.44; p=0.03; NNH (number needed to harm) 3, 95% CI 2-52). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis showed a slight, but non-significant association with breed predisposition. Dogs with high levels of exposure to tobacco smoke may have a higher risk of atopic dermatitis than non-exposed dogs. PMID:24491262

Ka, D; Marignac, G; Desquilbet, L; Freyburger, L; Hubert, B; Garelik, D; Perrot, S

2014-04-01

87

Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.  

PubMed

In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

Jay-Russell, Michele T; Hake, Alexis F; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

2014-01-01

88

Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border  

PubMed Central

In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010–2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

2014-01-01

89

Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Junior High and Senior High School Students in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…

Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

2008-01-01

90

An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human risk of infection with larvae of Toxocara canis was estimated in people from the Marche region of Italy. This region includes both urban and rural areas and its inhabitants frequently keep dogs for company, hunting, as guardians or shepherds. T. canis infection was diagnosed in 33.6% out of 295 dogs examined. Nearly half of the dogs (48.4%) living

A. Habluetzel; G. Traldi; S. Ruggieri; A. R. Attili; P. Scuppa; R. Marchetti; G. Menghini; F. Esposito

2003-01-01

91

High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

92

Whole-genome sequencing of six dog breeds from continuous altitudes reveals adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia  

PubMed Central

The hypoxic environment imposes severe selective pressure on species living at high altitude. To understand the genetic bases of adaptation to high altitude in dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 60 dogs including five breeds living at continuous altitudes along the Tibetan Plateau from 800 to 5100 m as well as one European breed. More than 150× sequencing coverage for each breed provides us with a comprehensive assessment of the genetic polymorphisms of the dogs, including Tibetan Mastiffs. Comparison of the breeds from different altitudes reveals strong signals of population differentiation at the locus of hypoxia-related genes including endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1) and beta hemoglobin cluster. Notably, four novel nonsynonymous mutations specific to high-altitude dogs are identified at EPAS1, one of which occurred at a quite conserved site in the PAS domain. The association testing between EPAS1 genotypes and blood-related phenotypes on additional high-altitude dogs reveals that the homozygous mutation is associated with decreased blood flow resistance, which may help to improve hemorheologic fitness. Interestingly, EPAS1 was also identified as a selective target in Tibetan highlanders, though no amino acid changes were found. Thus, our results not only indicate parallel evolution of humans and dogs in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, but also provide a new opportunity to study the role of EPAS1 in the adaptive processes. PMID:24721644

Gou, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Ze; Yan, Dawei; Yang, Shuli; Jia, Jia; Kong, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zehui; Lu, Shaoxiong; Lian, Linsheng; Wu, Changxin; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Guozhi; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Qiang; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Baohong; Wei, Dongkai; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianfa; Yan, Yulin; Zhao, Guiying; Dong, Xinxing; Li, Mingli; Deng, Weidong; Leng, Jing; Wei, Chaochun; Wang, Chuan; Mao, Huaming; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Guohui; Li, Yixue

2014-01-01

93

Evidence for high prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii exposure among Cameroonians  

PubMed Central

Cameroon lacks the capacity for routine Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) diagnosis thus, the prevalence of Cameroonian exposure to this microbe is unknown. It is known that Pneumocystis infecting different mammalian host species represent diverse phylogenetic backgrounds and are now designated as separate species. The highly sensitive nature of ELISA and the specificity afforded by using human-derived P. jirovecii Msg peptides has been shown to be useful for serological analysis of human sera. Thus, sera from patients in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon, were analyzed for anti-P. jirovecii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using three recombinant major surface glycoprotein (Msg) peptide fragments, MsgA1, MsgB, and MsgC1. Based on serum recognition of one or more of the three fragments, 82% of the total samples analyzed was positive for antibodies to P. jirovecii Msg, indicating high prevalence of P. jirovecii infection or colonization among Cameroonians. Different Msg fragments appear to be recognized more frequently by sera from different geographic regions of the globe. Antibodies in the Cameroonian serum samples recognized MsgA>MsgC>MsgB, suggesting that different P. jirovecii strains exist in different parts of the world and/or human populations differ in their response to P. jirovecii. Also, HIV+ patients diagnosed with respiratory infections (such as TB and pneumonia) and maintained on trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol prophylaxis had relatively lower anti-Msg titers. Whether PcP prophylaxis has significant effects on the quality of life among HIV+ patients in Cameroon warrants further investigation. PMID:19665440

Nkinin, Stephenson W.; Daly, Kieran R.; Walzer, Peter D.; Ndzi, Edward S.; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Respaldiza, Nieves; Medrano, Francisco J.; Kaneshiro, Edna S.

2009-01-01

94

Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

2014-01-01

95

Original Article High prevalence of trimethoprim-resistance cassettes in class 1 and 2  

E-print Network

Original Article High prevalence of trimethoprim-resistance cassettes in class 1 and 2 integrons techniques. Results: Class 1 integrons were the most prevalent (92.8%); class 2 integrons were found in 16 genes); this combination of integrase genes was most prevalent in S. boydii 20 and S. dysenteriae

Boyer, Edmond

96

Rimonabant prevents additional accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat during high-fat feeding in dogs  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether rimonabant, a type 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in dogs maintained on a hypercaloric high-fat diet (HHFD). To determine whether energy expenditure contributed to body weight changes, we also calculated resting metabolic rate. Twenty male dogs received either rimonabant (1.25 mg·kg?1·day?1, orally; n = 11) or placebo (n = 9) for 16 wk, concomitant with a HHFD. VAT, SAT, and nonfat tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting metabolic rate was assessed by indirect calorimetry. By week 16 of treatment, rimonabant dogs lost 2.5% of their body weight (P = 0.029), whereas in placebo dogs body weight increased by 6.2% (P < 0.001). Rimonabant reduced food intake (P = 0.027), concomitant with a reduction of SAT by 19.5% (P < 0.001). In contrast with the VAT increase with placebo (P < 0.01), VAT did not change with rimonabant. Nonfat tissue remained unchanged in both groups. Body weight loss was not associated with either resting metabolic rate (r2 = 0.24; P = 0.154) or food intake (r2 = 0.24; P = 0.166). In conclusion, rimonabant reduced body weight together with a reduction in abdominal fat, mainly because of SAT loss. Body weight changes were not associated with either resting metabolic rate or food intake. The findings provide evidence of a peripheral effect of rimonabant to reduce adiposity and body weight, possibly through a direct effect on adipose tissue. PMID:19366874

Richey, Joyce M.; Woolcott, Orison O.; Stefanovski, Darko; Harrison, L. Nicole; Zheng, Dan; Lottati, Maya; Hsu, Isabel R.; Kim, Stella P.; Kabir, Morvarid; Catalano, Karyn J.; Chiu, Jenny D.; Ionut, Viorica; Kolka, Cathryn; Mooradian, Vahe; Bergman, Richard N.

2009-01-01

97

Distribution and intensity of Echinococcus granulosus infections in dogs in Moroto District, Uganda.  

PubMed

This study was carried out during August 2007-March 2008 in pastoral areas of Moroto District, Uganda. It investigated the distribution and infection intensity of Echinococcus granulosus in the dog population and involved the postmortem examination of 327 dogs (106 domesticated; 80 semi-domesticated, and 141 strays; comprised of 163 females and 164 males). The overall prevalence of E. granulosus was 66.3% (95% CI=60.8-71.4) with parasite burdens of 6-5,213 among the infected dogs. The prevalence of E. granulosus was primarily associated with the season. While the dogs were more likely to have high parasite burdens during the rainy as opposed to the dry season, the parasite burden of E. granulosus infection was also highly associated with age and husbandry. Young dogs were at greater risk of carrying a heavy burden of E. granulosus infection than adults. Likewise, stray dogs were more likely to have a heavy parasite burden. As the study documented a high prevalence and intensity of E. granulosus infection in the dog population in Moroto District of Uganda, further studies need to be carried out in human and intermediate hosts to elucidate the cycle of transmission that could help to design appropriate controlling measures. PMID:20393798

Inangolet, Francis O; Biffa, Demelash; Opuda-Asibo, John; Oloya, James; Skjerve, Eystein

2010-10-01

98

Genomic characterization and high prevalence of bocaviruses in swine.  

PubMed

Using random PCR amplification followed by plasmid subcloning and DNA sequencing, we detected bocavirus related sequences in 9 out of 17 porcine stool samples. Using primer walking, we sequenced the nearly complete genomes of two highly divergent bocaviruses we provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 isolate H18 (PBoV1-H18) and porcine bocavirus 2 isolate A6 (PBoV2-A6) which differed by 51.8% in their NS1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PBoV1-H18 was very closely related to a ?2 Kb central region of a porcine bocavirus-like virus (PBo-LikeV) from Sweden described in 2009. PBoV2-A6 was very closely related to the porcine bocavirus genomes PBoV-1 and PBoV2 from China described in 2010. Among 340 fecal samples collected from different age, asymptomatic swine in five Chinese provinces, the prevalence of PBoV1-H18 and PBoV2-A6 related viruses were 45-75% and 55-70% respectively, with 30-47% of pigs co-infected. PBoV1-A6 related strains were highly conserved, while PBoV2-H18 related strains were more diverse, grouping into two genotypes corresponding to the previously described PBoV1 and PBoV2. Together with the recently described partial bocavirus genomes labeled V6 and V7, a total of three major porcine bocavirus clades have therefore been described to date. Further studies will be required to elucidate the possible pathogenic impact of these diverse bocaviruses either alone or in combination with other porcine viruses. PMID:21525999

Shan, Tongling; Lan, Daoliang; Li, Linlin; Wang, Chunmei; Cui, Li; Zhang, Wen; Hua, Xiuguo; Zhu, Caixia; Zhao, Wei; Delwart, Eric

2011-01-01

99

Can we control tuberculosis in high HIV prevalence settings?  

PubMed

The overlap between the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis and consequent rapid rise in numbers of patients with tuberculosis in many African countries has put a huge burden on health systems. The stigma of HIV has increased the existing stigma surrounding tuberculosis. There are three mechanisms by which we may reduce the number of cases of tuberculosis in a community: reducing transmission of tuberculosis, reducing reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection and reducing HIV transmission. Reinforcing the existing health service to find more cases, active case-finding in communities or enhanced case-finding in specific groups will reduce transmission of tuberculosis. However, health services that find it difficult to find cases efficiently will also find it difficult to support patients throughout treatment to achieve a cure. Partnership with traditional healers, community-based organizations and private practitioners could reduce this burden. Reactivation of tuberculosis among people living with HIV can be reduced by tuberculosis preventive therapy or by antiretroviral therapy. Programmes that identify people living with HIV can also implement enhanced tuberculosis case-finding increasing the benefits of the programme. However, the impact of widespread use of antiretroviral therapy may be to increase the number of people in a community who are mildly immunocompromised and the incidence of tuberculosis at a community level might rise. Any strategy that successfully reduces HIV transmission will benefit tuberculosis control, since around a third of all HIV-positive individuals will develop tuberculosis before they die. To control tuberculosis in high HIV prevalence settings, we must strengthen health systems to include not only expansion of the DOTS strategy but also full-blooded implementation of voluntary counselling and testing, enhanced and active tuberculosis case-finding, preventive therapy and better care for people living with HIV including antiretroviral therapy. The approach needed to control tuberculosis needs also to be integrated into broader development and poverty reduction goals. PMID:12758192

Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Ayles, Helen

2003-01-01

100

Comparison of high-dose intermittent and low-dose continuous oral artemisinin in dogs with naturally occurring tumors.  

PubMed

To evaluate the clinical toxicity and activity of orally administered artemisinin in dogs with spontaneous tumors, 24 client-owned dogs were randomly divided into two groups and received either low-continuous dose (3 mg/kg q 24 hr) or high-dose intermittent (three doses of 45 mg/kg q 6 hr repeated q 1 wk) of artemisinin per os. Treatment was continued for 21 days. Dogs were evaluated weekly for clinical effect and at the end of the treatment for hematologic and biochemical adverse events. Whole blood concentrations of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after the first dose of artemisinin in three dogs in each group. Blood concentrations of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin were <0.1 ?M at all time points, and there was no difference in blood concentration between the two dosing groups. The most frequent adverse event was anorexia, which was observed in 11% of the low-dose group and 29% of the high-dose group. Oral artemisinin, both in low-dose continuous and high-dose intermittent, is well tolerated in dogs but results in low bioavailability. Parenteral administration should be considered for future studies. PMID:25251432

Hosoya, Kenji; Couto, C Guillermo; London, Cheryl A; Kisseberth, William C; Phelps, Mitchell A; Dalton, James T

2014-01-01

101

Low prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Jilin, Henan and Anhui Provinces of the People’s Republic of China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are consider...

102

Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

2014-06-01

103

Helicobacter infection in dogs and cats: facts and fiction.  

PubMed

The discovery of the spiral bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its causative role in gastric disease in humans has brought a dramatic change to gastroenterology. Although spiral bacteria have been known for more than a century to infect the stomachs of dogs and cats, recent research has been conducted mainly in the wake of interest in H. pylori. H. pylori has not been found in dogs and only very rarely in cats and zoonotic risk is minimal. A variety of other Helicobacter spp. can infect the stomach of pets; however, their pathogenic role is far from clear, and they have a small but real zoonotic potential. The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats is high, irrespective of clinical signs, and as in human medicine, mode of transmission is unclear. The relationship of Helicobacter spp. to gastric inflammation in cats and dogs is unresolved, with inflammation, glandular degeneration, and lymphoid follicle hyperplasia accompanying infection in some but not all subjects. Circulating anti-Helicobacter immunoglobulin G antibodies have been detected in 80% of dogs with naturally acquired infection and most dogs and cats with experimental infection. The gastric secretory axis is similar in infected and uninfected cats and dogs and no relationship of infection to gastrointestinal ulcers has been found. Differences in the pathogenicity of Helicobacter spp. are apparent, because infection with H pylori is associated with a more severe gastritis than infection with other Helicobacter spp. in both cats and dogs. Rapid urease test, histopathology, and touch cytology are all highly accurate invasive diagnostic tests for gastric Helicobacter-like organisms in dogs and cats, whereas culture and polymerase chain reaction are the only means to identify them to the species level. Urea breath and blood tests or serology can be used to diagnose Helicobacter spp. noninvasively in dogs and cats. Most therapeutic studies in pets have not shown long-term eradication of Helicobacter spp. Whether this is due to reinfection or recrudescence has not been established. PMID:10772482

Neiger, R; Simpson, K W

2000-01-01

104

Screening for periodontal disease in research dogs - a methodology study.  

PubMed

BackgroundIt has been shown that the prevalence of both clinical attachment loss (CAL) >1 mm and pocket probing depth (PPD) >4 mm is relatively high even in younger dogs, but also that only a minority of the dogs have such clinical signs of periodontal disease (PD) in more than a few teeth. Hence, a minority of dogs carry the major PD burden. These epidemiological features suggest that screening for PD in larger groups of dogs, allowing for rapid assessment of treatment planning, or for the selection of dogs with or without PD prior to be included in experimental trials, should be possible. CAL is the central variable in assessing PD extent and severity while PPD is the central variable used in treatment planning which make these two variables obvious in a screening protocol with the dual aim of disease identification and treatment planning. The main purpose of the present study in 98 laboratory Beagle dogs was to construct a fast, simple and accurate screening tool, which is highly sensitive for the identification of dogs with PD.ResultsExamination of the maxillary P4, P3, P2, I1 and C would, in this population, result in the identification of 85.5% of all dogs and 96% of all teeth positive for CAL ¿1mm, and 58.9% of all dogs and 82.1% of all teeth positive for PD ¿4 mm.Examination of tooth pairs, all C¿s, maxillary I2, M2 and the mandibular P4 would, in this population result in identification of 92.9% of all dogs and 97.3% of all teeth positive for PD ¿4 mm, and 65.5% of all dogs and 83.2% of all teeth positive for CAL ¿1mm. The results presented here only pertain to the present study population.ConclusionsThis screening protocol is suitable for examination of larger groups of laboratory Beagle dogs for PD and our findings indicate that diseased dogs are identified with a high degree of sensitivity. Before this screening can be used in clinical practice, it has to be validated in breeds other than Beagle dogs and in populations with larger age variation. PMID:25407813

Kortegaard, Hanne E; Eriksen, Thomas; Baelum, Vibeke

2014-11-19

105

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

1995-01-01

106

High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl\\u000a in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were\\u000a determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de Val?ncia, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Do?ana (Guadalquivir Marshes).\\u000a Lead pellet density

R. Mateo; J. Belliure; J. C. Dolz; J. M. Aguilar Serrano; R. Guitart

1998-01-01

107

Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto®) in slow release collars to control ticks and fleas in highly infested dog communities  

PubMed Central

Background Dog communities living in kennels are at high risk of being infected by ticks and fleas. In spite of the indubitable efficacy of several topical ectoparasiticides registered for the control of ectoparasites in dogs, the short period of action and the price of these products limit their use in dog communities. This paper reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars to cure dogs highly infested with ectoparasites and to prevent infestations for 8 months in a refuge with a history of unsuccessful environmental treatments. Methods A total of 82 dogs were collared with slow release collars containing a formulation of imidacloprid 10% / flumethrin 4.5%. Dogs were followed-up for ectoparasite presence after 2, 7 and 14 days and thereafter biweekly up to 90 days. Furthermore, dogs were examined for ectoparasites whilst replacing collars 8 months after their application. Results At the time of treatment 79 (96.3%) out of 82 included dogs were heavily infested by ticks and 53 (68.8%) out of the 77 combed dogs were infested by fleas. Tick infested dogs had an estimated mean intensity of 46.9 (± 65.7), while flea infested animals had a load between 20 and 50 fleas. In addition, some of the flea infested dogs (18.9%) were presenting signs of flea allergic dermatitis (FAD). Two days after treatment, 49 (60.5%) and 9 (11.7%) dogs were still infested by live ticks and fleas, respectively. However, the mean intensity of ticks decreased to 3.5 (± 4.3) with a reduction of 92.5%. Except for sporadic cases, no attached ectoparasites were found on dogs from the day 14 visit until the end of the investigation. Cases of FAD resolved without any other treatment within 30 days. Conclusions Ticks and fleas represent a constant hazard for dog populations. Therefore, in particular settings, such as dog refuges, sustainable and long-term strategies to control ectoparasite infestations are needed. Based on the observed evidence of efficacy, long-term duration and safety, the imidacloprid/flumethrin slow release collars can be regarded as an efficacious and sustainable means for ectoparasite control and for treatment of FAD in high-risk dog communities. PMID:23866926

2013-01-01

108

High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in south-eastern Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p?prevalence and parasite density were significantly (p?prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and parasite density was observed between dry and rainy season. Conclusions A large proportion of asymptomatic plasmodial infections was found which likely act as a reservoir of transmission. This has major implications for ongoing malaria control programmes that are based on the treatment of symptomatic patients. These findings highlight the need for new intervention strategies targeting asymptomatic carriers. PMID:24406220

2014-01-01

109

Prairie dog care and husbandry.  

PubMed

The species of prairie dog most commonly found in the pet trade is the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus ludovicianus. These prairie dogs are active, playful, and strong rodents that can make wonderful, affectionate pets when they are properly socialized and given attention. However, with a life span of 8 to 12 years, prairie dogs require a lot of care and a long-term commitment. Prairie dogs live in colonies; thus, they are highly social animals. Potential owners should understand a prairie dog's need for attention before adopting one. PMID:15145390

Pilny, Anthony A; Hess, Laurie

2004-05-01

110

Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P?dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs. PMID:24980809

Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K

2014-09-01

111

Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?  

PubMed Central

This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs.

Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

2014-01-01

112

High prevalence of large trematode eggs in schoolchildren in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Large trematode eggs (LTE) resembling Fasciola spp. eggs were reportedly found in the stools of schoolchildren in Kandal province, Cambodia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of LTE in the stools of children attending the affected school, identify potential risk factors for infection and ascertain the trematode species. We performed a cross-sectional study involving an in-depth questionnaire administered to schoolchildren at the affected school, and examined cattle droppings in the surrounding area and the livers of slaughtered cattle. Three stool samples were examined per child, using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration techniques. In addition, blood serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and coprological polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted for species clarification. Cattle droppings were examined by cup sedimentation and coprological ELISA. LTE were observed in the stools of 106 schoolchildren (46.5%). Two blood serum samples from schoolchildren were positive for Fasciola hepatica in a first ELISA but were negative in a confirmation immunofluorescence antibody test. Out of 221 PCR samples, only one tested positive for Fasciola spp. and none for Fasciolopsis buski. The consumption of raw aquatic plants (odds ratio (OR)=3.3) and fermented fish sauce (OR=2.1) were significantly associated with LTE in the stool. Fasciola spp. flukes were observed in 18.3% of 191 cattle livers. The prevalence of fascioliasis in cattle droppings was 88.8%. The low prevalence of schoolchildren that tested positive for Fasciola spp. with specific molecular diagnostics and who had no diagnostic evidence of F. buski strongly indicates that the majority of microscopically observed LTE are from Echinostoma spp. Fasciola spp. transmission from cattle to human is possible and public health services need to be alerted accordingly. PMID:25250828

Bless, Philipp J; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Kramme, Stefanie; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

2015-01-01

113

High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, P< 0.001) and final (19.2% vs. 10.2%, P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension was higher among football athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (?0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

2014-01-01

114

High prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine bocaviruses in pigs in the USA, and identification of multiple novel porcine bocaviruses.  

PubMed

Viruses in the genus Bocavirus are associated with respiratory and enteric disease in dogs and cattle. In addition, novel porcine bocaviruses (PBoVs) have been identified in domestic and wild pigs in recent years, but are of unknown relevance to date. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence ra tes and genetic diversity of PBoVs in pigs in the USA. Using newly established multiplex real-time PCR assays, 385 lung, lymph node, serum and faecal samples from pigs with various disease conditions were investigated. A high PBoV prevalence rate ranging from 21.3 to 50.8 % was identified in the investigated samples and often two or more PBoV species were detected in the same sample. Cloning and sequencing analysis of the partial non-structural protein NS1 and the capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 of DNA samples positive for PBoV groups 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 16) and 3 (n = 42), including subgroups 3A, 3B or 3C, revealed a high genetic diversity especially for the PBoV G3 VP2 gene, whereas the PBoV group 1 VP1 gene displayed a low nucleotide polymorphism. Using primer walking, 18 partial or nearly complete genomes of PBoVs were obtained and six of the 18 nearly complete genomes represented novel PBoV species. Recombination analysis using partial NS1, VP1 and VP2 genes and the nearly complete genomes indicated possible recombination events within and between PBoVs. Further studies will be required to reveal the possible pathogenic role of these diverse PBoVs. PMID:24243729

Jiang, Yong-Hou; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Gerber, Priscilla F; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

2014-02-01

115

Study of ehrlichiosis in kennel dogs under treatment and prevention during seven months in Dakar (Senegal).  

PubMed

In Dakar kennels where morbidity and mortality attributed to diseases transmitted by ticks were high, we conducted a field study to assess the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. infections in two kennels (n = 34 dogs) and to study the impact of tick protection. The first day of the study, the E. canis PCR were positive in 18 dogs (53%). A. platys was found in one dog and all dogs were negative for Babesia spp. After one month of doxycycline treatment, the number of PCR positive dogs decreased significantly to 2 (5.9%). During seven months, all dogs were treated monthly topically with a novel combination (Certifect(®), Merial) delivering at least 6.7 mg fipronil/kg body weight, 8.0mg amitraz/kg and 6 mg (S)-methoprene/kg. The number of PCR positive dogs remained stable all over the seven months, with 4 dogs being positive at Day 90 and 2 at Day 210. The combination of treatment and monthly prevention had a significant effect in the two kennels. All dogs remained healthy, which was not the case in previous years. PMID:24018180

Davoust, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chene, Jeanne; Massot, Raphaël; Tine, Raphaël; Diarra, Mamadou; Demoncheaux, Jean-Paul; Scandola, Pierre; Beugnet, Frédéric; Chabanne, Luc

2013-12-01

116

High Prevalence of Self-Reported Photophobia in Adult ADHD  

PubMed Central

Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N?=?494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

2014-01-01

117

High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain  

PubMed

Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de València, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Doñana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de València): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones. PMID:9680527

Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart

1998-08-01

118

A retrospective review of treatment and response of high-risk mast cell tumours in dogs.  

PubMed

This retrospective case series evaluates survival outcome of 94 dogs with high metastatic risk mast cell tumours (MCT). Patients were treated with a cytotoxic chemotherapy protocol or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor masitinib, in the presence of gross disease or as an adjunct to surgical resection of the primary tumour. In patients presenting with metastatic disease, surgical resection of the primary tumour with adjunctive therapy with any chemotherapy incurred a significant survival advantage [median survival time (MST): 278 days] compared to patients receiving chemotherapy without surgical excision of the primary tumour (MST: 91 days, P < 0.0001). Patients with a surgically excised Patnaik grade II tumour and high Ki-67 in the absence of metastatic disease treated with vinblastine and prednisolone showed a significantly longer survival (MST: 1946 days) than those treated with masitinib (MST: 369 days, P = 0.0037). Further prospective case-controlled clinical trials of high-risk MCTs are required to make precise evidence-based treatment decisions for individual patients. PMID:25223579

Miller, R L; Van Lelyveld, S; Warland, J; Dobson, J M; Foale, R D

2014-09-15

119

Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

2008-01-01

120

PREDICTORS OF HIGHLY PREVALENT BRAIN ISCHEMIA IN INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and temporal profile of concurrent ischemic lesions in patients with acute primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods Patients were recruited within a prospective, longitudinal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based study of primary ICH. Clinical, demographic, and MRI data were collected on all subjects at baseline and 1 month. Results Of the 138 patients enrolled, mean age was 59 years, 54% were male, 73% black, and 84% had a history of hypertension. At baseline, ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were found in 35% of patients. At 1 month, lesions were present in 27%, and of these lesions, 83% were new and not present at baseline. ICH volume (p=0.025), intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.019), presence of microbleeds (p=0.024), and large, early reductions in mean arterial pressure (p=0.003) were independent predictors of baseline DWI lesions. A multivariate logistical model predicting the presence of 1 month DWI lesions included history of any prior stroke (p=0.012), presence of 1 or more microbleeds (p=0.04), black race (p=0.641), and presence of a DWI lesion at baseline (p=0.007) Interpretation This study demonstrates that more than 1/3 of patients with primary ICH have active cerebral ischemia at baseline remote from the index hematoma, and 1/4 of patients experience ongoing, acute ischemic events at 1 month. Multivariate analyses implicate blood pressure reductions in the setting of an active vasculopathy as a potential underlying mechanism. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of these lesions on outcome and optimal management strategies to arrest vascular damage. PMID:22367992

Menon, Ravi S.; Burgess, Richard E.; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Gibbons, M. Christopher; Shara, Nawar M.; Fernandez, Stephen; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; German, Laura; Sobotka, Ian; Edwards, Dorothy; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

2011-01-01

121

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea  

PubMed Central

A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs. PMID:20377869

2010-01-01

122

Canine distemper outbreak in pet store puppies linked to a high-volume dog breeder.  

PubMed

Canine distemper is uncommon in the pet trade in the United States, in large part due to effective vaccines against Canine distemper virus (CDV). This is a report of CDV affecting 24 young dogs of multiple breeds shortly after sale by 2 pet stores in Wyoming during August-October 2010. Cases were diagnosed over 37 days. Diagnosis was established by a combination of fluorescent antibody staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, negative stain electron microscopy, and necropsy with histopathology. Viral hemagglutinin gene sequences were analyzed from 2 affected dogs and were identical (GenBank accession no. JF283477). Sequences were distinct from those in a contemporaneous unrelated case of CDV in a Wyoming dog (JF283476) that had no contact with the pet store dogs. The breeding property from which the puppies originated was quarantined by the Kansas Animal Health Department. Puppies intended for sale were tested for CDV. Canine distemper was diagnosed on site in November 2010. At that point 1,466 dogs were euthanized to eliminate dispersal of the disease through commercial channels. The investigation underscores the risks inherent in large-scale dog breeding when vaccination and biosecurity practices are suboptimal. PMID:23012378

Schumaker, Brant A; Miller, Myrna M; Grosdidier, Paul; Cavender, Jacqueline L; Montgomery, Donald L; Cornish, Todd E; Farr, Robert M; Driscoll, Michael; Maness, Lori J; Gray, Tangney; Petersen, Dana; Brown, William L; Logan, Jim; O'Toole, Donal

2012-11-01

123

Colorblind Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into dogs' ability (or inability) to see color. Learners conduct an experiment by first performing a control test and then experimenting to see if dogs are able to fetch colored balls amid a background of gray balls. Learners collect, record, and graph the data to draw conclusions about colorblindness in dogs. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Colorblind Dogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

124

Determination of the prevalence of African trypanosome species in indigenous dogs of Mambwe district, eastern Zambia, by loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs have been implicated to serve as links for parasite exchange between livestock and humans and remain an important source of emerging and re-emerging diseases including trypanosome infections. Yet, canine African trypanosomosis (CAT), particularly in indigenous dogs (mongrel breed) remains under- reported in literature. This study evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in detecting trypanosomes in blood from indigenous dogs of tsetse-infested Mambwe district in eastern Zambia. Methods A cross sectional survey of CAT was conducted within 5 chiefdoms (Msoro, Kakumbi, Munkanya, Nsefu, Malama) of Mambwe district, eastern Zambia, during October 2012. Blood samples from 237 indigenous hunting dogs were collected and screened by microscopy and LAMP. Results Of the 237 dogs screened for CAT, 14 tested positive by microscopy (5.9%; 95% CI: 2.9 – 8.9%), all of which also tested positive by LAMP. In addition, LAMP detected 6 additional CAT cases, bringing the total cases detected by LAMP to 20 (8.4%; 95% CI: 4.9 – 12.0%). Irrespective of the detection method used, CAT was only recorded from 3 chiefdoms (Munkanya, Nsefu, Malama) out of the 5. According to LAMP, these infections were caused by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and the zoonotic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Although these CAT cases generally did not manifest clinical illness, an association was observed between infection with Trypanosoma brucei subspecies and occurrence of corneal opacity. Conclusions This communication reports for the first time the occurrence of CAT in indigenous Zambian dogs. Our study indicates that LAMP is a potential diagnostic tool for trypanosome detection in animals. LAMP was more sensitive than microscopy and was further capable of distinguishing the closely related T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense. In view of the sporadic cases of re-emerging HAT being reported within the Luangwa valley, detection of the human serum resistant associated (SRA) gene in trypanosomes from mongrels is intriguing and indicative of the risk of contracting HAT by local communities and tourists in Mambwe district. Consequently, there is a need for continuous trypanosome surveillances in animals, humans and tsetse flies using sensitive and specific tests such as LAMP. PMID:24411022

2014-01-01

125

Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A prairie dog stands on alert. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease. Better protection of prairie dogs against plague would minimize the risk of disease transfer to endangered black-footed ferrets, aid in prairie dog conservation, and protec...

126

Ventilatory response to high inspired carbon dioxide concentrations in anesthetized dogs  

PubMed Central

Background: The ventilation ( ) response to inspired CO2 has been extensively studied, but rarely with concentrations >10%. Aims: These experiments were performed to determine whether would increase correspondingly to higher concentrations and according to conventional chemoreceptor time delays. Materials and Methods: We exposed anesthetized dogs acutely, with and without vagotomy and electrical stimulation of the right vagus, to 20-100% CO2-balance O2 and to 0 and 10% O2-balance N2. Results: The time delays decreased and response magnitude increased with increasing concentrations (p<0.01), but at higher concentrations the time delays were shorter than expected, i.e., 0.5 s to double at 100% CO2, with the response to 0% O2 being ~3 s slower. Right vagotomy significantly reduced baseline breathing frequency (fR), increased tidal volume (VT) and increased the time delay by ~3 s. Bilateral vagotomy further reduced baseline fR and , and reduced the response to CO2 and increased the time delay by ~12 s. Electro-stimulation of the peripheral right vagus while inspiring CO2 caused a 13 s asystole and further reduced and delayed the response, especially after bilateral vagotomy, shifting the mode from VT to fR. Conclusions: Results indicate that airway or lung receptors responded to the rapid increase in lung H+ and that vagal afferents and unimpaired circulation seem necessary for the initial rapid response to high CO2 concentrations by receptors upstream from the aortic bodies. PMID:22540067

Loeppky, Jack A.; Risling, Ray

2011-01-01

127

Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.  

PubMed

Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human and veterinary public health, contributing to the general awareness of pet owners and veterinarian practitioners and reinforcing the need for effective control measures against vectors and preventive therapy in companion animals. PMID:25440945

Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

2014-11-15

128

Tick-borne pathogens and disease in dogs on St. Kitts, West Indies.  

PubMed

Between 2009 and 2011, we conducted a case-control study of ticks and tick-associated pathogens affecting dogs on the island of St. Kitts, eastern Caribbean, including 55 cases of clinically suspected tick-borne disease (TBD) and 110 presumably healthy animals presented for elective surgeries. Rhipicephalus sanguineus caused year-round infestations of dogs, and 36% of the dogs in the study were infested at the time of examination. Overall, 62% of suspected TBD cases and 24% of presumably healthy dogs tested positive by PCR for infections with: Anaplasma platys (0% and 4%), Babesia canis vogeli (20% and 6%), Babesia gibsoni (18% and 5%), Ehrlichia canis (35% and 7%), and Hepatozoon canis (5% and 2%). Co-infections were documented in 15% of these PCR-positive dogs. Antibodies against A. platys or E. canis were noted in 36% of the dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most common sign of infection, followed by anemia. This is the first detection of A. platys, B. canis vogeli, or H. canis on St. Kitts and the first detection of B. gibsoni in the Caribbean. We conclude that tick-borne pathogens of dogs are highly prevalent in this region and may present in dogs that appear healthy, in spite of hematologic abnormalities that may increase surgical risk. PMID:23481028

Loftis, Amanda D; Kelly, Patrick J; Freeman, Mark D; Fitzharris, Susan; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Wang, Chengming

2013-09-01

129

The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs  

PubMed Central

Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

2013-01-01

130

Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities  

PubMed Central

This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ? 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

2011-01-01

131

Genomic Characterization and High Prevalence of Bocaviruses in Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using random PCR amplification followed by plasmid subcloning and DNA sequencing, we detected bocavirus related sequences in 9 out of 17 porcine stool samples. Using primer walking, we sequenced the nearly complete genomes of two highly divergent bocaviruses we provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 isolate H18 (PBoV1-H18) and porcine bocavirus 2 isolate A6 (PBoV2-A6) which differed by 51.8% in their

Tongling Shan; Daoliang Lan; Linlin Li; Chunmei Wang; Li Cui; Wen Zhang; Xiuguo Hua; Caixia Zhu; Wei Zhao; Eric Delwart; Daniel G. Bausch

2011-01-01

132

Population Genetics of Schistosoma japonicum within the Philippines Suggest High Levels of Transmission between Humans and Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosoma japonicum, which remains a major public health problem in the Philippines and mainland China, is the only schistosome species for which zoonotic transmission is considered important. While bovines are suspected as the main zoonotic reservoir in parts of China, the relative contributions of various non-human mammals to S. japonicum transmission in the Philippines remain to be determined. We examined the population genetics of S. japonicum in the Philippines in order to elucidate transmission patterns across host species and geographic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings S. japonicum miracidia (hatched from eggs within fecal samples) from humans, dogs, pigs and rats, and cercariae shed from snail-intermediate hosts, were collected across two geographic areas of Samar Province. Individual isolates were then genotyped using seven multiplexed microsatellite loci. Wright's FST values and phylogenetic trees calculated for parasite populations suggest a high frequency of parasite gene-flow across definitive host species, particularly between dogs and humans. Parasite genetic differentiation between areas was not evident at the definitive host level, possibly suggesting frequent import and export of infections between villages, although there was some evidence of geographic structuring at the snail–intermediate host level. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest very high levels of transmission across host species, and indicate that the role of dogs should be considered when planning control programs. Furthermore, a regional approach to treatment programs is recommended where human migration is extensive. PMID:19030225

Rudge, James W.; Carabin, Hélène; Balolong, Ernesto; Tallo, Veronica; Shrivastava, Jaya; Lu, Da-Bing; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Olveda, Remigio; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Webster, Joanne P.

2008-01-01

133

Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

2014-01-01

134

Vanishing native American dog lineages  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

2011-01-01

135

Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs\\/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from

Sarah K. Brown; Niels C. Pedersen; Sardar Jafarishorijeh; Danika L. Bannasch; Kristen D. Ahrens; Jui-Te Wu; Michaella Okon; Benjamin N. Sacks

2011-01-01

136

Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern that free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) populations may serve as reservoirs of pathogens which may be transmitted to wildlife. We documented the prevalence of antibodies to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), in free-ranging dog and sympatric Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) populations in and around the Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary, in Maharashtra, central India. A total of 219 dogs and 33 foxes were sampled during the study period. Ninety-three percentage of dogs and 87% of foxes were exposed to one or more of the three pathogens. Exposure rates in dogs were high: >88% for CPV, >72% for CDV and 71% for CAV. A large proportion of adult dogs had antibodies against these pathogens due to seroconversion following earlier natural infection. The high prevalence of exposure to these pathogens across the sampling sessions, significantly higher exposure rates of adults compared with juveniles, and seroconversion in some unvaccinated dogs documented during the study period suggests that these pathogens are enzootic. The prevalence of exposure to CPV, CDV and CAV in foxes was 48%, 18% and 52%, respectively. Further, a high rate of mortality was documented in foxes with serologic evidence of ongoing CDV infection. Dogs could be playing a role in the maintenance and transmission of these pathogens in the fox population, but our findings show that most dogs in the population are immune to these pathogens by virtue of earlier natural infection, and therefore, these individuals make little current or future contribution to viral maintenance. Vaccination of this cohort will neither greatly improve their collective immune status nor contribute to herd immunity. Our findings have potentially important implications for dog disease control programmes that propose using canine vaccination as a tool for conservation management of wild carnivore populations. PMID:25135467

Belsare, A V; Vanak, A T; Gompper, M E

2014-08-01

137

High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

2013-01-01

138

The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

2009-01-01

139

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd  

E-print Network

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd: tissue distribution of disease) Abstract ­ Following a severe outbreak of clinical scrapie in 2006­2007, a large dairy goat herd was culled) was positive in only 30 (41.7%) of the infected goats. However, the efficiency of rectal and palatine tonsil

Boyer, Edmond

140

High Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Wild Populations of Lowland Leopard Frogs Rana yavapaiensis in  

E-print Network

High Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Wild Populations of Lowland Leopard Frogs Rana, USA Abstract: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a fungus that can potentially lead Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and has been implicated in catastrophic amphibian die-offs in North America

Ryan, Michael J.

141

Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

2014-01-01

142

High prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a remote, undertreated population of Namibian pastoralists.  

PubMed

The highly remote pastoralist communities in Kaokoland, Namibia, have long been presumed to have high gonorrhoea prevalence. To estimate gonorrhoea prevalence and correlates of infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 446 adults across 28 rural villages. Gonorrhoea status was determined from urethral and vaginal swabs via qPCR assay. All participants answered a closed-ended interview about demographics, sexual behaviour and symptom history. Sixteen per cent of participants had high-level infections (?ID(50) dose) and 48% had low-level infections (prevalence than men of both high- and low-level infections. High-level infections were regionally and seasonally clustered, occurring in young adults in the Ehama region during the winter. Low-level infections were distributed homogenously across demographic characteristics, season, and region. All low-level infections and most high-level infections (men 78%, women 95%) were asymptomatic and left untreated. The epidemic-like nature of high-level gonorrhoea cases suggests that intervention efforts can be focused on seasons of high social activity. PMID:25267407

Hazel, A; Ponnaluri-Wears, S; Davis, G S; Low, B S; Foxman, B

2014-11-01

143

Airborne fungi in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 ?m were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 ?m were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.

Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.

144

Tuberculosis screening in high human immunodeficiency virus prevalence settings: turning promise into reality  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Twenty years of sky-high tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and high TB mortality in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence countries have so far not been matched by the same magnitude or breadth of responses as seen in malaria or HIV programmes. Instead, recommendations have been narrowly focused on people presenting to health facilities for investigation of TB symptoms, or for HIV testing and care. However, despite the recent major investment and scale-up of TB and HIV services, undiagnosed TB remains highly prevalent at community level, implying that diagnosis of TB remains slow and incomplete. This maintains high transmission rates and exposes people living with HIV to high rates of morbidity and mortality. More intensive use of TB screening, with broader definitions of target populations, expanded indications for screening both inside and outside of health facilities, and appropriate selection of new diagnostic tools, offers the prospect of rapidly improving population-level control of TB. Diagnostic accuracy of suitable (high throughput) algorithms remains the major barrier to realising this goal. In the present study, we review the evidence available to guide expanded TB screening in HIV-prevalent settings, ideally through combined TB-HIV interventions that provide screening for both TB and HIV, and maximise entry to HIV and TB care and prevention. Ideally, we would systematically test, treat and prevent TB and HIV comprehensively, offering both TB and HIV screening to all health facility attendees, TB households and all adults in the highest risk communities. However, we are still held back by inadequate diagnostics, financing and paucity of population-impact data. Relevant contemporary research showing the high need for potential gains, and pitfalls from expanded and intensified TB screening in high HIV prevalence settings are discussed in this review. PMID:23928165

Corbett, E. L.; MacPherson, P.

2014-01-01

145

Seroepidemiological evidence for a relationship between Neospora caninum infections in dogs and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs from dairy farms with a known prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in the cattle were examined for the presence of N. caninum antibodies using an ELISA. Data of farm dogs were compared with those of dogs examined at a university clinic, which originated mainly in urban areas. Of the 152 farm dogs, 36 (23.6%) were seropositive to N. caninum,

W Wouda; Th Dijkstra; A. M. H Kramer; C van Maanen; J. M. A Brinkhof

1999-01-01

146

Liquid Drugs and High Dead Space Syringes May Keep HIV and HCV Prevalence High – A Comparison of Hungary and Lithuania  

PubMed Central

Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania often injected opiates purchased in liquid form (‘shirka’), used and shared 2-piece syringes (vs. 1-piece syringes) disproportionately more often, were less likely to acquire their syringes from legal sources and had significantly more experience with injected and less experience with non-injected drugs. It may not be liquid drugs per se that contribute to a higher prevalence of HCV and/or HIV, but it is probably factors associated with the injecting of liquid drugs, such as the wide-spread use and sharing of potentially contaminated 2-piece syringes acquired often from non-legal sources, and syringe-mediated drug sharing with 2-piece syringes. Scaling up substitution therapy, especially heroin replacement, combined with reducing the supply of liquid drugs may decrease the prevalence of high-risk injecting behaviours related to the injecting of liquid drugs and drug injecting-related infections among IDUs in Lithuania. PMID:20798543

Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A.

2010-01-01

147

The Effect of Removing Potentially Infectious Dogs on the Numbers of Canine Leishmania infantum Infections in an Endemic Area with High Transmission Rates  

PubMed Central

To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population. PMID:22665602

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Santos, Claudiney B.; Ferreira, Adelson L.; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-01-01

148

High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis; Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions; P<0.05 was considered of statistical significance; descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages. Results A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40% and 82% among schools, with a median of 59.2%; the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2% high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old; hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P?0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program. PMID:25182717

Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Ault, Steven K.; Castillo, Phillip; Serrano, Kenton; Troya, Guillermo

2014-01-01

149

Prevalence of dry eye at high altitude: a case controlled comparative study.  

PubMed

High altitude is associated with physiological as well as pathological changes in the eye related to adverse environmental conditions that result in increased tear evaporation and contribute to a higher incidence of dry eye in these regions. We aimed to study the difference in prevalence of dry eye at high altitude and at low altitude. The prevalence of dry eye among the natives and the army soldiers who were recently posted at high altitude was also studied and compared. 200 adults above 20 years of age were enrolled. 100 subjects were recruited at a high altitude region (study group), of which 50 were native Ladakhis and 50 were soldiers recently posted at Leh, Ladakh, India (height; 3300 m above sea level; temperature: 18 degrees C to 24 degrees C). 100 subjects, age and sex matched, were screened at a low altitude region, New Delhi, India (218 m above sea level; temperature: 19 degrees C to 24 degrees C) to serve as the control group. Prevalence of dry eye was assessed through standard questionnaires (McMonnies' Questionnaire (MMI), Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI), and Schirmer's basic secretion test. On the basis of the parameters studied (symptoms, MMI, OSDI and Schirmer's test), dry eye was diagnosed in 20% of subjects screened at high altitude and in 9% of subjects in the control group screened at low altitude. In the study group, the prevalence of dry eye was significantly higher amongst the native population (54%) than in the army soldiers who were recently posted at that region (26%). The difference was statistically significant (p<0.005). In conclusion, dry eye is more common at high altitude, particularly in the native population. Awareness among people residing at high altitude and the treating medical personnel needs to be created for early detection and treatment of dry eye to prevent vision-threatening complications. PMID:19115918

Gupta, Noopur; Prasad, Indira; Himashree, G; D'Souza, Pamela

2008-01-01

150

High Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus Among Injection Drug Users in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.  

PubMed

The constant increase in the number of drug users and rapidly spread of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among drug users result in a serious public health problem in China. To investigate HCV prevalence among drug users in Zhenjiang city, Jiangsu, China, 207 drug users from Zhenjiang were enrolled in this study during 2009 and the prevalence of HCV, HIV and syphilis infection were detected. HCV prevalence among injection drug users (IDUs) was 81.6%, significantly higher than that (22.9%) among oral drug users (P < 0.001), suggesting a strong association of HCV infection with injection drug use (IDU). Most drug users were more than 25 years old (89.2%), single (60.5%, including single and divorced/widowed), and had a history of drug abuse over 6 years (92.9%). HCV prevalence among drug users with middle (72.6%) or high (83.8%) school diplomas was significantly higher than that among those with lower (46.9%) education level (P = 0.007). HCV prevalence among IDUs did not obviously change along with the increase in duration of drug use and in frequency of injection per day, suggesting less association of HCV infection with both variables. These results suggest that most Chinese addicts might start drug use after their middle/high school education. To reduce drug use and to prevent HIV and HCV transmission via IDU, large-scale drug prevention educations should be urgently conducted in all China's middle and high schools. PMID:23637507

Wu, Nana; Ge, Qinjuan; Feng, Qingchuan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Caihong; Xu, Yongkang; He, Guangli; Zhang, Chiyu

2011-12-01

151

Regional occurrence, high frequency but low diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup d1 suggests a recent dog-wolf hybridization in Scandinavia.  

PubMed

The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60-100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480-3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage. PMID:20497152

Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, A; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P

2011-02-01

152

PREVALENCE, ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE CYST WALL AND INFECTIVITY FOR THE DOG AND CAT OF SARCOCYSTIS SP. FROM FALLOW DEER (CERVUS DAMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRA(;T: The prevalence of Sarcocystis sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) in fallow deer (Cervus dama) in Tuscany, Italy was determined by digestion technique and histological examination. Forty-four of 45 fallow deer were infected. Infections occurred in adult deer and in fawns. Samples from the heart were more intensively parasitized than samples from tongue, oesophagus and diaphragm muscle. With transmission electron microscopy, the

A. Poli; F. Mancianti; A. Marconcini; M. Nigro; R. Colagreco

153

Detection of human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in dogs by histochemical staining and molecular techniques.  

PubMed

Human filariasis caused by Brugia malayi is still a public health problem in many countries of Asia including India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted to eliminate filariasis by the year 2020 by Mass annual single dose Diethylcarbamazine Administration (MDA). Results of the MDA programme after the first phase was less satisfactory than expected. Malayan filariasis caused by B. malayi is endemic in the south of Thailand where domestic cat serves as the major reservoir host. There is no report about the occurrence of B. malayi in dogs. The present work was carried out to find out the incidence of microfilariasis in dogs and also to detect the presence of human filarial infection in dogs, if any. One hundred dogs above 6 months of age presented to the veterinary college Hospital, Mannuthy, Kerala, with clinical signs suggestive of microfilariasis - fever, anorexia, conjunctivitis, limb and scrotal oedema - were screened for microfilariae by wet film examination. Positive cases were subjected to Giemsa staining, histochemical staining and molecular techniques. Results of the study showed that 80% of dogs had microfilariasis; out of which 20% had sheathed microfilaria. Giemsa and histochemical staining character, PCR and sequencing confirmed it as B. malayi. High prevalence of B. malayi in dogs in this study emphasized the possible role of dogs in transmission of human filariasis. PMID:21620569

Ambily, V R; Pillai, Usha Narayana; Arun, R; Pramod, S; Jayakumar, K M

2011-09-27

154

Electrical activation to the parasternal intercostal muscles during high-frequency spinal cord stimulation in dogs.  

PubMed

High-frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) is a novel technique of inspiratory muscle activation involving stimulation of spinal cord pathways, which may have application as a method to provide inspiratory muscle pacing in ventilator-dependent patients with spinal cord injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the spatial distribution of motor drive to the parasternal intercostal muscles during spontaneous breathing with that occurring during HF-SCS. In nine anesthetized dogs, HF-SCS was applied at the T2 spinal level. Fine-wire recording electrodes were used to assess single motor unit (SMU) pattern of activation in the medial bundles of the 2nd and 4th and lateral bundles of the 2nd interspaces during spontaneous breathing and HF-SCS following C1 spinal section. Stimulus amplitude during HF-SCS was adjusted such that inspired volumes matched that occurring during spontaneous breathing (protocol 1). During HF-SCS mean peak SMU firing frequency was highest in the medial bundles of the 2nd interspace (17.1 ± 0.6 Hz) and significantly lower in the lateral bundles of the 2nd interspace (13.5 ± 0.5 Hz) and medial bundles of the 4th (15.2 ± 0.7 Hz) (P < 0.05 for each comparison). Similar rostrocaudal and mediolateral gradients of activity were observed during spontaneous breathing prior to C1 section. Since rib cage movement was greater and peak discharge frequencies of the SMUs higher during HF-SCS compared with spontaneous breathing, stimulus amplitude during HF-SCS was adjusted such that rib cage movement matched that occurring during spontaneous breathing (protocol 2). Under this protocol, mean peak SMU frequencies and rostrocaudal and mediolateral gradients of activity during HF-SCS were not significantly different compared with spontaneous breathing. This study demonstrates that 1) the topographic pattern of electrical activation of the parasternal intercostal muscles during HF-SCS is similar to that occurring during spontaneous breathing, and 2) differential spatial distribution of parasternal intercostal activation does not depend upon differential descending synaptic input from supraspinal centers. PMID:25342707

DiMarco, Anthony F; Kowalski, Krzysztof E

2015-01-15

155

An ARHGEF10 deletion is highly associated with a juvenile-onset inherited polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs.  

PubMed

An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw?=?1.16×10-10, Pgenome, corrected?=?0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3'-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5'-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3'-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species. PMID:25275565

Ekenstedt, Kari J; Becker, Doreen; Minor, Katie M; Shelton, G Diane; Patterson, Edward E; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso; Drögemüller, Cord; Mickelson, James R

2014-10-01

156

The Gunnison's prairie dog structures a high desert grassland landscape as a keystone engineer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of landscape spatial structure on ecological processes has recently received much attention. Comparisons are made here between the spatial structure of grasslands, and active and extirpated Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni Hollister) towns at the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, U.S.A. The spatial structure of bare ground was quatified using a box-counting technique to extract landscape fractal dimensions,

R. K. Bangert; C. N. Slobodchikoff

2000-01-01

157

Retrospective study of the prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviruses among Croatian women.  

PubMed

The infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause for cervical cancer. There are at least 15 High-Risk (HR) HPV types that are significantly associated with progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to cervical cancer. Since previous studies showed that the prevalence of HPV in cervical cancers varies among different geographic regions, we wanted to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in Croatia, especially low abundant HR HPV types. By means of consensus primers directed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we analysed cervical DNA samples of 2,136 Croatian women, mostly with abnormal cervical smears, in order to detect the presence of HPV Type-specific primers were then used to determine Low-Risk (LR) HPV types 6/11 and HR HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Out of 2,136 specimens, 1,255 (58.8%) were positive for HPV More than half of positive samples were typed (64.5%) and 35.5% still remained untyped. Multiple HPV infections were found in 10.3% of the cases. The most prevalent type, including both single and multiple infections, was HPV16 with the prevalence of 15.9%, followed by HPV types 31, 6/11, 33, 18, 52, 45 and 58 with 8.7%, 7.1%, 4.5%, 3.8%, 2.3%, 1.2% and 1.1%, respectively. The significant increase of frequency from Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LSIL) to High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) was observed for HR HPV types 16, 18, 31 and 33 but not 45, 52 and 58. The frequency of unknown HPV types was almost the same in cervical specimens of women with LSIL and those with HSIL, 19.8% and 21.1%, respectively. The prevalence of HPV infection rate decreased significantly with patient age from 68.5% (age group 12 to 24 years) to 38.8% (age group 45 to 54 years). But, in women aged 55 or older the overall prevalence increased to 56.6%. Our results indicate that prevalence of HR HPV types in Croatia is similar to other countries. We suggest that HPV positive women in Croatia should be closely monitored by typing for HR HPV types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. PMID:17598510

Milutin-Gasperov, Nina; Sabol, Ivan; Halec, Gordana; Matovina, Mihaela; Grce, Magdalena

2007-04-01

158

Survey of selected tick-borne diseases in dogs in Finland  

PubMed Central

Background Due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern Europe. Although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in Finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. We determined the antibody and DNA prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in Finland: Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and Bartonella. Methods Anti-Ap, ?Bb and –Ec antibodies were determined in 340 Finnish pet dogs and 50 healthy hunting dogs using the 4DX Snap®Test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs for the detection of Ap and Bartonella DNA were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to a vector borne agent. Results The overall seroprevalence was highest for Ap (5.3%), followed by Bb (2.9%), and Ec (0.3%). Seropositivities to Ap and Bb were significantly higher in the Åland Islands (p <0.001), with prevalence of Ap and Bb antibodies of 45 and 20%, respectively. In healthy hunting dogs, seropositivity rates of 4% (2/50) and 2% (1/50) were recorded for Ap and Bb, respectively. One client-owned dog and one hunting dog, both healthy, were infected with Ap as determined by PCR, while being seronegative. For Bartonella spp., none of the dogs tested was positive by PCR. Conclusions This study represents the first data of seroprevalence to tick borne diseases in the Finnish dog population. Our results indicate that dogs in Finland are exposed to vector borne diseases, with Ap being the most seroprevalent of the diseases tested, followed by Bb. Almost 50% of dogs living in Åland Islands were Ap seropositive. This finding suggests the possibility of a high incidence of Ap infection in humans in this region. Knowing the distribution of seroprevalence in dogs may help predict the pattern of a tick borne disease and may aid in diagnostic and prevention efforts. PMID:24957468

2014-01-01

159

Prairie Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie dogs are stocky burrowing rodents that live in colonies called “towns.” French explorers called them “little dogs” because of the barking noise they make. Their legs are short and muscular, adapted for digging. The tail and other extremities are short. Their hair is rather coarse with little underfur, and is sandy brown to cinnamon in color with grizzled black

Scott E. Hygnstrom; Dallas R. Virchow

1994-01-01

160

A high prevalence of renal hypouricemia caused by inactive SLC22A12 in Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high prevalence of renal hypouricemia caused by inactive SLC22A12 in Japanese.BackgroundRecently, SLC22A12 has been identified as a urate-anion exchanger in the human kidney.MethodsWe screened for polymorphisms of SLC22A12 and conducted an association study between genetic polymorphisms and urate levels in an epidemiologic cohort representing the general population in Japan. Functional significance of mutations was assessed by oocyte expression analysis.ResultsWe

NAOHARU IWAI; YUKARI MINO; MAKOTO HOSOYAMADA; NAOMI TAGO; YOSHIHIRO KOKUBO; HITOSHI ENDOU

2004-01-01

161

HIGH PREVALENCE OF HBsAg CARRIERS IN A SPECIFIC COMMUNITY IN BULGARIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: HBV-infection is intermediate-endemic in Bulgaria. There is a trend for decreasing of HBsAg-carrier rate in the last decades, but prevalence remains higher in some specific ethnic communities. Current data regarding high-endemic sources of HBV-infection are limited. Methods: HBsAg and anti-HCV were tested in 677 subjects from a specific ethnical community: 413 adults and 264 adolescents, covered by the National

Zahariy Krastev; Ivan Stoev; Deian Jelev; Aneta Ivanova; Krasimir Antonov; Luydmila Mateva

2011-01-01

162

Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013  

PubMed Central

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ?600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

2014-01-01

163

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.  

PubMed

A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-03-01

164

High HIV sero-prevalence among students of institutions of higher education in Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs) as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods A total of 9?709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 19-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 2012. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91%) is non-significantly (P>0.1) lower than that of females (4.31%). Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.

Emeka-Nwabunnia, Ijeoma; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okey; Ogbulie, Tochukwu Ekwutosi

2014-01-01

165

High prevalence of PfCRT K76T mutation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Ghana.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum has successfully developed resistance to almost all currently used antimalarials. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene at position 76 resulting in a change in coding from lysine to threonine (K76T) has been implicated to be the corner stone of chloroquine resistance. Widespread resistance to chloroquine in endemic regions led to its replacement with other antimalarials. In some areas this replacement resulted in a reversion of the mutant T76 allele to the wild-type K76 allele. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of the K76T mutation of the Pfcrt gene eight years after the ban on chloroquine sales and use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 regional hospitals in Ghana. PCR-RFLP was used to analyse samples collected to determine the prevalence of Pfcrt K76T mutation. Of the 1318 participants recruited for this study, 246 were found to harbour the P. falciparum parasites, of which 60.98% (150/246) showed symptoms for malaria. The prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutant allele was 58.54% (144/246) and that of the K76 wild-type allele was 41.46% (102/246). No difference of statistical significance was observed in the distribution of the alleles in the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants (P=0.632). No significant association was, again, observed between the alleles and parasite density (P=0.314), as well as between the alleles and Hb levels of the participants (P=0.254). Notwithstanding the decline in the prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutation since the antimalarial policy change in 2004, the 58.54% prevalence recorded in this study is considered high after eight years of the abolishment of chloroquine usage in Ghana. This is in contrast to findings from other endemic areas where the mutant allele significantly reduced in the population after a reduction chloroquine use. PMID:24727053

Afoakwah, Richmond; Boampong, Johnson N; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Nwaefuna, Ekene K; Verner, Orish N; Asare, Kwame K

2014-08-01

166

[Determination of tamsulosin in dog plasma by a high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method].  

PubMed

To develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of tamsulosin in dog plasma after oral administration of controlled-release tablet of tamsulosin hydrochloride, the samples and the internal standard, diphenhydramine, were extracted from dog plasma by n-hexane-dichloromethane (2 : 1), and separated on a Bonchrom XBP-C18 column using a mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-ammonium formate (10 mmol x L(-1)) (30 : 40 : 30, v/v/v), at a flow rate of 0.4 mL x min(-1). Mass spectrometric detection was operated on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in positive mode. Quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) of the transitions m/z 409 --> 228 for tamsulosin and m/z 256 --> 167 for the internal standard, respectively. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for tamsulosin were 0.02 - 50 ng x mL(-1). The lower limit of quantification was 0.02 ng x mL(-1). The accuracy ranged from -2.61% to 8.82% in terms of relative error (RE). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) across three-run validations were lower than 9.72%. The method was proved to be highly sensitive, selective, and had been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after an oral administration of 0.4 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride controlled release preparations to dogs. PMID:17944238

Fan, Hui-Rong; Gu, Yuan; Si, Duan-Yun; Liu, Chang-Xiao

2007-08-01

167

Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

2008-01-01

168

Ethnic identity, region, and attitudes toward male circumcision in a high HIV–prevalence country  

PubMed Central

We study how considerations of male circumcision as both a favourable practice and as protective against HIV are linked with ethnicity in sub-Saharan Africa, where many ethnic groups do not traditionally circumcise. We focus on Malawi, a country with a high HIV prevalence but low male circumcision prevalence. Survey data from a population-based random sample in rural Malawi (N=3400) was analysed for ethnoregional patterns in attitudes toward male circumcision. We used logit regression models to measure how reported circumcision status, region of residence, and ethnic identity relate to attitudes toward circumcision. Overall, Malawians reported more negative than positive opinions about male circumcision, but attitudes toward circumcision varied by ethnicity and region. The implications for agencies and governments aggressively scaling up the provision of male circumcision are clear: acceptance of circumcision as a tool for HIV prevention could be low in societies divided by ethnoregional identities that also shape the practice of circumcision. PMID:23731239

Poulin, Michelle

2013-01-01

169

High Prevalence of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Community of Savanna Chimpanzees ? †  

PubMed Central

Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) has a significant negative impact on the health, reproduction, and life span of chimpanzees, yet the prevalence and distribution of this virus in wild-living populations are still only poorly understood. Here, we show that savanna chimpanzees, who live in ecologically marginal habitats at 10- to 50-fold lower population densities than forest chimpanzees, can be infected with SIVcpz at high prevalence rates. Fecal samples were collected from nonhabituated eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Issa Valley (n = 375) and Shangwa River (n = 6) areas of the Masito-Ugalla region in western Tanzania, genotyped to determine the number of sampled individuals, and tested for SIVcpz-specific antibodies and nucleic acids. None of 5 Shangwa River apes tested positive for SIVcpz; however, 21 of 67 Issa Valley chimpanzees were SIVcpz infected, indicating a prevalence rate of 31% (95% confidence interval, 21% to 44%). Two individuals became infected during the 14-month observation period, documenting continuing virus spread in this community. To characterize the newly identified SIVcpz strains, partial and full-length viral sequences were amplified from fecal RNA of 10 infected chimpanzees. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Ugalla viruses formed a monophyletic lineage most closely related to viruses endemic in Gombe National Park, also located in Tanzania, indicating a connection between these now separated communities at some time in the past. These findings document that SIVcpz is more widespread in Tanzania than previously thought and that even very low-density chimpanzee populations can be infected with SIVcpz at high prevalence rates. Determining whether savanna chimpanzees, who face much more extreme environmental conditions than forest chimpanzees, are more susceptible to SIVcpz-associated morbidity and mortality will have important scientific and conservation implications. PMID:21775446

Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona; Moore, Deborah L.; Learn, Gerald H.; Li, Yingying; Takehisa, Jun; Pintea, Lilian; Shaw, George M.; Moore, Jim; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

2011-01-01

170

Prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students. Females were more likely to have suicidal behavior than males. No close friends, feelings of loneliness, insomnia, self perception of underweight or overweight, carrying a weapon were significant predictors of students' suicidal behavior. Missing school without permission, being bullied and going hungry were also important risk factors of suicidal ideation. Families and Schools are important environments to prevent high students' suicide. Improving students' psychological well being, quality of relationship with people, and support resources are critical to prevent suicidal behavior. PMID:24282032

Altangerel, Uyanga; Liou, Jenn-Chang; Yeh, Pi-Ming

2014-04-01

171

Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs < or = 6 months and dogs > 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dogs > 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100%; geometric mean, 2.5; range, 1-9). PMID:19690887

Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen

2009-11-01

172

Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA). It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males) in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213). Mean SpO2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = ?0.929, P < 0.001). In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors associated with CMS. PMID:24872667

Sahota, Inderjeet Singh; Panwar, Nidhi Singh

2013-01-01

173

How can mathematical models advance tuberculosis control in high HIV prevalence settings?  

PubMed

Existing approaches to tuberculosis (TB) control have been no more than partially successful in areas with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. In the context of increasingly constrained resources, mathematical modelling can augment understanding and support policy for implementing those strategies that are most likely to bring public health and economic benefits. In this paper, we present an overview of past and recent contributions of TB modelling in this key area, and suggest a way forward through a modelling research agenda that supports a more effective response to the TB-HIV epidemic, based on expert discussions at a meeting convened by the TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium. The research agenda identified high-priority areas for future modelling efforts, including 1) the difficult diagnosis and high mortality of TB-HIV; 2) the high risk of disease progression; 3) TB health systems in high HIV prevalence settings; 4) uncertainty in the natural progression of TB-HIV; and 5) combined interventions for TB-HIV. Efficient and rapid progress towards completion of this modelling agenda will require co-ordination between the modelling community and key stakeholders, including advocates, health policy makers, donors and national or regional finance officials. A continuing dialogue will ensure that new results are effectively communicated and new policy-relevant questions are addressed swiftly. PMID:24903784

Houben, R M G J; Dowdy, D W; Vassall, A; Cohen, T; Nicol, M P; Granich, R M; Shea, J E; Eckhoff, P; Dye, C; Kimerling, M E; White, R G

2014-05-01

174

High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

2012-01-01

175

Dog Whisperer  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: As we mentioned in an earlier Postcard, dogs have only recently become favored pets rather than favorite meals here in China. And, if you needed further proof of this transformation, here it is: Cesar Millan has been tapped...

Hacker, Randi

2013-05-22

176

Canine hepacivirus and idiopathic hepatitis in dogs from a Dutch cohort.  

PubMed

Liver diseases are highly prevalent in the general dog population, though the etiology is often unknown. Recently a homolog of human hepatitis C virus was discovered in dogs with respiratory infections. Although this canine hepacivirus (CHV) was detectable in some liver samples, a clear link with liver disease has not been established. A recent study by Bexfield et al. showed that in a large cohort of dogs from the UK with idiopathic hepatitis, no evidence can be found for exposure to, or carrier state of CHV both in liver and in serum. The authors however state that 'the absence of CHV infection on dogs from the UK might not represent the global ecology of the virus'. We investigated CHV-infection in 267 liver biopsies from 120 dogs idiopathic hepatitis and 135 control animals, in a population from the Netherlands. Using a highly sensitive PCR assay for CHV-NS3, no CHV was detected in all 267 liver samples. Our data show that the lack of association between canine hepacivirus and chronic liver disease in dogs is not limited to the UK, but is also found in an independent cohort from the European continent. PMID:24903449

van der Laan, L J W; de Ruiter, P E; van Gils, I M; Fieten, H; Spee, B; Pan, Q; Rothuizen, J; Penning, L C

2014-12-01

177

A quantitative risk assessment for the likelihood of introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain H5N1 into U.S. hunter retriever dogs.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain H5N1 has received great attention with regard to its potential spread to North America. This quantitative risk assessment, which is primarily based on wild bird carriage of HPAI from East Asia to Alaska, was conducted to assess the likelihood of a hunter retriever dog becoming infected after harvesting an infected waterfowl during the Alaskan hunting season. Using Monte Carlo Simulation with @Risk software, the expected probability of a hunter retriever dog becoming infected is 2.3 x 10(-8). This model can serve as a tool for decision makers in assessing the risk of HPAI strain H5N1 introduction into Alaska's hunter retriever dogs. PMID:20521718

Lane, C; Tameru, B; Nganwa, D; Habtemariam, T; Asseged, B; Robnett, V; Wilson, S

2010-03-01

178

Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in the high natural radiation belt of Kerala, south India.  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a crippling disorder which is confined almost exclusively to the Indian subcontinent. Despite its association with a significantly increased risk of cancer, the etiology is still not clear. An epidemiological assessment showed 0.4% prevalence for OSMF in Kerala, South India, which is among the highest recorded. Recently the National Tumour Registry in Trivandrum reported the highest recorded site-specific incidence rate for oral cancer (ICD 140-145) in this area. The coastal belt of the Trivandrum and Quilon districts of Kerala has a very high natural radioactivity (over 1500 mR (387 microC) per year); about 500 mR (129 microC) per year is considered to be the maximum permissible dose for populations in general. An epidemiological survey in this area and in a comparable population (without exposure to high background radiation) as a control showed that the percentage prevalence of OSMF in the study area was 0.27 and in the control area 0.32. It appears highly improbable that the OSMF in the study area was induced by high background radiation. PMID:1486676

Rajendran, R.; Raju, G. K.; Nair, S. M.; Balasubramanian, G.

1992-01-01

179

An evaluation of dog rabies control in Limpopo province (South Africa).  

PubMed

Rabies is a prevalent and re-emerging disease in South Africa particularly in rural areas with high human densities. Outbreaks are frequently reported in the north and eastern parts of this country, probably an indication of inadequacy in the control of the disease. Following the 2005/2006 outbreak in Limpopo, we undertook an analysis of case surveillance data and genetically characterized 18 rabies viruses, all recovered from domestic dogs. Although rabies prevalence gradually declined annually from 2007, dog rabies still remains a public and veterinary health hazard in this region. Sylvatic rabies cycles are maintained by the black-backed jackal species in specific ecological conditions in the northwest of the province (Waterberg area), unlike in the north and east (Vhembe and Mopani districts, respectively), where spillover of infection between dogs and jackals is likely to predominate. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the rabies virus strain currently circulating within dog populations in Limpopo province is the same variant responsible for the 2005/2006 rabies outbreak. However, residual foci probably exist hence the observed sporadic outbreaks. These data further underline the value of continuous and sustainable dog immunization in controlling rabies. PMID:21733270

Sabeta, C T; Mkhize, G C; Ngoepe, E C

2011-10-01

180

Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations. PMID:24107268

2013-01-01

181

High Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B Infection and Association with Underweight in Rwandan Children  

PubMed Central

Background Giardia duodenalis is highly endemic in East Africa but its effects on child health, particularly of submicroscopic infections, i.e., those below the threshold of microscopy, and of genetic subgroups (assemblages), are not well understood. We aimed at addressing these questions and at examining epidemiological characteristics of G. duodenalis in southern highland Rwanda. Methodology/Principal Findings In 583 children <5 years of age from communities and health facilities, intestinal parasites were assessed by triplicate light microscopy and by PCR assays, and G. duodenalis assemblages were genotyped. Cluster effects of villages were taken into account in statistical analysis. The prevalence of G. duodenalis as detected by microscopy was 19.8% but 60.1% including PCR results. Prevalence differed with residence, increased with age, and was reduced by breastfeeding. In 492 community children without, with submicroscopic and with microscopic infection, underweight (weight-for-age z-score prevalence of G. duodenalis in high-endemicity areas may be greatly underestimated by light microscopy, particularly when only single stool samples are analysed. Children with submicroscopic infections show limited overt manifestation, but constitute unrecognized reservoirs of transmission. The predominance of assemblage B in Rwanda may be involved in the seemingly unimposing manifestation of G. duodenalis infection. However, the association with impaired child growth points to its actual relevance. Longitudinal studies considering abundant submicroscopic infections are needed to clarify the actual contribution of G. duodenalis to morbidity in areas of high endemicity. PMID:22720102

Klotz, Christian; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Lyng, Michel; Musemakweri, Andre; Aebischer, Toni; Martus, Peter; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

2012-01-01

182

High prevalence of a novel porcine bocavirus in weanling piglets with respiratory tract symptoms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the first evidence of infection by a novel porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in Chinese swine herds. The PCR detection\\u000a results showed that PBoV was significantly more prevalent in weanling piglets (69.7%, 69\\/99) with respiratory tract symptoms\\u000a than that in other samples (0–13.6%) (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis showed that the partial VP1\\/2 genes were highly conserved (99–100% identity), and only

Shaolun ZhaiCheng; Cheng Yue; Zuzhang Wei; Jinxue Long; Duoliang Ran; Tao Lin; Yu Deng; Lv Huang; Lichang Sun; Haihong Zheng; Fei Gao; Hao Zheng; Shengnan Chen; Shishan Yuan

2010-01-01

183

Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Persistent High Incidence Area of Gastric Carcinoma in Yangzhong City  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection in areas with high prevalence of gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China. Methods. A prospective epidemiologic survey of H. pylori infection was accomplished in a natural population of 5417 individuals in Yangzhong city. Questionnaires and 13C-urea breath test for H. pylori infection were performed. Results. Among 5417 subjects who completed questionnaires and 13C-urea breath test, 3435 (63.41%) were H. pylori positive. The prevalence reached a peak at the age of 30–39 years (90.82%). There was significant difference between sexes and women had a higher infection rate than men. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was also associated with eating kipper food and fried food. No association between H. pylori prevalence and smoking or drinking was found. Compared to healthy individuals, people with dyspeptic diseases (peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis) presented a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, age and history of peptic ulcer and gastroenteritis were the independent predictors for H. pylori infection. Conclusions. Yangzhong city had a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and was related to several risk factors. The underlying mechanisms are needed to be further investigated. PMID:24550981

Zhu, Yangchun; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wu, Junbei; Su, Jing; Zhang, Guoxin

2014-01-01

184

High prevalence of West Nile virus: a continuing risk in acquiring infection from a mosquito bite.  

PubMed

The prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) was evaluated by diplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the years 2001-2005 in Culex species of mosquitoes, several species of dead birds, and clinically suspected mammals collected in Kansas. The analysis was performed using a TaqMan-based diplex real-time RT-PCR assay targeted against two regions of the WNV genome, envelope glycoprotein gene and 3' untranslated region. The assay aided in the accurate detection of WNV in mosquitoes at high prevalence for the years 2002-2005. Similarly, high incidence of birds that tested positive for WNV was detected in 2002-2004. WNV positives in mammals by the diplex real time RT-PCR assay included horses, squirrels, mules, sheep and a mountain goat. Majority of the equine WNV positives were detected only in the year 2002. Sequence analysis of a segment of the envelope glycoprotein gene from 31 randomly selected WNV positive samples revealed variations in six samples at one or two nucleotide positions. The identity of high levels of WNV positives in Kansas parallels the recent reports on the widespread distribution of the virus in the United States. The continued detection of WNV in the mosquitoes is of significant public health concern and calls for continued surveillance and public health activities. PMID:17187569

Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Kennedy, George A; Broce, Alberto; Zurek, Ludek; Ganta, Roman R

2006-01-01

185

Prevalence and Correlates of Knowledge of Male Partner HIV Testing and Serostatus Among African-American Women Living in High Poverty, High HIV Prevalence Communities (HPTN 064).  

PubMed

Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F

2014-08-27

186

Isolation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus from pet dogs and cats: a public health implication.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a globally distributed bacterium causing wide variety of illnesses in humans, which attributed to its ability to produce wide array of virulence factors, including enterotoxins that are responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The current study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus among pet dogs and cats and its public health implication. For this purpose, nasal, oral, and wound swabs were collected from 70 dogs and 47 cats, whereas nasal swabs were collected from 26 human contacts. All samples were examined for the presence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus by isolation of S. aureus in culture media and then tested by specific ELISA kits to detect the produced toxins in bacterial cultures. The prevalence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus was 10% and 2.1% for pet dogs and cats, respectively, whereas the nasal carriage rate in human contacts was 7.7%. The majority of animal isolates were obtained from mouth of the apparently healthy animals. All types of staphylococcal enterotoxins were detected in both animal and human isolates. High prevalence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus among pet dogs highlights the possibility of zoonotic transmission to human contacts leading to nasal and/or hand carriage of such strains; thus, pet animals may be incriminated in the epidemiology of household staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. PMID:21548767

Abdel-moein, Khaled A; Samir, Ahmed

2011-06-01

187

Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon dog and the native red fox. PMID:24533328

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-01-01

188

High prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the urban middle class in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are increasing in the developing world; we assessed their prevalence among the urban middle class in Bangladesh. Methods In this cross-sectional survey (n =?402), we randomly selected consenting adults (? 30 years) from a middle-income neighborhood in Dhaka. We assessed demography, lifestyle, and health status, measured physical indices and blood pressure and obtained blood samples. We evaluated two primary outcomes: (1) type-2 diabetes (fasting blood glucose???7.0 mmol/L or hemoglobin A1C???6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or diabetes medication use) and (2) insulin resistance (type-2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation criteria). Results Mean age and Quételet’s (body mass) index were 49.4?±?12.6 years and 27.0?±?5.1 kg/m2; 83% were married, 41% had ?12 years of education, 47% were employed, 47% had a family history of diabetes. Thirty-five percent had type-2 diabetes and 45% had metabolic syndrome. In multivariate models older age and family history of diabetes were significantly associated with type-2 diabetes. Older age, female sex, overweight or obese, high wealth index and positive family history of diabetes were significantly associated with insulin resistance. Participants with type-2 diabetes or insulin resistance had significantly poorer physical health only if they had associated cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome among the middle class in Dhaka is alarmingly high. Screening services should be implemented while researchers focus on strategies to lessen the incidence and morbidity associated with these conditions. PMID:24172217

2013-01-01

189

Male and female hypogonadism are highly prevalent in South Africans with Addison's disease.  

PubMed

Hypogonadism may complicate Addison's disease (primary hypoadrenalism), but prevalence and metabolic sequelae of hypogonadism in Addison's disease are poorly described. We recruited patients from the South African Addison's disease national registry who received stable replacement doses of hydrocortisone and had no acute illness. Male biochemical testosterone deficiency was defined as an early morning basal testosterone<9.9 nmol/l and premature ovarian failure (POF) when menopause occurred before 40 years of age. Cardiometabolic risk variables were measured in males only. Male hypogonadism prevalence was 33% (14/42), and 10 patients had newly diagnosed hypogonadism. Two untreated patients had elevated FSH or LH (>10 or 12 IU/l). Testosterone deficiency did not correlate with age, disease duration or hydrocortisone dose. Untreated male hypogonadal subjects had a higher (mean ± standard deviation) BMI compared to eugonadal subjects 29.2 ± 4.9 kg/m(2) vs. 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m(2) (p=0.01) and a higher median (interquartile range) high-sensitive-CRP 6.4 (2.5-14.0) mg/l vs. 1.45 (0.6-2.8) mg/l (p=0.002). There were no differences between the 2 groups in lipids, lipoproteins and fasting glucose. The median (interquartile range) DHEAS was lower in the hypogonadal 0.31 (0.27-0.37) ?mol/l, compared with the eugonadal group 0.75 (0.50-1.51) ?mol/l (p=0.005). POF was documented in 11% of female patients. Male testosterone deficiency was highly prevalent in this cohort and was primarily due to secondary hypogonadism. Only BMI and hs-CRP were increased in untreated male hypogonadal subjects. Male and female hypogonadism appears to be a common complication of Addison's disease and may contribute to its morbidity. PMID:24799025

Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Blom, D J; Haarburger, D

2014-09-01

190

Infection prevalences of common tick-borne pathogens in adult lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky.  

PubMed

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007-2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction-positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study. PMID:21976578

Fritzen, Charissa M; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C

2011-10-01

191

Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky  

PubMed Central

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction–positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study. PMID:21976578

Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

2011-01-01

192

Hepatitis E Virus Serosurvey among Pet Dogs and Cats in Several Developed Cities in China  

PubMed Central

Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257

Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

2014-01-01

193

Students' Perceptions of a Highly Controversial yet Keystone Species, the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped that…

Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.

2008-01-01

194

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.  

PubMed

The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

Gordon, Catherine A; Acosta, Luz P; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Williams, Gail M; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P

2015-02-01

195

HIV testing among clients in high HIV prevalence venues: disparities between older and younger adults.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (aged ?50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided to younger adults in these venues should also be provided to older adults. We examined aging-related disparities in recent (past 12 months) and ever HIV testing in a probability sample of at-risk adults (N = 1238) seeking services in needle exchange sites, sexually transmitted disease clinics, and Latino community clinics that provide HIV testing. Using multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we estimated associations between age category (<50 years vs. ?50 years) and each HIV testing outcome. Even after controlling for covariates such as recent injection drug use, older adults had 40% lower odds than younger adults did of having tested in the past 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40-0.90) or ever (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.40-0.90). Aging-related disparities in HIV testing exist among clients of these high HIV prevalence venues and may contribute to known aging-related disparities in late diagnosis of HIV infection and poor long-term prognosis. PMID:25303208

Ford, Chandra L; Lee, Sung-Jae; Wallace, Steven P; Nakazono, Terry; Newman, Peter A; Cunningham, William E

2015-02-01

196

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines  

PubMed Central

The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Gray, Darren J.; Williams, Gail M.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

2015-01-01

197

High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection.

2014-01-01

198

Prevalence and risk factors for initiation of smoking in Greek high-school students.  

PubMed

The smoking habits of 9,276 high-school students (15-18 years old) in six cities of Northern Greece were studied using a questionnaire in order to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for initiation of smoking. We observed that 29.6% of high-school students (32.6% of boys and 26.7% of girls) were current smokers. A percentage of 43.3% had started smoking before the age of 14. Reactive behaviour towards parents' and teachers' advice (40.2%) and the existence of smoking friends (40.1%) were the main reasons of initiation. A well-planned integrated anti-smoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. PMID:19440427

Sichletidis, Lazaros T; Chloros, Diamantis A; Tsiotsios, Anastasios I; Spyratos, Dionisios G

2009-03-01

199

Portal Vein Glucose Entry Triggers a Coordinated Cellular Response That Potentiates Hepatic Glucose Uptake and Storage in Normal but Not High-Fat/High-Fructose–Fed Dogs  

PubMed Central

The cellular events mediating the pleiotropic actions of portal vein glucose (PoG) delivery on hepatic glucose disposition have not been clearly defined. Likewise, the molecular defects associated with postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) following consumption of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD) are unknown. Our goal was to identify hepatocellular changes elicited by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and PoG signaling in normal chow-fed (CTR) and HFFD-fed dogs. In CTR dogs, we demonstrated that PoG infusion in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia triggered an increase in the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase (GS), which occurred in association with further augmentation in HGU and glycogen synthesis (GSYN) in vivo. In contrast, 4 weeks of HFFD feeding markedly reduced GK protein content and impaired the activation of GS in association with diminished HGU and GSYN in vivo. Furthermore, the enzymatic changes associated with PoG sensing in chow-fed animals were abolished in HFFD-fed animals, consistent with loss of the stimulatory effects of PoG delivery. These data reveal new insight into the molecular physiology of the portal glucose signaling mechanism under normal conditions and to the pathophysiology of aberrant postprandial hepatic glucose disposition evident under a diet-induced glucose-intolerant condition. PMID:23028137

Coate, Katie C.; Kraft, Guillaume; Irimia, Jose M.; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W.; Roach, Peter J.; Shiota, Masakazu; Cherrington, Alan D.

2013-01-01

200

Prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in high school students in Korea.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and its associations with sleep habits, sleep problems, and school performance in high school students in South Korea. A total of 3871 students (2703 boys and 1168 girls with a mean age of 16.8 years and 16.9 years, respectively) aged 15-18 years in the 11th grade of high school completed a questionnaire that contained items about individual sociodemographic characteristics, sleep habits, and sleep-related problems. The overall prevalence of EDS was 15.9% (14.9% for boys and 18.2% for girls). Mean reported total sleep time was similar in EDS and non-EDS (6.4 +/- 1.6 and 6.4 +/- 1.3 h/day, respectively). The increased risk of EDS was related to perceived sleep insufficiency (P < 0.001), teeth grinding > or = 4 days/week (P < 0.001), witnessed apnea > or = 1-3 days/week (P < 0.01), nightmares > or = 4 days/week (P < 0.05), low school performance (P < 0.01), and two or more insomnia symptoms (P < 0.05). Students with low school performance had a 60% excess in the odds of EDS compared to those whose school performance was high. These findings suggest that EDS is associated with multiple sleep-related factors in adolescents. Whether interventions to modify associated correlates can alter EDS warrants consideration, especially because it may also improve academic performance in high school students. PMID:16048449

Joo, Soonjae; Shin, Chol; Kim, Jinkwan; Yi, Hyeryeon; Ahn, Yongkyu; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Jehyeong; Lee, SangDuck

2005-08-01

201

High Prevalence of Respiratory Muscle Weakness in Hospitalized Acute Heart Failure Elderly Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Respiratory Muscle Weakness (RMW) has been defined when the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) is lower than 70% of the predictive value. The prevalence of RMW in chronic heart failure patients is 30 to 50%. So far there are no studies on the prevalence of RMW in acute heart failure (AHF) patients. Objectives Evaluate the prevalence of RMW in patients admitted because of AHF and the condition of respiratory muscle strength on discharge from the hospital. Methods Sixty-three patients had their MIP measured on two occasions: at the beginning of the hospital stay, after they had reached respiratory, hemodynamic and clinical stability and before discharge from the hospital. The apparatus and technique to measure MIP were adapted because of age-related limitations of the patients. Data on cardiac ejection fraction, ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) were collected. Results The mean age of the 63 patients under study was 75 years. On admission the mean ejection fraction was 33% (95% CI: 31–35) and the BNP hormone median value was 726.5 pg/ml (range: 217 to 2283 pg/ml); 65% of the patients used NIV. The median value of MIP measured after clinical stabilization was -52.7 cmH2O (range: -20 to -120 cmH2O); 76% of the patients had MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. On discharge, after a median hospital stay of 11 days, the median MIP was -53.5 cmH2O (range:-20 to -150 cmH2O); 71% of the patients maintained their MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. The differences found were not statistically significant. Conclusion Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition. PMID:25671566

Verissimo, Pedro; Timenetsky, Karina T.; Casalaspo, Thaisa Juliana André; Gonçalves, Louise Helena Rodrigues; Yang, Angela Shu Yun; Eid, Raquel Caserta

2015-01-01

202

High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

2013-04-01

203

Global Public Health 2012, 1 10, iFirst article High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: A global perspective  

E-print Network

The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, countrylevel estimates (n 43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson’s correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20 % higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence 8.0 vs. 6.7%, p 0.03; fasting plasma glucose 5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p 0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

Michael I. Goran A; Stanley J. Ulijaszek B; Emily E. Ventura A

2012-01-01

204

Wegener's granulomatosis: treatment and survival characteristics in a high-prevalence southern hemisphere region.  

PubMed

Our aim was to describe the treatment and survival characteristics of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) in Canterbury, New Zealand. The medical records of 48 patients diagnosed between 1 July 1997 and 31 December 2008 and fulfilling validated classification criteria for WG were reviewed to characterise survivorship in the province of Canterbury, New Zealand. The age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 20 to 83 years) with an equal number of males and females. Using Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis, the probability of survival at 1 and 10 years was 91% and 62% respectively. Of the 12 deaths in the cohort, four occurred within 12 months of diagnosis: two from pulmonary haemorrhage and two from renal failure. Beyond 12 months, two patients died of renal failure, two of myocardial infarction and one from cardiac arrhythmia, one from cerebrovascular disease and two from colorectal carcinoma. The median time to relapse was 6.75 years, and the probability of relapse within 10 years was 67%. Survivorship, treatment response rate and the rate of relapse from WG in a cohort of patients from this high-prevalence southern hemisphere region were similar to that reported for northern hemisphere cohorts with a similar prevalence. PMID:22498132

Khan, A R; Chapman, P T; Stamp, L K; Wells, J E; O'Donnell, J L

2012-04-01

205

High Prevalence and Genotypic Diversity of the Human Papillomavirus in Amazonian Women, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a women population living within the state of Amazonas, Brazil, and to determine the viral genotypes found. The study included 361 sexually active women over 18 years of age. We performed the Pap test and the molecular diagnosis for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons obtained were sequenced in automatic sequencer for genotyping. The presence of HPV DNA was found in 29.1% (105) of the women. Only 321 women presented satisfactory slides for cytological diagnosis, 97.9% (314) had normal cytology (negative for cancer), and 2.1% (7) had abnormal cytology (4 ASCUS, 1 LSIL, and 2 HSIL). The types more frequently found were HPV 16 (58.1%) and HPV 58 (20.0%). Additionally, we found more 13 types of HPV. Compared with previous studies in Brazil, our data confirmed a high prevalence and genotypic diversity of HPV in Brazilian women. PMID:23997570

Rocha, Danielle Albuquerque Pires; Barbosa Filho, Roberto Alexandre Alves; de Queiroz, Francisca Andrade; dos Santos, Cristina Maria Borborema

2013-01-01

206

Rotavirus in diarrheal children in rural Burkina Faso: high prevalence of genotype G6P[6].  

PubMed

Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children globally, and responsible for a significant number of deaths in African countries. While vaccines are available, trials have shown a lesser efficacy in Africa. One of the reasons could be the prevalence and/or emergence of unusual or novel RVA strains, as many strains detected in African countries remain uncharacterized. In this study, we characterized RVA positive specimens from two remote rural areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa. In total 56 RVA positive specimens were subgrouped by their VP6 gene, and G-and P typed by PCR and/or sequencing of the VP7 and VP4 genes, respectively. Notably, we found a high prevalence of the unusual G6P[6]SGI strains (23%). It was the second most common constellation after G9P[8]SGII (32%); and followed by G1P[8]SGII (20%) and G2P[4]SGI (9%). We also detected a G8P[6]SGI strain, for the first time in Burkina Faso. The intra-genetic diversity was high for the VP4 gene with two subclusters within the P[8] genotype and three subclusters within the P[6] genotype which were each associated with a specific G-type, thereby suggesting a genetic linkage. The G6P[6]SGI and other SGI RVA strains infected younger children as compared to SGII strains (p<0.05). To conclude, in this study we observed the emergence of unusual RVA strains and high genetic diversity of RVA in remote rural areas of Burkina Faso. The results highlight the complexity of RVA epidemiology which may have implication for the introduction of rotavirus vaccines currently being evaluated in many African countries. PMID:22964045

Nordgren, Johan; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Nitiema, Leon W; Sharma, Sumit; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Barro, Nicolas; Svensson, Lennart

2012-12-01

207

Ask Dog Lady  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What to do with a problem dog? What is the best book on dog training? Would Tony Soprano benefit from owning a dog? How can you trust your dog walker with your dog? All these questions are addressed by the Dog Lady, who gives advice, as she says herself, on "dogs, love, and life." Always readable and often funny, the Dog Lady answers emails from viewers with questions about their canine pets. Users can read recent columns or review the "Best in Show" archive, a collection of the Dog Lady's most memorable advice. [CH

2003-01-01

208

Dog Fights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

Taylor, Kelley R.

2010-01-01

209

Dog Breeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

210

Dog Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

211

Cloning Dogs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: For those of you who have put off cloning your favorite pet due to the exorbitant cost, good news! The process just got cheaper. A biotech company here in South Korea has discovered that stems cells from the fat tissue in a dog...

Hacker, Randi

2009-03-08

212

High prevalence of a novel porcine bocavirus in weanling piglets with respiratory tract symptoms in China.  

PubMed

This study presents the first evidence of infection by a novel porcine bocavirus (PBoV) in Chinese swine herds. The PCR detection results showed that PBoV was significantly more prevalent in weanling piglets (69.7%, 69/99) with respiratory tract symptoms than that in other samples (0-13.6%) (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis showed that the partial VP1/2 genes were highly conserved (99-100% identity), and only five frequent nucleotide mutation positions existed in Chinese PBoV strains. These data indicate that PBoV might be an emerging virus for swine respiratory tract diseases. This study could help us to better understand the epidemiology of PBoV. PMID:20495986

Zhai, Shaolun; Yue, Cheng; Wei, Zuzhang; Long, Jinxue; Ran, Duoliang; Lin, Tao; Deng, Yu; Huang, Lv; Sun, Lichang; Zheng, Haihong; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Hao; Chen, Shengnan; Yuan, Shishan

2010-08-01

213

High prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder among posttraumatic stress disorder patients.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic obsessions have been reported in a few studies and case series. However, the magnitude of this phenomenon is still unknown. In the current study we systematically evaluated the prevalence of OCD in a sample of combat and terror related PTSD patients. Out of 44 referrals, 43% of the participants had PTSD with no OCD and 41% were diagnosed also with OCD. Six percent had sub-threshold OC symptoms. No difference was found between PTSD and PTSD-OCD participants' characteristics (including demographics, trauma-related factors, and other psychiatric co-morbidity). The surprisingly high number of OCD found in the current study suggests that PTSD-OCD might be underdiagnosed, signifies the importance of direct assessment of OCD in patients with PTSD, and raise questions regarding the underlying mechanism of post-traumatic OCD. PMID:21470831

Nacasch, Nitsa; Fostick, Leah; Zohar, Joseph

2011-12-01

214

Real-time PCR Demonstrates High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: Implications for Surveillance and Control  

PubMed Central

Background The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can be high, approaching 65% in some endemic areas. Of the currently available microscopy-based diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosome infections in the Philippines and elsewhere, most exhibit varying diagnostic performances, with the Kato-Katz (KK) method having particularly poor sensitivity for detecting low intensity infections. This suggests that the actual prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica may be much higher than previous reports have indicated. Methodology/Principal Findings Six barangay (villages) were selected to determine the prevalence of S. japonicum in humans in the municipality of Palapag, Northern Samar. Fecal samples were collected from 560 humans and examined by the KK method and a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. A high S. japonicum prevalence (90.2%) was revealed using qPCR whereas the KK method indicated a lower prevalence (22.9%). The geometric mean eggs per gram (GMEPG) determined by the qPCR was 36.5 and 11.5 by the KK. These results, particularly those obtained by the qPCR, indicate that the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this region of the Philippines is much higher than historically reported. Conclusions/Significance Despite being more expensive, qPCR can complement the KK procedure, particularly for surveillance and monitoring of areas where extensive schistosomiasis control has led to low prevalence and intensity infections and where schistosomiasis elimination is on the horizon, as for example in southern China. PMID:25606851

Gordon, Catherine. A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Williams, Gail M.; Gray, Darren J.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

2015-01-01

215

Leptospirosis in dogs: a review with emphasis on clinical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease affecting several mammalian species, including human beings. In dogs, it is spread mainly by rodents that act as a maintenance host for several Leptospira serovars. Until recently, the most common signs observed in affected dogs consisted of icterus and haemorrhagic diathesis, but today the most prevalent clinical signs are attributed to acute renal failure. The

I. van de Maele; A. Claus; F. Haesebrouck; S. Daminet

2008-01-01

216

Great diversity of group A rotavirus strains and high prevalence of mixed rotavirus infections in India.  

PubMed

We previously observed a marked diversity of rotavirus strains and a high prevalence of the uncommon serotype G9 in a small survey of rotavirus strains collected from six centers in India. In the present study, we characterized a larger collection of strains from children hospitalized with severe diarrhea in seven Indian cities between 1996 and 1998. A total of 287 strains were G and P genotyped by reverse transcription-PCR, and some were further characterized by electropherotyping and subgrouping. Of the four strains common globally, three were found in only 43% of samples (P[8], G1, 15%; P[4], G2, 22%; P[8], G4, 6%), whereas G9 strains made up 17% of the total. Three different G9 strains were present: a P[8], G9 strain, which displayed the long electropherotype and subgroup II VP6 specificity, and two P[6], G9 strains, one with the long electropherotype and subgroup II specificity and the other with the short electropherotype and subgroup I specificity. Marked diversity was observed among strains collected from different cities and collected over time. Of the 253 strains that were fully typed, 54 (21%) had a mixed G or P genotype. Serotype G2 strains were detected more often in infections caused by single strains than in mixed infections (P < 0.05), whereas serotype G1 strains were found more often in mixed infections than in infections caused by single strains (P < 0.05). The diversity of rotavirus strains and the high prevalence of mixed infections confirm trends reported earlier and help to better characterize the strains of rotavirus circulating in India. Vaccines under development should clearly target G9 strains, and G9 should be included as one of the common global serotypes. PMID:11574567

Jain, V; Das, B K; Bhan, M K; Glass, R I; Gentsch, J R

2001-10-01

217

Serological prevalence and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection among women in Santiago, Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology is a main factor for designing vaccination programs and surveillance strategies; nevertheless, there are few reports of HPV seroprevalence in the general population, especially in Latin America. This study aimed to describe high-risk HPV serological prevalence, persistence, and association with concurrent cervical infection, in Chilean women. Methods 1021 women from the general population, aged 15–85 years, were studied in 2001 of whom 600 were reexamined in 2006. The assessments at both time points included cervical HPV DNA testing, HPV antibody testing, cervical cytology and a sociodemographic/behavioral questionnaire. HPV DNA and antibodies against L1 protein of types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 were assessed by reverse line blot and multiplex serology, respectively. Results Seropositivity was high at both baseline (43.2%) and follow-up (50.2%) and increased with age (p?prevalences were 6.7% and 8.7%. DNA and seroprevalence were associated at baseline (p?=?0.01 for any HPV). Early age at first sexual intercourse and having had two or more sexual partners were independently associated with seropositivity. Most (82.0%) initially seropositive women remained seropositive at follow-up; 21.6% of initially seronegative women seroconverted, reaching 17.5% among women older than 60 years of age. ASCUS or worse cytology was correlated with HPV DNA positivity but not with HPV seropositivity. Conclusion HPV seroprevalence studies are a useful tool for learning about the dynamics of HPV infection in a community. This study contributes to understanding the natural history of HPV infection and provides a baseline assessment before the incorporation of HPV vaccination into a national program. PMID:24990706

2014-01-01

218

High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research  

PubMed Central

The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens’ needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public’s health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on CAM research should be established to investigate the identified gaps of knowledge and to address upcoming health care challenges. PMID:24499316

2014-01-01

219

A case-control study between interleukin-10 gene variants and periodontal disease in dogs.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease (PD) refers to a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the periodontium, the organ which surrounds and supports the teeth. PD is a highly prevalent disease with a multifactorial etiology and, in humans the individual susceptibility is known to be strongly determined by genetic factors. Several candidate genes have been studied, namely genes related with molecules involved in the inflammatory response. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles, and several studies indicate an association between IL10 polymorphisms and PD. In dogs, an important animal model in periodontology, PD is also a highly prevalent naturally occurring disease, and only now are emerging the first studies evaluating the genetic predisposition. In this case-control study, a population of 90 dogs (40 dogs with PD and 50 healthy dogs) was used to study the IL10 gene, and seven new genetic variations in this gene were identified. No statistically significant differences were detected in genotype and allele frequencies of these variations between the PD cases and control groups. Nevertheless, one of the variations (IL10/2_g.285G>A) leads to an amino acid change (glycine to arginine) in the putative signal peptide, being predicted a potential influence on IL-10 protein functionality. Further investigations are important to clarify the biological importance of these new findings. The knowledge of these genetic determinants can help to understand properly the complex causal pathways of PD, with important clinical implications. PMID:24487092

Albuquerque, Carlos; Morinha, Francisco; Requicha, João; Dias, Isabel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Viegas, Carlos; Bastos, Estela

2014-04-10

220

Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

2014-01-01

221

To Unfold a Hidden Epidemic: Prevalence of Child Maltreatment and Its Health Implications among High School Students in Guangzhou, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment as perpetrated by parents, its associated health outcomes, and its resilient factors among high school students in China. Methods: A multi-level stratified random school-based survey was conducted in 2005. Twenty four high schools were randomly chosen from eight districts in…

Wong, William C. W.; Leung, Phil W. S.; Tang, Catherine S. K.; Chen, Wei-Qing; Lee, Albert; Ling, Davina C.

2009-01-01

222

Dog Bite Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... addition, consider asking your physician if post-exposure rabies prophylaxis is necessary. Dogs are wonderful companions. By ... your dog healthy. Have your dog vaccinated against rabies and preventable infectious diseases. Parasite control and overall ...

223

The prevalence of probable delayed-sleep-phase syndrome in students from junior high school to university in Tottori, Japan.  

PubMed

Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder with a typical onset in the second decade of life. DSPS is characterized by the sleep-onset insomnia and the difficulty in waking at the desired time in the morning. Although DSPS is associated with inability to attend school, the prevalence has been controversial. To elucidate a change in the prevalence of DSPS among young population, epidemiological survey was conducted on Japanese students. A total of 4,971 students of junior high school, senior high school, and university were enrolled in this cross sectional study in Tottori Prefecture. They answered anonymous screening questionnaire regarding school schedule, sleep hygiene and symptomatic items of sleep disorders. The prevalence of probable DSPS was estimated at 0.48% among the total subject students without gender difference. In university, the prevalence of the last year students showed the highest value (1.66%), while that of the first year students showed the lowest value (0.09%) among all school years from junior high school to university. The prevalence increased with advancing university school years. Thus, a considerable number of Japanese students are affected with DSPS. Senior students of university are more vulnerable to the disorder than younger students. Appropriate school schedule may decrease the mismatch between the individual's sleep-wake cycle and the school schedule. Promotion of a regular sleep habit is necessary to prevent DSPS among this population. PMID:18719343

Hazama, Gen-i; Inoue, Yuichi; Kojima, Kazushige; Ueta, Toshiyuki; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

2008-09-01

224

Cost-effectiveness model for hepatitis C screening and treatment: Implications for Egypt and other countries with high prevalence.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, and many developing countries report intermediate-to-high prevalence. However, the economic impact of screening and treatment for HCV in high prevalence countries has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for HCV infection for asymptomatic, average-risk adults using a Markov decision analytic model. In our model, we collected age-specific prevalence, disease progression rates for Egyptians and local cost estimates in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV infection (~15%) in the world. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how cost-effective HCV screening and treatment might be in other developing countries with high and intermediate prevalence. In Egypt, implementing a screening programme using triple-therapy treatment (sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon and ribavirin) was dominant compared with no screening because it would have lower total costs and improve health outcomes. HCV screening and treatment would also be cost-effective in global settings with intermediate costs of drug treatment (~$8000) and a higher sustained viral response rate (70-80%). PMID:25469976

Kim, David D; Hutton, David W; Raouf, Ahmed A; Salama, Mohsen; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Soliman, Amr S

2015-03-01

225

Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.  

PubMed

Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

2013-01-01

226

High prevalence of simian T-lymphotropic virus type L in wild ethiopian baboons.  

PubMed

Simian T-cell leukemia viruses (STLVs) are the simian counterparts of human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs). A novel, divergent type of STLV (STLV-L) from captive baboons was reported in 1994, but its natural prevalence remained unclear. We investigated the prevalence of STLV-L in 519 blood samples from wild-living nonhuman primates in Ethiopia. Seropositive monkeys having cross-reactive antibodies against HTLV were found among 22 out of 40 hamadryas baboons, 8 of 96 anubis baboons, 24 of 50 baboons that are hybrids between hamadryas and anubis baboons, and 41 of 177 grivet monkeys, but not in 156 gelada baboons. A Western blotting assay showed that sera obtained from seropositive hamadryas and hybrid baboons exhibited STLV-L-like reactivity. A PCR assay successfully amplified STLV sequences, which were subsequently sequenced and confirmed as being closely related to STLV-L. Surprisingly, further PCR showed that nearly half of the hamadryas (20 out of 40) and hybrid (19 out of 50) baboons had STLV-L DNA sequences. In contrast, most of the seropositive anubis baboons and grivet monkeys carried typical STLV-1 but not STLV-L. These observations demonstrate that STLV-L naturally prevails among hamadryas and hybrid baboons at significantly high rates. STLV-1 and -2, the close relative of STLV-L, are believed to have jumped across simian-human barriers, which resulted in widespread infection of HTLV-1 and -2. Further studies are required to know if STLV-L is spreading into human populations. PMID:11799159

Takemura, Taichiro; Yamashita, Masahiro; Shimada, Makoto K; Ohkura, Sadayuki; Shotake, Takayoshi; Ikeda, Mikio; Miura, Tomoyuki; Hayami, Masanori

2002-02-01

227

Prevalence of high DNA fragmentation index in male partners of unexplained infertile couples.  

PubMed

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameter DNA fragmentation Index (DFI) is a valuable tool for prediction of fertility in vivo. Clinical data show that a DFI above 30% is associated with very low chance for achieving pregnancy by natural conception or by insemination. Already when DFI is above 20% the chance of natural pregnancy is reduced, this despite normal conventional semen parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of high DFI in male partners of unexplained infertile couples to further identification of male factors contributing to subfertility. Among 212 consecutive men under infertility investigation, 122 cases with the diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' were identified. For all but three, SCSA data were available. The percentage of couples with diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' in which the male partner has DFI >20% or DFI >30% was calculated. In the group diagnosed with 'unexplained infertility' 17.7% of the men (95% CI 10.8-24.5) presented with 20 ?DFI <30 and 8.4% (95% CI 3.40-13.4) had DFI ?30%. A significant part of men diagnosed as unexplained infertile according to traditional diagnostic methods has remarkably high degrees of fragmented sperm DNA. Apart from adding to our understanding of biology of infertility our finding has clinical implications. Couples in which the DFI of the male partner is high can avoid prolonged attempts to become spontaneously pregnant or referral for intrauterine insemination, both having low chances of leading to conception. PMID:23596042

Oleszczuk, K; Augustinsson, L; Bayat, N; Giwercman, A; Bungum, M

2013-05-01

228

High prevalence of chitotriosidase deficiency in Peruvian Amerindians exposed to chitin-bearing food and enteroparasites  

PubMed Central

The human genome encodes a gene for an enzymatically active chitinase (CHIT1) located in a single copy on Chromosome 1, which is highly expressed by activated macrophages and in other cells of the innate immune response. Several dysfunctional mutations are known in CHIT1, including a 24-bp duplication in Exon 10 causing catalytic deficiency. This duplication is a common variant conserved in many human populations, except in West and South Africans. Thus it has been proposed that human migration out of Africa and the consequent reduction of exposure to chitin from environmental factors may have enabled the conservation of dysfunctional mutations in human chitinases. Our data obtained from 85 indigenous Amerindians from Peru, representative of populations characterized by high prevalence of chitin-bearing enteroparasites and intense entomophagy, reveal a very high frequency of the 24-bp duplication (47.06%), and of other single nucleotide polymorphisms which are known to partially affect enzymatic activity (G102S: 42.7% and A442G/V: 25.5%). Our finding is in line with a founder effect, but appears to confute our previous hypothesis of a protective role against parasite infection and sustains the discussion on the redundancy of chitinolytic function. PMID:25256524

Manno, N.; Sherratt, S.; Boaretto, F.; Coico, F. Mejìa; Camus, C. Espinoza; Campos, C. Jara; Musumeci, S.; Battisti, A.; Quinnell, R.J.; León, J. Mostacero; Vazza, G.; Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Paoletti, M.G.; Falcone, F.H.

2014-01-01

229

Prevalence and Genotyping of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer Samples from Punjab, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18) were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95) of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63) of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79) samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95) was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in Punjab, Pakistan is in line with the worldwide prevalence, but that the incidence of HPV16 and 18 co-infections in our cohort is higher than that previously reported. PMID:25036463

Siddiqa, Abida; Zainab, Maidah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Parish, Joanna L.

2014-01-01

230

Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.  

PubMed

We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative. PMID:22270221

Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

2012-02-01

231

Multiple Zoonotic Parasites Identified in Dog Feces Collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal — A Potential Threat to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Dogs play many roles and their presence within people’s houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed. PMID:25257358

Letra Mateus, Teresa; Castro, António; Niza Ribeiro, João; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

2014-01-01

232

PBS-Nova: Dogs And More Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website, designed to accompany a television Feature Program on the world of Dogs, asks "How and why did man's best friend evolve from wolves, and why are dogs so remarkably diverse today?" The site showcases a slide show on working dogs and an interactive matching game entitled, Dogs Around the World. Also included at this website are a Teacher's Guide, a Links and Books page, and an Inquiry Article about Dog diversity. Additionally, this site links to the TV program transcript and to a recent "washingtonpost.com discussion with biologist and dog expert Ray Coppinger."

233

Prevalence of snoring and high risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in young male soldiers in Korea.  

PubMed

There are little information on prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and clinical features in the young military population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea and to identify the risk factors of OSAS. A total of 665 participants (aged 20-23 yr) who visited the Armed Forces Ildong Hospital for regular physical examination were enrolled. All participants completed the Berlin Questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. The participants with high risk for OSAS completed portable sleep monitoring. The prevalence of snoring and high risk of OSAS in young male soldiers in Korea was 13.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The prevalence of high arched palate, tongue indentation, long uvula, large tonsil and retrognathia was significantly higher in the high risk OSAS group. High arched palate, long uvula or low lying soft palate, tonsil size III or IV, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10 and obesity (BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) were found to independently predict OSAS. For early identification and treatment of young soldiers with OSAS in a military environment, a precise screening by questionnaire and physical examination is needed. PMID:24015045

Lee, Young Chan; Eun, Young Gyu; Shin, Seung Youp; Kim, Sung Wan

2013-09-01

234

Determination of the prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2 (HHLO-2) infection in humans and dogs using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR in Korea.  

PubMed

Helicobacter spp. may have multiple routes of transmission. It is unclear, however, whether the agent is zoonotic and therefore transmitted from an animal reservoir, including dogs. The aim of this population-based study was to assess the relationship between pet ownership or frequent exposure to dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection, especially focusing on HHLO-2 (Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2) in saliva and feces samples in Korea, using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR. One hundred twenty-four eligible human subjects and 39 dogs participated in this study. Relativity of contact with dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection diagnosed by genus-specific PCR showed a statistically significant result (P<0.01), but in the relativity analyses between contact with dogs and H. pylori, H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections diagnosed using species-specific PCR, only Helicobacter felis showed a statistically significant result. Although H. pylori infection showed a statistically significant relativity, no statistically significant association was found between veterinarian subjects and Helicobacter. spp., H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections. On performing risk factor analyses of HHLO-2 infection by transmission, using matching species, between HHLO-2-positive dog owners and HHLO-2-positive dogs, Helicobacter felis infection showed an extremely significant relativity (P<0.0001), and Helicobacter bizzozeronii may also be a possible significant risk factor (P<0.01). These results suggest that HHLO-2 infection might be a zoonotic infection, because continuous contact with dogs was proved to be correlated with human H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections in this study. PMID:24065079

Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Dong; Lee, Young-Sun; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

2014-01-01

235

Determination of morphological, biometric and biochemical susceptibilities in healthy Eurasier dogs with suspected inherited glaucoma.  

PubMed

In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1-3 years old), adult males and adult females (4-8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the development of glaucoma. This cohort will be used as a sentinel for longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25380252

Boillot, Thomas; Rosolen, Serge G; Dulaurent, Thomas; Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

2014-01-01

236

Prevalence of high blood pressure in 122,053 adolescents: a systematic review and meta-regression.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents.To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries.We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013.Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were considered. The pooled prevalence's of HBP were estimated by random effects. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify the sources of heterogeneity across studies.Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and total of 122,053 adolescents included. The pooled-prevalence of HBP was 11.2%, 13% for boys, and 9.6% for girls (P?

de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A; Horta, Bernardo L; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

2014-12-01

237

Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

2015-01-01

238

High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda.  

PubMed

In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A populationbased HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3) (?(2) =0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05). Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%), followed by prostitution (13.6%), alcoholism (10.1%), carelessness (10.1%), poverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm that HIV prevalence is still high in this community. In order to prevent new infections, the factors mentioned above need to be addressed, and we recommend that education aimed at changing individual behavior should be intensified in this community. PMID:24470893

Rubaihayo, John; Akib, Surat; Mughusu, Ezekiel; Abaasa, Andrew

2010-08-01

239

Bounding on Rough Terrain with the LittleDog Robot  

E-print Network

A motion planning algorithm is described for bounding over rough terrain with the LittleDog robot. Unlike walking gaits, bounding is highly dynamic and cannot be planned with quasi-steady approximations. LittleDog is modeled ...

Shkolnik, Alexander C.

240

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI = 41.9-47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI = 10.3-13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe. PMID:22937114

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

241

A Workplace Tuberculosis Case Investigation in the Presence of Immigrant Contacts from High Prevalence Countries.  

PubMed

The highest prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) occurs in foreign born immigrants in the United States. Contact investigations at work sites with mostly immigrant workers present multiple practical problems. Recently 402 contacts were investigated at a meat packing plant in rural Texas by the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS). Our objective was to study the approach and effectiveness of this intensive investigation. We reviewed information, including symptoms, BCG status, TB history, X-rays, and treatment, on the sentinel case and 47 contacts managed by the Texas DSHS TB Division in Lubbock, TX. We used a gamma interferon release assay (T-SPOT.TB) to identify contacts with TB infection. The sentinel case was foreign born and had cavitary TB with acid-fast positive smears. Forty-two work site contacts were foreign born, and five were US born. The foreign born contacts were from Sudan, Somalia, Mexico, Burma, and Haiti; 18 contacts had a history of BCG vaccination. T-SPOT.TB tests were positive in 20 contacts, borderline in four, and negative in 23. Contacts with borderline results had negative repeat tests. Twenty-three contacts with negative T-SPOT.TB tests were scheduled for repeat tests in 4 weeks, but only four returned for this testing. Chest X-rays were abnormal in two contacts who were started on treatment. Sputum was collected in three individuals; one was culture positive for pan-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Twelve contacts were treated for latent TB. Our investigation established an infection rate of 42.5 % in this work site contact cohort, which is similar to the 39 % prevalence reported by the Center for Disease Control. The use of T-SPOT.TB assays simplified testing in immigrants with high rates of BCG vaccination. Our investigation was complicated by language barriers, varying and uncertain levels of exposure, and a high rate of drop outs in the negative T-SPOT.TB contacts. This concerted effort provides a model for investigating work site contacts, especially with numerous immigrants, and illustrates the problems associated with these investigations. PMID:25236657

Kambali, Shrinivas; Nantsupawat, Nopakoon; Lee, Melanie; Nugent, Kenneth

2014-09-19

242

Reinfection studies of canine echinococcosis and role of dogs in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities, Sichuan, China.  

PubMed

In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities. PMID:23985352

Moss, J E; Chen, X; Li, T; Qiu, J; Wang, Q; Giraudoux, P; Ito, A; Torgerson, P R; Craig, P S

2013-11-01

243

Small mammals associated with colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Southern High Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non-colony sites. Of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in our study area, >80 were on slopes of playa lakes; thus, we used sites of colonies and non-colonies that were on slopes of playa lakes. We trapped small mammals on 29 pairs of sites. Overall abundance did not differ between types of sites, but some taxa exhibited associations with colonies (Onychomys leucogaster) or non-colonies (Chaetodipus hispidus, Reithrodontomys, Sigmodon hispidus). Diversity and evenness of small mammals did not differ between colonies and non-colonies in 2002, but were higher on non-colonies in 2003. Although we may not have detected some rare or infrequently occurring species, our data reveal differences in diversity and evenness of more common species among the types of sites. Prairie dogs are touted as a keystone species with their colonies associated with a greater faunal diversity than adjacent lands. Our findings contradict several studies reporting greater diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of prairie dogs. We suggest that additional research across a wider landscape and incorporating landscape variables beyond the immediate trapping plot may further elucidate interspecific associations between black-tailed prairie dogs and species of small rodents.

Pruett, A.L.; Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Ray, J.D.

2010-01-01

244

Complete Genome Sequence of a Highly Prevalent Porcine Circovirus 2 Isolated from Piglet Stool Samples in China  

PubMed Central

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiologic agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease. Here, we first report the complete genome sequence of PCV2 strain JSTZ, which was isolated from piglet stool samples and is highly prevalent in China. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of PCV2. PMID:22457531

Ma, Junjie; Liu, Yanling; Wen, Libin; Yu, Zhengyu; Ni, Yanxiu; Zhang, Xuehan; Zhou, Junming; Guo, Rongli; Wang, Xiaomin; Feng, Zhixin; Hu, Yiyi; Lv, Lixin

2012-01-01

245

Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

246

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop-ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop- ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in many developed countries suggests that current control strategies are suboptimal. The increase tuberculosis. We describe and discuss a theoretical framework based upon mathematical transmission models

Blower, Sally

247

Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. METHODS: Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes.

Paolo Giorgi Rossi; Simonetta Bisanzi; Irene Paganini; Angela Di Iasi; Claudio Angeloni; Aurora Scalisi; Rosalba Macis; Maria Teresa Pini; Francesco Chini; Francesca Maria Carozzi

2010-01-01

248

High Prevalence of Primary Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis in Persons with No Known Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction In high multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST) at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. Methods We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. Results Of 875 participants with complete data, 23.2% (203) had risk factors for MDR-TB elicited after enrolment. Among the group with no reported risk factors who had a positive culture, we found a 6.3% (95%CI 4.4–8.3) (37/584) rate of MDR-TB. In this group no epidemiological characteristics were associated with MDR-TB. Thus, in this group, multidrug resistance occurred in patients with no identifiable risk factors. Conclusions We found a high rate of primary MDR-TB in a general population with no identifiable risk factors for MDR-TB. This suggests that in a high endemic area targeting patients for MDR-TB based on the presence of risk factors is an insufficient intervention. PMID:22046266

Otero, Larissa; Krapp, Fiorella; Tomatis, Cristina; Zamudio, Carlos; Matthys, Francine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Seas, Carlos

2011-01-01

249

Prevalence of concomitant intraarticular lesions in patients treated operatively for high-grade acromioclavicular joint separations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of concomitant intraarticular lesions to the glenohumeral joint or to surrounding soft tissue structures with non-randomized prospective case series. High-grade acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations result from direct or indirect force impact to the shoulder girdle. Fourty consecutive patients (2 female, 38 male) with high-grade acromioclavicular joint dislocations (Rockwood III: n = 3; IV: n = 3; V: n = 34) who underwent diagnostic arthroscopy at the time of acromioclavicular joint repair were evaluated. Associated pathologic lesions were documented and treated by an all-arthroscopic approach. As a result, traumatic intraarticular lesions were found in 15% (n = 6/40) of cases. Two patients had an isolated partial tear of the subscapularis tendon. One patient had a combined tear of the subscapularis and supraspinatus tendon (PASTA type lesion). Two patients showed a type II SLAP-lesion and one patient had a type VI SLAP-lesion. Arthroscopic treatment included rotator cuff reconstruction in two cases and debridement of the partially torn tendon in one case. Two patients underwent an arthroscopic SLAP-repair and in one patient a debridement of a labral flap tear was performed. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction was achieved via an open technique using suture anchors in 14 cases and via an all-arthroscopic approach using a double Tight-rope technique in 26 cases. To conclude, in number of cases, high-grade AC-separations may be associated with traumatic concomitant glenohumeral pathologies resulting from the same trauma impact to the shoulder girdle. A combined or an all-arthroscopic approach allows to accurately diagnose and treat associated intraarticular pathologies. PMID:19020860

Pauly, Stephan; Gerhardt, Christian; Haas, Norbert P; Scheibel, Markus

2009-05-01

250

[High prevalence of hepatitis C in the district of Botafogo, municipality of Bebedouro, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007].  

PubMed

This article aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C in Botafogo, a district of Bebedouro, São Paulo State, Brazil, and investigate possible risk factors. One individual over 18 years of age was selected from each household to answer a questionnaire on socio-demographic variables and factors associated with hepatitis C. Blood samples were also drawn for immunoenzymatic tests. Positive HCV-antibody samples were submitted to viral RNA detection. HCV prevalence was 8.8% (95%CI: 5.8-11.7), and independent variables associated with risk of infection were: male gender, time of local residence > 30 years, and history of injected medication using non-disposable material, sterilized by boiling. The high prevalence of hepatitis C infection in this relatively isolated rural population appears to result from previous exposure to injections with inadequately sterilized material, with some evidence suggesting a specific elderly pharmacy employee who customarily applied such injections and may have been a chronic HCV carrier. PMID:19219254

Ferrão, Sabrina de Brito Ramalho Luz; Figueiredo, José Fernando de Castro; Yoshida, Clara Fumiko Tachibana; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa

2009-02-01

251

Mathematical Modeling of the HIV/Kaposi's Sarcoma Coinfection Dynamics in Areas of High HIV Prevalence  

PubMed Central

We formulate a deterministic system of ordinary differential equations to quantify HAART treatment levels for patients co-infected with HIV and Kaposi's Sarcoma in a high HIV prevalence setting. A qualitative stability analysis of the equilibrium states is carried out and we find that the disease-free equilibrium is globally attracting whenever the reproductive number ? k < 1. A unique endemic equilibrium exists and is locally stable whenever ? k > 1. Therefore, reducing ? k to below unity should be the goal for disease eradication. Provision of HAART is shown to provide dual benefit of reducing HIV spread and the risk of acquiring another fatal disease for HIV/AIDS patients. By providing treatment to 10% of the HIV population, about 87% of the AIDS population acquire protection against coinfection with HIV and Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS). Most sub-Sahara African countries already have programmes in place to screen HIV. Our recommendation is that these programmes should be expanded to include testing for HHV-8 and KS counseling. PMID:24348744

Lungu, E.; Massaro, T. J.; Ndelwa, E.; Ainea, N.; Chibaya, S.; Malunguza, N. J.

2013-01-01

252

[Viral load survey from geographical areas within Argentina with high hepatitis B virus prevalence].  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated that viral load is a key factor to determine the development of HBV infection and to assess treatment options for the disease. There is a lack of studies analyzing viral load levels in chronic hepatitis B patients in Argentina and the epidemiologic information is limited. The aim of this study was to determine viral load levels and its distribution in patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B from geographical areas with high prevalence for HBV in Argentina. Fifty-one per cent of the study population had HBV DNA levels > or = 10(4) copies/ml and a median viral load of 11,910 copies/ml. The viral load was significantly higher in HBeAg seropositive patients compared with those seronegative for HBeAg (P < 0.05). Salta and Entre Ríos provinces showed low viral loads, while Chaco, Misiones and Formosa provinces had a median viral load ranging between 10(4) and 10(5) copies/ ml. This is the first study providing detailed information on viral load in chronic hepatitis B patients from Argentina. Availability of viral load levels in chronic hepatitis B enables evaluation of implementation of actions to analyze follow-up and/or treatment options for preventing disease complications, improving health care and diminishing the potential burden on the health care system. PMID:23650829

Amegeiras, Beatriz; González, Jorge Enrique; Jotimliansky, Laura; Zingoni, Carolina; Vulcano, Cristina

2013-03-01

253

High prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune hypersensitization to multiple foods and strongly associated with atopy and esophageal remodeling. Objective We provide clinical and molecular evidence indicating a high prevalence of EoE in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders (CTDs). Methods We examined the rate of EoE among patients with CTDs and subsequently analyzed esophageal mRNA transcript profiles in patients with EoE with or without CTD features. Results We report a cohort of 42 patients with EoE with a CTD-like syndrome, representing 0.8% of patients with CTDs and 1.3% of patients with EoE within our hospital-wide electronic medical record database and our EoE research registry, respectively. An 8-fold risk of EoE in patients with CTDs (relative risk, 8.1; 95% confidence limit, 5.1-12.9; ?21 = 112.0; P < 10?3) was present compared with the general population. Esophageal transcript profiling identified a distinct subset of genes, including COL8A2, in patients with EoE and CTDs. Conclusion There is a remarkable association of EoE with CTDs and evidence for a differential expression of genes involved in connective tissue repair in this cohort. Thus, we propose stratification of patients with EoE and CTDs into a subset referred to as EoE-CTD. PMID:23608731

Abonia, J. Pablo; Wen, Ting; Stucke, Emily M.; Grotjan, Tommie; Griffith, Molly S.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Collins, Margaret H.; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; von Tiehl, Karl F.; Tinkle, Brad T.; Marsolo, Keith A.; Martin, Lisa J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2013-01-01

254

High prevalence of fibromyalgia symptoms among healthy full-term pregnant women.  

PubMed

The impact of fibromyalgia on the course of pregnancy is not clearly defined. We evaluate the frequency of FMS symptoms among full-term healthy pregnant women and the impact on the course of delivery. The 2011 modification of the ACR 2010 criteria for FMS diagnosis was used as well as the FIQ, SF-36 and AIMS questionnaires. The 1990 ACR classification criteria were documented. Data were collected relating to course of the delivery, induction, length of stage 1, 2 and 3 of delivery, epidural anesthesia, artificial rupture of membranes, instrumental delivery and cesarean section. A VAS recording pain intensity during delivery was documented. Out of 100 women recruited, 27 (27 %) fulfilled Modified FMS criteria. Only one of these women fulfilled ACR 1990 criteria, women who fulfilled the ACR criteria differed significantly from women who did not fulfill these criteria on a broad range of parameters including widespread pain and fatigue, social functioning, emotional well-being, role limitation and physical functioning. A significant correlation was found between length of stage 2 and results of the FIQ as well as with components of the SF-36. The intensity of pain during birth however was not correlated with the presence of FMS criteria. FMS symptoms were highly prevalent among healthy pregnant women at term. The presence of such symptoms may impact on the course of delivery and the need for anesthesia. Evaluating for features of centrally mediated pain may be of clinical relevance for physicians involved in the treatment of pregnant women. PMID:23263499

Saa'd, Sharon; Many, Ariel; Jacob, Giris; Ablin, Jacob N

2013-06-01

255

High prevalence of both humoral and cellular immunity to Zaire ebolavirus among rural populations in Gabon.  

PubMed

To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in Gabon. Using a sensitive and specific ELISA method, we found a ZEBOV-specific IgG seroprevalence of 15.3% overall, the highest ever reported. The seroprevalence rate was significantly higher in forested areas (19.4%) than in other ecosystems, namely grassland (12.4%), savannah (10.5%), and lakeland (2.7%). No other risk factors for seropositivity were found. The specificity of anti-ZEBOV IgG was confirmed by Western blot in 138 individuals, and CD8 T cells from seven IgG+ individuals were shown to produce IFN-gamma after ZEBOV stimulation. Together, these findings show that a large fraction of the human population living in forested areas of Gabon has both humoral and cellular immunity to ZEBOV. In the absence of identified risk factors, the high prevalence of "immune" persons suggests a common source of human exposure such as fruits contaminated by bat saliva. These findings provide significant new insights into ZEBOV circulation and human exposure, and raise important questions as to the human pathogenicity of ZEBOV and the existence of natural protective immunization. PMID:20161740

Becquart, Pierre; Wauquier, Nadia; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Padilla, Cindy; Souris, Marc; Ollomo, Benjamin; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric M

2010-01-01

256

Prevalence and Predictors of Psychotropic Use in Children with High-Functioning ASDs  

PubMed Central

This study examined (1) the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), (2) the extent to which psychotropic agents were linked to targeted symptoms, and (3) predictors of psychotropic use. A total of 115 children, ages 6–13, with HFASDs who were enrolled in psychosocial treatment trials were included in this study. Parents completed extensive background and rating forms prior to treatment that included data on demographic characteristics, child health, child medication use, and child ASD-related symptoms. Results indicated that 33% (n = 38) of the sample was taking psychotropic medication with the most common being stimulants (25%; n = 29), antidepressants (10%; n = 12), and neuroleptics (6%; n = 7). All children taking stimulants had target symptoms that were appropriate for stimulant medication, whereas 57% of those taking neuroleptics and 42% of those taking antidepressants did not have targeted symptoms consistent with the medication. Logistic regression for the major psychotropic drug categories indicated that lower IQ was a significant predictor of increased antidepressant and neuroleptic use. A higher level of ASD-related symptoms was related to the likelihood of stimulant use. PMID:23762550

Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.

2013-01-01

257

Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities. PMID:23985326

Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

2013-11-01

258

KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS  

E-print Network

KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS Kendal Shepherd (BVSc, CCAB, MRCVS) Adapted for classroom use;2 Keeping ourselves safe near dogs 1 Do you have a pet dog? 2 Do you like dogs? 3 Does a relative of yours have a pet dog? 4 What makes dogs likely to bite? 5 How can we prevent a dog biting us? 6 Is a small

Little, Tony

259

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: Implications for Transmission and Control  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented high prevalence of S. japonicum in humans. PMID:23029571

Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gray, Darren J.; Olveda, Remigo M.; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Ross, Allen G.; McManus, Donald P.

2012-01-01

260

High Prevalence of Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type L in Wild Ethiopian Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simian T-cell leukemia viruses (STLVs) are the simian counterparts of human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs). A novel, divergent type of STLV (STLV-L) from captive baboons was reported in 1994, but its natural prevalence remained unclear. We investigated the prevalence of STLV-L in 519 blood samples from wild-living nonhuman primates in Ethiopia. Seropositive monkeys having cross-reactive antibodies against HTLV were found

Taichiro Takemura; Masahiro Yamashita; Makoto K. Shimada; Sadayuki Ohkura; Takayoshi Shotake; Mikio Ikeda; Tomoyuki Miura; Masanori Hayami

2002-01-01

261

High prevalence of abnormal acid gastro-oesophageal reflux in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Sixty-five consecutive patients with well-defined IPF were subjected to 24-h pH monitoring and oesophageal manometry. A total of 133 consecutive patients with intractable asthma and symptoms of GER were used as comparisons. The prevalence of

G. Raghu; T. D. Freudenberger; S. Yang; J. R. Curtis; C. Spada; J. Hayes; J. K. Sillery; C. E. Pope; C. A. Pellegrini

2006-01-01

262

Determination of nicorandil in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with photoconductivity and ultraviolet detection. Application to pre-clinical pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.  

PubMed

A sensitive and precise method for the determination of nicorandil, a new anti-anginal medication, is reported. The method involves solid-phase extraction of the drug and internal standard using Bond-Elut C18 extraction columns, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a Zorbax-Phenyl column and detection with photoconductivity and ultraviolet detection in series. Photoconductivity, performed with the Tracor 965 photoconductivity detector, provided a limit of detection of 2 ng/ml in plasma (between-day coefficient of variation of 15%) but the linear range of response was limited to only about 100 ng/ml. Ultraviolet detection in series with the photoconductivity detector extended the linear range of the analytical system to 1000 ng/ml (coefficient of variation 4.4%). The utility of the method is demonstrated in a dog pharmacokinetic study in which a 5-mg intravenous dose was compared to a 10-mg oral solution dose in six beagle dogs. The oral solution was absorbed rapidly, achieving an average maximum concentration of 857 ng/ml in 11.2 min. The absolute bioavailability of nicorandil in dogs in this study was determined to be 84.2%. PMID:2140114

Schwende, F J; Lewis, R C

1990-01-26

263

Dogs catch human yawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that

Ramiro M. Joly-Mascheroni; Atsushi Senju; Alex J. Shepherd

2008-01-01

264

High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy  

PubMed Central

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2013-01-01

265

High prevalence of chronic non-communicable conditions among adult refugees: implications for practice and policy.  

PubMed

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2012-10-01

266

High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 ?m and wall thickness of 2.47 ?m in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 ?m cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 ?m in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 ?m in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 ?m in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

2013-12-01

267

The Prevalence of Exposure to Domestic Violence Among High School Students in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms. PMID:24719707

Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe

2014-01-01

268

Reversibility of Nutritional Osteoporosis: Physicochemical Data on Bones from an Experimental Study in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reversibility of nutritional osteoporosis was studied in adult dogs. Ten beagles were fed a depletion diet (low Ca-high P) for 42 weeks after which time three dogs were necropsied and the remaining seven dogs were placed on a repletion diet (high Ca-balanced P) for up to 28 weeks. Mobility of incisor teeth occurred in all dogs at the end

LENNART KROOK; LEO LUTWAK; PER-AKE HENRIKSON; FRANCIS KALLFELZ; CARL HIRSCH; BERTIL ROMANUS; JOHN R. MARIER; BEN E. SHEFFY

2009-01-01

269

Acute Portal Hypertension Models in Dogs: Low- and High-Flow Approaches  

PubMed Central

Effective animal models are needed to evaluate the feasibility of new techniques to assess portal hypertension (PH). Here we developed 2 canine models of acute PH by increasing intrasinusoidal resistance and by increasing the portal vein (PV) flow volume to test the efficacy of a noninvasive technique to evaluate PH. The acute low-flow PH model was based on embolization of liver circulation by using a gelatin sponge material. The acute high-flow PH model was based on increasing the PV flow volume by using an arteriovenous (A-V) shunt from the femoral artery and saline infusion. PV pressures and diameters were assessed before and after inducing PH. Pressure values and diameters were obtained from the inferior vena cava in 3 unmanipulated controls. The low-flow model of PH was repeatable and successfully increased PV pressure by an average of 16.5 mm Hg within 15 min. The high-flow model of PH failed to achieve increased PV pressures. However, saline supplementation of the portal circulation in the high-flow model led to mean increases in PV pressures of 12.8 mm Hg within 20 min. Pulsatility in the PV was decreased in the low-flow model and increased in the high-flow model relative to baseline. No changes in PV diameter were noted in either model. These acute PH models are relatively straightforward to implement and may facilitate the evaluation of new techniques to assess PH. PMID:23114046

Dave, Jaydev K; Liu, Ji-Bin; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Merton, Daniel A; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Altemus, Joseph; Needleman, Laurence; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming

2012-01-01

270

Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda.  

PubMed

Standard therapy for malaria in Uganda changed from chloroquine to chloroquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2000, and artemether-lumefantrine in 2004, although implementation of each change was slow. Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms are associated with alterations in drug sensitivity. We followed the prevalence of drug resistance-mediating P. falciparum polymorphisms in 982 samples from Tororo, a region of high transmission intensity, collected from three successive treatment trials conducted during 2003-2012, excluding samples with known recent prior treatment. Considering transporter mutations, prevalence of the mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, and pfmdr1 1246Y alleles decreased over time. Considering antifolate mutations, the prevalence of pfdhfr 51I, 59R, and 108N, and pfdhps 437G and 540E were consistently high; pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G were uncommon, but most prevalent during 2008-2010. Our data suggest sequential selective pressures as different treatments were implemented, and they highlight the importance of genetic surveillance as treatment policies change over time. PMID:24799371

Mbogo, George W; Nankoberanyi, Sheila; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Baliraine, Frederick N; Nsobya, Samuel L; Conrad, Melissa D; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Kamya, Moses; Tappero, Jordan; Staedke, Sarah G; Dorsey, Grant; Greenhouse, Bryan; Rosenthal, Philip J

2014-07-01

271

Motif inference reveals optimal CTL epitopes presented by HLA class I alleles highly prevalent in southern Africa.  

PubMed

HIV-specific CTL play a central role in immune control of HIV. The basis for understanding the success or failure of this immune response requires identification of the specific epitopes targeted by CTL. However, in populations most severely affected by the global epidemic, this fundamental knowledge is hindered by the lack of characterization of many of the HLA class I alleles highly prevalent in such populations. Overall, the peptide-binding motif has been determined for a small minority (9%) of HLA class I alleles, with a strong bias toward those alleles prevalent in Caucasoid populations. These studies therefore set out to define, in a South African Zulu/Xhosa population at the epicenter of the epidemic, the epitopes presented by alleles highly prevalent, but for which the peptide-binding motif had not been characterized. Using a method of motif inference, epitopes presented by four such alleles prevalent in the Zulu/Xhosa population of Durban, South Africa, namely, B*3910, B*4201, B*8101, and Cw*1801, are described. Importantly, this approach may additionally facilitate optimization of epitopes in certain instances where conflicting reports in the literature exist regarding the peptide-binding motif, such as for HLA-A*2902, also highly prevalent in southern African populations. These data indicate that the previously anomalous position of HLA-A*2902 among HLA-A alleles, outside any recognized HLA-A supertype, is artifactual, and the true position of the A*2902 motif overlaps those of the A1 and A24 supertypes. PMID:16585563

Honeyborne, Isobella; Rathod, Almas; Buchli, Rico; Ramduth, Dhanwanthie; Moodley, Eshia; Rathnavalu, Prinisha; Chetty, Senica; Day, Cheryl; Brander, Christian; Hildebrand, William; Walker, Bruce D; Kiepiela, Photini; Goulder, Philip J R

2006-04-15

272

Rethinking Mandatory HIV Testing During Pregnancy in Areas With High HIV Prevalence Rates: Ethical and Policy Issues  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051

Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita

2007-01-01

273

Rethinking mandatory HIV testing during pregnancy in areas with high HIV prevalence rates: ethical and policy issues.  

PubMed

We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051

Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita

2007-07-01

274

Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Livestock in China: High Prevalence and Zoonotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Despite many recent advances in genotype characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi worldwide and the exploration of the extent of cross-species transmission of microsporidiosis between humans and animals, the epidemiology of this neglected disease in China is poorly understood. In this study, a very high prevalence (60.3%; 94/156) of E. bieneusi infections in farmed pigs in Jilin province was detected by PCR of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). DNA sequence analysis of 88 E. bieneusi–positive specimens identified 12 distinct genotypes (11 known: CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EbpA, EbpB, EbpC, EbpD, EBITS3, G, and Henan-I; one novel: CS-9). Frequent appearance of mixed genotype infections was seen in the study animals. Weaned (74.6%; 53/71) or pre-weaned (68.8%; 22/32) pigs have infection rates significantly higher than growing pigs (35.8%; 19/53) (p<0.01). Likewise, E. bieneusi was detected in 2 of 45 sheep fecal specimens (4.4%) in Heilongjiang province, belonging to the known genotype BEB6. Genotypes EbpA, EbpC, EbpD, and Henan-I examined herein have been documented in the cases of human infections and BEB6, EbpA, EbpC, and EbpD in wastewater in central China. Infections of EbpA and EbpC in humans were also reported in other areas of the world. The other known genotypes (CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EBITS3, EbpB, and G) and the new genotype CS-9 were genetically clustered into a group of existing E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential. Thus, pigs could be a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China. PMID:24845247

Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Li, Weizhi; Yang, Jinping; Song, Mingxin; Diao, Ruinan; Jia, Honglin; Lu, Yixin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua

2014-01-01

275

Why is high-risk drinking more prevalent among men than women? evidence from South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background It is important to identify and quantify the factors that affect gender differences in high-risk drinking (HRD), from both an academic and a policy perspective. However, little is currently known about them. This study examines these factors and estimates the percentage contribution each makes to gender differences in HRD. Methods This study analyzed information on 23,587 adults obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 1998, 2001, and 2005. It found that the prevalence of HRD was about 5 times higher among men (0.37) than women (0.08). Using a decomposition approach extended from the Oaxaca-Blinder method, we decomposed the gender difference in HRD to an "overall composition effect" (contributions due to gender differences in the distribution of observed socio-economic characteristics), and an "overall HRD-tendency effect" (contributions due to gender differences in tendencies in HRD for individuals who share socio-economic characteristics). Results The HRD-tendency effect accounted for 96% of the gender difference in HRD in South Korea, whereas gender differences in observed socio-economic characteristics explained just 4% of the difference. Notably, the gender-specific HRD-tendency effect accounts for 90% of the gender difference in HRD. Conclusion We came to a finding that gender-specific HRD tendency is the greatest contributor to gender differences in HRD. Therefore, to effective reduce HRD, it will be necessary to understand gender differences in socioeconomic characteristics between men and women but also take notice of such differences in sociocultural settings as they experience. And it will be also required to prepare any gender-differentiated intervention strategy for men and women. PMID:22304965

2012-01-01

276

Individuals with high bone mass have an increased prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

We previously reported an association between high bone mass (HBM) and a bone-forming phenotype of radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA). As knee and hip OA have distinct risk factors, in this study we aimed to determine (i) whether HBM is also associated with knee OA, and (ii) whether the HBM knee OA phenotype demonstrates a similar pattern of radiographic features to that observed at the hip. HBM cases (defined by DXA BMD Z-scores) from the UK-based HBM study were compared with unaffected family controls and general population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. A single blinded observer graded AP weight-bearing knee radiographs for features of OA (Kellgren–Lawrence score, osteophytes, joint space narrowing (JSN), sclerosis) using an atlas. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusting a priori for age and gender, and additionally for BMI as a potential mediator of the HBM–OA association, using Stata v12. 609 HBM knees in 311 cases (mean age 60.8 years, 74% female) and 1937 control knees in 991 controls (63.4 years, 81% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA, defined as Kellgren–Lawrence grade ? 2, was increased in cases (31.5% vs. 20.9%), with age and gender adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.38 [1.81, 3.14], p < 0.001. The association between HBM and osteophytosis was stronger than that for JSN, both before and after adjustment for BMI which attenuated the ORs for knee OA and osteophytes in cases vs. controls by approximately 50%. Our findings support a positive association between HBM and knee OA. This association was strongest for osteophytes, suggesting HBM confers a general predisposition to a subtype of OA characterised by increased bone formation. PMID:25445455

Hardcastle, S.A.; Dieppe, P.; Gregson, C.L.; Arden, N.K.; Spector, T.D.; Hart, D.J.; Edwards, M.H.; Dennison, E.M.; Cooper, C.; Sayers, A.; Williams, M.; Davey Smith, G.; Tobias, J.H.

2015-01-01

277

High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types  

PubMed Central

Objective To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia. Methods Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients. Results Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with “unclassified dementia” followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson’s disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline. Interpretation Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy. PMID:25493273

Doss, Sarah; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Hyman, Bradley T; Panzer, Jessica A; Synofzik, Matthis; Dickerson, Bradford; Mollenhauer, Brit; Scherzer, Clemens R; Ivinson, Adrian J; Finke, Carsten; Schöls, Ludger; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Jahn, Holger; Höltje, Markus; Biswal, Bharat B; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Buchert, Ralph; Höglinger, Günther U; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Unger, Marcus M; Körtvélyessy, Peter; Bittner, Daniel; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Paul, Friedemann; Meisel, Andreas; Lynch, David R; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Endres, Matthias; Teegen, Bianca; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried; Dalmau, Josep; Prüss, Harald

2014-01-01

278

High prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage in Dutch community patients with gastrointestinal complaints.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the rate of carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in the community in the Netherlands and to gain understanding of the epidemiology of these resistant strains. Faecal samples from 720 consecutive patients presenting to their general practitioner, obtained in May 2010, and between December 2010 and January 2011, were analysed for presence of ESBL-E. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed according to the Dutch national guidelines. PCR, sequencing and microarray were used to characterize the genes encoding for ESBL. Strain typing was performed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy-three of 720 (10.1%) samples yielded ESBL-producing organisms, predominantly E. coli. No carbapenemases were detected. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (34/73, 47%). Co-resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was found in (9/73) 12% of the ESBL-E strains. AFLP did not show any clusters, and MLST revealed that CTX-M-15-producing E. coli belonged to various clonal complexes. Clonal complex ST10 was predominant. This study showed a high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Dutch primary care patients with presumed gastrointestinal discomfort. Hence, also in the Netherlands, a country with a low rate of consumption of antibiotics in humans, resistance due to the expansion of CTX-M ESBLs, in particular CTX-M-15, is emerging. The majority of ESBL-producing strains do not appear to be related to the international clonal complex ST131. PMID:22757622

Reuland, E A; Overdevest, I T M A; Al Naiemi, N; Kalpoe, J S; Rijnsburger, M C; Raadsen, S A; Ligtenberg-Burgman, I; van der Zwaluw, K W; Heck, M; Savelkoul, P H M; Kluytmans, J A J W; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

2013-06-01

279

Individuals with high bone mass have an increased prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

We previously reported an association between high bone mass (HBM) and a bone-forming phenotype of radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA). As knee and hip OA have distinct risk factors, in this study we aimed to determine (i) whether HBM is also associated with knee OA, and (ii) whether the HBM knee OA phenotype demonstrates a similar pattern of radiographic features to that observed at the hip. HBM cases (defined by DXA BMD Z-scores) from the UK-based HBM study were compared with unaffected family controls and general population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. A single blinded observer graded AP weight-bearing knee radiographs for features of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence score, osteophytes, joint space narrowing (JSN), sclerosis) using an atlas. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusting a priori for age and gender, and additionally for BMI as a potential mediator of the HBM-OA association, using Stata v12. 609 HBM knees in 311 cases (mean age 60.8years, 74% female) and 1937 control knees in 991 controls (63.4years, 81% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA, defined as Kellgren-Lawrence grade?2, was increased in cases (31.5% vs. 20.9%), with age and gender adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.38 [1.81, 3.14], p<0.001. The association between HBM and osteophytosis was stronger than that for JSN, both before and after adjustment for BMI which attenuated the ORs for knee OA and osteophytes in cases vs. controls by approximately 50%. Our findings support a positive association between HBM and knee OA. This association was strongest for osteophytes, suggesting HBM confers a general predisposition to a subtype of OA characterised by increased bone formation. PMID:25445455

Hardcastle, S A; Dieppe, P; Gregson, C L; Arden, N K; Spector, T D; Hart, D J; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Sayers, A; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

2015-02-01

280

High Oral Prevalence of Candida krusei in Leprosy Patients in Northern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Although Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen, other Candida species such as C. krusei are now recognized as emerging agents, especially in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. C. krusei is inherently resistant to the widely used triazole antifungal fluconazole and poses therapeutic problems, especially in systemic candidiasis. In a surveillance study of leprosy patients (with arrested or burnt-out disease) in a leprosarium in northern Thailand, we found a rate of oral carriage of C. krusei (36%) significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that for a healthy control group (10%). Among the Candida-positive patients, 16 of 35 (46%) carried C. krusei, while C. albicans was the second most common isolate (12 of 35 patients; 34%). The corresponding figures for the control group were 2 of 13 (15%) and 6 of 13 (46%), respectively. Studies of the antifungal resistance of the C. krusei isolates from patients indicated that all except one of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, two isolates were resistant to ketoconazole, and all isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B. Evaluation of their genetic profiles by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis with three different primers and subsequent analysis of the gel profiles by computerized cluster-derived dendrograms revealed that the C. krusei isolates from patients belonged to 10 disparate clusters, despite the origin from a single locale. These nascent findings indicate an alarmingly high prevalence of a Candida species resistant to a widely used antifungal in a part of the world where HIV disease is endemic. PMID:12454139

Reichart, P. A.; Samaranayake, L. P.; Samaranayake, Y. H.; Grote, M.; Pow, E.; Cheung, B.

2002-01-01

281

Prelingual deafness: high prevalence of a 30delG mutation in the connexin 26 gene.  

PubMed

Prelingual non-syndromic (isolated) deafness is the most frequent hereditary sensory defect. In >80% of the cases, the mode of transmission is autosomal recessive. To date, 14 loci have been identified for the recessive forms (DFNB loci). For two of them, DFNB1 and DFNB2, the genes responsible have been characterized; they encode connexin 26 and myosin VIIA, respectively. In order to evaluate the extent to which the connexin 26 gene (Cx26) contributes to prelingual deafness, we searched for mutations in this gene in 65 affected Caucasian families originating from various countries, mainly tunisia, France, New Zealand and the UK. Six of these families are consanguineous, and deafness was shown to be linked to the DFNB1 locus, 10 are small non consanguineous families in which the segregation of the trait has been found to be compatible with the involvement of DFNB1, and in the remaining 49 families no linkage analysis has been performed. A total of 62 mutant alleles in 39 families were identified. Therefore, mutations in Cx26 represent a major cause of recessively inherited prelingual deafness since according to the present results they would underlie approximately half of the cases. In addition, one specific mutation, 30delG, accounts for the majority (approximately 70%) of the Cx26 mutant alleles. It is therefore one of the most frequent disease mutations so far identified. Several lines of evidence indicate that the high prevalence of the 30delG mutation arises from a mutation hot spot rather than from a founder effect. Genetic counseling for prelingual deafness has been so far considerably impaired by the difficulty in distinguishing genetic and non genetic deafness in families presenting with a single deaf child. Based on the results presented here, the development of a simple molecular test could be designed which should be of considerable help. PMID:9336442

Denoyelle, F; Weil, D; Maw, M A; Wilcox, S A; Lench, N J; Allen-Powell, D R; Osborn, A H; Dahl, H H; Middleton, A; Houseman, M J; Dodé, C; Marlin, S; Boulila-ElGaïed, A; Grati, M; Ayadi, H; BenArab, S; Bitoun, P; Lina-Granade, G; Godet, J; Mustapha, M; Loiselet, J; El-Zir, E; Aubois, A; Joannard, A; Levilliers, J; Garabédian, E N; Mueller, R F; Gardner, R J; Petit, C

1997-11-01

282

Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. This tick can be found on dogs living in both urban and rural areas, being highly adapted to live within human dwellings and being active throughout the year not only in tropical and subtropical

Filipe Dantas-Torres

2010-01-01

283

Clindamycin for treatment of Toxoplasma polymyositis in a dog.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma polymyositis was diagnosed in a dog given repeated injections of glucocorticoids for a skin condition. The dog developed generalized lower motor neuron paralysis, with generalized hyperesthesia, myoglobinuria, and high serum muscle enzyme activities. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed by muscle biopsy and seroconversion. Despite supportive care, the dog's neurologic status deteriorated progressively until parenteral treatment with clindamycin was instituted. The dog made a gradual recovery, with complete return of locomotor function and muscle mass within 2 months. PMID:4086374

Greene, C E; Cook, J R; Mahaffey, E A

1985-09-15

284

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

285

Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

286

Contact with pigs and cats associated with high prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among farmers.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to Toxoplasma were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 159 abattoir workers, 142 pig farmers, and 106 grain or berry farmers. Farmers occupationally exposed to pigs had antibodies in 53 (37%) cases, abattoir workers in 40 (25%) cases, and farmers not exposed to pigs in 24 (23%) cases. In each group antibodies were more prevalent among those who had a cat or cats in the household. Controlling for age and cat contacts changed the prevalences less than one percent. The results indicate that pig farmers might have an occupational risk of toxoplasmosis. As the prevalence of antibodies among abattoir workers was about the same as among the referent farmers, it seems unlikely that infection from Toxoplasma could be acquired by mere handling of raw meat. PMID:1472442

Seuri, M; Koskela, P

1992-01-01

287

Contact with pigs and cats associated with high prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among farmers.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Toxoplasma were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 159 abattoir workers, 142 pig farmers, and 106 grain or berry farmers. Farmers occupationally exposed to pigs had antibodies in 53 (37%) cases, abattoir workers in 40 (25%) cases, and farmers not exposed to pigs in 24 (23%) cases. In each group antibodies were more prevalent among those who had a cat or cats in the household. Controlling for age and cat contacts changed the prevalences less than one percent. The results indicate that pig farmers might have an occupational risk of toxoplasmosis. As the prevalence of antibodies among abattoir workers was about the same as among the referent farmers, it seems unlikely that infection from Toxoplasma could be acquired by mere handling of raw meat. PMID:1472442

Seuri, M; Koskela, P

1992-12-01

288

High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined. PMID:9452292

Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

1998-01-01

289

Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.  

PubMed

Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population. PMID:23438265

Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

2013-06-01

290

High-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of inguinal region in a dog.  

PubMed

A subcutaneous tumor in the left inguinal region was present in an 11-year-old female bloodhound. Histopathologically, the tumor showed invasive growth and extensive necroses, and it was composed of spindle-shaped, elongated, and stellate neoplastic cells accompanied by occasional giant cells arranged in fascicular, herringbone, or irregular storiform patterns with abundant production of collagen fibers. The cytoplasm of most tumor cells was positive for vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and calponin, but was negative for desmin, smoothelin, and S-100. Furthermore, most of the tumor cells were negative for Iba1 while some tumor cells were weakly positive. Thus, this tumor was diagnosed as a high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma according to the diagnostic criteria for human myofibroblastic sarcomas. PMID:22156390

Hojo, Yuri; Tsuchiya, Takuma; Shiraki, Ayako; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

2012-05-01

291

Molecular Genetic Diversity of the Gyeongju Donggyeong Dog in Korea  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to analyze the genetic characteristics of the Donggyeong dog and establish parentage conservation systems for it by using 10 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). A total of 369 dogs from 12 dog breeds including the Donggyeong dog were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 10 with a mean value of 7.6 in the Donggyeong dog. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4706 to 0.9020 (mean 0.7657) and from 0.4303 to 0.8394 (mean 0.7266), respectively. The total exclusion probability of 10 microsatellite loci was 0.99955. Of the 10 microsatellite markers, the AHT121, AHTh260 and CXX279 markers had relatively high PIC values (?0.7). This study found that there were specific alleles, 116 allele at AHT121 in the Donggyeong dog when compared with other dog breeds. Also, the results showed two (Korean native dogs and the foreign dog breeds) distinct clusters. The closest distance (0.1184) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Jindo dog, and the longest distance (0.3435) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Bulgae. The Korean native dog breeds have comparatively near genetic distances between each other. PMID:25030603

LEE, Eun-Woo; CHOI, Seong-Kyoon; CHO, Gil-Jae

2014-01-01

292

Molecular genetic diversity of the Gyeongju Donggyeong dog in Korea.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to analyze the genetic characteristics of the Donggyeong dog and establish parentage conservation systems for it by using 10 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). A total of 369 dogs from 12 dog breeds including the Donggyeong dog were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 10 with a mean value of 7.6 in the Donggyeong dog. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4706 to 0.9020 (mean 0.7657) and from 0.4303 to 0.8394 (mean 0.7266), respectively. The total exclusion probability of 10 microsatellite loci was 0.99955. Of the 10 microsatellite markers, the AHT121, AHTh260 and CXX279 markers had relatively high PIC values (?0.7). This study found that there were specific alleles, 116 allele at AHT121 in the Donggyeong dog when compared with other dog breeds. Also, the results showed two (Korean native dogs and the foreign dog breeds) distinct clusters. The closest distance (0.1184) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Jindo dog, and the longest distance (0.3435) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Bulgae. The Korean native dog breeds have comparatively near genetic distances between each other. PMID:25030603

Lee, Eun-Woo; Choi, Seong-Kyoon; Cho, Gil-Jae

2014-10-01

293

Hepatitis B and C prevalence among the high risk groups of Pakistani population. A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B and C cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Little is known about the existence of hepatitis B and C among high risk groups of the Pakistani population. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in high risk groups, their comparison and the possible mode of acquisition by obtaining the history of exposure to known risk factors. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out in Karachi, from January 2007 to June 2008. HBsAg and Anti HCV screening was carried out in blood samples collected from four vulnerable or at risk groups which included injecting drug users (IDUs), prisoners, security personnel and health care workers (HCWs). Demographic information was recorded and the possible mode of acquisition was assessed by detailed interview. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using the STATA software. Results We screened 4202 subjects, of these, 681 individuals were reactive either with hepatitis B or C. One hundred and thirty three (3.17%) were hepatitis B reactive and 548 (13.0%) were diagnosed with hepatitis C. After adjusting for age, security personnel, prisoners and IV drug users were 5, 3 and 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B reactive respectively as compared to the health care workers. IDUs were 46 times more likely to be hepatitis C positive compared with health care workers. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatitis B and C was considerably higher in IDUs, prisoners and security personnel compared to HCWs group. Hepatitis C is more prevalent than hepatitis B in all these risk groups. Prevalence of hepatitis C increased with the increase in age. Use of unsterilized syringes, used syringes, body piercing and illicit sexual relations were found to be important associated risk factors for higher prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in these groups. PMID:22958798

2012-01-01

294

Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.  

PubMed

Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca. PMID:9177091

Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

1997-06-24

295

Priapism in dogs.  

PubMed

Priapism is a persistent penile erection lasting longer than 4 hours, without sexual stimulation. Priapism is categorized as either nonischemic (arterial, high flow) or ischemic (veno-occlusive, low flow). Ischemic priapism is considered an emergency in people. Reports of priapism in dogs are uncommon. This report describes 3 dogs with priapism; the first was considered idiopathic, the second was due to acute disc extrusion and subsequent T12-T13 hemilaminectomy, and the third was secondary to a lumbar meningomyelocoele. All 3 cases were suspected to be nonischemic priapism. The pathophysiology of the canine erection and a review of priapism in dogs and cats are discussed. Distinguishing ischemic versus nonischemic priapism and identifying and treating the underlying cause are important. Aspiration to obtain blood gas analysis may help classify the priapism and may provide pain relief. Ultrasonography aids in evaluation for vascular abnormalities and identifying etiology. If determined to be ischemic, then aspiration with the patient under sedation or anesthesia with or without irrigation should be done. Intracavernosal injections of phenylephrine and lubrication of the exposed penis are also recommended. If intracavernosal drainage and injections are not successful, or significant tissue damage has occurred, then penile amputation and perineal urethrostomy may become necessary. Systemic therapy could be considered if the priapism is not considered an emergency, and if intracavernous injections or surgical treatment are declined. PMID:19501342

Lavely, James A

2009-05-01

296

Comparison of depopulation and S19-RB51 vaccination strategies for control of bovine brucellosis in high prevalence areas.  

PubMed

RB51 vaccination can minimise the diagnostic problems associated with S19 vaccination of adult cattle, but its use for bovine brucellosis (BB) control remains controversial. Here, the evolution of BB prevalence in five high prevalence areas in Spain subjected to different control measures is described: herd depopulation of infected herds (I-III) or mass vaccination with RB51 and S19-RB51 vaccination of replacement heifers (IV-V). Annual data from the eradication campaigns were analysed at the special incidence area (SIA) level and the time to obtain herd prevalence levels of <1 per cent ('controlled status') was obtained at the local veterinary unit (LVU) level and compared using Cox's proportional hazard model. A higher annual rate of decrease in herd prevalence was observed in the SIAs subjected to vaccination (46.9%, 95% CI 43.5% to 50.0%) compared with those managed using stamping out (14.9%, 95% CI 9.6% to 19.9%). No significant differences in the time to achieve controlled status were observed between the stamping-out and vaccination strategies used at the LVU level, with median times of 60 (stamping-out LVUs) and 63 (vaccination LVUs) months. These results suggest that RB51 mass vaccination, in combination with the S19-RB51 vaccination of replacement heifers and strict implementation of other eradication measures, may provide results at least comparable with those resulting from a herd depopulation based strategy. PMID:24836427

Saez, J L; Sanz, C; Durán, M; García, P; Fernandez, F; Minguez, O; Carbajo, L; Mardones, F; Perez, A; Gonzalez, S; Dominguez, L; Alvarez, J

2014-06-21

297

High Prevalence of Lipid Transfer Protein Sensitization in Apple Allergic Patients with Systemic Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Apple allergy manifests as two main groups of clinical entities reflecting different patterns of allergen sensitization: oral allergy syndrome (OAS) and generalized symptoms (GS). Objective We analysed the sensitization profile to a wide panel of different components of food allergens (rMal d 1, Mal d 2, rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3, rBet v 1 and Pho d 2) for a population of Mediterranean patients with OAS and GS to apple. Methods Patients (N?=?81) with a history of apple allergy that could be confirmed by positive prick-prick test and/or double-blind-placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), were included. Skin prick test (SPT) and ELISA were performed using a panel of inhalant, fruit and nut allergens. ELISA and ELISA inhibition studies were performed in order to analyse the sensitization patterns. Results Thirty-five cases (43.2%) had OAS and 46 (56.8%) GS. SPT showed a significantly higher number of positive results with peach, cherry and hazelnut in those with GS. ELISA showed a significantly high percentage of positive cases to rMal d 3, rMal d 4, rPru p 3 and Pho d 2 in patients with OAS and GS compared to controls, and to rBet v 1 in patients with OAS vs controls and between OAS and GS patients. Three different patterns of recognition were detected: positive to LTP (rMal d 3 or rPru p 3), positive to profilin (rMal d 4 and Pho d 2), or positive to both. There were also patients with rMal d 1 recognition who showed cross-reactivity to rBet v 1. Conclusion In an apple allergy population with a high incidence of pollinosis different patterns of sensitization may occur. LTP is most often involved in those with GS. Profilin, though more prevalent in patients with OAS, has been shown to sensitise patients with both types of symptoms. PMID:25210741

Campo, Paloma; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Perkins, James; Garrido, Maria; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, Maria José

2014-01-01

298

Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-two samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarém municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P < 0.05). For E. canis, seroprevalence was similar among urban (15.7%) and rural (16.6%) dogs. For Rickettsia spp., rural dogs presented significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence (40.3%) than urban animals (21.1%). This first study on tick-borne pathogens in dogs from the Brazilian eastern Amazon indicates that dogs are exposed to several agents, such as Babesia organisms, mostly in the urban area; Spotted Fever group Rickettsia organisms, mostly in the rural area; and Ehrlichia organisms, in dogs from both areas studied. PMID:23802236

Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Valadas, Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Neves, Kedson Alessandri Lobo; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Ribeiro, Múcio Flavio Barbosa; Gennari, Solange Maria

2013-01-01

299

Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers show high prevalence of resistance towards macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-seven Lactobacillus strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were identified to species level and tested for susceptibility to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics. Five different Lactobacillus species were identified as being predominantly present in the cloacae of broilers: Lactobacilluscrispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillusamylovorus, Lactobacillusgallinarum and Lactobacillusreuteri. Acquired resistance prevalence to macrolides

K. Cauwerts; F. Pasmans; L. A. Devriese; A. Martel; F. Haesebrouck; A. Decostere

2006-01-01

300

High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

2014-01-01

301

Highly Prevalent but Not Always Persistent: Undergraduate and Graduate Student's Misconceptions about Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although past research has documented the prevalence of misconceptions in introductory psychology classes, few studies have assessed how readily upper-level undergraduate and graduate students endorse erroneous beliefs about the discipline. In Study 1, we administered a 30-item misconception test to an international sample of 670 undergraduate,…

Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Kaplan, Robin; Nichols, Austin Lee; Miller, Haylie; Saad, Carmel Gabriel; Dukes, Kristin; Lynch, Amy-Jo

2015-01-01

302

High prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Over a period of 30 months, 175 patients with PCOS were recruited to a prospective multi- center study to evaluate thyroid function and morphology; 168 age-matched women without PCOS were studied as a control group. Methods: PCOS was defined as a- or oligomenorrhea,

Onno E Janssen; Nadine Mehlmauer; Susanne Hahn; Alexandra H Offner; Roland Gartner

2004-01-01

303

High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

2010-01-01

304

Familial Mediterranean fever in Arab children: The high prevalence and gene frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of 3 years, 192 children with familial Mediterranean fever were prospectively studied. Of these, 106 (55%) were girls and 86 (45%) were boys. The prevalence was 1?2600 children with a gene frequency of 1?50. The age at onset ranged between 4 months and 16 years. Of these patients 24% started their illness below the age of 2

M. O. Rawashdeh; H. A. Majeed

1996-01-01

305

Institution Type-Dependent High Prevalence of Dementia in Long-Term Care Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It is estimated that there are 90,000 patients with dementia in the 23 million habitants of Taiwan, with a few institutions specialized in dementia care. To assess the need of institutional care for dementia, we investigated the institution prevalence of dementia. Methods: We performed stratified randomized sampling of elder residents from different types of institutions in different regions of

Ta-Fu Chen; Ming-Jang Chiu; Li-Yu Tang; Yueh-Hsia Chiu; Shu-Feng Chang; Che-Long Su; Shaw-Ji Chen; Chung-Wei Lin; Wan-Yu Shih; Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen; Rong-Chi Chen

2007-01-01

306

High prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in Konya, a central Anatolian city in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, diabetes and the relationship between adiposity and carbohydrate metabolism, by age and gender in Konya, a city in central Anatolia. Methods: A cross-sectional population based survey was performed. One month before the field survey a media campaign was started in each district by

Volkan D. Yumuk; Husrev Hatemi; Tunc Tarakci; Nurettin Uyar; Nurten Turan; Nazif Bagriacik; Ali Ipbuker

2005-01-01

307

PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CHICKENS FROM A HIGHLY ENDEMIC AREA TO HUMANS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was examined to evaluate environmental contamination by oocysts. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) in sera of chickens. Antibodies a...

308

HIGH PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS AND HEPATITIS D VIRUS IN THE WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe cases of hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis D virus (HDV) are often seen in the Brazilian Amazon, but there is a paucity of epidemiologic studies on viral hepatitis in this area. Thus, a cross- sectional study to investigate the prevalence of markers for HBV and HDV was performed. Serum samples were collected after participants completed

SEBASTIAO VIANA; RAYMUNDO PARANA; REGINA CELIA MOREIRA; ADRIANA PARISE COMPRI; VANISE MACEDO

2005-01-01

309

High prevalence of four long QT syndrome founder mutations in the Finnish population  

PubMed Central

Aims Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited arrhythmia disorder with an estimated prevalence of 0.01%–0.05%. In Finland, four founder mutations constitute up to 70% of the known genetic spectrum of LQTS. In the present survey, we sought to estimate the actual prevalence of the founder mutations and to determine their effect sizes in the general Finnish population. Methods and results We genotyped 6334 subjects aged?30 years from a population cohort (Health 2000 study) for the four Finnish founder mutations using Sequenom MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were measured from digital 12-lead ECGs, and QT intervals were adjusted for age, sex, and heart rate using linear regression. A total of 27 individuals carried one of the founder mutations resulting in their collective prevalence estimate of 0.4% (95% CI 0.3%–0.6%). The KCNQ1 G589D mutation (n=8) was associated with a 50 ms (SE 7.0) prolongation of the adjusted QT interval (P=9.0×10-13). The KCNH2 R176W variant (n=16) resulted in a 22 ms (SE 4.7) longer adjusted QT interval (P=2.1×10-6). Conclusion In Finland 1 individual out of 250 carries a LQTS founder mutation, which is the highest documented prevalence of LQTS mutations that lead to a marked QT prolongation. PMID:19160088

MARJAMAA, ANNUKKA; SALOMAA, VEIKKO; NEWTON-CHEH, CHRISTOPHER; PORTHAN, KIMMO; REUNANEN, ANTTI; KARANKO, HANNU; JULA, ANTTI; LAHERMO, PÄIVI; VÄÄNÄNEN, HEIKKI; TOIVONEN, LAURI; SWAN, HEIKKI; VIITASALO, MATTI; NIEMINEN, MARKKU S.; PELTONEN, LEENA; OIKARINEN, LASSE; PALOTIE, AARNO; KONTULA, KIMMO

2009-01-01

310

High prevalence of obsessive–compulsive disorder among posttraumatic stress disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic obsessions have been reported in a few studies and case series. However, the magnitude of this phenomenon is still unknown. In the current study we systematically evaluated the prevalence of OCD in a sample of combat and terror related PTSD patients. Out of 44 referrals, 43% of the participants had PTSD with no OCD and 41% were diagnosed also

Nitsa Nacasch; Leah Fostick; Joseph Zohar

311

Prevalence of sudden cardiac death during competitive sports activities in Minnesota High School athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Reliable prevalence data would be useful in assessing the impact of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes on the community and designing effective preparticipation screening strategies.Background. The frequency with which these catastrophes occur is largely unknown.Methods. We utilized a circumstance unique to Minnesota in which the precise number of participants and deaths due to cardiovascular disease could be

Barry J Maron; Thomas E Gohman; Dorothee Aeppli

1998-01-01

312

Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among women in a high HIV prevalence area in urban Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the significant burden of common mental disorders (CMD) among women in sub Saharan Africa, data on postnatal depression\\u000a (PND) is very limited, especially in settings with a high HIV prevalence. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS),\\u000a a widely used screening test for PND has been validated in many countries, but not in Zimbabwe. We assessed the validity of\\u000a the

Dixon Chibanda; Walter Mangezi; Mustaf Tshimanga; Godfrey Woelk; Peter Rusakaniko; Lynda Stranix-Chibanda; Yvonne Maldonado; Avinash K. Shetty

2010-01-01

313

Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types in Mexican women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of high risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the states of San Luis Potosí (SLP) and Guanajuato (Gto), Mexico, was determined by restriction fragment length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on the E6 ~250 bp (E6-250) HR-HPV products amplified from cervical scrapings of 442 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma (280 from SLP and 192 from Gto). Fresh

Rubén López-Revilla; Luz A Martínez-Contreras; Mireya Sánchez-Garza

2008-01-01

314

Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.  

PubMed

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

2011-01-01

315

High rates of substance use in French youths 13/7/07 High prevalence rates of tobacco, alcohol and drug use in adolescents and  

E-print Network

-specific rates of substance (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, inhalants and psychotropic: Prevalence rates of substance use were high and varied with age and sex. Tobacco, cannabis and polysubstance; regular cannabis use: respectively 23.9% and 10.9%; tobacco + alcohol + cannabis: respectively 9.9% and 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

High Prevalence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Viruses among Female Commercial Sex Workers Residing in Surabaya, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and have an impact on the Indonesian economy. In addition, the rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. Commercial sex plays a significant role in the spread of HIV; therefore, in order to reveal the current HIV prevalence rate among commercial sex workers (CSWs), we conducted an epidemiological study on HIV infection among CSWs residing in Surabaya, the capital of East Java province of Indonesia with large communities of CSWs. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of HIV infection among 200 CSWs was studied. In addition, the subtype of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and the prevalence of other blood-borne viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C (GBV-C), were studied. The prevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV antibodies and anti-GBV-C antibodies were 11%, 64%, 4%, 0.5% and 0% among CSWs involved in this study, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE viral gene fragments were detected in most HIV-positive samples. In addition, most CSWs showed low awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and had unprotected sex with their clients. Conclusions/Significance The HIV prevalence rate among CSWs was significantly higher than that among the general population in Indonesia (0.2–0.4%). In addition, CSWs were at a high risk of exposure to HBV, although chronic HBV infection was less frequently established. Our results suggest the necessity of efficient prevention programs for HIV and other blood-borne viral infections among CSWs in Surabaya, Indonesia. PMID:24367533

Sukartiningrum, Septhia Dwi; Arfijanto, M. Vitanata; Utsumi, Takako; Normalina, Irine; Handajani, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Rusli, Musofa; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Nasronudin; Kameoka, Masanori

2013-01-01

317

From Wolf to Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this video-enhanced lesson, students will learn that all dogs came from one ancestor- the wolf. Students will watch and discuss video segments from the NATURE film âDogs that Changed the World,â and explore different theories about how this transformation happened. Students will learn about different breeds of dogs and create a book with pictures and information about a variety of dog breeds. In the culminating activity, students will interview a dog owner and create a poster and/or a presentation about his/her dog.

2010-01-01

318

Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Laos: A Community-Wide Cross-Sectional Study of Humans and Dogs in a Mass Drug Administration Environment  

PubMed Central

We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7–28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8–44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3–49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4–10.4%), respectively. We observed strong heterogeneity for helminthiasis by ethnicity, province, and wealth status, which coincided with a risk profile demonstrating that Mon-Khmer persons and the poorest households are highly vulnerable. Necator americanus was the dominant hookworm species infecting humans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the only Ancylostoma species detected. Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation. PMID:22492147

Conlan, James V.; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2012-01-01

319

High prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus in wild rats in China.  

PubMed

Serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in Zhanjiang city in China from December 2011 to September 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) by exploring rat HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. By an ELISA based on recombinant rat HEV-like particles (HEV-LPs), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. The IgG-positive rates in Rattus norvegicus, Bandicota indica, Rattus flavipectus, Rattus rattoides losea, and Rattus rattus hainanus, were 27.8% (64/230), 23.0% (40/174), 19.9% (34/171), 21.5% (26/121), and 11.8% (2/17), while the IgM-positive rates were 8.3% (19/230), 6.9% (12/174), 8.2% (14/171), 10.7% (13/121), and 5.9% (1/17), respectively. The IgG-positive rate of the rats captured in rural areas, 24.1% (84/348), was higher than that in the central area of Zhanjiang city, 15.1% (32/212). The highest IgG-positive rates, as high as 45.3% (39/86), were detected in wild rats trapped in the garbage dump. Twelve of the 59 IgM-positive serum samples were positive for HEV RNA, which was detected in all of the wild rat species except R. rattus hainanus. A phylogenetic analysis of the partial genome of rat HEV ORF1 indicated that all of the 12 HEV strains belong to rat HEV, and no other genotype HEV were detected. The rat HEV from Zhangjiang city could be classified into three separated clusters, suggesting that the infection due to rat HEV with a variety of genome entities occurs extensively among wild rats in China. PMID:23623690

Li, Wei; Guan, Dawei; Su, Juan; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji; Li, Tian-Cheng; Ke, Chang Wen

2013-08-30

320

Simultaneous determination of Gastrodin and Ligustrazine hydrochloride in dog plasma by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Gastrodin (Gas) and Ligustrazine hydrochloride (LZH) in dog plasma after oral administration of the preparation ‘Tianxiong Capsule’. The assay involves deproteinization, extraction and subsequent detection with a gradient solvent system at two different wavelengths. Retention times were 10.6 and 18.9min for Gas and LZH, respectively. Linear responses were

L. L. Li; Z. R. Zhang; T. Gong; L. L. He; L. Deng

2006-01-01

321

The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland: Part 1: A population study on sled dogs during the racing season.  

PubMed

The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of surveillance of reservoir hosts in the epidemiology of TBE. Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring for the presence of D. repens. PMID:24491396

Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata

2014-05-28

322

Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, reveal a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

Monzón, J.; Kays, R.; Dykhuizen, D. E.

2014-01-01

323

Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs.  

PubMed

The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution and the ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, revealed a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

Monzón, J; Kays, R; Dykhuizen, D E

2014-01-01

324

Alarmingly high prevalence of obesity in Curaçao: data from an interview survey stratified for socioeconomic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to report the prevalence of obesity, abdominal fatness and waist circumference in different socioeconomic classes in Curaçao. DESIGN: In 1993\\/1994 a health interview survey (the Curaçao Health Study) was carried out among a random sample (n=2248, response rate=85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population of Curaçao. METHODS: We analyzed the association between obesity (BMI?30),

M. E. C. Grol; J. M. Eimers; J. F. Alberts; L. M. Bouter; I. Gerstenbluth; Y. Halabi; E van Sonderen; WJA van den Heuvel; MEC Grol

1997-01-01

325

Prevalence of Leukoencephalopathy in Children Treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with High-Dose Methotrexate  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE An effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), intravenous (IV) methotrexate (MTX) has a notable toxic effect on the CNS, with leukoencephalopathy (LE) being the most common form. The purpose of this study was to use objective quantitative MR imaging to prospectively assess potential risk factors on the temporal evolution of LE in patients treated for ALL. METHODS We evaluated the longitudinal prevalence of LE in 45 children treated for ALL in a single institutional protocol including seven courses of IV MTX and no cranial irradiation. Differences in signal intensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images between hyperintense regions and normal-appearing genu were used to quantitatively detect LE. Cox proportional regression was used to estimate the effect of covariates (e.g., sex, MTX dose, age at diagnosis) on the prevalence of LE. After influential factors were identified, a generalized linear model was determined to predict the probability of LE in new patients. The model was necessary to facilitate statistical testing between examinations. RESULTS Increasing exposure, which corresponding to more courses and higher doses of IV MTX, influenced the prevalence of LE. The prevalence of LE was significant reduced approximately 1.5 years after the completion of IV MTX. CONCLUSION Higher doses and more courses of IV MTX placed patients at a higher risk for LE; many of the changes resolved after the completion of therapy. The effect of these changes on neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in survivors remains to be determined. PMID:15891195

Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Langston, James W.; Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Shengjie; Pui, Ching-Hon

2008-01-01

326

High Prevalence of Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in Patients With Juvenile Venous Thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the prevalence of hyperhomocyst- (e)inemia before and 4 hours after a methionine load (3.8 g\\/m2) in 80 patients (25 men and 55 women) who had had at least one verified episode of venous thromboembolism before the age of 40 years and in 51 healthy control subjects. No patient had any of the hemostatic abnormalities known to be associated

Cristina R. Falcon; Marco Cattaneo; Daniela Panzeri; Ida Martinelli; Pier Mannuccio Mannucci

327

High prevalence of coeliac disease in siblings of children with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coeliac disease has been shown to occur more frequently among first-degree relatives of diabetic patients than in the general population. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of endomysium antibodies (EMA) in non-diabetic siblings of Czech diabetic children and to evaluate the effects of HLA-DQ polymorphisms in determining the genetic susceptibility to coeliac disease (CD) in these subjects. We investigated

Zdenek Sumnik; Stanislava Kolouskova; Hana Malcova; Jan Vavrinec; Jitrenka Venhacova; Jan Lebl; Ondrej Cinek

2005-01-01

328

Prevalence and Correlates of Street Racing Among Ontario High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of street racing among adolescents derived from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), an epidemiological survey of students in Ontario, Canada.Methods: The key response variable, self-reported street racing in past year was examined in relation to grade level, rural\\/urban, school marks, cannabis use, drinking and driving, cannabis use

Evelyn Vingilis; Reginald G. Smart; Robert E. Mann; Angela Paglia-Boak; Gina Stoduto; Edward M. Adlaf

2011-01-01

329

High prevalence of colorectal neoplasm in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 20–40% of the general adult population. Due to shared risk factors, it is postulated that NAFLD patients have an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm and should be a target group for screening. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm in NAFLD patients and the risk of colorectal neoplasm

Vincent Wai-Sun Wong; Grace Lai-Hung Wong; Steven Woon-Choy Tsang; Tina Fan; Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu; Jean Woo; Anthony Wing-Hung Chan; Paul Cheung-Lung Choi; Angel Mei-Ling Chim; James Yun-Wong Lau; Francis Ka-Leung Chan; Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung; Henry Lik-Yuen Chan

2011-01-01

330

High Prevalence of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Menière's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmunity appears to be associated with the pathophysiology of Meniere's disease (MD), an inner ear disorder characterized by episodes of vertigo associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. However, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with MD has not been studied in individuals with uni or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods and Findings We estimated the prevalence of AD in 690 outpatients with MD with uni or bilateral SNHL from otoneurology clinics at six tertiary referral hospitals by using clinica criteria and an immune panel (lymphocyte populations, antinuclear antibodies, C3, C4 and proinflammatory cytokines TNF?, INF?). The observed prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was higher than expected for the general population (1.39 for RA, 0.87 for SLE and 0.70 for AS, respectively). Systemic AD were more frequently observed in patients with MD and diagnostic criteria for migraine than cases with MD and tension-type headache (p?=?0.007). There were clinical differences between patients with uni or bilateral SNHL, but no differences were found in the immune profile. Multiple linear regression showed that changes in lymphocytes subpopulations were associated with hearing loss and persistence of vertigo, suggesting a role for the immune response in MD. Conclusions Despite some limitations, MD displays an elevated prevalence of systemic AD such as RA, SLE and AS. This finding, which suggests an autoimmune background in a subset of patients with MD, has important implications for the treatment of MD. PMID:22053211

Gazquez, Irene; Soto-Varela, Andres; Aran, Ismael; Santos, Sofia; Batuecas, Angel; Trinidad, Gabriel; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Gonzalez-Oller, Carlos; Acosta, Lourdes; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

2011-01-01

331

High prevalence of Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink on a remote Danish island.  

PubMed

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains. PMID:22493130

Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Harslund, Jakob; Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Hammer, Anne Sofie

2012-04-01

332

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Swaziland, 2009–2010  

PubMed Central

In Africa, although emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) represents a serious threat in countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic, most countries lack drug-resistant TB data. This finding was particularly true in the Kingdom of Swaziland, which has the world’s highest HIV and TB prevalences. Therefore, we conducted a national survey in 2009–2010 to measure prevalence of drug-resistant TB. Of 988 patients screened, 420 new case-patients and 420 previously treated case-patients met the study criteria. Among culture-positive patients, 15.3% new case-patients and 49.5% previously treated case-patients harbored drug-resistant strains. MDR TB prevalence was 7.7% and 33.8% among new case-patients and previously treated case-patients, respectively. HIV infection and past TB treatment were independently associated with MDR TB. The findings assert the need for wide-scale intervention in resource-limited contexts such as Swaziland, where diagnostic and treatment facilities and health personnel are lacking. PMID:22260950

Dlamini, Themba; Ascorra, Alexandra; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Tefera, Zerihun Demissie; Calain, Philippe; de la Tour, Roberto; Jochims, Frauke; Richter, Elvira; Bonnet, Maryline

2012-01-01

333

Dog epilepsy gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have now identified a genetic mutation responsible for epilepsy in dogs. Further research on dogs with this mutation might help researchers better understand how to treat or prevent seizures in humans with Lafora disease, according to the authors.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-01-07

334

Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

2011-01-01

335

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of gambogenic acid in dog plasma. Gambogic acid was used as an internal standard (IS). After a simple liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate, the analyte and internal standard were separated on an Acquity BEH C18 (100?×?2.1?mm, 1.7?µm; Waters ) column at a flow rate of 0.2?mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-methanol (10:90, v/v) as mobile phase. Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring mode with the transitions m/z 631.3???507.3 and m/z 629.1???573.2 was used to quantify gambogenic acid and the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 5-1000?ng/mL, with a coefficient of determination (r) of 0.999 and good calculated accuracy and precision. The low limit of quantification was 5?ng/mL. The intra-and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were <15%. The methodology recoveries were more than 66.63%. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after intravenous injection administration of gambogenic acid in dogs at a dose of 1?mg/kg. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24802389

Chen, Jin Pei; Wang, Dian Lei; Yang, Li Li; Wang, Chen Yin; Wang, Shan Shan

2014-12-01

336

Molecular detection and treatment of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens. PMID:25507247

Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Potchimplee, Prapasara; Khianman, Parin; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-09-01

337

Molecular detection and treatment of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens. PMID:25417519

Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Potchimplee, Prapasara; Khianman, Parin; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-09-01

338

Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. PMID:23301868

Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

2013-05-01

339

Ileal cannulation and associated complications in dogs.  

PubMed

Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestibility is important in dogs because it allows the formulation of pet foods that provide optimal nutrition at minimal cost. Digestibility measured by comparing nutrient intake to fecal excretion in intact animals does not distinguish small intestinal digestion from large intestinal bacterial fermentation. Ileal cannulation allows small intestinal digestion to be measured alone by comparing nutrient intake with ileal excretion of chyme. Nevertheless, ileal cannulation and its associated complications are not well documented in dogs. We describe the implantation of a simple T-cannula in the ileum of nine dogs for an average duration of 26 weeks. Established cannulas were well tolerated, and one dog retained the cannula for 14 months. Nevertheless, ileal effluent proved extremely caustic, and the incidence of complications in the immediate postoperative period was high. Only one dog had an unremarkable postoperative course. Complications included abscessation and cannula extrusion, followed by severe excoriation and ulceration of the skin. This excoriation could be prevented only by immediate surgical closure of the fistula. Chronic ileal cannulation is therefore a viable technique in dogs, but careful monitoring of the cannula site is essential. Dogs should be subjected to this procedure only if adequate veterinary and nursing care is available. It is preferable to maintain a colony of long-term cannulated dogs rather than to implant cannulas as needed. PMID:8699825

Hill, R C; Ellison, G W; Burrows, C F; Bauer, J E; Carbia, B

1996-02-01

340

Spots over Dogs' Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I WOULD have written a note on this subject long ago, had I not failed to see similar spots general amongst wild animals allied to the dog. The spots may, however, be more general than I am aware. The spots are by no means always tan; a black dog will sometimes have them white, and a white dog black. I

Worthington G. Smith

1894-01-01

341

High prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in women in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and direct association with abdominal surgery  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain is a disease that directly affects the social and professional lives of women. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of this clinical condition and to identify independent factors associated with it in women living in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: A one-year cross-sectional study was conducted in a population sample of 1,278 women over the age of 14 years. The target population was predominantly composed of women who are treated by the public health system. The questionnaire was administered by interviewers who were not linked to the city health care programs. The prevalence of the morbidity was estimated. First, we identified the significant variables associated with pelvic pain (p<0.10) and then we attributed values of 0 or 1 to the absence or presence of these variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify and estimate the simultaneous impact of the independent variables. The results were expressed by odds ratio and their 95% confidence interval with p<0.05. RESULTS: The disease was found in 11.5% (147/1,278) of the sample. The independent predictors were dyspareunia, previous abdominal surgery, depression, dysmenorrhea, anxiety, current sexual activity, low back pain, constipation, urinary symptoms, and low educational level. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Ribeirão Preto is high and is associated with conditions that can usually be prevented, controlled, or resolved by improvement of public health policies and public education. PMID:21915476

de Oliveira Gonçalves da Silva, Gabriela Pagano; do Nascimento, Anderson Luís; Michelazzo, Daniela; Junior, Fernando Filardi Alves; Rocha, Marcelo Gondim; Rosa-e-Silva, Júlio César; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco José; Nogueira, Antonio Alberto; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

2011-01-01

342

High prevalence of HCMV and viral load in tumor tissues and peripheral blood of glioblastoma multiforme patients.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most prevalent and malignant tumor of the central nervous system. In the last few years, accumulating evidence has suggested an association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and glioblastoma multiforme. In this study, tumor tissues and peripheral blood of patients with glioblastoma multiforme were examined for the presence of HCMV DNA. Twenty-two fresh surgical brain specimens and 20 peripheral blood samples were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and hemi-nested PCR (nPCR) for the presence of pp65 and (glycoprotein B) gB viral genomic regions, respectively. HCMV DNA was detected in the majority of the tumor samples analyzed (95% by qPCR and 91% by nPCR). About half of the patients with tumors positive for HCMV also had detectable viral DNA in their peripheral blood (47% by qPCR and 61% by nPCR). Genome copy numbers were determined and in the majority of the tumor samples cellular DNA outnumbers viral DNA (average of 1 infected cell in 33 cells). The gB genotypes were determined in HCMV-positive samples and gB2 was the most prevalent genotype in the tumor and blood samples. The results show a high prevalence of HCMV in glioblastoma multiforme samples reinforcing a possible association between HCMV infection and tumor development. PMID:24173908

dos Santos, Claudia Januário; Stangherlin, Lucas Matheus; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Corrêa, Clemar; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; da Silva, Maria Cristina Carlan

2014-11-01

343

Serosurvey for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Danish dogs.  

PubMed

To estimate the regional presence of B. burgdorferi we performed a serosurvey for antibodies to B. burgdorferi in 205 healthy dogs from representative areas of Denmark. Blood samples were collected from November 1986 to March 1987. Twenty dogs bred for research purposes served as negative controls. IgG-antibodies to the B. burgdorferi strain DK-ECM 1 were measured by indirect immunofluorescens assay. Antibody titers ranged from nonreactive to 640. In 33 dogs (16.1%) titres were greater than or equal to 80, indicating exposure to B. burgdorferi. There were no significant differences in the prevalence rate of seropositive dogs due to place of residence, sex or age. The results indicate that dogs are exposed to tickborne B. burgdorferi in most areas of Denmark. PMID:2713138

Hansen, K; Dietz, H H

1989-03-01

344

Gastrointestinal helminths are highly prevalent in scavenging chickens of selected districts of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence between cestodes and nematodes of helminths parasites within the same district. The major cestode species recovered form chickens were Raillietina echinobothrida 79 (63.7%), Raillietina tetragona 70 (56.5%), Raillietina cesticillus 50 (40.3%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum 17 (13.7%), Davainea proglottina 10 (8.1%), Hymenolepis contaniana 22 (17.7%) and Hymenolepis carioca 7 (17.7%). The major nematode species encountered were Heterakis gallinarum 47 (37.9%), Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p > 0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p < 0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised. PMID:24175425

Hussen, Heyradin; Chaka, Hassen; Deneke, Yosef; Bitew, Molalegne

2012-03-15

345

High prevalence of central hypothyroidism in adult patients with ?-thalassemia major.  

PubMed

The commonest form of thyroid dysfunction seen in subjects with TM is primary hypothyroidism due to abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Central hypothyroidism (CH) has been reported as an uncommon clinical entity in TM patients although the anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical oxidative stresses. Diagnosis is usually made on a biochemical basis showing low circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone associated with an inappropriately low TSH levels. The diagnosis is not clinically obvious and a basal normal TSH level does not exclude the diagnosis of CH. Therefore, it is important that clinicians accurately interpret thyroid function tests. In TM patients, CH prevalence differs at different ages is unknown and it is not easy to diagnose because most of the symptoms of symptoms of CH are non specific and are frequently attributed to anaemia or other associated complications . We performed a cross-sectional analysis on a large database using the clinical records of our TM patients to explore the prevalence of CH in prepubertal (<11 years: 25 patients; 13 males) peripubertal (between 11 and 16 years: 9 patients; 3 males), and pubertal TM subjects (>16 years: 305 patients; 164 males). Central hypothyroidism was present in 26 (7,6%) TM patients. Their mean age was 29.9 ± 8.4 years, 14 (53.8%) were males and 12 (46.1%) were females. The prevalence of CH was 6% in patients with a chronological age below 21 years and 7.9% in those above 21 years. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of CH through accurate interpretation of thyroid function tests. We recommend L-thyroxine therapy if the level of FT4 is consistently low provided that the patient has normal cortisol levels. PMID:24099820

De Sanctis, V; Soliman, A; Candini, G; Campisi, S; Anastasi, S; Iassin, M

2013-09-01

346

High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women living in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) contribute largely to the burden of health in South Africa and are recognized as major contributors to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Young women are particularly vulnerable to STIs. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the risk factors associated with prevalent and incident STIs among women who had participated in three clinical trials. Methods A total of 5,748 women were screened and 2293 sexually active, HIV negative, non-pregnant women were enrolled in three clinical trials in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. The prevalence of individual STIs Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), syphilis, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) was assessed at screening; and incident infections were evaluated over a 24 month period. Results Overall, the combined study population of all three trials had a median age of 28 years (inter-quartile range (IQR):22–37), and a median duration of follow-up of 12 months. Prevalence of STIs (CT, NG, TV, or syphilis) was 13% at screening. The STI incidence was estimated to be 20/100 women years. Younger women (<25 years, p?high prevalence and incidence of STIs among women living in rural and urban communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where the HIV epidemic is also particularly severe. These findings strongly suggest an urgent need to allocate resources for STI and HIV prevention that mainly target younger women. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00121459. PMID:25243015

2014-01-01

347

Parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence for high prevalence of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Both podoconiosis (a geochemical non-filarial disease) and chronic filarial disease result in lower limb elephantiasis. The aims of the present study were to determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological, and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. METHODS House-to-house visits were made in 330 randomly selected households. All household members that had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health center to confirm presence of elephantiasis, check presence of scrotal swelling, and rule out other causes of lymphoedema. Midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of W. bancrofti microfilaria. Day time blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. RESULTS Consistent with features of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis), none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen turned negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4%. Prevalence peaked in the third decade of life, which also includes the most economically active age groups. CONCLUSIONS This study has shown high prevalence of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) and absence of filarial elephantiasis in Midakegn district. Prevention, treatment, and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programs in the district. PMID:22487446

Oli, Geleta Geshere; Ayele, Fasil Tekola; Petros, Beyene

2012-01-01

348

Association between Non-High-Density-Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Levels and the Prevalence of Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to assess the association between non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and the prevalence of asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS). Methods and Results The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study is a prospective cohort study based on the Kailuan district (China) population. A total of 5351 eligible subjects, aged ?40, and without history of stroke or myocardial infarction, were enrolled in this study. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD) was performed on all enrolled subjects for the evaluation of ICAS presence. Out of 5351 patients, 698 subjects showed evidence of ICAS (prevalence of 13.04%). Multivariate analysis showed that non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for the presence of ICAS (OR ?=?1.15, 95%CI: 1.08 – 1.23), but with a gender difference (P for interaction<0.01): in men, non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for ICAS (multivariate-adjusted OR ?=?1.28, 95%CI: 1.18–1.39), but not in women (multivariate-adjusted OR ?=?1.03, 95%CI: 0.93–1.14). Subjects were divided into five subgroups based non-HDL-C levels and these levels correlated linearly with the prevalence of ICAS (P for trend <0.01). Compared with the first quintile, multivariate-adjusted OR (95%CI) of the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles were: 1.05 (0.71–1.56), 1.33 (0.91–1.95), 1.83 (1.27–2.63), 2.48 (1.72–3.57), respectively. Conclusion Non-HDL-C is an independent predictor of ICAS prevalence in men but not in women, suggesting that non-HDL-C levels could be used as a surveillance factor in the primary prevention of ischemic stroke, especially in men. PMID:23734240

Yang, Huajun; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Chunxue; Zhang, Shufeng; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

2013-01-01

349

Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Background This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. Methods Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3817 women had a valid HCII test: 350 of them (9.2%) were positive for HR probes, 160 (4.2%) for LR probes, while 57 women were positive for both. Multiple infections were detected in 97 HR HPV positive women. The most common types were HPV 16 (3%), 31 (1.2%), 51 (1%). HPV6 ranked fifth (0.6%), HPV18 ranked tenth (0.5%) and HPV11 sixteenth (0.3%). In Sardinia the prevalence of high-risk infection was 13%, significantly higher than the mean value (p < 0.00005). The distribution of the most frequent types did not significantly differ by centre (p = 0.187) and age (p = 0.085). Conclusions Because cervical cancer incidence and Pap test coverage is lower in southern than in northern Italy, a lower prevalence of high-risk infections in the general population was expected in the south. However, prevalence detected in this study for the south of the country is slightly but significantly higher than the rest of Italy. The consequence may be an epidemic of cervical cancer in the next decades if adequate screening programs are not implemented there. PMID:20646310

2010-01-01

350

Significantly Reduced Intensity of Infection but Persistent Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in a Highly Endemic Region in Mali after Repeated Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Preventive chemotherapy against schistosomiasis has been implemented since 2005 in Mali, targeting school-age children and adults at high risk. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 to evaluate the impact of repeated treatment among school-age children in the highly-endemic region of Segou. Methodology/Principal Findings The survey was conducted in six sentinel schools in three highly-endemic districts, and 640 school children aged 7–14 years were examined. Infections with Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni were diagnosed with the urine filtration and the Kato-Katz method respectively. Overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 61.7%, a significant reduction of 30% from the baseline in 2004 (p<0.01), while overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 12.7% which was not significantly different from the baseline. Overall mean intensity of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infection was 180.4 eggs/10 ml of urine and 88.2 epg in 2004 respectively. These were reduced to 33.2 eggs/10 ml of urine and 43.2 epg in 2010 respectively, a significant reduction of 81.6% and 51% (p<0.001). The proportion of heavy S. haematobium infections was reduced from 48.8% in 2004 to 13.8% in 2010, and the proportion of moderate and heavy S. mansoni infection was reduced from 15.6% in 2004 to 9.4% in 2010, both significantly (p<0.01). Mathematical modelling suggests that the observed results were in line with the expected changes. Conclusions/Significance Significant reduction in intensity of infection on both infections and modest but significant reduction in S. haematobium prevalence were achieved in highly-endemic Segou region after repeated chemotherapy. However, persistent prevalence of both infections and relatively high level of intensity of S. mansoni infection suggest that more intensified control measures be implemented in order to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination. In addition, closer monitoring and evaluation activities are needed in the programme to monitor the drug tolerance and to adjust treatment focus. PMID:22860153

Landouré, Aly; Dembélé, Robert; Goita, Seydou; Kané, Mamadou; Tuinsma, Marjon; Sacko, Moussa; Toubali, Emily; French, Michael D.; Keita, Adama D.; Fenwick, Alan; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Zhang, Yaobi

2012-01-01

351

Ethnic Variations in Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Asian and Pacific Islander Adolescents in Hawaii  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined ethnic variations in high-risk sexual behaviors among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents in comparison with White adolescents. Methods. We obtained data from the 2003 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey on 4953 students in grades 9 through 12. We conducted ?2 and logistic regression analyses on these data to examine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiian, and White adolescents. Results. We found significant ethnic variation in prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among API adolescents. Relative to White adolescents, Native Hawaiian adolescents were most likely to engage in lifetime sexual intercourse, recent sexual intercourse, and sexual initiation before age 13 years; Japanese adolescents were least likely to engage in these behaviors. Filipino adolescents were least likely to use substances before last sexual intercourse and condoms during last sexual intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings suggest divergent patterns of risk among API ethnic groups, underscoring the heterogeneity of API subgroups and emphasizing the need for health disparities research on disaggregated API ethnic groups. The findings of such research should be used to design ethnically relevant interventions aimed at mitigating the negative health consequences of high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:19106424

Kameoka, Velma A.

2009-01-01

352

High prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections among residents of Savannakhet Province in Laos  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections was surveyed on residents of Savannakhet Province, Laos. Fecal specimens were collected from a total of 981 residents in 4 Mekong riverside villages and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The results revealed that the overall helminth egg positive rate was 84.2%, and the positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, or lecithodendriids, was 67.1%. To obtain adult flukes, 38 small trematode egg positive cases were treated with a 20-30 mg/kg single dose of praziquantel and purged. Diarrheic stools were then collected from 29 people and searched for helminth parasites using stereomicroscopes. Mixed infections with O. viverrini and 6 kinds of intestinal flukes were found, namely, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, and echinostomes. The total number of flukes collected was 7,693 specimens (av. no. per treated person; 265.3). The most common species was O. viverrini, followed by H. taichui, P. molenkampi, echinostomes, H. pumilio, P. bonnei, and H. yokogawai. The results indicate that foodborne liver and intestinal fluke infections are prevalent among residents of Savannakhet Province, Laos. PMID:17876167

Han, Eun-Taek; Guk, Sang-Mee; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Ryang, Yong-Sang; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phommasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

2007-01-01

353

High HIV prevalence among children presenting for general consultation in rural Cameroon.  

PubMed

Data on the HIV-prevalence children presenting to health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa are scant in general, and the debate about opportunities for paediatric HIV screening is ongoing. Nine hundred and eighty-one children with unknown HIV-status presenting to a large general paediatric outpatient department in rural Cameroon were tested using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test (Abbott), and positive results were confirmed with the Hexagon HIV rapid test (Human Diagnostics). In children younger than 18 months, HIV infection was confirmed by PCR testing. Median age was 1.3 years and 52.8% were of male gender. In 514 children below 18 months of age, 16 (3.1%) tested positive. Of those, HIV-1 PCR was available for 11 children, of whom 6 had a positive PCR result. HIV prevalence was highest in the age group 5-9 years, being 8.8%. Malnutrition (33.3 vs 5.2%, p?

Zoufaly, A; Hammerl, R; Sunjoh, F; Jochum, J; Nassimi, N; Awasom, C; Tayong, G; Sauter, F; Schmiedel, S; van Lunzen, J; Burchard, G; Feldt, T

2014-09-01

354

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Germany: distribution, prevalences, and prediction of high risk areas.  

PubMed

In Germany, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) was detected in 11 indigenous frog species, 4 newt species, and 1 salamander species in 64 out of the 181 locations (35%) investigated. Among the 3450 samples collected between 2003 and 2011, 284 (8.2%) were positive for Bd infections. The highest prevalences were observed in Alytes obstetricans (17.8% of individuals, 20% of populations), followed by Ichthyosaura alpestris (14.7%, 22.2%), Bombina variegata (13.9%, 38.5%), and water frogs comprising 2 species, Pelophylax lessonae and P. ridibundus, and their hybrid form P. esculentus (13.5%, 29.0%). Bd is widespread; areas of higher prevalence were detected in eastern, southeastern, western, and southwestern Germany. Our data indicate that drift fencing of amphibians is not a risk factor for the anthropogenic spread of Bd. Although chytridiomycosis outbreaks have never been observed in Germany, it cannot be excluded that Bd infections affect the dynamics of local amphibian populations. Among the questions still to be answered is whether juveniles are more susceptible to Bd infections than adults. Further work, especially long-term observations including capture-mark-recapture studies, is required to clarify the impact Bd has on amphibians in Germany and Central Europe. PMID:24270023

Ohst, Torsten; Gräser, Yvonne; Plötner, Jörg

2013-11-25

355

High prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in asymptomatic pigs and assessment of zoonotic risk at the genotype level.  

PubMed

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and clinically significant enteric parasite infecting humans and animals and can cause life-threatening diarrhea in immunocompromised people. Pigs are considered to be one of the main reservoir hosts of E. bieneusi based on their high prevalence rates and zoonotic genotypes in pigs. As an opportunistic pathogen, E. bieneusi infection of pigs can be inapparent, which leads to neglect in detecting this parasite in pigs and assessing the epidemiological role of pigs in the transmission of human microsporidiosis. In the present study, 95 healthy pigs aged 2 or 3 months were randomly selected from three areas in Heilongjiang Province, China. E. bieneusi isolates were identified and genotyped based on the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene by PCR and sequencing. A high prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed, 83.2% (79/95) at the SSU rRNA locus versus 89.5% (85/95) at the ITS locus. Ten ITS genotypes were obtained, comprising six known genotypes—EbpA (n = 30), D (n = 19), H (n = 18), O (n = 11), CS-1 (n = 1), and LW1 (n = 1)—and four novel genotypes named HLJ-I to HLJ-IV; 70.6% (60/85) of E. bieneusi genotypes were zoonotic (genotypes EbpA, D, and O). The findings of a high prevalence of E. bieneusi in pigs and a large percentage of zoonotic genotypes indicate that pigs may play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans and may become an important source of water contamination in our investigated areas. PMID:24727270

Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Yang, Fengkun; Cao, Jianping; Liu, Hua; Yang, Dong; Shen, Yujuan; Liu, Aiqin

2014-06-01

356

Early Outcomes of MDR-TB Treatment in a High HIV-Prevalence Setting in Southern Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high HIV-prevalence settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We did a retrospective analysis of early outcomes of the first cohort of patients registered in the Lesotho national MDR-TB program between July 21, 2007 and April 21, 2008. Seventy-six patients were included for analysis. Patient follow-up ended when an outcome was recorded, or on October 21, 2008 for those still on treatment. Fifty-six patients (74%) were infected with HIV; the median CD4 cell count was 184 cells/?l (range 5–824 cells/?l). By the end of the follow-up period, study patients had been followed for a median of 252 days (range 12–451 days). Twenty-two patients (29%) had died, and 52 patients (68%) were alive and in treatment. In patients who did not die, culture conversion was documented in 52/54 patients (96%). One patient had defaulted, and one patient had transferred out. Death occurred after a median of 66 days in treatment (range 12–374 days). Conclusions/Significance In a region where clinicians and program managers are increasingly confronted by drug-resistant tuberculosis, this report provides sobering evidence of the difficulty of MDR-TB treatment in high HIV-prevalence settings. In Lesotho, an innovative community-based treatment model that involved social and nutritional support, twice-daily directly observed treatment and early empiric use of second-line TB drugs was successful in reducing mortality of MDR-TB patients. Further research is urgently needed to improve MDR-TB treatment outcomes in high HIV-prevalence settings. PMID:19779624

Seung, Kwonjune J.; Omatayo, David B.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Furin, Jennifer J.; Farmer, Paul E.; Satti, Hind

2009-01-01

357

High Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Asymptomatic Pigs and Assessment of Zoonotic Risk at the Genotype Level  

PubMed Central

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and clinically significant enteric parasite infecting humans and animals and can cause life-threatening diarrhea in immunocompromised people. Pigs are considered to be one of the main reservoir hosts of E. bieneusi based on their high prevalence rates and zoonotic genotypes in pigs. As an opportunistic pathogen, E. bieneusi infection of pigs can be inapparent, which leads to neglect in detecting this parasite in pigs and assessing the epidemiological role of pigs in the transmission of human microsporidiosis. In the present study, 95 healthy pigs aged 2 or 3 months were randomly selected from three areas in Heilongjiang Province, China. E. bieneusi isolates were identified and genotyped based on the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene by PCR and sequencing. A high prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed, 83.2% (79/95) at the SSU rRNA locus versus 89.5% (85/95) at the ITS locus. Ten ITS genotypes were obtained, comprising six known genotypes—EbpA (n = 30), D (n = 19), H (n = 18), O (n = 11), CS-1 (n = 1), and LW1 (n = 1)—and four novel genotypes named HLJ-I to HLJ-IV; 70.6% (60/85) of E. bieneusi genotypes were zoonotic (genotypes EbpA, D, and O). The findings of a high prevalence of E. bieneusi in pigs and a large percentage of zoonotic genotypes indicate that pigs may play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans and may become an important source of water contamination in our investigated areas. PMID:24727270

Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Yang, Fengkun; Cao, Jianping; Liu, Hua; Yang, Dong; Shen, Yujuan

2014-01-01

358

Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.  

PubMed

To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

Freedman, Adam H; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Ostrander, Elaine A; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

2014-01-01

359

Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs  

PubMed Central

To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11–16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

2014-01-01

360

Determination of nifedipine in dog plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used widely in the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders. In this work, a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to determine nifedipine in dog plasma using nimodipine as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C? column. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, water and formic acid (60:40:0.2, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The method has a lower limit of quantification of 0.20 ng/mL with consumption of plasma as low as 0.05 mL. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.20-50.0 ng/mL (r = 0.9948). The recoveries of the liquid extraction method were 74.5-84.1%. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 4.1-8.8 and 6.7-7.4%, respectively. The quantification was not interfered with by other plasma components and the method was applied to determine nifedipine in plasma after a single oral administration of two controlled-release nifedipine tablets to beagle dogs. PMID:24375717

Pan, Xigui; Zhou, Shunchang; Fu, Qinqin; Hu, Xianming; Wu, Jianhong

2014-07-01

361

Prevalence of high altitude pulmonary hypertension among the natives of spiti valley-a high altitude region in himachal pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Abstract Negi, PC, R. Marwaha, S. Asotra, A. Kandoria, N. Ganju, R. Sharma, R.V. Kumar, and R. Bhardwaj. Prevalence of high altitude pulmonary hypertension among the natives of Spiti Valley-A high altitude region in Himachal Pradesh, India. High Alt Med Biol 15:504-510, 2014.-The study aimed to determine the prevalence of high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) and its predisposing factors among natives of Spiti Valley. A cross-sectional survey study was done on the permanent natives of Spiti Valley residing at an altitude of 3000?m to 4200?m. Demographic characteristics, health behavior, anthropometrics, and blood pressure were recorded. Investigations included recording of 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG), SaO2 with pulse oximeter, spirometry and echocardiography study, and measurement of Hb levels using the cynmethhemoglobin method. HAPH was diagnosed using criteria; tricuspid regurgitation (TR) gradient of ?46?mmHg. ECG evidence of RV overload on 12 lead ECG was documented based on presence of 2 out of 3 criteria; R>S in V1, right axis deviation or RV strain, T wave inversion in V1 and V2. Data of 1087 subjects were analyzed who were free of cardiorespiratory diseases to determine the prevalence of HAPH and its predisposing factors. HAPH was recorded in 3.23% (95% C.I. of 0.9-8.1%) and ECG evidence of right ventricular (RV) overload was 1.5% in the study population. Prevalence of HAPH was not different in men and women 2.63% vs. 3.54% p<0.2. Age (Z statistics of 3.4 p<0.0006), hypoxemia (Z statistics of 2.9 p<0.002), and erythrocythemia (Z statistics of 4.7 p<0.003) were independently associated with HAPH. Altitude of residence was not found to be significantly associated with HAPH, although there was a trend of increasing prevalence with increasing altitude. It can be concluded that HAPH is prevalent in 3.23% of natives of Spiti Valley. Increasing age, erythrocythemia and hypoxemia are independent predisposing factors. PMID:25531464

Negi, Prakash Chand; Marwaha, Rajeev; Asotra, Sanjeev; Kandoria, Arvind; Ganju, Neeraj; Sharma, Rajesh; Kumar, Ravi V; Bhardwaj, Rajeev

2014-12-01

362

Dogs catch human yawns.  

PubMed

This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation. PMID:18682357

Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

2008-10-23

363

Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments  

PubMed Central

Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the control of visceral leishmaniasis in rural zones near forest fragments. PMID:25089629

Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

2014-01-01

364

Prevalence and risk factors of hypoglycemia in virulent canine babesiosis.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia is a common complication of virulent canine babesiosis. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and potential risk factors for hypoglycemia in canine babesiosis from Babesia canis rossi. Plasma glucose concentration was measured at presentation in 250 dogs with babesiosis, of which 111 were admitted to hospital. The prevalence of hypoglycemia (<60 mg/dL) was 9% (23/250). Twenty-two hypoglycemic dogs required admission, making the prevalence of hypoglycemia in admitted dogs 19.8%. Sixteen dogs had severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL), of which 5 had glucose < 18 mg/dL. Hyperglycemia (>100 mg/dL) was present in 38 dogs, of which 21 were admitted. Risk factors for hypoglycemia identified by univariate analysis were collapsed state (P < .00001), severe anemia (P = .0002), icterus (P = .003), age < 6 months (P = .02), and vomiting (P = .03). After logistic regression analysis, collapsed state (odds ratio [OR] = 18; 95% CI, 1.9-171; P = .01) and young age (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 0.8-9.7; P = .1) remained significantly associated with hypoglycemia. Toy breeds and pregnant bitches were not at higher risk for hypoglycemia than other dogs. Blood glucose concentration should ideally be measured in all dogs requiring inpatient treatment for babesiosis but is mandatory in collapsed dogs; puppies; and dogs with severe anemia, vomiting, or icterus. Many dogs have probably been misdiagnosed with cerebral babesiosis in the past, and hypoglycemia should be suspected in any dog with coma or other neurological signs. PMID:15188810

Keller, Ninette; Jacobson, Linda S; Nel, Mirinda; de Clerq, Marizelle; Thompson, Peter N; Schoeman, Johan P

2004-01-01

365

High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).  

PubMed

Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment. PMID:22784377

Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

2012-10-01

366

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in patients with manifest Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common in older institutionalized people and known to be associated with muscle weakness, impaired balance and increased fall risk. Falls and balance problems are common in people with Huntington disease (HD). Despite this, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with manifest HD has never been investigated. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured in routinely drawn blood samples from 28 Dutch institutionalized patients with manifest Huntington disease. Mean serum 25(OH)D level was 33 nmol/l (SD 15). Twenty-five subjects (89%) were vitamin D deficient or insufficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L). A positive association was found between serum 25(OH)D levels and Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC) scores (p = 0.023). PMID:24516688

Chel, Victor GM; Ooms, Marcel E; van der Bent, Jessie; Veldkamp, Fleur; Roos, Raymund AC; Achterberg, Wilco P; Lips, Paul

2013-01-01

367

High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Behcet’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Behcet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology. There are several clues which may indicate an ethiopathogenesis role for Helicobacter pylori infection in this disease. Methods In a case control study in an out patient department, 48 patients with BD were compared to age, sex matched controls regarding presence of H. pylori infection by serology and urea breath test (UBT). Results Ongoing H. pylori infection was more prevalent among patients with BD using result of UBT with odds ratio of 3.1 (95% CI: 1.34 – 7.26, PV?

2014-01-01

368

High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis among school children in rural Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in rural Côte d'Ivoire, the first in 5 primary schools in the Lake Taabo area, and the second in the primary school of Azaguié-Institute de Recherche sur les Fruits et Agrumes. Overall, 251 school children were screened for Strongyloides stercoralis by using either the Baermann method, or the Koga agar plate method, or both techniques. The prevalence of S. stercoralis at the unit of the school ranged between 4.0 and 48%. Because S. stercoralis is a neglected nematode, yet an important parasite from a public health perspective, surveys should consider the use of appropriate diagnostic methods to further our understanding of the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis and to better target control interventions. PMID:19916629

Glinz, Dominik; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

2010-04-01

369

High prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis and in chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer.  

PubMed

The early diagnosis and treatment of individuals harboring M. tuberculosis is key to ensuring the effectiveness of health programs aimed at the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Monitoring for TB also has other important health care implications for the related immune pathology caused by the chronic inflammatory response to M. tuberculosis. Moreover, the recent introduction of biologic therapies for the treatment of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases has shown unexpected high frequencies of reactivation of latent TB. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at estimating the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in different groups of subjects, either undergoing a routine program of screening for TB or a clinical monitoring of autoimmune or lung disorders, by analyzing their immune response in vitro to a pool of different M. tuberculosis antigens through an IFN-gamma-release assay (IGRA). We consecutively tested 1,644 subjects including health care workers (931), healthy immigrants from different countries (93), patients with a diagnosis of psoriasis (405), patients with lung inflammatory disease (60) or lung neoplasia (32) and a group of HIV-1 infected Italian subjects (120). The prevalence of IGRAs positive responses among health care workers was 8.9 percent. In comparison, significantly higher frequencies were found in healthy immigrant subjects (33.3%), similar to those found in inflammatory broncho-pneumopathies (34.5%) or lung cancer (29.6%). Interestingly, an unexpected high prevalence was also found in patients affected by psoriasis (18.0%), while HIV-infected subjects had values comparable to those of health care workers (10.8%). An age cut-off was determined and applied for each group by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in order to perform the statistical analysis among age-comparable groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the age and clinical conditions such as having a diagnosis of psoriasis or a lung inflammatory disease were independent risk factors for developing an IGRA positive response. This study highlights an unprecedented high prevalence of IGRA positive responses among patients affected by psoriasis and emphasizes the need for a preliminary assessment of LTBI before the administration of any biologic therapy based on cytokine antagonists such as anti-TNF-alpha. Moreover, screening for LTBI should be routinely performed in the presence of a chronic pulmonary disease. PMID:21880210

Bordignon, V; Bultrini, S; Prignano, G; Sperduti, I; Piperno, G; Bonifati, C; Filippetti, M; Toma, L; Latini, A; Di Cecio, M; Giuliani, A; Vocaturo, A; Trento, E; D' Agosto, G; Francesconi, F; Cataldo, A; Vento, A; Cilenti, V; Berardesca, E; Ameglio, F; Cordiali Fei, P; Ensoli, F

2011-01-01

370

Expanded HIV Testing in Low-Prevalence, High-Income Countries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Objective In many high-income countries with low HIV prevalence, significant numbers of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) remain undiagnosed. Identification of PLHIV via HIV testing offers timely access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and decreases HIV transmission. We estimated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV testing in the United Kingdom (UK), where 25% of PLHIV are estimated to be undiagnosed. Design We developed a dynamic compartmental model to analyze strategies to expand HIV testing and treatment in the UK, with particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and individuals from HIV-endemic countries. Methods We estimated HIV prevalence, incidence, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and health care costs over 10 years, and cost-effectiveness. Results Annual HIV testing of all adults could avert 5% of new infections, even with no behavior change following HIV diagnosis because of earlier ART initiation, or up to 18% if risky behavior is halved. This strategy costs £67,000–£106,000/QALY gained. Providing annual testing only to MSM, PWID, and people from HIV-endemic countries, and one-time testing for all other adults, prevents 4–15% of infections, requires one-fourth as many tests to diagnose each PLHIV, and costs £17,500/QALY gained. Augmenting this program with increased ART access could add 145,000 QALYs to the population over 10 years, at £26,800/QALY gained. Conclusions Annual HIV testing of key populations in the UK is very cost-effective. Additional one-time testing of all other adults could identify the majority of undiagnosed PLHIV. These findings are potentially relevant to other low-prevalence, high-income countries. PMID:24763373

Long, Elisa F.; Mandalia, Roshni; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Alistar, Sabina S.

2014-01-01

371

A case-control study of determinants for high and low dental caries prevalence in Nevada youth  

PubMed Central

Background The main purpose of this study was to compare the 30% of Nevada Youth who presented with the highest Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index to a cohort who were caries free and to national NHANES data. Secondly, to explore the factors associated with higher caries prevalence in those with the highest DMFT scores compared to the caries-free group. Methods Over 4000 adolescents between ages 12 and 19 (Case Group: N = 2124; Control Group: N = 2045) received oral health screenings conducted in public/private middle and high schools in Nevada in 2008/2009 academic year. Caries prevalence was computed (Untreated decay scores [D-Score] and DMFT scores) for the 30% of Nevada Youth who presented with the highest DMFT score (case group) and compared to the control group (caries-free) and to national averages. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between selected variables and caries prevalence. Results A majority of the sample was non-Hispanic (62%), non-smokers (80%), and had dental insurance (70%). With the exception of gender, significant differences in mean D-scores were found in seven of the eight variables. All variables produced significant differences between the case and control groups in mean DMFT Scores. With the exception of smoking status, there were significant differences in seven of the eight variables in the bivariate logistic regression. All of the independent variables remained in the multivariate logistic regression model contributing significantly to over 40% of the variation in the increased DMFT status. The strongest predictors for the high DMFT status were racial background, age, fluoridated community, and applied sealants respectively. Gender, second hand smoke, insurance status, and tobacco use were significant, but to a lesser extent. Conclusions Findings from this study will aid in creating educational programs and other primary and secondary interventions to help promote oral health for Nevada youth, especially focusing on the subgroup that presents with the highest mean DMFT scores. PMID:21067620

2010-01-01

372

Positive reactions to common allergens in 42 atopic dogs in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically important allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis vary geographically. In order to identify the most prevalent allergens in atopic dogs in Japan, 42 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of atopy were tested using both in vivo (intradermal skin test (IDST)) and in vitro (antigen-specific IgE assay) allergy tests. Allergens used for IDST included 26 allergen extracts

Kenichi Masuda; Masahiro Sakaguchi; Shunsuke Fujiwara; Keigo Kurata; Kohei Yamashita; Taihei Odagiri; Yoshiki Nakao; Naoaki Matsuki; Ken-ichiro Ono; Toshihiro Watari; Atsuhiko Hasegawa; Hajime Tsujimoto

2000-01-01

373

Seroprevalence of antibodies to canine influenza virus in dogs in Ontario  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study evaluating the seroprevalence of antibodies to canine influenza virus in dogs in Ontario was performed. The prevalence was 0.4% (1/225), and the only seropositive dog was a greyhound that originated in Florida. PMID:18978976

Kruth, Steven A.; Carman, Susy; Weese, J. Scott

2008-01-01

374

Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

375

Are the new IADPSG criteria for gestational diabetes useful in a country with a very high prevalence?  

PubMed

The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups released new recommendations on screening methods and diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes. The main objectives of the present study were to analyze characteristics of mothers who underwent the new screening test, and to assess the prevalence of gestational diabetes and related pregnancy complications such as the 5-minute Apgar score <7, in a urban maternity clinic in Djibouti. The effect of treating gestational diabetes was also evaluated. Totally, 231 mothers underwent the new screening test, and 106 were diagnosed as having gestational diabetes (45.9%). Mothers with gestational diabetes had an excess risk of low Apgar scores, even after adjustment for socio-economic and medical covariates, with an odds ratio of 6.34 (1.77-22.66), p value <0.005. Only 46.2% of mothers with gestational diabetes followed the recommendations regarding treatment. Among these patients, 18.6% of infants from untreated mothers had a 5-minute Apgar score <7, compared to 3.9% infants from treated mothers (p value?=?0.017). After adjustment, untreated mothers still had a high excess risk of low Apgar scores, although non-significant, with an odds ratio of 4.67 (0.78-27.87), p value?=?0.09. In conclusion, gestational diabetes is highly prevalent in Djibouti and is related to low Apgar scores. PMID:24805833

Minsart, Anne-Frederique; N'guyen, Thai-Son Pierre; Dimtsu, Hirut; Ratsimandresy, Rachel; Dada, Fouad; Ali Hadji, Rachid

2014-09-01

376

High Prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus in Brain Metastases of Patients with Primary Breast and Colorectal Cancers123  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BMs) develop by largely unknown mechanisms and cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with solid tumors. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is frequently detected in tumor tissue from patients with different cancers. Here, we aimed to determine the prevalence and potential prognostic role of HCMV in BMs. METHODS: We obtained archived samples of BMs from 41 patients with breast cancer and 37 with colorectal cancer and paired primary tumor tissues from 13 and 12 patients in each respective group. In addition, primary breast cancer tissues from 15 patients were included. HCMV proteins were detected with an immunohistochemical technique and Western blot. HCMV nucleic acids were detected with TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. RESULTS: HCMV proteins were abundantly expressed in 99% of BM specimens, and in 12 of 13 (92%) paired primary breast cancer specimens. All 12 paired colon cancer samples were positive for HCMV proteins. Protein staining was mainly confined to neoplastic cells. Western blot analysis detected an HCMV-IE reactive protein in 53% of breast cancer specimens, and PCR detected the presence of HCMV DNA and transcripts in 92% and 80% of samples, respectively. Patients with high-level expression of HCMV-IE proteins in their tumors had a shorter time to tumor progression and shorter overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCMV proteins and nucleic acids is very high in primary and metastatic tumors and may drive the development of metastatic brain tumors; therefore, this virus may represent a potential therapeutic target in metastatic cancer. PMID:25500083

Taher, Chato; Frisk, Gabriella; Fuentes, Stina; Religa, Piotr; Costa, Helena; Assinger, Alice; Vetvik, Katja Kannisto; Bukholm, Ida R.K.; Yaiw, Koon-Chu; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Bäcklund, Magnus; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Rahbar, Afsar

2014-01-01

377

High prevalence of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar-migrant workers: a study in Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in the Thai population is low, migration of Myanmar labor into Thailand may increase the incidence of bancroftian filariasis. Epidemiology of filariasis in Myanmars has not been precisely determined. By using microscopic examination, we found that the microfilarial rate in 654 Myanmar migrants working in Mae Sot, Tak province, was 4.4 per cent. The highest microfilarial rate was found in males aged 21-30 years (6.8%). History of mosquito bites was significantly correlated with microfilaremia. The majority of Myanmar migrants (55.5%) have been staying in Thailand 1-6 years; most (82.0%) have never been back to Myanmar. Seventy-nine per cent of infected Myanmars were from Moulmein (Maulamyine) city. Since these migrants carry the parasite with high infected rate and the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus is also prevalent in Thailand, Thai people are at high risk of acquiring this disease if good control and prevention strategies are not implemented. PMID:10511777

Triteeraprapab, S; Songtrus, J

1999-07-01

378

Dog and cat bites.  

PubMed

Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites. PMID:25250997

Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

2014-08-15

379

SERUM CYTOKERATIN 18 AND CYTOKINE ELEVATIONS SUGGEST A HIGH PREVALENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL LIVER DISEASE IN HIGHLY EXPOSED ELASTOMER/POLYMER WORKERS  

PubMed Central

Objective Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a novel serologic biomarker for occupational liver disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of CK18 elevation in elastomer/polymer workers exposed to acrylonitrile, 1,3 butadiene, and styrene. Methods 82 chemical workers were evaluated. CK18 was determined by ELISA and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by multi-analyte chemiluminescent detection. Results 39% (32 of 82) had elevated CK18 levels which were not explained by alcohol or obesity, except in potentially 4 cases. The pattern of CK18 elevation was consistent with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) in the majority of cases (78%). TNF?, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and PAI-1 were increased in these workers compared to those with normal CK18 levels. Conclusions These results suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease and TASH in elastomer/polymer workers with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21915069

Cave, Matt; Falkner, Keith Cameron; Henry, Latasha; Costello, Brittany; Gregory, Bonnie; McClain, Craig J.

2011-01-01

380

A longitudinal study on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in dogs during their first year of life  

PubMed Central

Background The primary aim of this study was to obtain more knowledge about the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in young dogs in Norway. The occurrence of these parasites was investigated in a longitudinal study by repeated faecal sampling of dogs between 1 and 12 months of age (litter samples and individual samples). The dogs were privately owned and from four large breeds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 290 dogs from 57 litters when the dogs were approximately 3, 4, 6, and 12 months old. In addition, pooled samples were collected from 43 of the litters, and from 42 of the mother bitches, when the puppies were approximately 1 and/or 2 months old. Methods The samples were purified by sucrose gradient flotation concentration and examined by immunofluorescent staining. Results 128 (44.1%) of the young dogs had one or more Cryptosporidium positive samples, whilst 60 (20.7%) dogs had one or more Giardia positive samples. The prevalence of the parasites varied with age. For Cryptosporidium, the individual prevalence was between 5.1% and 22.5%, with the highest level in dogs < 6 months old, and declining with age. For Giardia, the individual prevalence was between 6.0% and 11.4%, with the highest level in dogs > 6 months old, but the differences between age groups were not statistically significant. Significant differences in prevalences were f