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Sample records for dolescentes con diabetes

  1. Meal Planning for People with Diabetes, 2nd Edition = Planificacion de Comidas para Personas con Diabetes, 2 Edicion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This booklet provides information about diabetes and meal planning particularly designed for migrant individuals. The first section defines diabetes, explains different types of diabetes, lists results of uncontrolled diabetes, and describes the goals and components of a diabetic meal plan. The second section explains the exchange system of…

  2. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  3. Patient Self-Management of Diabetes Care in the Inpatient Setting: Con.

    PubMed

    Shah, Arti D; Rushakoff, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Self-management of diabetes by inpatients can be problematic. People with type 1 diabetes often prefer to self-manage their diabetes in the inpatient setting. We report the case of a patient admitted to the surgical service who was self-administering his home insulin, often without telling his nurse or physician. He was aiming for tight glycemic control, which resulted in life-threatening hypoglycemia. While patients can often self-manage their diabetes in the outpatient setting, inpatient management of diabetes is very different. Patients may not be familiar with common scenarios requiring adjustments of insulin therapy. Therefore, we recommend against self-management of diabetes in the hospital. However, the patients should be involved in discussions about management of their diabetes in the hospital to allay their concerns about changes made to their insulin regimens. An example of successful cooperative management is with use of protocols that allow continued use of insulin pumps in the hospital. PMID:25990293

  4. Sulfonylurea Treatment Before Genetic Testing in Neonatal Diabetes: Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, David; Bell, Charles D.; Hwang, Jessica L.; Dickens, Jazzmyne T.; Sima, Daniela I.; Felipe, Dania L.; Zimmer, Carrie A.; Davis, Ajuah O.; Kotlyarevska, Kateryna; Naylor, Rochelle N.; Philipson, Louis H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Diabetes in neonates nearly always has a monogenic etiology. Earlier sulfonylurea therapy can improve glycemic control and potential neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with KCNJ11 or ABCC8 mutations, the most common gene causes. Objective: Assess the risks and benefits of initiating sulfonylurea therapy before genetic testing results become available. Design, Setting, and Patients: Observational retrospective study of subjects with neonatal diabetes within the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry. Main Outcome Measures: Response to sulfonylurea (determined by whether insulin could be discontinued) and treatment side effects in those treated empirically. Results: A total of 154 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes before 6 months of age. A genetic diagnosis had been determined in 118 (77%), with 73 (47%) having a mutation in KCNJ11 or ABCC8. The median time from clinical diagnosis to genetic diagnosis was 10.4 weeks (range, 1.6 to 58.2 wk). In nine probands, an empiric sulfonylurea trial was initiated within 28 days of diabetes diagnosis. A genetic cause was subsequently found in eight cases, and insulin was discontinued within 14 days of sulfonylurea initiation in all of these cases. Conclusions: Sulfonylurea therapy appears to be safe and often successful in neonatal diabetes patients before genetic testing results are available; however, larger numbers of cases must be studied. Given the potential beneficial effect on neurodevelopmental outcome, glycemic control, and the current barriers to expeditious acquisition of genetic testing, an empiric inpatient trial of sulfonylurea can be considered. However, obtaining a genetic diagnosis remains imperative to inform long-term management and prognosis. PMID:25238204

  5. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetic retinopathy Islets of Langerhans Pancreas Insulin pump Type I diabetes Diabetic blood circulation in foot Food and insulin release ... Saunders; 2015:chap 39. Dungan KM. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de ... hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome Gestational diabetes Hardening of the ...

  6. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... glucose or pre-diabetes. These levels are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) test: Normal is less than 5.7%; prediabetes is 5.7 to 6.4%; and diabetes is 6.5% or higher. Oral ...

  7. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs when an imbalance ... to form on the ovaries. Women who have PCOS are at an increased risk of developing type ...

  8. DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Limited options for clinical management of patients with juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus call for a novel therapeutic paradigm. Two innovative studies support endoplasmic reticulum as an emerging target for combating both autoimmune and heritable forms of this disease. PMID:24393784

  9. Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.…

  10. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD. PMID:24268912

  11. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Diabetes Medicines What do diabetes medicines do? Over time, high levels of blood glucose, ... your diabetes medicines, food choices, and physical activity. Medicines for My Diabetes Ask your doctor what type ...

  12. Diabetes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes : American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  13. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Diabetic retinopathy affects men and ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Projections for Diabetic Retinopathy (2010- ...

  14. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetic Retinopathy What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Click for more information Can Cause Vision Loss, Blindness Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes and a leading ...

  15. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation MedlinePlus Alternate Language URL Diabetes Insipidus Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that ...

  16. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are listed ...

  17. Diabetic Nephropathy without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    López-Revuelta, Katia; Méndez Abreu, Angel A.; Gerrero-Márquez, Carmen; Stanescu, Ramona-Ionela; Martínez Marín, Maria Isabel; Pérez Fernández, Elia

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND), previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all the individualized data of previous publications except one series of attached data. DNND appears to be favored by recognized cardiovascular risk factors. However, in contrast with diabetes, apparently no factor alone has been demonstrated to be sufficient to develop DNND. Other factors not considered as genetic and environmental factors could play a role or interact. The most plausible hypothesis for the occurrence of DNND would be a special form of atherosclerotic or metabolic glomerulopathy than can occur with or without diabetes. The clinical spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors and histological findings support this theory, with hypertension as one of the characteristic clinical features. PMID:26239683

  18. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  19. Diabetic Dermopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Diabetic Dermopathy Information for adults A A A Brown, ... on the legs are typical in long-standing diabetics. Overview Diabetic dermopathy, also known as shin spots ...

  20. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  1. Gestational diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar ( diabetes ) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. ... woman's blood. You are at greater risk for gestational diabetes if you: Are older than 25 when you ...

  2. Monogenic Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... some children with monogenic diabetes are misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes and are given insulin. When correctly diagnosed, some of these children can take diabetes pills instead, with even better ...

  3. Diabetic Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused ...

  4. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of sickness and death in people with diabetes. It can ...

  5. Type 2 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease. Alternative Names Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes - type 2; Adult-onset diabetes Images Diabetes and exercise Diabetic emergency supplies Starchy foods Low blood sugar symptoms ...

  6. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  7. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Types of Diabetes Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of ... to take care of your diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is when your blood glucose, also called ...

  8. Diabetes - tests and checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Instructions ACE inhibitors Diabetes and exercise Diabetes - eye care Diabetes - foot ulcers Diabetes - keeping active Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke ...

  9. Type 1 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection - adults Patient Instructions Diabetes and exercise Diabetes - eye care Diabetes - foot ulcers Diabetes - keeping active Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke ...

  10. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This ... is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high ...

  11. Diabetes Complications

    MedlinePlus

    If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can cause problems with other body ... as your kidneys, nerves, feet, and eyes. Having diabetes can also put you at a higher risk ...

  12. Gestational diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar ( diabetes ) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. ... 9 pounds or had a birth defect Have high blood pressure Have too much amniotic fluid Have ...

  13. [Diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Bosi, E

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Diabetes is a serious health concern. The number of cases of diabetes mellitus is estimated to grow at a rate of 50% between 2000 and 2010. There are several types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and other specific types of diabetes. Beta cell dysfunction plays a key role in the physiopathology of diabetes, even when insulin resistance, which is often present in several diabetes-related diseases, is considered among the causes of hyperglycemic type 2 diabetes. The prolonged hyperglycemia that is peculiar to all kind of diabetes has long term complications on several organs and systems. The diagnosis of diabetes is based on the evaluation of glucose plasma levels performed under fasting conditions or two hours after the oral ingestion of 75 grams of glucose. Currently, achieving and maintaining normal plasma levels of glucose are the aims of therapy for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Particularly, the therapy for type 1 diabetes is based on the administration of insulin, whereas that of type 2 diabetes changes over the time: diet and physical activity are the first treatments; oral hypoglycemic drugs are used as a second therapeutic step; and the administration of insulin is the last therapeutic option. The principal therapeutic innovation of the past ten years is represented by the tight and flexible control of glucose plasma level obtained by using the insulin analogues produced by recombinant DNA technology. PMID:14523905

  14. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    MedlinePlus

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus; NDI ... of very dilute urine. NDI is rare. Congenital diabetes insipidus is present at birth. It is a ...

  15. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    MedlinePlus

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus ... be removed and returned to the blood. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidney tubules do ...

  16. Diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Omar; Al-Sunni, Ahmed; Khavandi, Kaivan; Khavandi, Ali; Withers, Sarah; Greenstein, Adam; Heagerty, Anthony M.; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a distinct primary disease process, independent of coronary artery disease, which leads to heart failure in diabetic patients. Epidemiological and clinical trial data have confirmed the greater incidence and prevalence of heart failure in diabetes. Novel echocardiographic and MR (magnetic resonance) techniques have enabled a more accurate means of phenotyping diabetic cardiomyopathy. Experimental models of diabetes have provided a range of novel molecular targets for this condition, but none have been substantiated in humans. Similarly, although ultrastructural pathology of the microvessels and cardiomyocytes is well described in animal models, studies in humans are small and limited to light microscopy. With regard to treatment, recent data with thiazoledinediones has generated much controversy in terms of the cardiac safety of both these and other drugs currently in use and under development. Clinical trials are urgently required to establish the efficacy of currently available agents for heart failure, as well as novel therapies in patients specifically with diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19364331

  17. MedlinePlus: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent Diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program) - PDF My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker (National Diabetes Education Program) - PDF Small Steps, Big Rewards: Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes (National Diabetes ...

  18. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, ... in children, teenagers or young adults. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin ...

  19. Genetics of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  20. Paediatric diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes does not spare any section of society, and its prevalence in the paediatric and adolescent age group is rising. This review highlights the etiological and clinical features of childhood diabetes, including secular changes in epidemiology. It discusses the aspects of non pharmacological and pharmacological therapy which are unique to the paediatric age group, and explores current use of novel therapeutic modalities. The article calls for modulation of the psychological environment of the child with diabetes, to help improve his or her quality of life, and sensitizes physicians to take proactive, affirmative action to address the special needs of children with type1 diabetes. PMID:24601207

  1. Diabetes Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Jonathan D; Liu, Yifen; Rao-Balakrishna, Prasanna; Malik, Rayaz A; Soran, Handrean

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with a considerably increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Intensive glycemic control has essentially failed to significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials. Dyslipidemia is common in diabetes and there is strong evidence that cholesterol lowering improves cardiovascular outcomes, even in patients with apparently unremarkable lipid profiles. Here, the authors review the pathophysiology and implications of the alterations in lipoproteins observed in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the effect of medications commonly used in the management of diabetes on the lipid profile, the evidence for lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions, and national and international recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes. PMID:27056202

  2. Irradiated lymphocytes do not adoptively transfer diabetes or prevent spontaneous disease in the BB/W rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mordes, J.P.; Handler, E.S.; Like, A.A.; Nakano, K.; Rossini, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    Diabetes in the BB/W rat is autoimmune in origin, and lymphocytes from acutely diabetic animals activated by concanavalin A (con A) induce the disease in adoptive recipients. We report that irradiation of these cells prevents adoptive transfer of diabetes. Through 60 days of age, diabetes occurred in none of 47 BB/W rats given irradiated con A cells, but in 21 of 36 (58%) given nonirradiated cells. Between 60 and 130 days of age, however, spontaneous diabetes occurred in 18 of 34 untreated control rats (53%) and 16 of 32 rats (50%) given two injections of irradiated con A activated spleen cells. We conclude that irradiation prevents adoptive transfer of BB/W rat diabetes and that irradiated con A activated lymphocytes from acutely diabetic rats do not protect against spontaneous disease in susceptible recipients.

  3. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... without insulin injections). Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the ... Diabetes / Types of Diabetes / Preventing Diabetes / Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Fall 2006 Issue: Volume 1 Number 1 Page ...

  4. Diabetic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Russell, James W.; Zilliox, Lindsay A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article provides an overview for understanding the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management of diabetic neuropathy. Recent Findings: New information about the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy continues to emerge, which will lead to identifying new drug targets. It is clear that the natural history of diabetic neuropathy is changing and the rate of progression is slowing. This is likely because of a combination of earlier diagnosis, improved glycemic management, and improved control of related complications such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Early diagnosis is critical, and small fiber neuropathy or subclinical diabetic neuropathy may be reversed or significantly improved with appropriate intervention. The American Academy of Neurology recently published guidelines for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Summary: Diabetic neuropathy is common and can present with varied clinical presentations discussed in this article. Although treatment currently focuses on pain management, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension should be managed with diet, exercise, and medications. Class I or II clinical studies indicate that pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, and opioids are effective in the management of diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:25299279

  5. Diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tien Y; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Larsen, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a major cause of vision loss in middle-aged and elderly people. One-third of people with diabetes have DR. Severe stages of DR include proliferative DR, caused by the abnormal growth of new retinal blood vessels, and diabetic macular oedema, in which there is exudation and oedema in the central part of the retina. DR is strongly associated with a prolonged duration of diabetes, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. It is traditionally regarded as a microvascular disease, but retinal neurodegeneration is also involved. Complex interrelated pathophysiological mechanisms triggered by hyperglycaemia underlie the development of DR. These mechanisms include genetic and epigenetic factors, increased production of free radicals, advanced glycosylation end products, inflammatory factors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Optimal control of blood glucose and blood pressure in individuals with diabetes remains the cornerstone for preventing the development and arresting the progression of DR. Anti-VEGF therapy is currently indicated for diabetic macular oedema associated with vision loss, whereas laser photocoagulation prevents severe vision loss in eyes with proliferative DR. These measures, together with increasing public awareness and access to regular screening for DR with retinal photography, and the development of new treatments to address early disease stages, will lead to better outcomes and prevent blindness for patients with DR. PMID:27159554

  6. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar level (hypoglycemia), which can lead to insulin shock. Not enough insulin can cause a high level ... can cause a diabetic coma. Symptoms of insulin shock include: Weakness, drowsiness Rapid pulse Fast breathing Pale, ...

  7. Diabetic Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by a veterinarian. Because older dogs and cats are more likely to develop age-related diseases ... cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur include hind leg ...

  8. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This cycle can keep you from sleeping or even make you wet the bed. Your body produces lots of urine that is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which ...

  9. Immunizations - diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  10. Preventing Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a reasonable body weight —Losing even a few pounds can help reduce your risk of developing type ... 2 diabetes. For example, if you weigh 200 pounds, losing only 10 pounds could make a difference. ...

  11. Diabetic Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... to high blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels. Healthy eating helps keep your blood sugar in your target ... medicines, lifestyle, and other health problems you have. Healthy diabetic eating includes Limiting foods that are high in sugar ...

  12. Diabetic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone testing may be used in type 1 diabetes to screen for early ketoacidosis. The ketones test is usually done using a urine sample or a blood sample . Ketone testing is usually done when DKA is ...

  13. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye, including the retina, macula, lens and the optic nerve. Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... a group of diseases that damage the eye’s optic nerve—the bundle of nerve fibers that connects ...

  14. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... when this precise system for regulating the kidneys’ handling of fluids is disrupted. What are the types of diabetes insipidus? Central DI The most common form of serious DI, central DI, results from damage to the pitu itary gland, which ...

  15. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. When ... pregnant women in the United States get gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens for the ...

  16. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 One of the more ... thereafter.) This content was last reviewed January 2016. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  17. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy ... provider if you develop any symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ... al. Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the ...

  18. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  19. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  20. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  1. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 33. Kim PJ, Steinberg JS. Complications of the diabetic foot. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2013;42:833-847. PMID: 24286952 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24286952 . Read More Diabetes Diabetes and nerve damage Leg or foot amputation Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes and ...

  2. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePlus

    Tips for Teens with Diabetes What is Diabetes? National Diabetes Education Program Learn about diabetes and how to manage it. styaoyfuyodarooiatumdrbaTecebadhhtlkeoieoecsoaii… cncdlteehams, gyr, ealauwbkncoeeedofishgayceeohch. attue, ...

  3. Preventing Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes. For example, if you weigh 200 pounds, losing only 10 pounds could make a difference. Avoid crash diets. Instead, eat less of the foods you usually have. Limit the amount of fat you eat. Increase your physical activity. Aim for ...

  4. [Diabetic maculopathy].

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, C; Kernt, M; Wolf, A

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is the result of multifactorial and complex alterations of the retinal capillaries in association with diabetes mellitus and is divided into two forms, ischemic maculopathy and diabetic macular edema. Diabetic macular edema is the leading cause of blindness among people of working age. The functional and morphological results of intravitreal pharmacotherapy in cases of fovea-involving macular edema using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors such as ranibizumab and aflibercept obtained in large randomized clinical trials are excellent and are superior to results obtained with focal or grid laser coagulation alone. Steroids including dexamethasone and fluocinolone implants represent approved alternatives, although flucinolone is considered a second-line therapy in refractory and chronic cases. VEGF inhibitors can be used in different treatment strategies such as PRN and treat and extend strategies. Focal laser photocoagulation remains the gold standard for macular edema not involving the fovea (and therefore usually good visual acuity). Laser is also still indicated as a panretinal photocoagulation of peripheral retinal ischemic areas in order to prevent neovascular complications. It remains to be proven whether panretinal photocoagulation can have an effect on the treatment intervals of intravitreal pharmacotherapy, too. Surgical treatments such as vitrectomy are today limited to cases of macular edema with concomitant obvious tractional pathologies at the vitreoretinal interface. PMID:26420681

  5. Teen Diabetes Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genes also appear to interact with things like viruses and toxins in the environment to cause type 1 diabetes. Read More "Facing Diabetes" Articles Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know / "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." / "Stop Diabetes Now!" / "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing ...

  6. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... attue, ivlrtctheaky, ke Check out more about diabetes » Take Care of Your Diabetes! What is diabetes? Diabetes means ... org What do I need to do to take care of my diabetes? The key to taking care ...

  7. "Diabetes Has Instant Consequences..."

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes has instant consequences…" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... you want to chuck it all. But Diabetes has instant consequences. You learn to be responsible pretty ...

  8. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  9. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... diabetes management. Its aim is to improve diabetic teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict ...

  10. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  11. Tuberculosis and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    TUBERCULOSIS www.who.int/tb & DIABETES THE DUAL EPIDEMIC OF TB AND DIABETES DEADLY LINKAGES  People with ... higher risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis.  Diabetes triples a person’s risk of developing TB. ...

  12. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Text Size Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  13. Women and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... resources to help you talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy- ... resources to help you talk to your health care provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. ...

  14. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  15. Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... swelling (cerebral edema) Increased blood acid level ( lactic acidosis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional This condition ... Diabetic ketoacidosis Heart attack Heart failure - overview Lactic acidosis Stroke Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes - what ...

  16. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...

  17. Pregnancy Complications: Preexisting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preexisting diabetes Preexisting diabetes E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... and your baby are healthy. What is preexisting diabetes? About 9 out of 100 women (9 percent) ...

  18. Bronze diabetes.

    PubMed

    L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; Yadav, Charu; M S, Rukmini; Kamath, Nutan

    2015-04-01

    Thalassemia is a group of disorders characterized by deficient production of the β-globin sub unit of hemoglobin. The mandatory blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia to maintain adequate erythrocyte levels, leads to iron overload. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with thalassemia varies from 6 to 14%. We here by present a known case of thalassemia major in an 18 year old boy. He was diagnosed with thalassemia before the age of one year and is on regular blood transfusion every two weeks since then. The repeated blood transfusion is one of the common causes for haemochromatosis. Iron overload initially leads to glucose abnormalities such as insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which is followed by impaired secretion of insulin. Diagnosed as a case of bronze diabetes, this patient is on insulin therapy for the last two years. Currently the patient is on iron chelation therapy at Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. PMID:26023548

  19. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Having diabetes or prediabetes ... can help prevent future health problems. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disorder of metabolismthe way our ...

  20. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  1. Diabetes Update

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clayton; Hunt, John

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the new classification of diabetes mellitus (and other categories of glucose intolerance) and presents some clinically important aspects of the new insulins. The new classification promises to bring to the field considerable uniformity, previously lacking. The five clinical classes are: Type I (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM), Type II (non-insulin-dependent, NIDDM), “other types”, gestational diabetes (GDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The two statistical risk classes are: previous abnormality of glucose tolerance (Prev AGT) and potential abnormality of glucose tolerance (Pot AGT). These are mutually exclusive classes. Criteria recommended for use by clinicians and researchers are presented in detail, as well as information on the oral glucose test and normal glucose tolerance. Particular attention is drawn to the differences in glucose metabolism (tolerance) characteristics in non-pregnant adults, children and pregnant females. The new insulins are so called because of increased purity achieved by new purification methods. They are not new formulations or types of insulin. Contamination of insulin preparations by other hormones or compounds (e.g. glucagon, pro-insulin, pancreatic polypeptide) is now at a very low level. PMID:21289788

  2. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    MedlinePlus

    ... For More Information American Diabetes Association JDRF MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of ...

  3. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and MODY Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and MODY The most common forms of ... is inherited from each parent. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations ...

  4. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: About Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease. It means that one's blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Having too much glucose in a person's blood is not healthy. This paper offers tips for managing diabetes.

  5. Weight and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

  6. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs over time in people with diabetes. This type of kidney disease is called diabetic nephropathy. Causes Each kidney is made of hundreds ... ACE inhibitors Diabetes - what to ask your doctor - type 2 Update Date ... Diabetic Kidney Problems Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  7. Management of Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Raymond Azman

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of neuropathy worldwide. Diabetic neuropathy (DN) develops in about 4–10% of diabetic patients after 5 years and in 15% after 20 years. Four main mechanisms have been postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of DN. Diabetic neuropathy can be divided into symmetrical and asymmetrical neuropathies. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy (DAN) parallels the severity of DSN, and affects primarily the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and integumentary systems. The cornerstone of treatment of diabetic neuropathy is optimization of glycaemic control. Future treatments for diabetic neuropathy should address the underlying pathogenesis. PMID:23386794

  8. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  9. MedlinePlus: Diabetic Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Starchy Vegetables (American Diabetes Association) Also in Spanish Managing Diabetes: Looking Beyond Carbs (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Non-Starchy Vegetables (American Diabetes Association) ...

  10. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Nentwich, Martin M; Ulbig, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population. In the next 15 years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to increase significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 million people in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to be suffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence 7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people with diabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts for an increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e., exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema. PMID:25897358

  11. Diabetes Mellitus has no Significant Influence on the Prevalence of Antenatal Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Gundela, Swarnalatha; Avula, Renuka Devi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a known risk factor for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). However, the influence of diabetes on antenatal ASB was previously not addressed. Aim The prevalence of ASB, effect of risk factors and type of isolates and susceptibility patterns were studied in diabetic pregnancy. Materials and Methods A total of 311 pregnant women were recruited for this study of which 103 were diabetic and 208 non-diabetic. A clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and cultured. The isolates were identified and antibiotic sensitivity was studied. The data was analysed by Chi-square test. Results The prevalence of ASB in diabetic pregnancy was 38.83% (40/103; 95% CI: 23.73 - 53.94) and in non-diabetic pregnancy was 37.98% (79/208; CI: 27.28- 48.68). The odds ratio was not significant 1.0225 (95% CU: 0.65 – 1.599; p=0.922) and associated factors such as age and gestational period had no effect. The major isolates were Escherichia coli (25.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.5%), Coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS) (20.00%), and Klebsiella pneumonia (20.00%) in diabetic pregnancy and CONS (31.7%), E.coli (24.0%) and K.pneumonia (16.5%) in non-diabetic pregnancy. The isolates of diabetic pregnancy showed highest susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (56.4%), gentamicin (38.5%) and cotrimoxazole (38.5%) whereas that of non-diabetic pregnancy to gentamicin (43.0%), azithromycin (32.9%) and norfloxacin (30.4). There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in the type and susceptibly of the isolates between diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancy. Conclusion Diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of ASB in diabetic pregnancy both in terms of isolates and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. PMID:27190802

  12. Strong diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, James; Anwar, Aresh

    2009-01-01

    The case of a 36-year-old male professional bodybuilder is reported. He presented to the accident and emergency department with right upper quadrant pain. This was on the background of a 15-year history of anabolic steroid and growth hormone misuse. Examination revealed mild hepatomegaly and a random blood sugar of 30.2 mmol/l. There was no evidence of ketonuria or acidosis. Biochemical evidence of hepatitis was found, and the patient was in acute renal failure. He was given a sliding scale of insulin and an intravenous infusion of crystalloid. The hepatitis and hyperglycaemia settled with conservative treatment. It is believed that this is the first reported case of frank diabetes precipitated by supraphysiological recreational growth hormone misuse. PMID:21686671

  13. Strong diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, James; Anwar, Aresh

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 36‐year‐old male professional bodybuilder is reported. He presented to the accident and emergency department with right upper quadrant pain. This was on the background of a 15‐year history of anabolic steroid and growth hormone misuse. Examination revealed mild hepatomegaly and a random blood sugar of 30.2 mmol/l. There was no evidence of ketonuria or acidosis. Biochemical evidence of hepatitis was found, and the patient was in acute renal failure. He was given a sliding scale of insulin and an intravenous infusion of crystalloid. The hepatitis and hyperglycaemia settled with conservative treatment. It is believed that this is the first reported case of frank diabetes precipitated by supraphysiological recreational growth hormone misuse. PMID:17324962

  14. Contraception and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Afsana, Faria

    2016-09-01

    Contraception for women with diabetes mellitus is an important issue mainly as the pregnancy outcome depends on glycaemic control before conception among women with diabetes. Type of diabetes as type 1 or type 2 Diabetes, women with history of gestational diabetes and breast feeding diabetic mothers may be a consideration in selecting a contraceptive .On the other hand presence of diabetic complications is a significant determinant. Different methods of contraception as oral, injectable, implant, intrauterine devices are available. Patient\\'s choice and health issues both should be considered while prescribing a contraceptive to a woman with diabetes. Emergency contraception is sometimes required in situations where there is chance of contraceptive failure. This review article highlights different contraceptive methods, their use and limitations and will guide to make a rational choice for a woman with diabetes. PMID:27582166

  15. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes. PMID:25817504

  16. Flaxseed and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kailash; Dhar, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Flaxseed contains 32% to 45% of its mass as oil of which 51% to 55% is α-linolenic acid. Flax lignan complex and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) have been isolated from flaxseed. Flaxseed and its components have antioxidant, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. These are mostly due to the SDG content. Oxidative stress has been implicated in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Flaxseed, flaxseed oil and flax lignan complex have not been investigated as to whether they reduce the incidence of diabetes and/or delay the development of diabetes. However, their effects on serum glucose have been studied. Flaxseed and flax lignan complex improve glycemic control. Animal models of type I diabetes involving streptozotocin administration or utilizing Bio-Breed diabetic (BBdp) prone rats are associated with oxidative stress. SDG treatment reduced the incidence of diabetes using serum glucose levels by 75% in the streptozotocin model of diabetes and by 72% in the BBdp rat model of diabetes. These reductions in development of diabetes were associated with decreases in oxidative stress measured by serum and pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA). SDG delays the development of diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat model of type 2 diabetes and this effect was associated with a reduction in serum MDA and glycated haemoglobin A1C. The data suggest that SDG may have a great potential for reducing the incidence of type 1 diabetes and delaying the development of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26561065

  17. Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Diabetes Educators American Diabetes Association JDRF MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes Page Content On this page: What ...

  18. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll- ...

  19. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo. ...

  20. Diabetes in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But ... children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin ...

  1. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes ... Volunteer Center American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association Alert Day® Become a Member Advocacy Home Take Action ...

  2. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Teens > Diabetes: ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  3. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  4. Diabetes in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes ...

  5. How to Treat Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Listen En Español How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes – Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

  6. Diabetes Device Interoperability for Improved Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Alain D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and technological advancements have led to the increasing availability and use of sophisticated devices for diabetes management, with corresponding improvements in public health. These devices are often capable of sharing data with a few other specific devices but are generally not broadly interoperable; they cannot work together with a wide variety of other devices. As a result of limited interoperability, benefits of modern diabetes devices and potential for development of innovative new diabetes technologies are not being fully realized. Here we discuss diabetes device interoperability in general, then focus on 4 examples that show how diabetes management could benefit from enhanced interoperability: remote monitoring and data sharing, integrating data from multiple devices to better inform diabetes management strategies, device consolidation, and artificial pancreas development. PMID:26178738

  7. Diabetic mastopathy in type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Jeffrey S H; Wang, Teh Y; Lin, Christopher K Z

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy can mimic cancer. We report 2 cases of diabetic mastopathy in patients with long-standing type II diabetes. One was insulin-dependent, and the other had never been treated with insulin. These 2 patients had classical acoustical shadow on ultrasonograms. Breast core biopsies showed constellations of morphological features resembling diabetic mastopathy, including sclerotic changes of the fibrous stroma with keloid-like collagen fibers, few epithelioid fibroblasts, perivascular and interlobular mononuclear cell infiltrates, and focal atrophic changes of the ductal-lobular units. Both patients were free of malignancy at 3 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively. There are limited data on diabetic mastopathy in insulin-naive type II diabetes mellitus patients. Better awareness of this entity and its sonographic features may allow more patients to be spared from excisional biopsy. PMID:15660177

  8. An overview of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Paula

    2016-07-13

    Healthcare professionals in all settings increasingly encounter people with diabetes. Suboptimal control of diabetes may have harmful effects on multiple systems in the body and can result in life-changing and life-threatening complications. Therefore, it is crucial that all healthcare professionals have an understanding of diabetes. This article considers the increase in people developing diabetes worldwide. It defines type 1 and type 2 diabetes and discusses the associated pathophysiology and predisposing factors. The article outlines the basis for the development of the typical signs and symptoms associated with high blood glucose levels. Current guidelines for diagnosing a person with diabetes are considered. PMID:27406520

  9. [Diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, Iván

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide, the cases of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) has doubled in the last two decades. In the same period, obesity rates have triplicated, mainly because of the increase in the caloric intake and physical inactivity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 6 billion people consume cow´s milk and dairy products. By far, this amount exceeds the number o patients suffering from DM2. The increased consumption of highly caloric beverages including whole cow´s milk has incited several countries to publish recommendations on and encourage the intake of low fat milk and non-fat or reduced fat dairy products intake. Because of the multifactorial basis of DM2 and the controversial evidence regarding the relationship between cow's milk consumption and DM2 development, it is difficult to establish an optimal amount of milk per day for a good health, with no side effects. It is necessary to inform the general population on the nutritional value and health benefits of cow's milk. PMID:27603888

  10. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  11. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin ... eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young ...

  12. Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Boykin has diabetes. She has suffered from heart disease and required bypass surgery because she was unaware of the link between diabetes and heart disease. Judith Fradkin, M.D.: What most people don' ...

  13. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  14. Causes of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... rise, leading to prediabetes or diabetes. Abnormal Glucose Production by the Liver In some people with diabetes, an abnormal increase in glucose production by the liver also contributes to high blood ...

  15. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  16. Diabetes Health Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor  What you need to know about diabetic retinopathy From Medline Plus  Interactive tutorial on eye disease, diabetes, retinopathy prevention and treatment Foot Problems From the CDC  Take ...

  17. Adrenomedullin and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hoi Kin; Tang, Fai; Cheung, Tsang Tommy; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2014-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone widely expressed in different tissues, especially in the vasculature. Apart from its vasodilatatory and hypotensive effect, it plays multiple roles in the regulation of hormonal secretion, glucose metabolism and inflammatory response. ADM regulates insulin balance and may participate in the development of diabetes. The plasma level of ADM is increased in people with diabetes, while in healthy individuals the plasma ADM concentration remains low. Plasma ADM levels are further increased in patients with diabetic complications. In type 1 diabetes, plasma ADM level is correlated with renal failure and retinopathy, while in type 2 diabetes its level is linked with a wider range of complications. The elevation of ADM level in diabetes may be due to hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress and endothelial injury. At the same time, a rise in plasma ADM level can trigger the onset of diabetes. Strategies to reduce ADM level should be explored so as to reduce diabetic complications. PMID:24936257

  18. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

  19. Adrenomedullin and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Kin; Tang, Fai; Cheung, Tsang Tommy; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2014-06-15

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone widely expressed in different tissues, especially in the vasculature. Apart from its vasodilatatory and hypotensive effect, it plays multiple roles in the regulation of hormonal secretion, glucose metabolism and inflammatory response. ADM regulates insulin balance and may participate in the development of diabetes. The plasma level of ADM is increased in people with diabetes, while in healthy individuals the plasma ADM concentration remains low. Plasma ADM levels are further increased in patients with diabetic complications. In type 1 diabetes, plasma ADM level is correlated with renal failure and retinopathy, while in type 2 diabetes its level is linked with a wider range of complications. The elevation of ADM level in diabetes may be due to hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress and endothelial injury. At the same time, a rise in plasma ADM level can trigger the onset of diabetes. Strategies to reduce ADM level should be explored so as to reduce diabetic complications. PMID:24936257

  20. Hyperglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child's age. Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels A major goal in controlling diabetes is to ... be unusually tired. Checking for High Blood Sugar Levels As part of the diabetes management plan, you' ...

  1. Teen Diabetes Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teens with diabetes can eat sugar, sweets, and desserts. True False Carbs that have a lot of ... fruits and vegetables Sweetened fruit drinks Sweets and desserts If you have diabetes, you should: Get 60 ...

  2. Tight Diabetes Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Keeping your blood glucose levels as close ... and syringes, than before. What About Type 2 Diabetes? The DCCT studied only people with type 1 ...

  3. Diabetes and bone health.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Marianna; Bahtiyar, Gül; Banerji, Mary Ann; Sacerdote, Alan S

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes especially type 2 diabetes worldwide is indisputable. Diabetics suffer increased morbidity and mortality, compared to their non-diabetic counterparts, not only because of vascular complications, but also because of an increased fracture incidence. Both types 1 and 2 diabetes and some medications used to treat it are associated with osteoporotic fractures. The responsible mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. In this review, we evaluate the role of glycemic control in bone health, and the effect of anti-diabetic medications such as thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1 agonists. In addition, we examine the possible role of insulin and metformin as anabolic agents for bone. Lastly, we identify the current and future screening tools that help evaluate bone health in diabetics and their limitations. In this way we can offer individualized treatment, to the at-risk diabetic population. PMID:23628280

  4. Diabetes mellitus in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2012-02-01

    Fifty years ago type 2 diabetes mellitus was very rare in Greenland. Recent epidemiological studies have found a high prevalence of diabetes among Greenlanders comparable to levels among Inuit populations in Canada and Alaska. In 2008 a national diabetes programme was implemented aiming to improve the care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Greenland based on a donation from Novo Nordisk A/S to the national health care service. A diabetes concept based on national guidelines, systematized recording in an electronically medical record and feedback to the clinics were used to improve the diabetes care. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate if implementation of a diabetes programme in Greenland would have a measurable effect on the quality in diabetes care including diagnostic activity and screening for diabetic complications. Two observational and cross sectional studies were performed in Greenland 2008 and 2010 before and after implementation of the diabetes programme. The medical records of patients with diabetes were reviewed. The prevalence was estimated using the whole adult population in Greenland as background population. The quality of the diabetes care was monitored by 12 health care indicators. The prevalence of diagnosed cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus among Greenlanders has increased over a period of two years. In the same period a significant increase in the quality of care in diabetes in Greenland has been documented concerning all process-of-care indicators. Significantly regional variation in the diabetes care was demonstrated in 2008. The quality in the diabetes care was best in clinics with a database. In 2010 a more homogenate quality among the clinics in the diabetes care was demonstrated. These effects could be a result of the diabetes programme implanted in between the two observations. In conclusion, improved quality in the diabetes care along with an increasing prevalence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus has been

  5. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... number, 1-800-DIABETES. Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight ... aged 60 and older, who can reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 50 percent over 10 years — ...

  6. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  7. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  8. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training (CST) as a part of routine diabetes management. Its aim is to improve diabetic teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it comes to managing food choices, making ...

  9. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Some people also need ...

  10. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  11. The Student with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Samuel M.; Hoover, Joan

    1981-01-01

    Since nearly one million students suffer from diabetes, most teachers are likely to have a diabetic child in class at some time. Though most diabetic children are not likely to require an insulin injection during the day, it is necessary that every teacher be aware of the occasional problems which might arise. (JN)

  12. Medicines for Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day and night. Another way kids keep blood sugar under control is by following their doctor's advice on eating ... Team When Blood Sugar Is Too High When Blood Sugar Is Too Low Meal Plans: What Kids With Diabetes Need to Know Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Diabetes: What's True and False? ...

  13. [Insulin therapy of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Lechleitner, Monika; Roden, Michael; Weitgasser, Raimund; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Schernthaner, Guntram; Prager, Rudolf; Wascher, Thomas C

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Thus, reaching treatment targets with regard to control of glycemia is a central goal in the therapy of diabetic patients. The present article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the practical use of insulin according to current scientific evidence and clinical studies. PMID:27052221

  14. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... be coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes by itself puts you at risk for heart disease. Other risk factors include Family history of heart disease Carrying extra ... Some people who have diabetic heart disease have no signs or symptoms of ...

  15. Diabetic Wound Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feet Footwear & Products Products by Company Products by Type Foot Health Awareness Diabetes Awareness What is a Podiatrist? Today's Podiatrist Print Share RSS Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Diabetic Wound Care What is a Diabetic Foot Ulcer? ...

  16. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  17. Diabetes insipidus: The other diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Jain, Sunil M; Sethi, Bipin; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Thomas, Nihal; Unnikrishnan, A G; Thakkar, Piya Ballani; Malve, Harshad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a hereditary or acquired condition which disrupts normal life of persons with the condition; disruption is due to increased thirst and passing of large volumes of urine, even at night. A systematic search of literature for DI was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Central DI due to impaired secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) could result from traumatic brain injury, surgery, or tumors whereas nephrogenic DI due to failure of the kidney to respond to AVP is usually inherited. The earliest treatment was posterior pituitary extracts containing vasopressin and oxytocin. The synthetic analog of vasopressin, desmopressin has several benefits over vasopressin. Desmopressin was initially available as intranasal preparation, but now the oral tablet and melt formulations have gained significance, with benefits such as ease of administration and stability at room temperature. Other molecules used for treatment include chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, thiazide diuretics, indapamide, clofibrate, indomethacin, and amiloride. However, desmopressin remains the most widely used drug for the treatment of DI. This review covers the physiology of water balance, causes of DI and various treatment modalities available, with a special focus on desmopressin. PMID:26904464

  18. Diabetes insipidus: The other diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Jain, Sunil M.; Sethi, Bipin; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Thomas, Nihal; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Thakkar, Piya Ballani; Malve, Harshad

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a hereditary or acquired condition which disrupts normal life of persons with the condition; disruption is due to increased thirst and passing of large volumes of urine, even at night. A systematic search of literature for DI was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Central DI due to impaired secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) could result from traumatic brain injury, surgery, or tumors whereas nephrogenic DI due to failure of the kidney to respond to AVP is usually inherited. The earliest treatment was posterior pituitary extracts containing vasopressin and oxytocin. The synthetic analog of vasopressin, desmopressin has several benefits over vasopressin. Desmopressin was initially available as intranasal preparation, but now the oral tablet and melt formulations have gained significance, with benefits such as ease of administration and stability at room temperature. Other molecules used for treatment include chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, thiazide diuretics, indapamide, clofibrate, indomethacin, and amiloride. However, desmopressin remains the most widely used drug for the treatment of DI. This review covers the physiology of water balance, causes of DI and various treatment modalities available, with a special focus on desmopressin. PMID:26904464

  19. [Diabetic mastopathy in diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Membrilla, Estela; Jimeno, Mireya; Martínez, Miguel; Maria Corominas, Josep; Solsona, Jordi; Grande, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy is a little known entity and can easily be mistaken for breast carcinoma. This entity has mainly been described in patients with diabetes type 1 and, to a much lesser extent, in those with other endocrine disorders. We describe a case of diabetic mastopathy associated with diabetes mellitus type 2, which showed a rapid clinical course. Lack of awareness of this entity can lead to inappropriate management. Because there are no specific histological or clinical features for diabetic mastopathy, patients may receive an incorrect diagnosis or undergo unnecessary investigations. A high index of suspicion is required to reach a correct diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment. The results of diagnostic tests are non-specific and the key to diagnosis is core needle biopsy. PMID:19627708

  20. Year in diabetes 2012: The diabetes tsunami.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, R; Jastreboff, A M

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes affects more than 300 million individuals globally, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes continue to escalate with the force of an approaching tsunami, it is imperative that we better define the biological mechanisms causing both obesity and diabetes and identify optimal prevention and treatment strategies that will enable a healthier environment and calmer waters. New guidelines from the American Diabetes Association/European Association of the Study of Diabetes and The Endocrine Society encourage individualized care for each patient with diabetes, both in the outpatient and inpatient setting. Recent data suggest that restoration of normal glucose metabolism in people with prediabetes may delay progression to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, several large clinical trials have underscored the limitations of current treatment options once T2DM has developed, particularly in obese children with the disease. Prospects for reversing new-onset type 1 diabetes also appear limited, although recent clinical trials indicate that immunotherapy can delay the loss of β-cell function, suggesting potential benefits if treatment is initiated earlier. Research demonstrating a role for the central nervous system in the development of obesity and T2DM, the identification of a new hormone that simulates some of the benefits of exercise, and the development of new β-cell imaging techniques may provide novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of early diabetes detection for optimization of interventions. Today's message is that a diabetes tsunami is imminent, and the only way to minimize the damage is to create an early warning system and improve interventions to protect those in its path. PMID:23185035

  1. Diabetes, Dementia and Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Meneilly, Graydon S; Tessier, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    We are experiencing an epidemic of both diabetes and dementia among older adults in this country. The risk for dementia appears to be increased in patients with diabetes, and patients with dementia and diabetes appear to be at greater risk for severe hypoglycemia. In addition, there may be an increased risk for developing dementia by older patients with diabetes who have had episodes of severe hypoglycemia, although this issue is controversial. In this article, we review the factors that contribute to the increased risk for dementia in older adults with diabetes and outline the complex relationships between hypoglycemia and dementia. PMID:26778684

  2. Epigenetic changes in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Rami; Karnib, Nabil; Assaad, Rawad Abi; Bilen, Yara; Emmanuel, Nancy; Ghanem, Anthony; Younes, Joe; Zibara, Victor; Stephan, Joseph S; Sleiman, Sama F

    2016-06-20

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Diabetes is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of death. Diabetes is a genetic disease; however, the environment plays critical roles in its development and progression. Epigenetic changes often translate environmental stimuli to changes in gene expression. Changes in epigenetic marks and differential regulation of epigenetic modulators have been observed in different models of diabetes and its associated complications. In this minireview, we will focus DNA methylation, Histone acetylation and methylation and their roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:27130819

  3. Vascular Complications of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Joshua A; Creager, Mark A

    2016-05-27

    Over the last several decades, the global incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus has increased significantly. The raised incidence rate is projected to continue as greater numbers of persons adopt a Western lifestyle and diet. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at heightened risk of both adverse microvascular and cardiovascular events. Moreover, once cardiovascular disease develops, diabetes mellitus exacerbates progression and worsens outcomes. The medical management of patients with diabetes mellitus mandates comprehensive risk factor modification and antiplatelet therapy. Recent clinical trials of new medical therapies continue to inform the care of patients with diabetes mellitus to reduce both cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:27230641

  4. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  5. Diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Clara; Karrouz, Wassila; Douillard, Claire; Do Cao, Christine; Cortet, Christine; Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized by hypotonic polyuria greater than 3 liters/24 hours in adults and persisting even during water deprivation. It is mostly due to a defect in arginin-vasopressin (AVP) synthesis (central DI); other causes are: AVP resistance (nephrogenic DI), abnormal thirst regulation (primary polydipsia) or early destruction of AVP by placental enzymes (gestational DI). A thorough medical history is warranted to investigate nocturnal persistence of polyuria (night waking being a good sign of its organic nature) to specify the onset and duration of the trouble, the medication use and the potential hereditary nature of the disorder. The next step is based on weight and blood pressure measurements and especially the quantification of beverages and diuresis over a 24-hour cycle. Assessment of signs of dehydration, bladder distention, pituitary hormone hyper- or hyposecretion, tumor chiasmatic syndrome, granulomatosis and cancer is required. The diagnosis is based on biological assessment, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and results of a desmopressin test. In severe forms of DI, urine osmolality remains below 250 mOsmol/kg and serum sodium greater than 145 mmol/L. In partial forms of DI (urine osmolality between 250 and 750), the water deprivation test demonstrating the incapacity to obtain a maximal urine concentration is valuable, together with vasopressin or copeptin measurement. The pituitary MRI is done to investigate the lack of spontaneous hyperintensity signal in the posterior pituitary, which marks the absence of AVP and supports the diagnosis of central DI rather than primary polydipsia (although not absolute); it can also recognize lesions of the pituitary gland or pituitary stalk. Acquired central DI of sudden onset should suggest a craniopharyngioma or germinoma if it occurs before the age of 30 years, and metastasis after the age of 50 years. Fifteen to 20% of head trauma lead to hypopituitarism, including DI in 2% of

  6. Teleophthalmology in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been rapid strides in progress in the fields of telecommunication and medical imaging. There is growing evidence regarding use of teleophthalmology for screening of diabetic retinopathy. This article highlights some pertinent questions regarding use of telescreening for diabetic retinopathy. It deals with evidence regarding accuracy of diagnosis, patients satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. The American Telemedicine Association have given certain guidelines for teleheath practices for diabetic retinopathy. The article discusses regarding these guidelines. Finally, a working model for diabetic retinopathy screening through teleophthalmology has been described. Telescreening for diabetic retinopathy seems to be a cost-effective, accurate, and reliable method for screening for diabetic retinopathy. The American Telemedicine Association has set up guidelines for telescreening that should be adhered to provide quality screening services to people with diabetes. PMID:24876576

  7. Fenofibrate and Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Knickelbein, Jared E; Abbott, Akshar B; Chew, Emily Y

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a common and sight-threatening microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, is a leading cause of blindness among working-aged adults. Medical therapies including intensive control of hyperglycemia and hypertension have been shown to reduce the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. The association of dyslipidemia and treatment with statins with diabetic retinopathy is inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. However, two recent randomized clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of systemic fenofibrate therapy in reducing the progression of diabetic retinopathy independently of serum lipid levels. These findings suggest that fenofibrate may be an effective strategy for reducing the progression of diabetic retinopathy, thus reducing the large and growing public health burden of treating the sight-threatening complications of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27525681

  8. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility. PMID:27052242

  9. What I Need to Know about Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and MODY Gestational Diabetes What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that ... 8747 and request a copy. What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes happens when your body can't ...

  10. Epidemiology, mechanisms, and management of diabetic gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence of the significant impact of gastroparesis on morbidity and mortality mandates optimized management of this condition. Gastroparesis affects nutritional state, and in diabetics it has deleterious effects on glycemic control and secondary effects on organs that increase mortality. First-line treatments include restoration of nutrition and medications (prokinetic and antiemetic). We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, impact, natural history, time trends, and treatment of gastroparesis, focusing on diabetic gastroparesis. We discuss pros and cons of current treatment options, including metoclopramide. Second-line therapeutic approaches include surgery, venting gastrostomy or jejunostomy, and gastric electrical stimulation; most of these were developed based on results from open-label trials. New therapeutic strategies for gastroparesis include drugs that target the underlying defects, prokinetic agents such as 5-hydroxytryptamine agonists that do not appear to have cardiac or vascular effects, ghrelin agonists, approaches to pace the stomach, and stem cell therapies. PMID:20951838

  11. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  12. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  13. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  14. Diabetes and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Kalyani; Jain, Ashish; Sharma, RaviKant; Prashar, Savita; Jain, Rajni

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the “certain” articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1) Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2) Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3) What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4) What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene. PMID:21731243

  15. Diabetes in the Aged

    PubMed Central

    Grobin, Wulf

    1970-01-01

    In keeping with the already known high prevalence of diabetes among residents of the Jewish Home for the Aged, Toronto, annual screening disclosed an average incidence of 25.5% of abnormal glucose tolerance (two-hour post-glucose blood sugars above 140 mg./100 ml.) in residents not known to be diabetic. Forty-five (47%) of the 94 residents with abnormal screening values were considered subsequently to be diabetic according to our criteria. Long-term follow-up, particularly of 81 residents initially normoglycemic in 1964-5, confirmed that the natural course of glucose tolerance in this population was one of progressive deterioration. By contrast, improvement amounting to remission has been demonstrated in nine out of 20 residents several years after they had been declared diabetic, and is thought to have been induced by dietotherapy. Moderate hyperglycemia per se did not cause symptoms in these almost always keto-resistant and usually aglycosuric aged diabetics, who often claimed they felt better when hyperglycemic. Hypoglycemia was an ever present danger when anti-diabetic medication was used; it was the main reason for undertreatment. So far, data from our long-term study have not shown morbidity to be markedly increased in the diabetics, and mortality was found to be evenly distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic male residents. However, in the females there was a clear correlation between mortality rate and the diminished glucose tolerance. What may appear as overdiagnosis of diabetes in the aged is recommended in the hope that early institution of dietary treatment will delay the development of clinical diabetes and the need for anti-diabetic agents. This, in turn, would prevent iatrogenic hypoglycemia. It would also reduce the severity and frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia which, we believe, occurs more commonly in the early phase of diabetes in the aged than is generally realized. PMID:5476778

  16. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Diabetes under Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your diabetes under control Page Content On this page: What are diabetes ...

  17. Diabetic Neuropathies: The Nerve Damage of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  18. Specific Blood Pressure Targets for Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Nilsson, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a condition frequently detected in current clinical practice characterized by a very high cardiovascular risk profile. Blood pressure reduction via antihypertension drug treatment represents a therapeutic approach capable of exerting favorable effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and results of key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure goals of antihypertension treatment in these patients. The pros and cons of a less or a more intensive blood pressure goal in diabetic nephropathy will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular and renal effects of each therapeutic strategy. PMID:27440837

  19. Preeclampsia and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Mudd, Lanay M.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is diagnosed in women presenting with new onset hypertension accompanied by proteinuria or other signs of severe organ dysfunction in the second half of pregnancy. Preeclampsia risk is increased two to four-fold among women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The limited number of pregnant women with preexisting diabetes and difficulties associated with diagnosing preeclampsia in women with proteinuria prior to pregnancy are significant barriers to research in this high-risk population. GDM also increases preeclampsia risk, although it is unclear whether these two conditions share a common pathophysiological pathway. Non-diabetic women who have had preeclampsia are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Among women with type 1 diabetes, a history of preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of retinopathy and nephropathy. More research examining pathophysiology, treatment and the long-term health implications of preeclampsia among women with preexisting and gestational diabetes is needed. PMID:25644816

  20. Angiopoietins and diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of end-stage renal failure in the Western world. In diabetes, metabolic and haemodynamic perturbations disrupt the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to ultrastructural alterations of the glomeruli, including podocyte foot process fusion and detachment, glomerular basement membrane thickening, reduced endothelial cell glycocalyx, and mesangial extracellular matrix accumulation and glomerulosclerosis, ultimately leading to albuminuria and end-stage renal disease. Many vascular growth factors, such as angiopoietins, are implicated in glomerular biology. In normal physiology angiopoietins regulate the function of the glomerular filtration barrier. When they are dysregulated, however, as they are in diabetes, they drive the cellular mechanisms that mediate diabetic glomerular pathology. Modulation of angiopoietins expression and signalling has been proposed as a tool to correct the cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic microvascular disease, such as retinopathy in humans. Future work might evaluate whether this novel therapeutic approach should be extended to diabetic kidney disease. PMID:27207083

  1. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  2. Introduction to diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Kirti; Tarr, Joanna M; Ahmad, Shamim I; Kohner, Eva M; Chibber, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    The chronic metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus is a fast-growing global problem with huge social, health, and economic consequences. It is estimated that in 2010 there were globally 285 million people (approximately 6.4% of the adult population) suffering from this disease. This number is estimated to increase to 430 million in the absence of better control or cure. An ageing population and obesity are two main reasons for the increase. Furthermore it has been shown that almost 50% of the putative diabetics are not diagnosed until 10 years after onset of the disease, hence the real prevalence of global diabetes must be astronomically high. This chapter introduces the types of diabetes and diabetic complications such as impairment of immune system, periodontal disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, somatic and autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular diseases and diabetic foot. Also included are the current management and treatments, and emerging therapies. PMID:23393665

  3. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  4. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this page: ... stroke. [Top] What is the connection between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? If you have diabetes, you ...

  5. What Causes Diabetic Heart Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Insulin Resistance in People Who Have Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance means ... use the insulin it makes. People who have type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance have higher levels of substances ...

  6. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000692.htm Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cranial mononeuropathy III -- diabetic type -- is usually a complication of diabetes that causes ...

  7. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  8. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  9. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  10. History of Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giovanna; Tamma, Grazia

    2016-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis is maintained by the kidney adjusting urine volume and composition according to body needs. Diabetes Insipidus is a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome affecting water balance and characterized by constant diuresis, resulting in large volumes of dilute urine. With respect to the similarly named Diabetes Mellitus, a disease already known in ancient Egypt, Greece and Asia, Diabetes Insipidus has been described several thousand years later. In 1670s Thomas Willis, noted the difference in taste of urine from polyuric subjects compared with healthy individuals and started the differentiation of Diabetes Mellitus from the more rare entity of Diabetes Insipidus. In 1794, Johann Peter Frank described polyuric patients excreting nonsaccharine urine and introduced the term of Diabetes Insipidus. An hystorical milestone was the in 1913, when Farini successfully used posterior pituitary extracts to treat Diabetes Insipidus. Until 1920s the available evidence indicated Diabetes Insipidus as a disorder of the pituitary gland. In the early 1928, De Lange first observed that some patients with Diabetes Insipidus did not respond to posterior pituitary extracts and subsequently Forssman and Waring in 1945 established that the kidney had a critical role for these forms of Diabetes Insipidus resistant to this treatment. In 1947 Williams and Henry introduced the term Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus for the congenital syndrome characterized by polyuria and renal concentrating defect resistant to vasopressin. In 1955, du Vigneaud received the 1955 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the first synthesis of the hormone vasopressin representing a milestone for the treatment of Central Diabetes Insipidus. PMID:26913870

  11. Pupil size in diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Karavanaki, K; Davies, A G; Hunt, L P; Morgan, M H; Baum, J D

    1994-01-01

    Sympathetic function was studied in 101 diabetic children and 102 age and sex matched control children, as part of a longitudinal study of the evolution of microvascular disease in the population of diabetic children and adolescents in Avon County. The median (range) age of the diabetic population was 13.5 (6.0-17.2) years, the duration of diabetes was 4.0 (0.4-13.9) years, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1) was 10.9 (7.0-18.1)%. Pupillary adaptation in darkness, as an index of sympathetic neuropathy, was measured using a Polaroid portable pupillometer. Diabetic children had a significantly smaller median pupillary diameter, measured as the pupil/iris ratio and expressed as a percentage, than control children (median (range) 62.9 (50.3-72.1) v 65.9 (52.2-73.8)). Pupillary diameter was significantly related to diabetes duration (r = -0.22), HbA1 (r = -0.34), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.25), diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.49), and mean albumin/creatinine ratio on random urine samples (r = -0.26). Pupillary diameter was not related to age (r = -0.1). Eight (7.9%) diabetic and four (3.9%) control children were identified as having abnormal pupillary dilation in darkness. In comparison with the rest of the diabetic population, these diabetic children had longer diabetes duration and poorer glycaemic control. Polaroid pupillometry has demonstrated subclinical autonomic neuropathy in a population of diabetic children and adolescents. These abnormalities were related to poor metabolic control, long diabetes duration, and also to other indices of microvascular disease. PMID:7726610

  12. [The infected diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Voide, C; Trampuz, A; Orasch, C

    2012-10-31

    Disorders of local immunity associated with diabetes, neuropathy, vascular disease and pressure lesions all contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot infections are frequently encountered, comprising multifactorial pathology and high morbidity and mortality rates. Microbiological sampling is indicated only when infection is suspected clinically, that is, when a lesion presents a minimum of two of the following six signs: erythema, heat, pain, tumefaction, induration or purulent discharge. PMID:23117963

  13. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  14. Iron and Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Judith A.; McClain, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload is a risk factor for diabetes. The link between iron and diabetes was first recognized in pathologic conditions—hereditary hemochromatosis and thalassemia—but high levels of dietary iron also impart diabetes risk. Iron plays a direct and causal role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by β-cell failure and insulin resistance. Iron is also a factor in the regulation of metabolism in most tissues involved in fuel homeostasis, with the adipocyte in particular serving an iron-sensing role. The underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are numerous and incompletely understood, but include oxidant stress and modulation of adipokines and intracellular signal transduction pathways. PMID:23473030

  15. Diabetes and oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Gourdy, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing dramatically worldwide, resulting in more and more women of reproductive age being affected by either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Management of contraception is a major issue due to the specific risks associated with pregnancy and those potentially induced by hormonal contraceptives in diabetic women. This review emphasizes the urgent need to improve the use of contraception in women with diabetes. There is no consistent evidence that combined oral contraceptives significantly influence the risk of developing diabetes, even in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Furthermore, although data from specific studies remain sparse, no worsening effect has been reported in diabetic women, either in glycemic control or on the course of microvascular complications. Thus, the use of estroprogestive pills is now recognized as a safe and effective option for preconception care of women with uncomplicated diabetes. According to recent guidelines, these contraceptives must be avoided in case of associated cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease or severe microvascular complications such as nephropathy with proteinuria or active proliferative retinopathy. Prescription of combined hormonal contraception in type 2 diabetic women must also be considered with caution due to a frequent association with obesity and vascular risk factors which increase both thromboembolic and arterial risks. Thanks to their metabolic and vascular safety profile, progestin-only contraceptives, as well as non-hormonal methods, represent alternatives according to patient wishes. PMID:23384747

  16. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  17. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  18. Diabetic Retinopathy: Nature and Extent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, W. Ronald; Patz, Arnall

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in juvenile and maturity onset diabetics, background and proliferative retinopathy, and current modalities of treatment. (Author)

  19. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    PubMed

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:22020084

  20. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  1. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Kidney Disease of Diabetes Page Content On this page: The ... and Human Services, 2008. [ Top ] The Course of Kidney Disease Diabetic kidney disease takes many years to develop. ...

  2. Diabetic neuralgic amyotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alan J.

    1981-01-01

    A rare neurological condition, neuralgic amyotrophy, in a diabetic is reported. Strong evidence for a causal relationship is suggested. Comment is made on striking similarities between the clinical presentation and course of both diabetic and neuralgic amyotrophy, inferring a similar end pathological process. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7312743

  3. Living With Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... twice a year to find and treat any problems early. Ask what steps you can take to reach your goals. ​​ Youth and Teens​ Learn more about lowering the risk for and managing type 2 diabetes in children and teens. W hat is Diabetes? Be Active Stay at a H ealthy Weight Make Healthy Food ...

  4. Diabetes Treatment Breakthrough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Shelly; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight experts in visual impairment respond briefly to reports that intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels by persons with diabetes can lead to a 70% reduction in the progression of detectable diabetic retinopathy. Comments are generally optimistic, though some cautions are raised. (DB)

  5. Type 2 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor or diabetes educator will help set up a testing schedule for you. Your doctor will help you set a target range for your blood sugar numbers. Keep these factors in mind: Most people with type 2 diabetes only need ...

  6. Diabetic foot risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M Gail

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that results in foot complications for many people world-wide. In 2014, the World Health Organization estimated the global prevalence of diabetes in adults to be 9%. To ascertain the risk that an individual patient might develop a diabetic foot ulcer that could lead to an amputation, clinicians are strongly encouraged to perform a risk assessment. Monteiro-Soares and Dinis-Ribeiro have presented a new DIAbetic FOot Risk Assessment with the acronym DIAFORA. It is different from other risk assessments in that it predicts the risk of developing both diabetic foot ulcers and amputation specifically. The risk variables were derived by regression analysis based on a data set of 293 patients from a high-risk setting, a Hospital Diabetic Foot Clinic, who had diabetes and a diabetic foot ulcers. Clear descriptions of the risk variables are provided as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the risk categories. As an added benefit, likelihood ratios are provided that will help clinicians determine the risk of amputation for individual patients. Having a risk assessment form is important for clinician use and examples exist. A question is raised about the effectiveness of risk assessment and how effectiveness might be determined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26825436

  7. Diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin; Sharma, Kumar; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Zoungas, Sophia; Rossing, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30 years and improved patient prognosis are largely attributable to improved diabetes care. However, there remains an unmet need for innovative treatment strategies to prevent, arrest, treat and reverse DKD. In this Primer, we summarize what is now known about the molecular pathogenesis of CKD in patients with diabetes and the key pathways and targets implicated in its progression. In addition, we discuss the current evidence for the prevention and management of DKD as well as the many controversies. Finally, we explore the opportunities to develop new interventions through urgently needed investment in dedicated and focused research. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/NKHDzg. PMID:27188921

  8. Causes of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually develop over a short period of time. Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults, though it can appear at ... part in determining who is likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Genes are passed ... parent to child. Genes carry instructions for making proteins that are ...

  9. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... rid of it. Whom T1D Affects Type 1 diabetes strikes both children and adults at any age. It comes on suddenly, causes ... their children might develop the disease.” — Nicky Hider, adult, New York CDC National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014 Impreatore, et al. 2012. Diab ...

  10. Dyslipidemia and Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yo-Chen; Wu, Wen-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes. In developed countries, it is the most common cause of preventable blindness in diabetic adults. Dyslipidemia, a major systemic disorder, is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of suffering from dyslipidemia concurrently. The aim of this article is to review the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and traditional/nontraditional lipid markers, possible mechanisms involving lipid metabolism and diabetic retinopathy, and the effect of lipid-lowering therapies on diabetic retinopathy. For traditional lipid markers, evidence is available that total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with the presence of hard exudates in patients with DR. The study of nontraditional lipid markers is advancing only in recently years. The severity of DR is inversely associated with apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), whereas ApoB and the ApoB-to-ApoA1 ratio are positively associated with DR. The role of lipid-lowering medication is to work as adjunctive therapy for better control of diabetes-related complications including DR. PMID:24380088

  11. Diabetes and cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Houten, John K; Lenart, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes may affect the typical physical findings associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as coexisting diabetic neuropathy may dampen expected hyperreflexia and also produce non-dermatomal extremity numbness. Most large studies of surgically treated diabetic patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy have focused upon infection rates rather than exploring any differences in the presenting physical signs. We conducted a retrospective study of the pattern of presenting neurological signs and symptoms and of the clinical outcomes in 438 patients surgically treated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 79 of whom had diabetes. Compared with non-diabetic patients, those with diabetes were slightly older and had lower preoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores. Those with diabetes also had a significantly higher incidence of hyporeflexia and a higher incidence of a positive Babinski sign, but there was no difference in the appearance of the Hoffman sign. The magnitude of mJOA improvement after surgery was comparable. We conclude that diabetes may alter the typical signs and symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and suggest that knowledge of the differences may aid in securing a prompt and accurate diagnosis. PMID:26747704

  12. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Teens > Carbohydrates and Diabetes Print A A A Text Size ... that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates ...

  13. Diabetes Technologies and Their Role in Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollipara, Sobha; Silverstein, Janet H.; Marschilok, Katie

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 Diabetes Complications and Control Trial (DCCT) showed that controlling blood glucose prevents and delays the progression of long term complications of diabetes. New diabetes technologies can make control of diabetes possible and safer. This paper reviews these technologies used to monitor blood glucose, administer insulin and evaluate…

  14. Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identified. However, despite broad organisational, intellectual, and fiscal investments, no means for preventing or curing type 1 diabetes exists, and, globally, the quality of diabetes management remains uneven. This Seminar discusses current progress in epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, and prospects for an improved future for individuals with this disease. PMID:23890997

  15. Diabetes and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Keinänen, Jaakko; Eskelinen, Saana; Mantere, Outi

    2016-02-01

    People with schizophrenia have 2- to 5-fold higher risk of type 2 diabetes than the general population. The traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes, especially obesity, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyle, are common in people with schizophrenia already early in the course of illness. People with schizophrenia also often have low socioeconomic status and income, which affects their possibilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. Antipsychotic medications increase the risk of type 2 diabetes both directly by affecting insulin sensitivity and indirectly by causing weight gain. Lifestyle modification interventions for prevention of diabetes should be an integral part of treatment of patients with schizophrenia. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with schizophrenia, communication and collaboration between medical care and psychiatric treatment providers are essential. PMID:26803652

  16. Epidemiological Perspectives of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ziqi; Shi, Aimin; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The global statistics of diabetes mellitus in year 2013 indicated, about 382 million people had this disease worldwide, with type 2 diabetes making up about 90 % of the cases. This is equal to 8.3 % of the adult population with equal rates in both women and men. In year 2012 and 2013 diabetes resulted in mortality of 1.5-5.1 million people per year, making it the 8th leading cause of death in the world. It is predicted that by year 2035 about 592 million people will die of diabetes. The economic cost of diabetes seems to have increased worldwide. An average age of onset of diabetes is 42.5 years and could be due to consumption of high sugar and high-calorie diet, low physical activity, genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle. Approximately 8 % children and about 26 % young adults have diabetes mellitus in the world. The results of epidemiological study of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are presented by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural, and other factors in human populations. The prevalence of T1D has been increased by 2-5 % worldwide and its prevalence is approximately one in 300 in US by 18 years of age. The epidemiological studies are important to study the role, causes, clinical care, prevention, and treatment of type1 diabetes in pregnant women and their children before and after birth. In this article, causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and medications, and epidemiology of diabetes will be described. PMID:25711186

  17. [Diabetes and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-González, S A

    1998-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy could result in severe or fatal complications to mother or the unborn product, like polyhydramnios, preeclampsia, abortion, neonatal asphyxia, macrosomia, stillbirth, and others, therefore is very important the early detection and treatment of diabetes. Gestacional Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity first recognized during pregnancy. The screening test consist of 50 g of oral glucose and a plasma glucose measurement at one hour, regardless of the time of the last meal, and this may do in all pregnancies between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. If plasma glucose level above 140 mg/dl results, a oral glucose tolerance test with 100 g must be done. This is the GDM diagnostic test. The risk factors for gestacional diabetes (older than 30 years of age, obesity, arterial hypertension, glucosury, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, family history of macrosomia) identify only 50% of pregnancies with gestacional diabetes, therefore, is necessary to screen all pregnancies who become pregnant, a strict control before pregnant is indispensable, with aim to slow congenital malformations probability and another complications. Gestacional diabetes prevalence in hispanic women in the U.S.A. is 12.3 percent. Diabetes mellitus prevalence in Mexico is about 2-6 percent. The goal of management of diabetes during pregnancy is the maintainance of fasting plasma glucose 105 mg/dl and 120 mg/dl two hours after meals. Treatment consist in diabetes education, diet with caloric needs calculation, exercise, and occasionally insulin. Is necessary the prenatal monitoring, the supervision of delivery or cesarean metabolic changes, and the postnatal monitoring of the mother and product. PMID:9679396

  18. Contraception and the Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennoy, Ilene

    1989-01-01

    Data from a study of 11 teenage diabetics suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than among the general population, at a time when diabetic control is poor because of psychosocial factors associated with adolescence. Current recommendations regarding contraception for diabetic women, focusing on barrier methods, are…

  19. Angiogenesis in Diabetes and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rui; Ma, Jian-xing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity continues to increase globally. Diabetic vascular complications are the main chronic diabetic complications and associated with mortality and disability. Angiogenesis is a key pathological characteristic of diabetic microvascular complications. However, there are two tissue-specific paradoxical changes in the angiogenesis in diabetic microvascular complications: an excessive uncontrolled formation of premature blood vessels in some tissues, such as the retina, and a deficiency in the formation of small blood vessels in peripheral tissues, such as the skin. This review will discuss the paradoxical phenomena of angiogenesis and its underlying mechanism in obesity, diabetes and diabetic complications. PMID:25663658

  20. MicroRNA-26a Promotes Regulatory T cells and Suppresses Autoimmune Diabetes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Zhang, Shoutao; Shi, Doufei; Mao, Yanhua; Cui, Jianguo

    2016-02-01

    Type-1 diabetes (TID) is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune cells attack islet β cells, the cells in the pancreas that produce and release the hormone insulin. Mir-26a has been reported to play functions in cellular differentiation, cell growth, cell apoptosis, and metastasis. However, the role of microRNA-26a (Mir-26a) in autoimmune TID has never been investigated. In our current study, we found that pre-Mir-26a (LV-26a)-treated mice had significantly longer normoglycemic time and lower frequency of autoreactive IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) cells compared with an empty lentiviral vector (LV-Con)-treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Mir-26a suppresses autoreactive T cells and expands Tregs in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, in our adoptive transfer study, the groups receiving whole splenocytes and CD25-depleted splenocytes from LV-Con-treated diabetic NOD mice develop diabetes at 3 to 4 weeks of age. In comparison, mice injected with undepleted splenocytes obtained from LV-26a-treated reversal NOD mice develop diabetes after 6-8 weeks. And depletion of CD25(+) cells in the splenocytes of reversed mice abrogates the delay in diabetes onset. In conclusion, Mir-26a suppresses autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice in part through promoted regulatory T cells (Tregs) expression. PMID:26208605

  1. [Type 2 diabetes complications].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies. PMID:23528336

  2. Diabetes in Asians.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun Jung

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  3. [Diabetes in the youth].

    PubMed

    Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Hofer, Sabine E

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to adults diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1) is the most frequent form of diabetes mellitus during childhood and adolescence (> 95 %). After diagnosis, the management of these DMT1-patients should take place in specialized pediatric units, not in a primary care setting.The lifelong substitution of insulin is the cornerstone of therapy, the form of insulin-therapy should be adapted according to the age of the patient. Diabetes education is also an essential part in the management of diabetes patients and their families.The ISPAD (International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes) recommends an HbA1c < 7.5 rel. % (IFCC < 58 mmol/mol) as good metabolic control, without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemic events. The APEDÖ (Arbeitsgruppe für pädiatrische Endokrinologie und Diabetologie Österreich) has recommended an HbA1c-target of < 7.0 rel. % (IFCC < 53 mmol/mol).The aim of diabetes education and management is avoidance of acute and late diabetes related complications, as well as achievement of normal growth and psychosocial development and wellbeing. PMID:27052226

  4. [Neuropathy and diabetic foot ulcers].

    PubMed

    Lobmann, R

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature. Polyneuropathy plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the high rates of major amputations. PMID:25903093

  5. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  6. Advances in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prakashchand; Jindal, Ankita; Saini, V.K.; Jindal, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of long-term diabetes mellitus (DM). Over the last 2 decades lot of work has been on early diagnosis of DR and screening programs have been designed to help the masses. Large numbers of clinical studies have been done for patients of diabetes and DR wherein the role of blood sugar control, metabolic control, role of oral medicines for DR, role of imaging, fluorescein angiography, and retinal photocoagulation has been studied. Newer treatment modalities are being devised and studied for better patient care. We discuss these issues in our review highlight and newer advances over the last few years. PMID:25364670

  7. Living With Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... NDEP's 15th Anniversary Diabetes HealthSense Expand Promotional Tools Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... Loved One Health Care Professionals Submit a Resource​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  8. Infant of diabetic mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 39. Moore TR, Hauguel-De Mouzon S, Catalano P. Diabetes in pregnancy. ... RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal ...

  9. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic retinopathy also have a problem called macular edema. Macular edema, or swelling, can happen in any stage of ... fluid from the retina’s damaged blood vessels. Macular edema is the most common cause of vision loss ...

  10. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for $10 through these programs. To get these prices, you do not need prescription drug insurance coverage. ... diabetes/ index. htm How to Get the Best Price for Your Medicines  Ask for a generic: Tell ...

  11. Erectile Dysfunction and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  12. Diabetes insipidus - central

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus is caused by a genetic problem. Symptoms Symptoms of central diabetes insipidus include: Increased urine production Excessive thirst Confusion and changes in alertness due to dehydration and higher than normal sodium level in the ...

  13. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  14. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the biggest health problem for people with diabetes. LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is known as the bad cholesterol because it ... you often eat foods that are high in LDL cholesterol high cholesterol runs in your family HDL cholesterol. ...

  15. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Regularly Exercise is another way to keep blood sugar under control. It helps to balance food intake. After checking ... it as directed in order to help keep blood sugar under control. Get Tested for Diabetes after Pregnancy Get tested ...

  16. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Spanish-language ... FAQ Watch out for your vision! Glossary Resources Glaucoma Glaucoma Home How Much Do You Know? What ...

  17. Screening for Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for gestational diabetes: (1) All women ... not enough evidence to judge the benefits and harms of screening women before 24 weeks of pregnancy. ...

  18. Diabetes Interactive Atlas.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Burrows, Nilka R; Geiss, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas' maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

  19. Cardiotocography and diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jb; Goyal, Manu

    2016-09-01

    Foetal monitoring in antenatal period and during labour is done to detect foetal distress and to take necessary action timely in order to improve perinatal outcome. Maternal awareness of foetal movement is routinely recommended in all pregnancies after 28 weeks gestation. In high risk pregnancies like diabetes, foetal growth restriction, macrosomia, additional means of foetal surveillance should be used like antenatal cardiotocography, non stress test, biophysical profile or Doppler studies. Diabetic mothers are at increased risk for sudden intrauterine foetal demise, thereby mandating the need of cardiotocography and ultrasound biophysical profile testing weekly or twice weekly in such patients. Foetal surveillance in diabetic patients in low resource settings demands for frequent antenatal visits and non stress test if possible. During labour also, there should be continuous electronic foetal monitoring in diabetic mothers in both first and second stages of labour for early detection of foetal hypoxic stre s and timely intervention. PMID:27582148

  20. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes are at risk for mouth infections, especially periodontal (gum) disease. Periodontal disease can damage the gum and bone that ... people with serious gum disease lose their teeth. Periodontal disease may also make it hard to control ...

  1. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that about one in four U.S. ... to learn more about the study's long-term effects through the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), ...

  2. Diabetes and exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...

  3. Causes of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... Bethesda, MD 20892-2560, Telephone: 301-496-3583 Contact the NIDDK Health Information Center Phone: 1-800- ...

  4. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes under control every day. My Blood Glucose Levels Daily Blood Glucose Levels before Pregnancy If you are thinking about getting ... after eating 100 to 155 Daily Blood Glucose Levels during Pregnancy During your pregnancy, you'll check ...

  5. [Diabetes and kidneys].

    PubMed

    Gäckler, D; Jäkel, S; Fricke, L; Reinsch, B; Fischer, F

    2013-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. Diagnosis is confirmed by measuring urin albumin excretion and calculated renal function (eGFR). Once the diagnosis is confirmed there should be a search for confounding cardiovascular risk factors and even established cardiovascular disease because of the associated high cardiovascular risk. In type 1 diabetes metabolic control is the main issue. In case of renal impairment and in patients with type 2 diabetes a multifactorial approach is necessary, which consists of dietary advise, metabolic control, lowering elevated blood-pressure, cessation of smoking, ASS and lipid-lowering drug-therapy. Special drugs for the treatment of diabetes-induced renal disease are not available. PMID:23613374

  6. Infant of diabetic mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth, and during first few days ... diabetes should be tested for low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), even if they have no symptoms. If an ...

  7. Type 1 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stomach pain LOW BLOOD SUGAR Low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ) can develop quickly in people with diabetes who ... How to recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) How to recognize and treat high blood sugar ( ...

  8. Teen Diabetes Quiz Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... small deli sandwiches or subs made with lean meats like turkey with mustard or a little low- ... with things like viruses and toxins in the environment to cause type 1 diabetes. Studies are being ...

  9. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... check for diabetes during their second trimester of pregnancy. Women at higher risk may get a test ... to your baby during the first weeks of pregnancy - even before you know you are pregnant. To ...

  10. Diabetes in older people.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katie

    2015-10-01

    The management of diabetes in older people is often challenging and poorly researched. The prevalence of cognitive impairment, chronic kidney disease and other co-existing comorbidities increase with age and have a significant impact on glycaemic control targets and treatment options. This conference examined current clinical practice, highlighted differences in the management of diabetes in the older person and suggested potential areas of future research. PMID:26430187

  11. Breastfeeding for diabetes prevention.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Shrestha, Dina

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been consistently observed to improve metabolism in mothers and their offspring. Apart from mother child bonding and nutritional benefits; it is associated with a decreased risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mothers, obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in their children. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding should therefore be highly encouraged and strongly supported. PMID:27582164

  12. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sangeeta; Chauhan, Ashutosh; Sethi, N T

    2008-10-01

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS) is a terminology used to describe a specific complication affecting patients with diabetes mellitus in the tropics. The syndrome encompasses a localized cellulitis with variable swelling and ulceration of the hands to progressive, fulminant hand sepsis, potentially fatal. Since this syndrome is less recognized it is often under-reported. Authors present two cases of TDHS and emphasize on aggressive glycemic control and surgical therapy to prevent potential crippling or fatal complications. PMID:20165601

  13. Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hague, William M

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition with various aetiologies. Recent research has uncovered new mechanisms underlying the syndrome. Careful attention to management is essential in pregnant women to avoid serious complications. Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy may be due to relative reduction in secretion of AVP from the posterior pituitary (cranial DI), increase in breakdown of AVP by placental cystine aminopeptidase with vasopressinase activity, or resistance of the rental tubules to AVP (nephrogenic DI).

  14. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific

  15. Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, G; Hirano, T; Kazumi, T

    1996-06-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have a higher rate of mortality than the general population. This higher mortality may be attributed mainly to cardiovascular disease. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetics can be one of the reasons for this. The most commonly recognized lipid abnormality in non-insulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM) is hypertriglyceridemia, which is known to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in diabetics. Hypertriglyceridemia can be produced by two mechanisms, increased synthesis of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride and removal defect of plasma triglyceride. It has been a matter of debate whether insulin always stimulates hepatic VLDL secretion but it is generally accepted that insulin deficiency results in an impairment of plasma triglyceride clearance. Considerable attention has recently been focused on the atherogenecity of postprandial hyperlipidemia, remnant lipoproteins, small, dense LDL, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and isolated hypo-alphalipoproteinemia in NIDDM subjects. Several reports suggested that these atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities are present in NIDDMs even if they are apparently normolipidemic. Association of visceral fat obesity, insulin resistance and nephropathy may aggravate the atherogenic lipoprotein profile. Therefore, we propose here that plasma lipid levels of diabetic subjects must be more strictly controlled than for the non-diabetic population in order to avoid an increased risk for coronary heart disease. If they are obese or associated with insulin resistance or nephropathy, these conditions should be carefully controlled. PMID:8877270

  16. Bone Quality in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mitsuru; Marumo, Keishi

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk of fracture, although type 2 diabetes is characterized by normal bone mineral density (BMD). The fracture risk of type 1 diabetes increases beyond an explained by a decrease of BMD. Thus, diabetes may be associated with a reduction of bone strength that is not reflected in the measurement of BMD. Based on the present definition, both bone density and quality, which encompass the structural and material properties of bone, are important factors in the determination of bone strength. Diabetes reduces bone quality rather than BMD. Collagen cross-linking plays an important role in bone strength. Collagen cross-links can be divided into lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase-mediated enzymatic immature divalent cross-links, mature trivalent cross-links, and glycation- or oxidation-induced non-enzymatic cross-links (Advanced Glycation End-products: AGEs) such as pentosidine. These types of cross-links differ in the mechanism of formation and in function. Not only hyperglycemia, but also oxidative stress induces the reduction in enzymatic beneficial cross-links and the accumulation of disadvantageous AGEs in bone. In this review, we describe the mechanism of low bone quality in diabetes. PMID:23785354

  17. Diabetic Muscle Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Morcuende, José A; Dobbs, Matthew B; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Crawford, Haemish

    2000-01-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus that is not clearly defined in the orthopaedic literature. This study is a descriptive case series of 7 new cases of diabetic muscle infarction and 55 previously reported cases in the literature. In the majority of patients, diabetic muscle infarction presents as a localized, exquisitely painful swelling and limited range of motion of the lower extremity. No cases affecting the muscles of the upper extremity have been observed. The onset is usually acute, persists for several weeks, and resolves spontaneously over several weeks to months without the need for intervention. Diabetic muscle infarction is a condition that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any diabetic patient with lower extremity pain and swelling without systemic signs of infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive and specific enough to make the diagnosis. Muscle biopsy and surgical irrigation and debridement are not recommended since they are associated with complications. Pain management and activity restriction in the acute phase followed by gentle physical therapy is the treatment of choice. Recurrences in the same or opposite limb are common. Although the short-term prognosis is very good and the majority of cases resolve spontaneously, the long-term survival is uncertain in this patient population. PMID:10934627

  18. Diabetic corneal neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J

    1983-01-01

    Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6676964

  19. Osteoporosis, Fractures, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of bone fractures. In type 1 diabetes, the risk is increased by ∼6 times and is due to low bone mass. Despite increased bone mineral density (BMD), in patients with type 2 diabetes the risk is increased (which is about twice the risk in the general population) due to the inferior quality of bone. Bone fragility in type 2 diabetes, which is not reflected by bone mineral density, depends on bone quality deterioration rather than bone mass reduction. Thus, surrogate markers and examination methods are needed to replace the insensitivity of BMD in assessing fracture risks of T2DM patients. One of these methods can be trabecular bone score. The aim of the paper is to present the present state of scientific knowledge about the osteoporosis risk in diabetic patient. The review also discusses the possibility of problematic using the study conclusions in real clinical practice. PMID:25050121

  20. Neuropeptides and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gábriel, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, develops in 75% of patients with type 1 and 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, progressing to legal blindness in about 5%. In the recent years, considerable efforts have been put into finding treatments for this condition. It has been discovered that peptidergic mechanisms (neuropeptides and their analogues, activating a diverse array of signal transduction pathways through their multiple receptors) are potentially important for consideration in drug development strategies. A considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last three decades on human retinal neuropeptides and those elements in the pathomechanisms of diabetic retinopathy which might be related to peptidergic signal transduction. Here, human retinal neuropeptides and their receptors are reviewed, along with the theories relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy both in humans and in experimental models. By collating this information, the curative potential of certain neupeptides and their analogues/antagonists can also be discussed, along with the existing clinical treatments of diabetic retinopathy. The most promising peptidergic pathways for which treatment strategies may be developed at present are stimulation of the somatostatin-related pathway and the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide-related pathway or inhibition of angiotensinergic mechanisms. These approaches may result in the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor production and neuronal apoptosis; therefore, both the optical quality of the image and the processing capability of the neural circuit in the retina may be saved. PMID:23043302

  1. Diabetes update: population management.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Deborah R; Slawson, David C; Shaughnessy, Allen

    2013-05-01

    To optimally care for diabetes patients, physicians must adopt a systematic approach to managing the entire panel. At the heart of excellent care is a multidisciplinary health care team working in a patient-centered environment. Options to supplement traditional office visits include shared medical appointments (ie, group visits), patient self-management education, and social media for patient support and education. Educating patients about diabetes is associated with more frequent recommended screening, improved objective measures, cost savings, and improved short-term quality of life, especially when behavioral goal setting is incorporated. Participation in a nurse-led diabetes management program or an outreach program is associated with reduced health care costs and increased receipt of recommended screening and testing for patients with diabetes; implementation of an electronic database or registry system also is associated with these benefits. Some studies show that these interventions are associated with improvements in A1c; however, outcomes data are limited. Formats for group visits vary. Evidence suggests that patients with diabetes who participate in a group education program have lower A1c levels, improved lipid profiles, higher quality of life scores, and improved knowledge about diabetes and problem-solving ability. PMID:23690376

  2. Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Fall ... your loved ones. Photos: AP The Faces of Diabetes Diabetes strikes millions of Americans, young and old, ...

  3. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Diabetes Educators American Diabetes Association JDRF MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations ​There are many organizations who provide ... KB). Alternate Language URL The A1C Test and Diabetes Page Content On this page: What is the ...

  4. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Mar. 03, 2014 How does non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy affect your vision? Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, also known as background retinopathy, ...

  5. Diabetes Facts and Myths (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Diabetes Facts and Myths KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Facts ... team first. Myth: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. Fact: Type 1 diabetes is caused by a ...

  6. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... pre-diabetes have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, and for ...

  7. Heart Health Tests for Diabetes Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Health Tests for Diabetes Patients Updated:Dec 3,2015 If you have ... angiograms . This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters • Understand Your ...

  8. Treating young adults with type 2 diabetes or monogenic diabetes.

    PubMed

    Owen, Katharine R

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It's important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic type 1 diabetes is characterised by positive β-cell antibodies and absence of endogenous insulin secretion. Young type 2 diabetes is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Monogenic β-cell dysfunction is characterised by non-autoimmune, C-peptide positive diabetes with a strong family history, while mitochondrial diabetes features deafness and other neurological involvement. Severe insulin resistance involves a young-onset metabolic syndrome often with a disproportionately low BMI. A suspected diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is confirmed with genetic testing, which is widely available in specialist centres across the world. Treatment of young adult diabetes is similarly diverse. Mutations in the transcription factors HNF1A and HNF4A and in the β-cell potassium ATP channel components cause diabetes which responds to low dose and high dose sulfonylurea agents, respectively, while glucokinase mutations require no treatment. Monogenic insulin resistance and young-onset type 2 diabetes are both challenging to treat, but first line management involves insulin sensitisers and aggressive management of cardiovascular risk. Outcomes are poor in young-onset type 2 diabetes compared to both older onset type 2 and type 1 diabetes diagnosed at a similar age. The evidence base for treatments in monogenic and young-onset type 2 diabetes relies on studies of moderate quality at best and largely on extrapolation from work conducted in older type 2 diabetes subjects. Better quality

  9. Diabetes and disordered bone metabolism (diabetic osteodystrophy): time for recognition.

    PubMed

    Epstein, S; Defeudis, G; Manfrini, S; Napoli, N; Pozzilli, P

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes and osteoporosis are rapidly growing diseases. The link between the high fracture incidence in diabetes as compared with the non-diabetic state has recently been recognized. While this review cannot cover every aspect of diabetic osteodystrophy, it attempts to incorporate current information from the First International Symposium on Diabetes and Bone presentations in Rome in 2014. Diabetes and osteoporosis are fast-growing diseases in the western world and are becoming a major problem in the emerging economic nations. Aging of populations worldwide will be responsible for an increased risk in the incidence of osteoporosis and diabetes. Furthermore, the economic burden due to complications of these diseases is enormous and will continue to increase unless public awareness of these diseases, the curbing of obesity, and cost-effective measures are instituted. The link between diabetes and fractures being more common in diabetics than non-diabetics has been widely recognized. At the same time, many questions remain regarding the underlying mechanisms for greater bone fragility in diabetic patients and the best approach to risk assessment and treatment to prevent fractures. Although it cannot cover every aspect of diabetic osteodystrophy, this review will attempt to incorporate current information particularly from the First International Symposium on Diabetes and Bone presentations in Rome in November 2014. PMID:26980458

  10. Management of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Boinpally, Tara; Jovanovic, Lois

    2009-06-01

    Although previously thought to be predominantly transient gestational diabetes, diabetes in pregnancy can be attributed more and more to type 2 diabetes today. Although all types of diabetes in pregnancy pose a threat to the health and future well-being of both the mother and child affected, undiagnosed type 2 diabetes can be significantly more devastating in complications because of effects starting from conception. This rise of type 2 diabetes thus imparts a great sense of urgency to uncover undiagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes in pregnancy and to take active measures in establishing tight glucose control. From preconception care before pregnancy to medical treatment postpartum, it is essential that immediate care be taken to help mediate the effects of diabetes in pregnancy. PMID:19421970