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Sample records for dolomedes triton foil

  1. Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photo of Triton is one of a continuing series of 'observatory phase' images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft. Lines inscribed on the image at right form a reference grid used by the Imaging Science Team. The Voyager project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Venom Gland Transcriptomes of the Fishing Spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xunxun; Wang, Hengyun; Zhang, Fang; Hu, Zhaotun; Liang, Songping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Dolomedes sulfurous and Dolomedes mizhoanus are predaceous arthropods catching and feeding on small fish. They live in the same area and have similar habits. Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties. In the present work, we first performed a transcriptomic analysis by constructing the venom gland cDNA library of D. sulfurous and 127 novel putative toxin sequences were consequently identified, which were classified into eight families. This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders. The putative toxins from both spiders contain 6–12 cysteine residues forming seven cysteine patterns. As revealed by blast search, the two venoms are rich in neurotoxins targeting ion channels with pharmacological and therapeutic significance. This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins. PMID:26445494

  3. A comparative study of the molecular composition and electrophysiological activity of the venoms from two fishing spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiayan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Hengyun; Yu, Hai; Liu, Zhonghua; Liang, Songping

    2014-06-01

    Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous are two venomous spiders found in the same area in southern China and are characterized by living in water plants and feeding on fish. In this study, the chemical compositions and activities of these venoms were compared. Both venoms contain hundreds of peptides as shown by off-line RP-HPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, but have a different peptide distribution, with D. mizhoanus venom containing fewer high molecular mass (7000-9000 Da) peptides (3%) than D. sulfurous venom (25.6%). Patch-clamp analyses showed that both venoms inhibited voltage-activated Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) channels in rat DRG neurons, however, differences in their inhibitory effects were observed. In general, D. mizhoanus venom had lower inhibitory activity than D. sulfurous venom and both venoms had a different inhibitory spectrum against these ion channels, showing that both venoms are useful for identifying antagonists to them. In addition, intrathoracic injection of both venoms caused severe neurotoxic effects in zebrafish and death at higher concentrations, respectively. Considering that both spiders belong to the same genus, live in the same area and have similar habits, elucidation of the differences between the peptide toxins from both venoms would provide new molecular insights into the evolution of spider peptides. PMID:24593962

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the venom gland transcriptome of the spider Dolomedes fimbriatus

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Sergey A.; Lazarev, Vassili N.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Selezneva, Oksana V.; Ospanova, Elena A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome analysis of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of the spider Dolomedes fimbriatus venom glands using single-residue distribution analysis (SRDA) identified 7,169 unique sequences. Mature chains of 163 different toxin-like polypeptides were predicted on the basis of well-established methodology. The number of protein precursors of these polypeptides was appreciably numerous than the number of mature polypeptides. A total of 451 different polypeptide precursors, translated from 795 unique nucleotide sequences, were deduced. A homology search divided the 163 mature polypeptide sequences into 16 superfamilies and 19 singletons. The number of mature toxins in a superfamily ranged from 2 to 49, whereas the diversity of the original nucleotide sequences was greater (2–261 variants). We observed a predominance of inhibitor cysteine knot toxin-like polypeptides among the cysteine-containing structures in the analyzed transcriptome bank. Uncommon spatial folds were also found. PMID:25977780

  5. Triton mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This picture of Triton is a mosaic of the highest resolution images taken by Voyager 2 on Aug. 25, 1989 from a distance of about 40,000 kilometers (24,800 miles). The mosaic is superimposed on the lower resolution mapping images taken about 2 hours earlier in order to fill in gaps between high resolution images. The smallest features that can be seen on the images are about 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles) across. The terminator (line separating day and night) is at the top of the picture and is centered at about 30 degrees north latitude and 330 degrees longitude. These highest resolution images were targeted for the terminator region to show details of the topography by the shadows it casts. Near the center of the picture is a depression filled with smooth plains that are probably ices which were once erupted in a fluid state. The depth of the depression is about 300 meters (900 feet) and the prominent fresh impact crater on its floor is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter and about 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) deep. On the right is an elongate crater with adjacent dark deposits above it. This feature may be an explosive eruption vent formed by gaps within the ice. The linear structure on the left is probably a fracture along which fresh ice has been extruded. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  6. Triton's Global Heat Budget.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H; Johnson, T V; Goguen, J D; Schubert, G; Ross, M N

    1991-03-22

    Internal heat flow from radioactive decay in Triton's interior along with absorbed thermal energy from Neptune total 5 to 20 percent of the insolation absorbed by Triton, thus comprising a significant fraction of Triton's surface energy balance. These additional energy inputs can raise Triton's surface temperature between approximately 0.5 and 1.5 K above that possible with absorbed sunlight alone, resulting in an increase of about a factor of approximately 1.5 to 2.5 in Triton's basal atmospheric pressure. If Triton's internal heat flow is concentrated in some areas, as is likely, local effects such as enhanced sublimation with subsequent modification of albedo could be quite large. Furthermore, indications of recent global albedo change on Triton suggest that Triton's surface temperature and pressure may not now be in steady state, further suggesting that atmospheric pressure on Triton was as much as ten times higher in the recent past. PMID:17779439

  7. Triton's global heat budget

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.H.; Johnson, T.V.; Goguen, J.D. ); Schubert, G. ); Ross, M.N. )

    1991-03-22

    Internal heat flow from radioactive decay in Triton's interior along with absorbed thermal energy from Neptune total 5 to 20% of the insolation absorbed by Triton, thus comprising a significant fraction of Triton's surface energy balance. These additional energy inputs can raise Triton's surface temperature between {approximately}0.5 and 1.5 K above that possible with adsorbed sunlight alone, resulting in an increase of about a factor of {approximately}1.5 to 2.5 in Triton's basal atmospheric pressure. If Triton's internal heat flow is concentrated in some areas, as is likely, local effects such as enhanced sublimation with subsequent modification of albedo could be quite large. Furthermore, indications of recent global albedo change on Triton suggest that Triton's surface temperature and pressure may not now be in steady state, further suggesting that atmospheric pressure on Triton was as much as ten times higher in the recent past.

  8. Triton's global heat budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Johnson, T. V.; Goguen, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Ross, M. N.

    1991-01-01

    Internal heat flow from radioactive decay in Triton's interior along with absorbed thermal energy from Neptune total 5 to 20 percent of the isolation absorbed by Triton, thus comprising a significant fraction of Triton's surface energy balance. These additional energy inputs can raise Triton's surface temperature between about 0.5 and 1.5 K above that possible with absorbed sunlight alone, resulting in an increase of about a factor of about 1.5 to 2.5 in Triton's basal atmospheric pressure. If Triton's internal heat flow is concentrated in some areas, as is likely, local effects such as enhanced sublimation with subsequent modification of albedo could be quite large. Furthermore, indications of recent global albedo change on Triton suggest that Triton's surface temperature and pressure may not now be in steady state, further suggesting that atmospheric pressure on Triton was as much as ten times higher in the recent past.

  9. Triton's global heat budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Johnson, T. V.; Goguen, J. D.; Schubert, Gerald; Ross, Martin N.

    1991-01-01

    Internal heat flow from radioactive decay in Triton's interior along with absorbed thermal energy from Neptune total 5 to 20 percent of the insolation absorbed by Triton, thus comprising a significant fraction of Triton's surface energy balance. These additional energy inputs can raise Triton's surface temperature between approx. 0.5 to 1.5 K above that possible with absorbed sunlight alone, resulting in a factor of approx. 1.5 to 2.5 increase in Triton's basal atmospheric pressure. If Triton's internal heatflow is concentrated in some areas, as is likely, local effects such as enhanced sublimation with subsequent modification of albedo could be quite large. Furthermore, indications of recent albedo change on Triton suggest that Triton's surface temperature and pressure may not now be in steady state, further suggesting that atmospheric pressure on Triton was as much as 10 times higher in the recent past.

  10. Foil Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    Foil can be shaped into almost anything--it is the all-purpose material for children's art. Foil is a unique drawing surface. It reflects, distorts and plays with light and imagery as young artists draw over it. Foil permits quick impressions of a model or object to be sketched. Foil allows artists to track their drawing moves, seeing the action…

  11. Tectonics on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1993-01-01

    Tectonic features on Triton have been mapped as part of a larger study of the geology of Triton. Few purely tectonic structures are found on Triton: some grabens and possibly some compressive ridges. However, most of the other structures seen (primarily cryovolcanic in origin) exhibit tectonic control. A regional tectonic network has the following dominant orientations: N-S, E-W, NE-SW, and NW-SE. Most of the orientations are consistent with tidal deformations related to Triton's decreasing orbital radius. Localized quasi-concentric patterns may be due to interior processes such as mantle plumes.

  12. Global Warming on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  13. Water Ice on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Roush, Ted L.; Owen, Tobias C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Quirico, Eric; Geballe, Thomas R.; deBergh, Catherine; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; DalleOre, Cristina M.; Doute, Sylvain

    1999-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic detection of H2O ice on Triton, evidenced by the broad absorptions in the near infrared at 1.55 and 2.04 micron. The detection on Triton confirms earlier preliminary studies (D. P. Cruikshank, R. H. Brown, and R. N. Clark, Icarus 58, 293-305, 1984). The spectra support the contention that H2O ice on Triton is in a crystalline (cubic or hexagonal) phase. Our spectra (1.87-2.5 micron) taken over an interval of nearly 3.5 years do not show any significant changes that might relate to reports of changes in Triton's spectral reflectance (B. Buratti, M. D. Hicks, and R. L. Newburn, Jr., Nature 397, 219, 1999), or in Triton's volatile inventory (J. L. Elliot et al., Nature 393, 765-767, 1998).

  14. Triton's Distorted Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Stansberry, J. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Agner, M. A.; Davies, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    A stellar-occultation light curve for Triton shows asymmetry that can be understood if Triton's middle atmosphere is distorted from spherical symmetry. Although a globally oblate model can explain the data, the inferred atmospheric flattening is so large that it could be caused only by an unrealistic internal mass distribution or highly supersonic zonal winds. Cyclostrophic winds confined to a jet near Triton's northern or southern limbs (or both) could also be responsible for the details of the light curve, but such winds are required to be slightly supersonic. Hazes and clouds in the atmosphere are unlikely to have caused the asymmetry in the light curve.

  15. Triton: A hot potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of sunlight on the surface of Triton was studied. Widely disparate models of the active geysers observed during Voyager 2 flyby were proposed, with a solar energy source almost their only feature. Yet Triton derives more of its heat from internal sources (energy released by the radioactive decay) than any other icy satellite. The effect of this relatively large internal heat on the observable behavior of volatiles on Triton's surface is investigated. The following subject areas are covered: the Global Energy Budget; insulation polar caps; effect on frost stability; mantle convection; and cryovolcanism.

  16. The Triton torus revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, John D.; Eviatar, A.; Delitsky, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the Voyager encounter with Neptune, Delitsky et al. (1989) predicted that a torus of ions emanating from Triton would be discovered. These predictions are reexamined in light of the Voyager results. Sputtering of Triton's atmosphere can produce the heavy ion densities inferred at Triton's orbit by the Voyager plasma experiment if the ion residence time is about 30 days. The torus is found to be longitudinally asymmetric near Triton, with peak densities at longitudes of 170 and 350 deg. The total nitrogen flux due to sputtering is about 2 x 10 to the 21st/s. The consequences of larger escape fluxes of both N2 and H2 are investigated; it is difficult to reconcile large escape fluxes with the plasma and ultraviolet spectrometer observations.

  17. Triton - Voyager's finale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of the Neptunian satellite Triton by the Voyager 2 is described with interpretations of the object's nature and composition. The orbit, seasonal cycle, and southern-hemisphere solstice are described, and the composition of the satellite is discussed. Triton's mass and radius are known, and the objects is made up of about 70 percent rock and organics and 30 percent ice by mass. Triton's interior is warm and geologically active considering its distance from the sun, and large amounts of frozen methane and nitrogen are theorized to contribute to the object's high reflectivity. Also noted in the Voyager color images are creeping ice, cryogenic lava, and dark streaks on the south polar cap from nitrogen gas leaks driven by a type of greenhouse effect. Triton represents a class of satellite that has not been observed previously: a moon-sized body in a retrograde inclined orbit from the class of objects that coalesced to form Neptune.

  18. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  19. Classroom Foils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pafford, William N.

    1970-01-01

    Aluminum foil, because of its characteristics, can be used for many elementary science activities: demonstrating Archimedes Principle, how to reduce cohesion, reflection and mirror effect, fuse action, condensation, friction, and as containers and barriers. (BR)

  20. Neptune's story. [Triton's orbit perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldreich, P.; Murray, N.; Longaretti, P. Y.; Banfield, D.

    1989-01-01

    It is conjectured that Triton was captured from a heliocentric orbit as the result of a collision with what was then one of Neptune's regular satellites. The immediate post-capture orbit was highly eccentric. Dissipation due to tides raised by Neptune in Triton caused Triton's orbit to evolve to its present state in less than one billion years. For much of this time Triton was almost entirely molten. While its orbit was evolving, Triton cannibalized most of the regular satellites of Neptune and also perturbed Nereid, thus accounting for that satellite's highly eccentric and inclined orbit. The only regular satellites of Neptune that survived were those that formed well within 5 Neptune radii, and they move on inclined orbits as the result of chaotic perturbations forced by Triton.

  1. Triton torus and Neptune aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1990-01-01

    Triton is shown to be the dominant source of plasma for L equal to or greater than 7 in the magnetosphere of Neptune. Triton maintains a neutral hydrogen torus of average density comparable to a greater than that of the Titan torus at Saturn. The Triton torus may be detectable in H Lyman-alpha emissions. However, the energy source from plasma outward transport and mass loading in the Triton torus is insufficient to explain the Neptune aurora. It is proposed that Neptune's aurora is driven mainly by a solar wind interaction.

  2. Triton 2 (1B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michelle L.; Meiss, A. G.; Neher, Jason R.; Rudolph, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a detailed design analysis on a conceptually designed preliminary flight trainer. The Triton 2 (1B) must meet the current regulations in FAR Part 23. The detailed design process included the tasks of sizing load carrying members, pulleys, bolts, rivets, and fuselage skin for the safety cage, empennage, and control systems. In addition to the regulations in FAR Part 23, the detail design had to meet established minimums for environmental operating conditions and material corrosion resistance.

  3. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  4. Geomorphology of Triton's polar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1993-01-01

    One of Triton's most debated puzzles is the nature, distribution, and transport of its atmospheric volatiles. The full potential of constraints provided by detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of the polar deposits has not been realized. The objective of this study is characterization of the morphology, distribution, stratigraphy, and geologic setting of Triton's polar materials.

  5. On the origin of Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebonovic, V.

    1986-01-01

    The origin of Triton, based on the theory of materials under high pressure by Savic and Kasanin (1962, 1965), is described. The mean molecular weight (A) and the volume of one gram mole of Triton's material (V) are evaluated using its values of mass and radius; it is calculated that A = 67 + or - 2 and V = 3 + or - 2. These values are compared with Celebonovic's (1983) model of Neptune; it is observed that the mean molecular weight of Triton is ten times larger than Neptune's. The cause of this large variation in chemical composition is investigated. It is hypothesized that Triton and Neptune formed in different regions of the solar system, and that Triton was ejected from its primordial orbit and was later captured by Neptune.

  6. Triton, Pluto and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    On the eve of the Voyager encounter with Neptune and Triton, the knowledge of the surface and atmosphere of the satellite has made some progress. Methane, and perhaps molecular nitrogen, appears to dominate the surface and atmospheric chemistry. Sketchy evidence suggests changes in the disposition and state of the volatile materials on this body in the past few years, perhaps in response to the extreme seasons. Pluto and its satellite Charon are at last revealed in some detail, chiefly resulting from observations of the mutual transits and occultations of 1985-1990. A stellar occultation by Pluto in 1988 has given the first detailed information on the planet's atmosphere. The density of the Pluto-Charon system indicates a bulk composition consisting of silicates and water ice, suggesting formation directly from the solar nebula.

  7. Foil bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  8. Evolution of Triton's volatile budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's volatile budget provides important links to planetary formation processes in the cold outer solar nebula. However, the budget has been modified by processes subsequent to the accretion of this body. It is of interest to assess whether certain formation environments can be ruled out for Triton on the basis of its current volatile abundances, and also to quantify some of the post-accretional processes by which the abundances have been modified.

  9. Foil Electron Multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Baldonado, Juan R.; Dors, Eric E.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Skoug, Ruth M.

    2006-03-28

    An apparatus for electron multiplication by transmission that is designed with at least one foil having a front side for receiving incident particles and a back side for transmitting secondary electrons that are produced from the incident particles transiting through the foil. The foil thickness enables the incident particles to travel through the foil and continue on to an anode or to a next foil in series with the first foil. The foil, or foils, and anode are contained within a supporting structure that is attached within an evacuated enclosure. An electrical power supply is connected to the foil, or foils, and the anode to provide an electrical field gradient effective to accelerate negatively charged incident particles and the generated secondary electrons through the foil, or foils, to the anode for collection.

  10. Photometric properties of Triton hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of Triton have been used to investigate the characteristics of the atmospheric hazes on Triton at three wavelengths: violet (0.41 micrometers), blue (0.48 micrometers), and green (0.56 micrometers). The globally averaged optical depth is wavelength dependent, varying from 0.034 in green to 0.063 in violet. These photometric results are dominated by the properties of localized discrete clouds rather than by those of the thinner, more widespread haze known to occur on Triton. The cloud particles are bright, with single-scattering albedos near unity at all three wavelengths, suggestive of a transparent icy condensate. The asymmetry parameter (+0.6) and the wavelength dependence of the optical depth both indicate cloud particles 0.2-0.4 micrometers in radius. The clouds are concentrated at 50-60 deg S latitude, where opacities up to three times the global average are observed. This is the same latitude region where most of the evidence for current surface activity is found, suggesting that the clouds may be related to the plumes or at least to some process connected with the sublimation of the south polar cap. The effects of possible temporal variations in the haze opacity are examined. Increases in the haze opacity tend to redden Triton. However, the degree of reddening is not sufficient to explain the full range of observed changed in Triton over the past decade; variations in the surface properties appear to be necessary.

  11. A control network of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Rogers, Patricia G.; Colvin, Tim R.

    1991-01-01

    A control network for Triton has been computed using a bundle-type analytical triangulation program. The network contains 105 points that were measured on 57 Voyager-2 pictures. The adjustment contained 1010 observation equations and 382 normal equations and resulted in a standard measurement error of 13.36 microns. The coordinates of the control points, the camera orientation angles at the times when the pictures were taken, and Triton's mean radius were determined. A separate statistical analysis confirmed Triton's radius to be 1352.6 + or - 2.4 km. Attempts to tie the control network around the satellite were unsuccessful because discontinuities exist in high-resolution coverage between 66 deg and 289 deg longitude, north of 38 deg latitude, and south of 78 deg latitude.

  12. A control network of Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Rogers, Patricia G.; Colvin, Tim R.

    1991-08-01

    A control network for Triton has been computed using a bundle-type analytical triangulation program. The network contains 105 points that were measured on 57 Voyager-2 pictures. The adjustment contained 1010 observation equations and 382 normal equations and resulted in a standard measurement error of 13.36 microns. The coordinates of the control points, the camera orientation angles at the times when the pictures were taken, and Triton's mean radius were determined. A separate statistical analysis confirmed Triton's radius to be 1352.6 + or - 2.4 km. Attempts to tie the control network around the satellite were unsuccessful because discontinuities exist in high-resolution coverage between 66 deg and 289 deg longitude, north of 38 deg latitude, and south of 78 deg latitude.

  13. Foil changing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crist, Charles E.; Ives, Harry C.; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Miller, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

  14. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high- resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Farenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas include what is called the cataloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  15. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high-resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Fahrenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas includes what is called the cantaloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  16. Color and chemistry on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  17. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  18. Color and chemistry on Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-10-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  19. Color and Chemistry on Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid Thompson, W.; Sagan, Carl

    1990-10-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH_4 + N_2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, we classify the surface units according to color/albedo properties, estimate the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles, and compare rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  20. Ices on the surface of Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Roush, T. L.; Owen, T. C.; Geballe, T. R.; de Bergh, C.; Schmitt, B.; Brown, R. H.; Bartholomew, M. J.

    1993-08-01

    The near-infrared spectrum of Triton reveals ices of nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, of which nitrogen is the dominant component. Carbon dioxide ice may be spatially segregated from the other more volatile ices, covering about 10 percent of Triton's surface. The absence of ices of other hydrocarbons and nitriles challenges existing models of methane and nitrogen photochemistry on Triton.

  1. Triton College: One Institution's Search for Distinctiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Catanzaro, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Recounts Triton College's efforts to identify its distinctive elements. Reviews empirical evidence showing that Triton's school schedule, curricular offerings, and continuing education and support services are distinctive among local colleges. Discusses students' and staff members' perceptions of Triton. Considers the value of the research to the…

  2. Ices on the surface of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Roush, Ted L.; Owen, Tobias C.; Geballe, Thomas R.; De Bergh, Catherine; Schmitt, Bernard; Brown, Robert H.; Bartholomew, Mary J.

    1993-01-01

    The near-infrared spectrum of Triton reveals ices of nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, of which nitrogen is the dominant component. Carbon dioxide ice may be spatially segregated from the other more volatile ices, covering about 10 percent of Triton's surface. The absence of ices of other hydrocarbons and nitriles challenges existing models of methane and nitrogen photochemistry on Triton.

  3. Redesigning TRACER trial after TRITON.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2015-10-15

    Designing of smart clinical trials is critical for regulatory approval and future drug utilization. Importantly, trial design should be reconsidered if the interim analyses suggest unexpected harm, or conflicting results were yielded from the other trials within the same therapeutic area. With regard to antiplatelet agents, the perfect example is redesigning of the ongoing PRoFESS trial by eliminating aspirin from clopidogrel arm after the earlier MATCH trial results became available. The goal was to aseess the unchanged TRACER trial design in light of the evidence yielded from the earlier completed TRITON trial. TRACER was designed as a triple versus dual antiplatelet trial in NSTEMI patients with no previous long-term outcome data supporting such aggressive strategy. TRITON data represented dual versus dual antiplatelet therapy, and became available before TRACER enrollment starts revealing prasugrel front-loaded early vascular benefit predominantly in STEMI patients with the growing over time bleeding and cancer risks. Moreover, large prasugrel NSTEMI TRITON cohort exhibited trend towards excess mortality in experimental arm warning against aggressive TRACER design. The long-term TRITON results in general, and especially in the NSTEMI patients challenge unchanged TRACER trial design. Applying dual, rather than triple antiplatelet therapy protocol modification should be considered in TRACER to minimize bleeding, cancer, and non-cardiovascular death risks. PMID:26126053

  4. Triton College, 1980-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Focusing on the period from 1980 to 1982, this public information booklet reviews the accomplishments and innovative programs of Triton College. After an introduction by the college president summarizing these achievements, subsequent sections focus on: (1) training partnerships with business and industry, including cooperative agreements with the…

  5. The Humanities at Triton College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacot, Robert E.; Prendergast, Nancy E.

    Designed to assist college personnel in assessing program needs, this report provides an overview of the humanities programs at Triton College. Part I focuses on curricular humanities programs, including discussions of the role and objectives of the School of Arts and Sciences; humanities courses offered in the school; special humanities…

  6. 6Li foil thermal neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Favalli, Andrea; Chung, Kiwhan; Macarthur, Duncan W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design of a multilayer thermal neutron detector based on {sup 6}Li reactive foil and thin film plastic scintillators. The {sup 6}Li foils have about twice the intrinsic efficiency of {sup 10}B films and about four times higher light output due to a unique combination of high energy of reaction particles, low self absorption, and low ionization density of tritons. The design configuration provides for double sided readout of the lithium foil resulting in a doubling of the efficiency relative to a classical reactive film detector and generating a pulse height distribution with a valley between neutron and gamma signals similar to {sup 3}He tubes. The tens of microns thickness of plastic scintillator limits the energy deposited by gamma rays, which provides the necessary neutron/gamma discrimination. We used MCNPX to model a multilayer Li foil detector design and compared it with the standard HLNCC-II (18 {sup 3}He tubes operated at 4 atm). The preliminary results of the {sup 6}Li configuration show higher efficiency and one third of the die-away time. These properties, combined with the very short dead time of the plastic scintillator, offer the potential of a very high performance detector.

  7. Exploring Triton with multiple landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2005-01-01

    In our pathway for Outer Planetary Exploration several mission concepts were considered, based on the proposed JIMO mission architecture. This paper describes a JIMO follow-on mission concept to Neptunes largest moon. Triton is a target of interest for outer solar system studies. It has a highly inclined retrograde orbit, suggesting that it may have been a Kuiper Belt object captured by Neptune. Given this assumption its composition, which may include organic materials, would be of significant scientific interest.

  8. The venom of the fishing spider Dolomedes sulfurous contains various neurotoxins acting on voltage-activated ion channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengyun; Zhang, Fan; Li, Dan; Xu, Shiyan; He, Juan; Yu, Hai; Li, Jiayan; Liu, Zhonghua; Liang, Songping

    2013-04-01

    Dolomedes sulfurous is a venomous spider distributed in the south of China and characterized with feeding on fish. The venom exhibits great diversity and contains hundreds of peptides as revealed by off-line RP-HPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. The venom peptides followed a triple-modal distribution, with 40.7% of peptides falling in the mass range of 1000-3000 Da, 25.6% peptides in the 7000-9000 Da range and 23.5% peptides in the 3000-5000 Da range. This distribution modal is rather different from these of peptides from other spider venoms analyzed. The venom could inhibit voltage-activated Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) channels in rat DRG neurons as revealed by voltage-clamp analysis. Significantly, the venom exhibited inhibitory effects on TTX-R Na(+) and T-type Ca(2+) currents, suggesting that there exist both channel antagonists which might be valuable tools for investigation of both channels and drug development. Additionally, intrathoracically injection of venom could cause serve neurotoxic effects on zebrafish and death at higher concentrations. The LD50 value was calculated to be 28.8 μg/g body weight. Our results indicated that the venom of D. sulfurous contain diverse neurotoxins which serve to capture prey. Intensive studies will be necessary to investigate the structures and functions of specific peptides of the venom in the future. PMID:23391637

  9. Voyager imaging of Triton's clouds and hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rages, Kathy; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a detailed analysis of Voyager images of Triton obtained at the highest solar phase angles; these have been fit to Mie scattering models in order to obtain the mean particle sizes, number densities, and the vertical extent of the two different scattering components of the Triton atmosphere. The 0.001-0.01 optical depths of about 0.17 micron particles are vertically distributed with scale heights of about 10 km throughout Triton. A number of properties of the haze particles in question suggest that they are composed of photochemically produced gases which have condensed in the cold lower atmosphere of Triton.

  10. Search for glazed surfaces on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The paper summarizes arguments leading to suggestions that Triton's icy surface may be unusual in texture, sith special attention given to the hypothesis of the existence of glazed areas on Triton. Results are presented of a search for an evidence of specular reflection diagnostic of 'glazed' icy surfaces on Triton, using high-resolution Voyager 2 images of three regions on Triton: the South Polar Cap Mottled Unit, the Bright Fringe, and the Frost Band. No such evidence was found in these three different terrains.

  11. Compliant Foil Seal Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret; Delgado, Irebert

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc. (MiTi) to develop a Compliant Foil Seal for use in gas turbine engines. MiTi was awarded phase I and phase II SBIR contracts to analyze, develop, and test foil seals. As part of the Phase II contract, MiTi delivered an 8.5 inch diameter foil seal to NASA GRC for testing. Today I will be presenting some results of testing the 8.5 inch foil seal at NASA.

  12. The Plausibility of Boiling Geysers on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    A mechanism is suggested and modeled whereby there may be boiling geysers on Triton. The geysers would be of nitrogen considering that Voyager detected cryovolcanic activity, that solid nitrogen conducts heat much less than water ice, and that there is internal heat on Triton.

  13. Triton Blushes: A Clue to Global Warming?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The large Neptunian satellite Triton is a geologically active body that apparently undergoes complex seasonal changes in its 165 year journey around the sun. Because it is the vehicle for the seasonal transport of volatiles, Triton's atmosphere is expected to undergo large changes in temperature and pressure on a time scale of decades.

  14. Foil Face Seal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  15. Relativistic corrections to the triton binding energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, F.; Xu, D.P.; Machleidt, R. )

    1992-11-01

    The influence of relativity on the triton binding energy is investigated. The relativistic three-dimensional version of the Bethe-Salpeter equation proposed by Blankenbecler and Sugar (BbS) is used. Relativistic (nonseparable) one-boson-exchange potentials (constructed in the BbS framework) are employed for the two-nucleon interaction. In a 34-channel Faddeev calculation, it is found that relativistic effects increase the triton binding energy by about 0.2 MeV. Including charge dependence (besides relativity), the final triton binding energy predictions are 8.33 and 8.16 MeV for the Bonn A and B potentials, respectively.

  16. The density of triton: A prediction

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, W.B. ); Mueller, S. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors predict the density of Triton, as a function of radius, based on the assumptions that it was captured from solar orbit and thus has rock/ice ratio similar to that of the Pluto-Charon system. The best present estimates for Triton's radius are 1000-2000 km, and if the origin hypothesis is correct, its density should be greater than 2.0 g cm{sup {minus}3}, increasing slowly with radius. On the other hand, if Triton is an original regular satellite whose orbit has been perturbed, its density will be lower and more consistent with the derived rock fractions of other icy satellites.

  17. Comparison of Ridges on Triton and Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. .

    2003-01-01

    Triton and Europa each display a variety of ridges and associated troughs. The resemblance of double ridges on these two satellites has been previously noted [R. Kirk, pers. comm.], but as yet, the similarities and differences between these feature types have not been examined in any detail. Triton s ridges, and Europa s, exhibit an evolutionary sequence ranging from isolated troughs, through doublet ridges, to complex ridge swaths [1, 2]. Comparison of ridges on Europa to those on Triton may provide insight into their formation on both satellites, and thereby have implications for the satellites' histories.

  18. Anomalous-scattering region on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek

    1992-01-01

    A photometric analysis of Voyager 2 images of a broad, 'anomalous scattering region' (ASR) on Triton shows its material to differ from the average Triton regolith in being only weakly backward scattering at all Voyager 2 camera wavelengths; the ASR also displays distinctive phase-dependent green/violet color ratios and clear-filter albedo. These characteristics are used to map the global distribution of the ASR areas for which photometric coverage is incomplete. The ASR may form an almost continuous band of material that runs parallel to the Triton equator, characterized by the presence of a transparent and optically thin, seasonally-controlled veneer of well-annealed solid N2.

  19. Surface treatment using metal foil liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvey, Ray

    1989-01-01

    A metal foil liner can be used to seal large area surfaces. Characteristics of the two-layer foil liner are discussed. Micrographs for foil-to-foil, foil-to-composite, visible seams, and hidden seams are examined.

  20. Beam-foil spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Hass, M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey of some applications of beam-foil spectroscopy is presented. Among the topics covered are lifetime and magnetic moment measurements, nuclear alignment, and polarized light production. (AIP)

  1. Volatile processes in Triton's atmosphere and surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    A basic model for latitudinal transport of nitrogen is reviewed focusing on its limitations and some complications associated with surface and atmospheric physics. Data obtained by 1989 Voyager encounter with the Neptune system revealed the complexity in the pure nitrogen transport which is caused by the nonuniform albedo of the frosts. It is concluded that Triton is similar to Mars in terms of the complexity of volatile transport and to understand Triton's surface-atmosphere system, Mars may be a very good analog.

  2. A close-up view of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Miner, Ellis D.; Collins, Stewart A.

    1990-01-01

    Triton, the only large moon in the solar system with a retrograde motion, is investigated. The moon rotates about Neptune every 5.88 days and its annual cycle lasts 165 years. The orbit of Triton is 355,000 km from Neptune and it is inclined 23 deg relative to Neptune's equator. The precession of its orbital plane causes complications in its seasonal progression. Triton has a radius of 1353 km and a density of 2.07 gm/cu cm. Triton is believed to have a core of rock surrounded by water ice and a surface veneer of methane and nitrogen ice. The bright haze in its atmosphere could be small grains of particulates. Triton's surface features suggest that the moon should have remained molten until about 1 billion years ago. In order to explain the active geyser-like plumes observed near the subsolar latitude of about 50 deg south, various mechanisms are suggested including explosive escape of nitrogen gas, surface winds, and buoyancy of warmer gas. Voyager 2, which left Neptune and Triton in August 1989 and is now moving out of the solar system, is expected to provide the first glimpses of interstellar material.

  3. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  4. The Atmospheric Structure of Triton and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, James L.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research was to better determine the atmospheric structures of Triton and Pluto through further analysis of three occultation data sets obtained with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO.) As the research progressed, we concentrated our efforts on the Triton data, as this appeared to be the most fruitful. Three papers have been prepared as a result of this research. The first paper presents new results about Triton's atmospheric structure from the analysis of all ground-based stellar occultation data recorded to date, including one single-chord occultation recorded on 1993 July 10 and nine occultation lightcurves from the double-star event on 1995 August 14. These stellar occultation observations made both in the visible and in the infrared have good spatial coverage of Triton, including the first Triton central-flash observations, and are the first data to probe the altitude level 20-100 km on Triton. The small-planet lightcurve model of J. L. Elliot and L. A. Young was generalized to include stellar flux refracted by the far limb, and then fitted to the data. Values of the pressure, derived from separate immersion and emersion chords, show no significant trends with latitude, indicating that Triton's atmosphere is spherically symmetric at approximately 50 km altitude to within the error of the measurements; however, asymmetry observed in the central flash indicates the atmosphere is not homogenous at the lowest levels probed (approximately 20 km altitude). From the average of the 1995 occultation data, the equivalent isothermal temperature of the atmosphere is 47 plus or minus 1 K and the atmospheric pressure at 1400 km radius (approximately 50 km altitude) is 1.4 plus or minus 0.1 microbar. Both of these are not consistent with a model based on Voyager UVS and RSS observations in 1989. The atmospheric temperature from the occultation is 5 K colder than that predicted by the model and the observed pressure is a factor of 1.8 greater than the

  5. Foil implosion studies on PEGASUS

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Begay, F.; Kruse, H.W.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Turchi, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    PEGASUS is a 1.5 MJ capacitor bank facility used in the Los Alamos Trailmaster foil implosion program. The experiments on this facility are to serve as a diagnostic testbed and foil physics benchmark for foil implosions with explosive generators as drivers. During the first year of operation, foil implosions have been driven by discharging the bank directly into a very thin Aluminum 2500 /angstrom/ thick free-standing foil without any pulse sharpening techniques; so-called ''direct drive.''These direct drive experiments have served as initial tests to optimize bank performance and foil implosion experimental techniques. The results to date are presented below. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. The Phase Composition of Triton's Polar Caps.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, N S; Brown, R H

    1993-08-01

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them. PMID:17757213

  7. The phase composition of Triton's polar caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them.

  8. Triton stellar occultation candidates - 1992-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, S. W.; Elliot, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A search for Triton stellar occultation candidates for the period 1992-1994 has been completed with CCD strip-scanning observations. The search reached an R magnitude of about 17.4 and found 129 candidates within 1.5 arcsec of Triton's ephemeris during this period. Of these events, around 30 occultations are expected to be visible from the earth, indicating that a number of Triton occultation events should be visible from major observatories. Even the faintest of the present candidate events could produce useful occultation data if observed with a large enough telescope. The present astrometric accuracy is inadequate to identify which of these appulse events will produce occultations on the earth; further astrometry is needed to refine the predictions for positive occultation identification. To aid in selecting candidates for additional astrometric and photometric studies, finder charts and earth-based visibility charts for each event are included.

  9. The phase composition of Triton's polar caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1993-08-01

    Triton's polar caps are modeled as permanent nitrogen deposits hundreds of meters thick. Complex temperature variations on Triton's surface induce reversible transitions between the cubic and hexagonal phases of solid nitrogen, often with two coexisting propagating transition fronts. Subsurface temperature distributions are calculated using a two-dimensional thermal model with phase changes. The phase changes fracture the upper nitrogen layer, increasing its reflectivity and thus offering an explanation for the surprisingly high southern polar cap albedo (approximately 0.8) seen during the Voyager 2 flyby. The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them.

  10. Color Sequence of Triton Approach Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Triton Voyager 2 approach sequence with latitude-longitude grid superposed. The color image was reconstructed by making a computer composite of three black and white images taken through red, green, and blue filters. Details on Triton's surface unfold dramatically in this sequence of approach images. South Pole near the bottom of the images at the convergence of lines of longitude. Resolution changes from about 60 km/pixel (37 mi/pixel) in the image at upper left taken from a distance of 500,000 (311,000 mi) to about 5 km/pixel (3.1 mi/pixel) for the image at lower right. Global and regional albedo features are visible in all of the images. The albedo features can be tracked in successive images and show that Triton has undergone about 3/4 of a rotation during the 4.3-day interval over which these images were obtained. A southern polar cap of bright pink, yellow, and white materials covers nearly all of the southern hemisphere; these materials consist of nitrogen ice with traces of other substances, including frozen methane and carbon monoxide. Feeble ultraviolet radiation from the sun is thought to act on methane to cause chemical reactions to the pinkish yellowish substances. At the time of the Voyager 2 flyby (Jan. 1989) Triton's southern hemisphere was starting the summer season and the South Pole was canted toward the sun day and night, such that the polar cap was sublimating under the relatively 'hot' summer sun (surface temperature about 38 K, about -391 degree F). Numerous dark streaks on the southern polar nitrogen-ice cap are thought to consist of dark dust deposited by prevailing winds in Triton's tenuous nitrogen atmosphere. A bluish band, seen in all of the images, nearly circumstances Triton's equator; this band is thought to consist of fairly nitrogen frost, perhaps deposited in the decade prior to Voyager 2's flyby.

  11. V photometry of Titania, Oberon, and Triton

    SciTech Connect

    Goguen, J.D.; Hammel, H.B.; Brown, R.H.

    1989-02-01

    The phase angle and orbital brightness variations of Titania, Oberon, and Triton are presently obtained through analysis of V filter photometry obtained at Mauna Kea in 1982-1983. While Titania and Oberon exhibit magnitude variations with phase angle comparable to those of low-to-moderate albedo asteroids observed within several deg of opposition, Triton's phase variation is distinctly different from these and has a phase coefficient consistent with either a high-albedo regolith or an optically thick nonparticulate scattering layer (perhaps an atmosphere, or an ocean). A low-albedo regolith cannot on the strength of these data be ruled out, however. 39 references.

  12. Triton's surface-atmosphere energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, John A.; Yelle, Roger V.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1992-01-01

    A model encompassing the turbulent transfer of sensible heat as well as insolation, reradiation, and latent heat transport is presently used to investigate the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system of Triton. Under the assumption of a physically plausible range of heat transfer coefficients, the atmospheric temperature 1 km above the surface is found to be 1-3 K hotter than the Triton surface. The observed N2 frosts must have an emissivity lower than unity in order to match a frost temperature at the surface of about 38 K.

  13. A massive early atmosphere on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Nolan, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of an early greenhouse atmosphere for Triton is presented and the conditions under which it may have been sustained are quantified. The volatile content of primordial Triton is modeled, and tidal heating rates are assessed to set bounds on the available energy. The atmospheric model formalism is presented, and it is shown how a massive atmosphere could have been raised by modest tidal heating fluxes. The implications of the model atmospheres for the atmospheric escape rates, the chemical evolution, and the cratering record are addressed.

  14. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    DOEpatents

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  15. Role of Internal Heat Source for Eruptive Plumes on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N. S.; Brown, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time the role of the internal heat source, due to radioactive decay in Triton's core, is investigate with respect to geyser-like plumes...A new mechanism of energy supply to the Tritonian eruptive plumes is proposed...We present the critical values of these parameters for Triton. A possible origin of the subsurface vents on Triton is also suggested.

  16. Triton College Marketing Plan '85-'86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard, Ed.; Leach, Ernie, Ed.

    Prepared in response to shifts in the student body make-up and demographic changes in the school district, this report provides an in-depth analysis of environmental conditions faced by Triton College (Illinois) and presents a specific marketing plan developed in response to the identified trends. The first sections of the report focus on trends…

  17. Restaurant Training Recipe At Triton College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliano, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    The successful restaurant training program at Triton College (Illinois) involves a broadly based, two-year curriculum offering practical training in nearly all the areas associated with a comprehensive food operation--management, food preparation, menu planning, nutrition, personnel vending, dining room service, and cost control. (Author/EA)

  18. Triton's surface-atmosphere energy balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stansberry, J.A.; Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I.; McEwen, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    We explore the energetics of Triton's surface-atmosphere system using a model that includes the turbulent transfer of sensible heat as well as insolation, reradiation, and latent heat transport. The model relies on a 1?? by 1?? resolution hemispheric bolometric albedo map of Triton for determining the atmospheric temperature, the N2 frost emissivity, and the temperatures of unfrosted portions of the surface consistent with a frost temperature of ???38 K. For a physically plausible range of heat transfer coefficients, we find that the atmospheric temperature roughly 1 km above the surface is approximately 1 to 3 K hotter than the surface. Atmospheric temperatures of 48 K suggested by early analysis of radio occultation data cannot be obtained for plausible values of the heat transfer coefficients. Our calculations indicate that Triton's N2 frosts must have an emissivity well below unity in order to have a temperature of ???38 K, consistent with previous results. We also find that convection over small hot spots does not significantly cool them off, so they may be able to act as continous sources of buoyancy for convective plumes, but have not explored whether the convection is vigorous enough to entrain particulate matter thereby forming a dust devil. Our elevated atmospheric temperatures make geyser driven plumes with initial upward velocities ???10 m s-1 stagnate in the lower atmosphere. These "wimpy" plumes provide a possible explanation for Triton's "wind streaks.". ?? 1992.

  19. Triton College Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's (Illinois) Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP) provides a detailed guide to hiring new faculty, focusing on the desired characteristics of new faculty; marketing and recruitment strategies; employment incentives; the application, interviewing, and selection process; new faculty orientation; a timeline for implementation; cost…

  20. Photometric diversity of terrains on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Lee, P.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager disk-resolved images of Triton in the violet (0.41 micrometers) and green (0.56 micrometer wavelengths have been analyzed to derive the photometric characteristics of terrains on Triton. Similar conclusions are found using two distinct but related definitions of photometric units, one based on color ratio and albedo properties (A. S. McEwen, 1990), the other on albedo and brightness ratios at different phase angles (P. Lee et al., 1992). A significant diversity of photometric behavior, much broader than that discovered so far on any other icy satellite, occurs among Triton's terrains. Remarkably, differences in photometric behavior do not correlate well with geologic terrain boundaries defined on the basis of surface morphology. This suggests that in most cases photometric properties on Triton are controlled by thin deposits superposed on underlying geologic units. Single scattering albedos are 0.98 or higher and asymmetry factors range from -0.35 to -0.45 for most units. The most distinct scattering behavior is exhibited by the reddish northern units already identified as the Anomalously Scattering Region (ASR), which scatters light almost isotropically with g = -0.04. In part due to the effects of Triton's clouds and haze, it is difficult to constrain the value of bar-theta, Hapke's macroscopic roughness parameter, precisely for Triton or to map differences in bar-theta among the different photometric terrains. However, our study shows that Triton must be relatively smooth, with bar-theta less than 15-20 degs and suggests that a value of 14 degs is appropriate. The differences in photometric characteristics lead to significantly different phase angle behavior for the various terrains. For example, a terrain (e.g., the ASR) that appears dark relative to another at low phase angles will reverse its contrast (become relatively brighter) at larger phase angles. The photometric parameters have been used to calculate hemispherical albedos for the units and to

  1. Stellar Occultation Probe of Triton's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, James L.

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this research were (i) to better characterize Triton's atmospheric structure by probing a region not well investigated by Voyager and (ii) to begin acquiring baseline data for an investigation of the time evolution of the atmosphere which will set limits on the thermal conductivity of the surface and the total mass of N2 in the atmosphere. Our approach was to use observations (with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory) of a stellar occultation by Triton that was predicted to occur on 1993 July 10. As described in the attached reprint, we achieved these objectives through observation of this occultation and a subsequent one with the KAO in 1995. We found new results about Triton's atmospheric structure from the analysis of the two occultations observed with the KAO and ground-based data. These stellar occultation observations made both in the visible and infrared, have good spatial coverage of Triton including the first Triton central-flash observations, and are the first data to probe the 20-100 km altitude level on Triton. The small-planet light curve model of Elliot and Young (AJ 103, 991-1015) was generalized to include stellar flux refracted by the far limb, and then fitted to the data. Values of the pressure, derived from separate immersion and emersion chords, show no significant trends with latitude indicating that Triton's atmosphere is spherically symmetric at approximately 50 km altitude to within the error of the measurements. However, asymmetry observed in the central flash indicates the atmosphere is not homogeneous at the lowest levels probed (approximately 20 km altitude). From the average of the 1995 occultation data, the equivalent-isothermal temperature of the atmosphere is 47 +/- 1 K and the atmospheric pressure at 1400 km radius (approximately 50 km altitude) is 1.4 +/- 0.1 microbar. Both of these are not consistent with a model based on Voyager UVS and RSS observations in 1989 (Strobel et al, Icarus 120, 266-289). The atmospheric

  2. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-11-06

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80/sup 0/ C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V.

  3. Solar control of the upper atmosphere of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, James R.; Yung, Yuk L.; Allen, Mark

    1992-01-01

    If the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Triton are controlled by precipitation of electrons from Neptune's magnetosphere as previously proposed, Triton could have the only ionosphere in the solar system not controlled by solar radiation. However, a new model of Triton's atmosphere, in which only solar radiation is present, predicts a large column of carbon atoms. With an assumed, but reasonable, rate of charge transfer between N2(+) and C, a peak C(+) abundance results that is close to the peak electron densities measured by Voyager in Triton's ionosphere. These results suggest that Triton's upper atmospheric chemistry may thus be solar-controlled. Measurement of key reaction rate constants, currently unknown or highly uncertain at Triton's low temperatures, would help to clarify the chemical and physical processes occurring in Triton's atmosphere.

  4. Voyager disk-integrated photometry of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Goguen, J.; Johnson, T. V.

    1990-01-01

    Hapke's (1981) photometric model has been combined with a plane-parallel thin atmospheric haze model to describe Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton, in the violet, blue, and green wavelength bands, in order to obtain estimates of Triton's geometric albedo, phase integral, and Bond albedo. Phase angle coverage in these filters ranging from about 12 to 159 deg was obtained by combining narrow- and wide-angle camera images. An upturn in the data at the highest phase angles observed can be explained by including scattering in a thin atmospheric haze layer with optical depths systematically decreasing with wavelength from about 0.06 in the violet to 0.03 for the green filter data.

  5. Triton stellar occultation candidates: 1995-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, S. W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    We have completed a search for candidates for stellar occultations by Triton over the years 1995-1999. CCd strip scan images provided star positions in the relevant sky area to a depth of about 17.5 R magnitude. Over this time period, we find that Triton passes within 1.0 arcsec of 75 stars. Appulses with geocentric minimum separations of less than 0.35 arcsec will result in stellar occultations, but further astrometry and photometry is necessary to refine individual predictions for identification of actual occultations. Finder charts are included to aid in further studies and prediction refinement. The two most promising potential occultations, Tr176 and Tr180, occur in 1997.

  6. Chemical processes in Triton's atmosphere and surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Thompson, W. R.

    1987-05-01

    Liquid solutions of N2 containing up to one-third CH4 can exist on Triton's surface in regions T > 62.5K. More generally, subsurface oceans of N2 solution are expected to be stable beneath overlying, thermally insulating, less dense layers of the abundant light hydrocarbon products of radiochemical synthesis: C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10. Cosmic rays are the main source of energy, capable of producing synthesis of organic compounds from N2 - CH4 solutions on the surface. For baseline Triton models with R = 2500 km, ρ = 2.1 g cm-3, and Ts = 65 or 55K, respectively, 4×10-3 or 7×10-3erg cm-2sec-1 (49 or 87% of the total incident flux) is deposited within a few meters below the surface. Using yields from laboratory experiments, the authors estimate the quantities of products produced.

  7. Triton - Stratospheric molecules and organic sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Singh, Sushil K.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1989-01-01

    Continuous-flow plasma discharge techniques show production rates of hydrocarbons and nitriles in N2 + CH4 atmospheres appropriate to the stratosphere of Titan, and indicate that a simple eddy diffusion model together with the observed electron flux quantitatively matches the Voyager IRIS observations for all the hydrocarbons, except for the simplest ones. Charged particle chemistry is very important in Triton's stratosphere. In the more CH4-rich case of Titan, many hydrocarbons and nitriles are produced in high yield. If N2 is present, the CH4 fraction is low, but hydrocarbons and nitriles are produced in fair yield, abundances of HCN and C2H2 in Triton's stratosphere exceed 10 to the 19th molecules/sq cm per sec, and NCCN, C3H4, and other species are predicted to be present. These molecules may be detected by IRIS if the stratosphere is as warm as expected. Both organic haze and condensed gases will provide a substantial UV and visible opacity in Triton's atmosphere.

  8. Triton's plumes - The dust devil hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Tryka, Kimberly A.

    1990-10-01

    Triton's plumes are narrow columns 10 km in height, with tails extending horizontally for distances over 100 km. This structure suggests that the plumes are an atmospheric rather than a surface phenomenon. The closest terrestrial analogs may be dust devils, which are atmospheric vortices originating in the unstable layer close to the ground. Since Triton has such a low surface pressure, extremely unstable layers could develop during the day. Patches of unfrosted ground near the subsolar point could act as sites for dust devil formation because they heat up relative to the surrounding nitrogen frost. The resulting convection would warm the atmosphere to temperatures of 48 k or higher, as observed by the Voyager radio science team. Assuming that velocity scales as the square root of temperature difference times the height of the mixed layer, a velocity of 20 m/sec is derived for the strongest dust devils on Triton. Winds of this speed could raise particles provided they are a factor of 1000 to 10,000 less cohesive than those on earth.

  9. Acceleration of tritons with a compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, H.; Huenges, E.; Muthig, H.; Morinaga, H.

    1981-01-01

    With the compact cyclotron at the Faculty of the Technical University of Munich, tritons have been accelerated to an energy of 7 MeV. A safe and reliable operation of the gas supply for the ion source was obtained by a new tritium storage system. A quantity of 1500 Ci tritium is stored by two special Zr-Al getter pumps in a non-gaseous phase. The tritium can be released in well-defined amounts by heating the getter material. During triton acceleration the pressure in the cyclotron vacuum chamber is maintained only by a large titanium sputter-ion pump, thus forming a closed vacuum system without any exhaust of tritium contaminated gas. Any tritium contaminations in the air can be detected by an extremely sensitive tritium monitoring system. The triton beam with a maximum intensity of 30 μA has been used so far to produce neutron-rich radioisotopes such as 28Mg, 43K or 72Zn, which are successfully applied in tracer techniques in the studies of biological systems.

  10. Comparative Planetary Atmospheres of Pluto and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, D. F.; Zhu, X.

    2015-10-01

    Both atmospheres of Pluto and Neptune's largest satellite Triton have cold surfaces with similar surface gravities and atmospheric surface pressures. We have updated the Zhu et al.Icarus 228 , 301, 2014) model for Pluto's atmosphere by adopting Voigt line profiles in the radiation code with the latest spectral database and extended the model to Triton's atmosphere by including additional parameterized heating due to the magnetospheric electron energy deposition. Numerical experiments show that the escape rate of an atmosphere for an icy planetary body similar to Pluto or Triton is quite sensitive to the methane abundance and planetary surface gravity. Together this leads to a cumulative effect on the density variation with the altitude that significantly changes the atmospheric scale height at the exobase together with the exobase altitude. The atmospheric thermal structure near the exobase is sensitive to the atmospheric escape rate only when it is significantly greater than 10 26 molecules s-1 above which an enhanced escape rate corresponds to a stronger radial velocity that adiabatically cools the atmosphere to a lower temperature.

  11. Chemical investigation of Titan and Triton tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Heinrich, Michael; Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We report chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of both Titan and Triton tholins, organic solids made from the plasma irradiation of 0.9:0.1 and 0.999:0.001 N2/CH4 gas mixtures, respectively. The lower CH4 mixing ratio leads to a nitrogen-richer tholin (N/C greater than 1), probably including nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. Unlike Titan tholin, bulk Triton tholin is poor in nitriles. From high-pressure liquid chromatography, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight estimation by gel filtration chromatography, we conclude that (1) several H2O-soluble fractions, each with distinct UV and IR spectral signatures, are present, (2) these fractions are not identical in the two tholins, (3) the H2O-soluble fractions of Titan tholins do not contain significant amounts of nitriles, despite the major role of nitriles in bulk Titan tholin, and (4) the H2O-soluble fractions of both tholins are mainly molcules containing about 10 to 50 (C + N) atoms. We report yields of amino acids upon hydrolysis of Titan and Triton tholins. Titan tholin is largely insoluble in the putative hydrocarbon lakes or oceans on Titan, but can yield the H2O-soluble species investigated here upon contact with transient (e.g., impact-generated) liquid water.

  12. Triton's plumes - The dust devil hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Tryka, Kimberly A.

    1990-01-01

    Triton's plumes are narrow columns 10 km in height, with tails extending horizontally for distances over 100 km. This structure suggests that the plumes are an atmospheric rather than a surface phenomenon. The closest terrestrial analogs may be dust devils, which are atmospheric vortices originating in the unstable layer close to the ground. Since Triton has such a low surface pressure, extremely unstable layers could develop during the day. Patches of unfrosted ground near the subsolar point could act as sites for dust devil formation because they heat up relative to the surrounding nitrogen frost. The resulting convection would warm the atmosphere to temperatures of 48 k or higher, as observed by the Voyager radio science team. Assuming that velocity scales as the square root of temperature difference times the height of the mixed layer, a velocity of 20 m/sec is derived for the strongest dust devils on Triton. Winds of this speed could raise particles provided they are a factor of 1000 to 10,000 less cohesive than those on earth.

  13. Compliant Foil Seal Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret; Delgado, Irebert

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature testing of an 8.5 inch diameter foil seal was conducted in the High Speed, High Temperature Turbine Seal Test Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The seal was operated at speeds up to 30,000 rpm and pressure differentials up to 75 psid. Seal leakage and power loss data will be presented and compared to brush seal performance. The failure of the seal and rotor coating at 30,000 rpm and 15 psid will be presented and future development needs discussed.

  14. Submicron, unbacked, shaped metal foils

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed to produce unbacked, shaped metal foils in sub-micron thicknesses. This process utilizes a temporary substrate consisting of a water-soluble polymer film as a base for the electron-beam deposition of the metal layer. After formation of the metal foil, the polymer is removed by immersion of the assembly in water. Unbacked metal-foil cylinders as thin as 0.17 ..mu..m with extremely smooth, wrinkle-free surfaces have been produced by this technique. Polyvinyl alcohol was an excellent substrate. Aluminum foils were produced.

  15. Coupling of volatile transport and internal heat flow on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert H.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    1994-01-01

    Recently Brown et al. (1991) showed that Triton's internal heat source could amount to 5-20% of the absorbed insolation on Triton, thus significantly affecting volatile transport and atmospheric pressure. Subsequently, Kirk and Brown (1991a) used simple analytical models of the effect of internal heat on the distribution of volatiles on Triton's surface, confirming the speculation of Brown et al. that Triton's internal heat flow could strongly couple to the surface volatile distribution. To further explore this idea, we present numerical models of the permanent distribution of nitrogen ice on Triton that include the effects of sunlight, the two-dimensional distribution of internal heat flow, the coupling of internal heat flow to the surface distribution of nitrogen ice, and the finite viscosity of nitrogen ice. From these models we conclude that: (1) The strong vertical thermal gradient induced in Triton's polar caps by internal heat-flow facilitates viscous spreading to lower latitudes, thus opposing the poleward transport of volatiles by sunlight, and, for plausible viscosities and nitrogen inventories, producing permanent caps of considerable latitudinal extent; (2) It is probable that there is a strong coupling between the surface distribution of nitrogen ice on Triton and internal heat flow; (3) Asymmetries in the spatial distribution of Triton's heat flow, possibly driven by large-scale, volcanic activity or convection in Triton's interior, can result in permanent polar caps of unequal latitudinal extent, including the case of only one permanent polar cap; (4) Melting at the base of a permanent polar cap on Triton caused by internal heat flow can significantly enhance viscous spreading, and, as an alternative to the solid-state greenhouse mechanism proposed by Brown et al. (1990), could provide the necessary energy, fluids, and/or gases to drive Triton's geyser-like plumes; (5) The atmospheric collapse predicted to occur on Triton in the next 20 years

  16. Rhenium-Foil Witness Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Cylindrical portion of wall of combustion chamber replaced with rhenium foil mounted on holder. Rhenium oxidizes without melting, indicating regions of excess oxidizer in combustion-chamber flow. Rhenium witness foils also useful in detecting excess oxygen and other oxidizers at temperatures between 2,000 and 3,600 degrees F in burner cores of advanced gas-turbine engines.

  17. Consequences of FOIL for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koban, Lori; Sisneros-Thiry, Simone

    2015-01-01

    FOIL is a well-known mnemonic that is used to find the product of two binomials. We conduct a large sample (n = 252) observational study of first-year college students and show that while the FOIL procedure leads to the accurate expansion of the product of two binomials for most students who apply it, only half of these students exhibit conceptual…

  18. Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

    1983-01-01

    The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

  19. On the microphysical state of the surface of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz

    1991-01-01

    The microphysical processes involved in the pressureless sintering of particulate materials and the physical conditions likely to prevail on Triton are examined in order to investigate the processes leading to the frost metamorphism on Triton. It is argued that the presence of a well-annealed transparent nitrogen layer offers a natural explanation for most of what is seen on the surface of Triton; results of observations suggest that such a layer can form on Triton at 37 K on a seasonal time scale (about 100 earth years), provided the initial grain diameter is less than 1 micron. Grains up to 10 microns are allowed if grain growth does not hinder densification.

  20. Secondary fusion coupled deuteron/triton transport simulation and thermal-to-fusion neutron convertor measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G. B.; Wang, K.; Liu, H. G.; Li, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    A Monte Carlo tool RSMC (Reaction Sequence Monte Carlo) was developed to simulate deuteron/triton transportation and reaction coupled problem. The 'Forced particle production' variance reduction technique was used to improve the simulation speed, which made the secondary product play a major role. The mono-energy 14 MeV fusion neutron source was employed as a validation. Then the thermal-to-fusion neutron convertor was studied with our tool. Moreover, an in-core conversion efficiency measurement experiment was performed with {sup 6}LiD and {sup 6}LiH converters. Threshold activation foils was used to indicate the fast and fusion neutron flux. Besides, two other pivotal parameters were calculated theoretically. Finally, the conversion efficiency of {sup 6}LiD is obtained as 1.97x10{sup -4}, which matches well with the theoretical result. (authors)

  1. Global color and albedo variations on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1990-01-01

    Global multispectral mosaics of Triton have been produced from Voyager approach images; six spectral units are defined and mapped. The margin of the south polar cap (SPC) is scalloped and ranges in latitude from + 10 deg to -30 deg. A bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; form it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. Thus, the rays may consist of fringe materials that were redistributed by northward-going Coriolis-deflected winds. From 1977 to 1989, Triton's full-disk spectrum changed from markedly red and UV-dark to nearly neutral white and UV-bright. This spectral change can be explained by new deposition of nitrogen frost over both the northern hemisphere and parts of a formerly redder SPC. Frost deposition in the southern hemisphere during southern summer is possible over relatively high albedo areas of the cap (Stansberry et al., 1990), which helps to explain the apparent stability of the unexpectedly large SPC and the presence of the bright fringe.

  2. The wavelength dependence of Triton's light curve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mcewen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Using Voyager observations, it is demonstrated that Triton's orbital light curve is strongly wavelength-dependent, a characteristic which readily explains some of the apparent discrepancies among pre-Voyager telescopic measurements. Specifically, a light curve amplitude (peak to peak) is found that decreases systematically with increasing wavelength from about 0.08 magnitude (peak to peak) near 200 nm to less than 0.02 magnitude near 1000 nm. Peak brightness occurs near 90 deg orbital longitude (leading hemisphere). The brightness variation across this hemisphere is close to sinusoidal; the variation across the darker hemisphere is more complex. The decrease in light curve amplitude with increasing wavelength appears to be due to a decrease in contrast among surface markings, rather than to atmospheric obscuration. The model also explains the observed decrease in the amplitude of Triton's light curve at visible wavelengths over the past decade, a decrease related to the current migration of the subsolar latitude toward the south pole; it is predicted that this trend will continue into the 1990s.

  3. Consequences of FOIL for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koban, Lori; Sisneros-Thiry, Simone

    2015-02-01

    FOIL is a well-known mnemonic that is used to find the product of two binomials. We conduct a large sample (n = 252) observational study of first-year college students and show that while the FOIL procedure leads to the accurate expansion of the product of two binomials for most students who apply it, only half of these students exhibit conceptual understanding of the procedure. We generalize this FOIL dichotomy and show that the ability to transfer a mathematical property from one context to a less familiar context is related to both procedural success and attitude towards math.

  4. Diapirs and cantaloupes: Layering and overturn of Triton's crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P.; Jackson, M. P. A.

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that cantaloupe terrain formed as a result of instability and overturn (i.e., diapirism) of Triton's crust. Morphologic evidence implicates compositional layering within Triton's crust as the driving mechanism for the overturn. Here, we review the morphologic evidence for this origin and evaluate some of the implications.

  5. Triton, Pluto, and the origin of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1993-08-01

    Planets may represent a commmon by-product of star formation, and thus may be a source of physical and chemical clues to the origin of the solar system. This paper discusses the molecular composition of Triton and Pluto, two of the most distant objects of the solar system. Particular consideration is given to the new findings (Cruikshank et al., 1993; Owen et al., 1993) of methane ice in concentrations from 0.05 percent (Triton) to 1.5 percent (Pluto) and carbon monoxide ice in concentrations from 0.1 percent (Triton) to 0.5 percent (Pluton), relative to nitrogen ice. The high abundance of nitrogen suggests a scenario of early outgassing of both Triton and Pluto, followed by substantial loss of CO. The nitrogen seen today on the two bodies must have been produced later in the histories of Pluto and Triton from a nitrogen-bearing molecule much less volatile than molecular nitrogen.

  6. New astrometric observations of Triton in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, R. C.; Zhang, H. Y.; Dourneau, G.; Yu, Y.; Yan, D.; Shen, K. X.; Cheng, X.; Xi, X. J.; Hu, X. Y.; Wang, S. H.

    2014-06-01

    Astrometric positions of the Neptunian satellite Triton with a visual magnitude of 13.5 were obtained during three successive oppositions in 2007, 2008 and 2009. A total of 1095 new observed positions of Triton were collected during 46 nights of observations, involving eight missions and three telescopes. We compared our observations to the best ephemerides of Triton available now. This comparison has shown that our observations present a high level of accuracy as they provide standard deviations of residuals hardly higher than 50 mas and mean residuals lower than 30 mas, corresponding to about only 500 km in the position of the very distant satellite Triton. Moreover, we have compared most of the different planetary ephemerides of Neptune available now as well as two recent orbit models of Triton. These new comparisons have clearly shown the differences between all of these ephemerides which can be significant and that are presented in this work.

  7. Three-triton states in {sup 9}Li

    SciTech Connect

    Muta, K.; Furumoto, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Itagaki, N.

    2011-09-15

    We investigate whether three-triton states appear or not in excited states of {sup 9}Li. We also search for a signature of the gaslike three-triton state, which is partly an analogy to the the case of the three-{alpha} state in {sup 12}C (Hoyle state). For this purpose, we use both three-triton and {alpha}+t+n+n wave functions to describe the low-lying states of {sup 9}Li and take into account the coupling effect between them. We show that the states in which the three-triton components dominate indeed appear below the three-triton threshold energy, although the root-mean-square radii of those states are not so much expanded in comparison with the gaslike state of three {alpha}'s.

  8. A New Model for the Seasonal Evolution of Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, F.; Decamp, N.; Berthier, J.; Le Guyader, C.

    2000-10-01

    The seasonal evolution of Triton's surface and atmosphere remains poorly understood. No model [1] has been able to fully reproduce the main characterictics of the Voyager 2 observations in 1989 in combination with the "Global warming" recently inferred from stellar occultations [2]. Within this context, we have developped a new thermal model to study the seasonal nitrogen cycle on Triton. The model is the surface part of a Triton atmosphere General circulation model developped at LMD [3]. The nitrogen cycle was found to be very sensitive to Triton complex seasonal variations of the subsolar point latitude, especially during the current decade (south summer solstice). Since only pre-Voyager formulations were available for such a study, this has motivated some new calculations of Triton's motion based on more recent rotationnal elements combined with a relatively complete dynamic solution [4] adapted to Triton. A new analytic formulation suitable for climate modelling has been derived. On this basis, we wish to suggest a new, realistic scenario to explain Triton's apparence and evolution based on solar-induced variation of the frost albedo. Such variations have been observed in Mars CO2 ice seasonal polar caps [5]. Although they seem to result from complex microphysical behavior, they are likely to occur on Triton since both Triton and Mars polar caps are composed of weakly absorbing ice (N2 or CO2) in vapor pressure equilibrium with the main constituant of the atmosphere. [1] e.g. Hansen and Paige, Icarus 99, 273-288 (1992); Brown and Kirk, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1965-1981 (1994); Spencer and Moore, Icarus 99, 261-272 (1992). [2] Elliot et al., Nature 393, 765-767 (1998). [3] Forget, Descamp and Hourdin, in ``Pluto and Triton, comparisons and evolution over time", Lowell Observatory's fourth annual workshop, Flagstaff, Arizona. (1999) [4] Le Guyader, Astron. Astrophys. 272, 687-694 (1993). [5] Kieffer et al., J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9653-9700 (2000).

  9. On the thermal structure of Triton's thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Michael H.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Yelle, Roger V.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of the Voyager 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer solar occultation data obtained at Triton is consistent with a spherically symmetric, isothermal thermosphere above 400 km at T(infinity) = 96 K. A detailed calculation of energy loss processes in a pure N2 atmosphere indicates that solar heating, with calculated T(infinity) = 70 K, is insufficient to account for the inferred T(infinity) = 96 K. The magnetosphere must deposit twice as much power as the sun to heat the thermosphere to 96 K and generate the observed N2 tangential column densities above 450 km. The thermal escape of H and N atoms and the downward diffusion of N atoms to recombine below 130 km results in local ionospheric heating efficiency of 24 percent. An upper limit on the tropopause CO mixing ratio of 2 x 10 exp -4 is inferred in the absence of aerosol heating to balance its efficient cooling by LTE rotational line emission.

  10. The Thermal Structure of Triton's Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Strobel, D. F.; Zhu, X.; Stansberry, J. A.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric structure of Triton in the altitude range 25-150 kilometers shows an unexpectedly steep thermal gradient of 0.26 K per kilometer above 50 kilometer altitude, with a nearly isothermal profile below. The upper part of the profile can be explained by downward conduction of heat deposited by magnetospheric electrons and solar UV. However, the atmospheric temperature below 50 kilometers is too cold for identified radiative processes to dispose of the inferred heat flux (0.0012 erg per square centimeter per second) from the upper atmosphere. This implies that either the atmosphere is not in a steady state and/or an unidentified cooling mechanism is at work in the altitude range 25-50 kilometers. When extrapolated to the surface, the inversion results yield a pressure of 19.0 sup (+1.8) sub (-1.5), mubar, about 5mubar greater than that observed by Voyager.

  11. The Triton: Design concepts and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Singer, Michael; Vanryn, Percy; Brown, Rhonda; Tella, Gustavo; Harvey, Bob

    1992-01-01

    During the design of the C & P Aerospace Triton, a few problems were encountered that necessitated changes in the configuration. After the initial concept phase, the aspect ratio was increased from 7 to 7.6 to produce a greater lift to drag ratio (L/D = 13) which satisfied the horsepower requirements (118 hp using the Lycoming O-235 engine). The initial concept had a wing planform area of 134 sq. ft. Detailed wing sizing analysis enlarged the planform area to 150 sq. ft., without changing its layout or location. The most significant changes, however, were made just prior to inboard profile design. The fuselage external diameter was reduced from 54 to 50 inches to reduce drag to meet the desired cruise speed of 120 knots. Also, the nose was extended 6 inches to accommodate landing gear placement. Without the extension, the nosewheel received an unacceptable percentage (25 percent) of the landing weight. The final change in the configuration was made in accordance with the stability and control analysis. In order to reduce the static margin from 20 to 13 percent, the horizontal tail area was reduced from 32.02 to 25.0 sq. ft. The Triton meets all the specifications set forth in the design criteria. If time permitted another iteration of the calculations, two significant changes would be made. The vertical stabilizer area would be reduced to decrease the aircraft lateral stability slope since the current value was too high in relation to the directional stability slope. Also, the aileron size would be decreased to reduce the roll rate below the current 106 deg/second. Doing so would allow greater flap area (increasing CL(sub max)) and thus reduce the overall wing area. C & P would also recalculate the horsepower and drag values to further validate the 120 knot cruising speed.

  12. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Triton's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAMs exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SaM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAMs on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAMs has been determined, further constraints on their composition cable made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  13. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Triton's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1994-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV Spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAM's exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SAM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAM's on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAM's has been determined, further constraints on their composition can be made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on Voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  14. Lattice physics capabilities of the SCALE code system using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M. D.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes ongoing calculations used to validate the TRITON depletion module in SCALE for light water reactor (LWR) fuel lattices. TRITON has been developed to provide improved resolution for lattice physics mixed-oxide fuel assemblies as programs to burn such fuel in the United States begin to come online. Results are provided for coupled TRITON/PARCS analyses of an LWR core in which TRITON was employed for generation of appropriately weighted few-group nodal cross-sectional sets for use in core-level calculations using PARCS. Additional results are provided for code-to-code comparisons for TRITON and a suite of other depletion packages in the modeling of a conceptual next-generation boiling water reactor fuel assembly design. Results indicate that the set of SCALE functional modules used within TRITON provide an accurate means for lattice physics calculations. Because the transport solution within TRITON provides a generalized-geometry capability, this capability is extensible to a wide variety of non-traditional and advanced fuel assembly designs. (authors)

  15. The photochemistry of methane in the atmosphere of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Herbert, Floyd; Sandel, Bill R.

    1990-01-01

    The model of Summers and Strobel (1989) for photochemical reactions in the Uranus atmosphere was modified and used for quantitative calculations of methane in the atmosphere of Triton. The principal adjustable parameters in the new model are the surface CH4 concentrations and the vigor of vertical mixing in Triton's lower atmosphere. It is shown the rate of methane photolysis that was calculated is sufficient to generate a smog of condensed C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C4H2 particles in the lowest 30 km of Triton's atmosphere, with an optical depth consistent with the Voyager imaging results.

  16. Voyager radio science observations of Neptune and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, G. L.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Anderson, J. D.; Borutzki, S. E.; Campbell, J. K.; Kursinski, E. R.; Levy, G. S.; Lindal, G. F.; Lyons, J. R.; Wood, G. E.

    1989-12-01

    Voyager 2 undertook radio science investigations of the Neptune and Triton masses and densities, as well as of their atmospheric and ionospheric vertical structures, the atmospheric composition and low-order gravitational harmonics of Neptune, and ring material characteristics. Upon probing the atmosphere of Neptune to a pressure level of about 500,000 Pa, the effects of a methane cloud region and of ammonia absorption below the cloud have become apparent. The tenuous neutral atmosphere of Triton produced distinct signatures in the occultation data; it is inferred that the Triton atmosphere is controlled by water-pressure equilibrium with surface ices.

  17. Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils

    DOEpatents

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Knighton, Gaven C.; Clark, Curtis R.

    2006-09-05

    A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

  18. Lithium-6 foil neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.A.

    1982-12-21

    A neutron detection apparatus is provided which includes a selected number of flat surfaces of lithium-6 foil, and which further includes a gas mixture in contact with each of the flat surfaces for selectively reacting to charged particles emitted by or radiated from the lithium foil. A container is provided to seal the lithium foil and the gas mixture in a volume from which water vapor and atmospheric gases are excluded, the container having one or more walls which are transmissive to neutrons. Monitoring equipment in contact with the gas mixture detects reactions taking place in the gas mixture, and, in response to such reactions, provides notice of the flux of neutrons passing through the volume of the detector.

  19. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1980-04-01

    Solar absorber metal foils are discussed in terms of materials and basic processing science. Also included is the use of finished heavy sheet stock for direct fabrication of solar collector panels. Both the adhesives and bonding methods for foils and sheet are surveyed. Developmental and representative commercial foils are used as illustrative examples. As a result it was found that foils can compete economically with batch plating but are limited by adhesive temperature stability. Also absorber foils are very versatile and direct collector fabrication from heavy foils appears very promising.

  20. The Revised Pole Model and New Observations of Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.-Y.; Shen, K.-X.; Qiao, R.-Ch; Dourneau, G.; Yu, Y.

    2015-10-01

    We used 3108 Earth-based astrometric observations from the Natural Satellite Data Center (NSDC) over more than 30 years time span from 1975 to 2006 for determining the epoch state vectors of the Neptunes largest satellite Triton. In integrating the perturbation equation, the barycentric frame of Neptune-Triton system is adopted, and in considering the oblateness perturbation due to Neptune, a revised pole model describing the precession of the Neptune's pole is used in our calculation. Moreover, a total of 1095 new observed positions of Triton were collected during 46 nights of observations in 2007, 2008 and 2009. We compared our observations to two ephemerides of Triton and most of the available planetary ephemerides of Neptune.

  1. Neutral particle measurements of fusion tritons in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev, V. I.; Khudoleev, A. V.

    2010-08-15

    A neutral particle analyzer [A.D. Izvozchikov et al., JET Report No. JET-R(91)-12, 1991] operating in the MeV energy range was used to measure the flux of neutralized d-d fusion tritons emitted from the hot-ion H-mode deuterium plasma heated by deuterium neutral beams. It was found that tritons in the energy range of 0.3-1.1 MeV were largely neutralized by the beam atoms and the beam halo atoms. This enabled us to find the localized energy distribution function of the fusion tritons in the central plasma region. Simulation of the triton energy distribution function shows that MeV ions in the JET hot-ion H-mode plasma behave classically.

  2. Voyager IRIS Measurements of Triton's Thermal Emission: Impllications for Pluto?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansberry, John A.; Spencer, John; Linscott, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    The New Horizons Pluto encounter data set includes unique observations obtained using the Radio Science experiment to measure the night-side thermal emission at centimeter wavelengths, well beyond the emission peak (in the 70 to 100 micron range). 26 years ago the Voyager 2 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) obtained spectra in the 30 - 50 micron wavelength range to try and detect thermal emission from Pluto's sibling, Triton. Conrath etal. (1989) analyzed 16 of the IRIS spectra of Triton's dayside and derived a weak limit of 36 K - 41 K. We have analysed those, and an additional 75 spectra, to refine the limits on the temperature of Triton's surface, and to explore diurnal differences in the thermal emission. Triton results from other Voyager instruments provide important constraints on our interpretation of the IRIS data, as do Spitzer measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.For unit-emissivity, average temperature is 34 K, inconsistent with the pressure of Triton's atmosphere (13 - 19 microbar), the presence of beta-phase nitrogen ice on the surface, and the likely presence ofwarm regions on the surface. The atmospheric pressure requires nitrogen ice temperatures of 37.4 K - 38.1 K, which in turn requires emissivity of 0.31--0.53. Such a low emissivity in this spectral region might be expected if the surface is dominated by nitrogen or methane ice. Averages of data subsets show evidence for brightness temperature variations across Triton's surface. Surprisingly, the data seem to indicate that Triton's nightside equatorial region was warmer than on the dayside.These Voyager results for Triton provide a useful context for interpreting New Horizons and ALMA observations of emission from Pluto in the sub-millimeter and centimeter region. JWST will be capable of detecting Triton's and Pluto's 10 - 28 micron thermal emission, although scattered light from Neptune may be an issue for the Triton. Combined with new capabilities of ALMA to measure the sub

  3. Discovery of a Remarkable Opposition Surge on Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Bauer, J.; Hicks, M.; Herbert, B.; Schmidt, B.; Cobb, B.; Ward, J.

    2006-05-01

    The large Neptunian satellite Triton is one of three moons in the outer Solar System that exhibit volcanism. Triton's volcanoes appear to be driven by solar heating. In addition, significant seasonal volatile is expected to occur on Triton. To understand the nature and extent of activity on Triton, including volcanism and seasonal volatile transport, we have undertaken a program of deriving the surface properties of Triton through time by means of ground- based observations. Another motivation for our work is to closely study a body that may bear a strong resemblance to the planet Pluto and the swarm of icy bodies in the outer Solar System now known as Kuiper Belt Objects. One important measurement is the solar phase curve, or the brightness as a function of the angle between the observer, the object being observed, and the sun. Most significant are observations at large solar phase angles, which probe the roughness of the surface, and small angles, which characterize the fluffiness of the surface and give clues to optical phenomena such as coherent backscatter. For Triton, large phase angles are not observable from Earth, but the 2004 season presented an opportunity in which the solar phase angle reached the exceedingly low value of 0.002 degrees. During the 2004 season, photometric observations of Triton's phase curve were obtained in the astronomical BVRI filters, spanning wavelengths from 0.45 to 0.89 microns. Triton exhibits a large increase in its brightness as the solar phase angle approaches zero. There is a wavelength dependence to this opposition surge, the term commonly used to describe the non-linear increase in brightness observed on almost all airless bodies.

  4. The BVRI and methane lightcurve of Triton in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B.; Herbert, B.; Bauer, J. M.; Hicks, M. D.; Buratti, B. J.; Young, J.

    2003-12-01

    Photometric measurements of Triton in the BVRI and 890 nm filter system were obtained in June, July, and (tentatively) early August 2003. The motivation for these measurements was to confirm the recent observation that the lightcurve of Triton has increased markedly in amplitude (Cobb et al. B.A.A.S 33, 1130 (2001)). If the albedo patterns on Triton remained unchanged since the Voyager encounter in 1989, the current amplitude of Triton's visual lightcurve should be less than 0.05 magnitudes (Hillier et al., JGR 96, 19211). Measurements in 2001 showed an amplitude of nearly 0.20 magnitudes (Cobb et al., op. cit.), indicating volatile transport on the surface. Changes in Triton's color (Hicks et al., 2003, accepted for publication in Icarus), and atmospheric pressure and temperature (Elliot et al., Icarus 148, 347 (2000)) also support the existence of sublimation and possible movement of volatiles and associated changes in albedo patterns. The preliminary analysis of data from the summer of 2003 shows a visual amplitude of 0.17 +/- 0.05 magnitudes, in good agreement with the results from 2001, and far larger than that expected if there were no change in the albedo patterns on Triton's surface. Work carried out at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Inst. of Technology, with funding from NASA.

  5. A structural origin for the cantaloupe terrain of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Cantaloupe terrain is unique to Triton. It is Triton's oldest terrain and includes about 250,000 km sq. region displaying sparsely cratered, closely spaced, nearly circular dimples about 30-40 km across. This terrain is found on no other planet because, only on Triton the final major global thermal pulse (1) caused completed (or nearly) interior melting resulting in a cooling history where large thermal stresses shattered and contorted a thin, weak lithosphere, and (2) occurred after heavy bombardment so that the surface features were preserved. The cantaloupe terrain is composed of intersecting sets of structures (folds and/or faults) that have developed as a result of global compression generated by volumetric changes associated with cooling of Triton's interior. Further, it is proposed that these structures developed after the period of heavy bombardment, and resulted from the last major global thermal epoch in Triton's unique history (either caused by tidal or radio metric heating). Initially, as the body cooled and the structures formed, their surface topography was most likely modified by thermal relaxation of the warm surface ices. In other bodies like Mercury, thermal stresses generated from global cooling and contraction have resulted in widely spaced thrust faults, whereas on Triton, thermal stresses produced more closely-spaced folds and faults sets. This difference in structural style is probably due to differences in lithospheric properties (thickness, strength, etc.), the magnitude of stress (directly dependent on the thermal history), and when the structures formed, relative to the period of heavy bombardment.

  6. A structural origin for the cantaloupe terrain of Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Joseph M.

    1993-03-01

    Cantaloupe terrain is unique to Triton. It is Triton's oldest terrain and includes about 250,000 km sq. region displaying sparsely cratered, closely spaced, nearly circular dimples about 30-40 km across. This terrain is found on no other planet because, only on Triton the final major global thermal pulse (1) caused completed (or nearly) interior melting resulting in a cooling history where large thermal stresses shattered and contorted a thin, weak lithosphere, and (2) occurred after heavy bombardment so that the surface features were preserved. The cantaloupe terrain is composed of intersecting sets of structures (folds and/or faults) that have developed as a result of global compression generated by volumetric changes associated with cooling of Triton's interior. Further, it is proposed that these structures developed after the period of heavy bombardment, and resulted from the last major global thermal epoch in Triton's unique history (either caused by tidal or radio metric heating). Initially, as the body cooled and the structures formed, their surface topography was most likely modified by thermal relaxation of the warm surface ices. In other bodies like Mercury, thermal stresses generated from global cooling and contraction have resulted in widely spaced thrust faults, whereas on Triton, thermal stresses produced more closely-spaced folds and faults sets. This difference in structural style is probably due to differences in lithospheric properties (thickness, strength, etc.), the magnitude of stress (directly dependent on the thermal history), and when the structures formed, relative to the period of heavy bombardment.

  7. Carbon foils for space plasma instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, F.; Ebert, R. W.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon foils have been successfully used for several decades in space plasma instruments to detect ions and neutral atoms. These instruments take advantage of two properties of the particle-foil interaction: charge conversion of neutral atoms and/or secondary electron emission. This interaction also creates several adverse effects for the projectile exiting the foil, such as angular scattering and energy straggling, which usually act to reduce the sensitivity and overall performance of an instrument. The magnitude of these effects mainly varies with the incident angle, energy, and mass of the incoming projectile and the foil thickness. In this paper, we describe these effects and the properties of the interaction. We also summarize results from recent studies with graphene foils, which can be made thinner than carbon foils due to their superior strength. Graphene foils may soon replace carbon foils in space plasma instruments and open new opportunities for space research in the future.

  8. Force Generation by Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Donnelly, M.

    1996-11-01

    Aquatic animals like fish use flapping caudal fins to produce axial and cross-stream forces. During WW2, German scientists had built and tested an underwater vehicle powered by similar flapping foils. We have examined the forces produced by a pair of flapping foils. We have examined the forced produced by a pair of flapping foils attached to the tail end of a small axisymmetric cylinder. The foils operate in-phase (called waving), or in anti-phase (called clapping). In a low-speed water tunnel, we have undertaken time-dependent measurements of axial and cross-stream forces and moments that are exerted by the vortex shedding process over the entire body. Phase-matched LDV measurements of vorticity-velocity vectors, as well as limited flow visualization of the periodic vortex shedding process have also been carried out. The direction of the induced velocity within a pair of shed vortices determines the nature of the forces produced, viz., thrust or drag or cross-stream forces. The clapping mode produces a widely dispersed symmetric array of vortices which results in axial forces only (thrust and rag). On the other hand, the vortex array is staggered in the waving mode and cross-stream (maneuvering) forces are then generated.

  9. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  10. Extended foil capacitor with radially spoked electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Foster, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An extended foil capacitor has a conductive disk electrically connected in oncrushing contact to the extended foil. A conductive paste is placed through spaces between radial spokes on the disk to electrically and mechanically connect the extended foil to the disk.

  11. The Origin of the Moon and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F. M.

    2004-12-01

    In 1879, George Darwin(1) had proposed that the moon originated from a rapidly spinning Earth on which equatorial gravitative attraction was nearly overcome by centrifical force. During a 1964 conference, D.U. Wise(2) and others analyzed this hypothesis in greater detail. However, recent studies warranted a fundamentally new approach with regards to the origin of the solar system. A re-examination of the spin-off (fission) hypothesis of the moon from the earth, using slightly different assumptions than scientists had previously used (allowing for a more extreme version of an expanding earth), provided the earth's original radius (357 km), density (3.13 x 104 g/cc) and spin rate (0.132 radians/sec.). It was found that Neptune underwent a similar development with the fission of Triton. The remarkably large initial densities, of both Earth and Neptune (7.2 x 105 gm/cc) are consistent with the overall theory(3,4) previously discussed regarding the evolution of the solar system from a neutron star type proto-sun's dense core. The primary calculations involve conservation of angular momentum of each of the rotating and revolving planetary systems. (1) Darwin, G. H. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 170, 1 (1879) (2) D.U. Wise, ``The Earth-Moon System" p. 213, Marsden and Cameron Eds. Plenum Press (1966) (3) Fred M. Johnson, ``Voyage Into Astronomy", Kendall/ Hunt Publ., (1977) (4) Fred M. Johnson, Mem. Soc. Roy. des Sciences de Liége, 6th series, vol. III, p. 609-627 (1972).

  12. Historical photometric evidence for volatile migration on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.; Goguen, Jay D.; Gibson, James; Mosher, Joel

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of CCD images of Triton obtained with the 1.5-m telescope on Palomar Mountain shows that in the time period surrounding the Voyager 2 encounter with the satellite (1985-1990), no changes in the satellite's visual albedo or color occurred. The published observations of Triton in the 0.35- to 0.60-micrometer spectral region obtained between 1950 and 1990 were reanalyzed to detect historical variability in both its albedo and visual color. Analysis of the photometry indicates that there is little, if any, change in Triton's visual geometric albedo. This result is consistent with the albedo pattern observed by Voyager and the change in sub-Earth latitude. Two distinct types of color changes are evident: a significant secular increase in the blue region of the visual spectrum since at least the 1950s, and the reported dramatic reddening of Triton's spectrum in the late 1970s. The latter change can be explained only by a short-lived geological phenomenon. Triton's changing pole orientation with respect to a terrestrial observer cannot explain the secular color changes. These changes imply volatile transport on a global scale on Triton's surface during the past 4 decades. We present two models which show that either removal of a red volatile from Triton's polar cap or deposition of a blue volatile in the equatorial regions can explain the secular color changes. A third possibility is that the changes are the result of the alpha-beta phase transition of nitrogen and subsequent fracturing of the polar cap region (N. S. Duxbury and R. H. Brown (1993).

  13. A model of Triton's role in Neptune's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. B.; Cheng, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Escape of neutral hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N) from Triton's maintains a large neutral cloud, called the Triton torus, in Neptune's magnetosphere. We have developed the first detailed Monte Carlo simulation model of the Triton torus that includes the collisionality, the complex geometry, the injection of two neutral species from Triton (H and N), and the combined effects of photoionization, electron impact ionization, and charge exchange. Ionization in Neptune's plasma sheet was modeled using Voyager plasma observations. Collisions cause both the H and N neutral clouds to become more radially extended, both toward Neptune and out beyond the magnetopause, as well as more extended in latitude, when compared with collisionless models. Moreover, collisions of H with the much more massive N greatly enhance the collisional ejection of H from the system and into Neptune's atmosphere. This effect decreases the probability of H ionization within the magnetosphere relative to that for N, and furthermore causes model results for two-species injection from Triton to differ significantly from those for H injection alone. For a hydrogen escape rate from Triton of 5 x 10(exp 25)/s, as given by photo-chemical models of Triton's upper atmosphere, a nitrogen escape rate of 5 x 10(exp 24)/s gives proton and N(+) sources of 5.6 x 10(exp 24)/s and 3.3 x 10(exp 24)/s, respectively, whose ratio is close to the observed ratio of protons to heavies. A nitrogen escape rate of 2 x 10(exp 25)/s, yields an N(+) source more than twice that of protons, inconsistent with the Voyager data.

  14. Pluto and Triton: Interactions Between Volatiles and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Volatiles moving across the surfaces of Pluto and Triton can give rise to interesting dynamical consequences. Conversely, measurement of dynamical states can help constrain the movement of volatiles and interior structure of both bodies. Polar wander may theoretically occur on both Triton and Pluto. Triton's obliquity is low, so that the equatorial regions receive more insolation than the poles. Hence there is a tendency for nitrogen ice to sublime at the equator and condense at the poles, creating polar caps. If the nitrogen supply is large enough, then these caps could move in approximately 10(exp 5) years the global equivalent of 200 m of ice to the poles. At this point the equatorial moment of inertia becomes larger than the moment of inertia measured about the rotation axis, so that Triton overbalances and becomes dynamically unstable. The satellite then undergoes polar wander, restoring stability when the new equator contains the excess matter. Hence the pole may be continually wandering. Neptune raises a permanent tidal bulge on Triton, so that the satellite's surface is elongated like a football, with the long axis pointing at Neptune. This is expected to be the axis about which the pole wanders. Volatile migration would resurface the satellite to some depth and wandering would disturb leading side/trailing side crater statistics. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The Surface Compositions of Triton, Pluto, and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Roush, Ted L.; Owen, Tobias C.; Quirico, Eric; DeBergh, Catherine

    1995-01-01

    Neptune's satellite Triton, and the planet-satellite binary Pluto and Charon, are the most distant planetary bodies on which ices have been directly detected. Triton and Pluto have very similar dimensions and mean densities, suggesting a similar or common origin. Through earth-based spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared, solid N2, CH4, and CO have been found on both bodies, with the additional molecule C02 on Triton. N2 dominates both surfaces, although the coverage is not spatially uniform. On Triton, the CH4 and CO are mostly or entirely frozen in the N2 matrix, while CO2 may be spatially segregated. On Pluto, some CH4 and the CO are frozen in the N2 matrix, but there is evidence for additional CH4 in a pure state, perhaps lying as a lag deposit on a subsurface layer of N2. Despite their compositional and dimensional similarities, Pluto and Triton are quite different from one another in detail. Additional hydrocarbons and other volatile ices have been sought spectroscopically but not yet have been detected. The only molecule identified on Pluto's satellite Charon is solid H2O, but the spectroscopic data are of low precision and admit the presence of other ices such as CH4.

  16. Hydrothermal processing of cometary volatiles--applications to Triton.

    PubMed

    Shock, E L; McKinnon, W B

    1993-01-01

    Subsequent to its capture by Neptune, Triton could have experienced an episode of tidal heating sufficient to melt its icy mantle and possibly its rocky core as well. This heating would have driven hydrothermal circulation at the core-rock/mantle-ocean boundary. We consider the chemical consequences of this hydrothermal reprocessing on Triton's volatile budget by assuming an initial cometary composition for the icy mantle and evaluating the effects of changes in temperature and oxidation state. We assume that the latter would have been controlled by mineral assemblages in the rock. Such reprocessing could explain the lack of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Triton and its depletion relative to N2 and (apparently) CO2 in the satellite's surface ices. Our calculations also show that whatever the original source of nitrogen in Triton, N2 and/or NH3 are likely abundant products of hydrothermal reprocessing. Depending on the temperature and prevailing oxidation state, acetic acid, ethanol, urea, methanol, and ethanamine are possible important components, in addition to ammonia, of the resulting mantle material. Triton may thus preserve the organic chemistry that might have led to the origin of life in early terrestrial hydrothermal systems. PMID:11540242

  17. Pluto and Triton: Interactions Between Volatiles and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Volatiles moving across the surfaces of Pluto and Triton can give rise to interesting dynamical consequences. Conversely, measurement of dynamical states can help constrain the movement of volatiles and interior structure of both bodies. Polar wander may theoretically occur on both Triton and Pluto. Triton's obliquity is low, so that the equatorial regions receive more insolation than the poles. Hence there is a tendency for nitrogen ice to sublime at the equator and condense at the poles, creating polar caps. If the nitrogen supply is large enough, then these caps could move in approximately 105 years the global equivalent of 200 m of ice to the poles. At this point the equatorial moment of inertia becomes larger than the moment of inertia measured about the rotation axis, so that Triton overbalances and becomes dynamically unstable. The satellite then undergoes polar wander, restoring stability when the new equator contains the excess matter. Hence the pole may be continually wandering. Neptune raises a permanent tidal bulge on Triton, so that the satellite's surface is elongated like a football, with the long axis pointing at Neptune. This is expected to be the axis about which the pole wanders. Volatile migration would resurface the satellite to some depth and wandering would disturb leading side/trailing side crater statistics. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  19. Energy Sources for Triton's Geyser-Like Plumes.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H; Kirk, R L; Johnson, T V; Soderblom, L A

    1990-10-19

    Four geyser-like plumes were discovered near Triton's south pole in areas now in permanent sunlight. Because Triton's southern hemisphere is nearing a maximum summer solstice, insolation as a driver or a trigger for Triton's geyser-like plumes is an attractive hypothesis. Trapping of solar radiation in a translucent, low-conductivity surface layer (in a solid-state greenhouse), which is subsequently released in the form of latent heat of sublimation, could provide the required energy. Both the classical solid-state greenhouse consisting of exponentially absorbed insolation in a gray, translucent layer of solid nitrogen, and the "super" greenhouse consisting of a relatively transparent solid-nitrogen layer over an opaque, absorbing layer are plausible candidates. Geothermal heat may also play a part if assisted by the added energy input of seasonal cycles of insolation. PMID:17793021

  20. Energy sources for Triton's geyser-like plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Johnson, T. V.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Four geyser-like plumes were discovered near Triton's south pole in areas now in permanent sunlight. Because Triton's southern hemisphere is nearing a maximum summer solstice, insolation as a driver or a trigger for Triton's geyser-like plumes is an attractive hypothesis. Trapping of solar radiation in a translucent, low-conductivity surface layer (in a solid-state greenhouse), which is subsequently released in the form of latent heat of sublimation, could provide the required energy. Both the classical solid-state greenhouse consisting of exponentially absorbed insolation in a gray, translucent layer of solid nitrogen, and the 'super' greenhouse consisting of a relatively transparent solid-nitrogen layer over an opaque, absorbing layer are plausible candidates. Geothermal heat may also play a part if assisted by the added energy input of seasonal cycles of insolation.

  1. Tidal evolution in the Neptune-Triton system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, C. F.; Jankowski, D. G.; Nicholson, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    Triton, which is currently spiralling toward Neptune due to tides raised on both bodies, possesses an obliquity which may lie close to either a zero-deg 'state 1' or a 100-deg 'state 2' which correspond to the two stable Cassini extrema of its rotational Hamiltonian. The Kaula (1966) tidal formalism is presently used to model the past and future evolution of the system in both states. For nominal parameters in state 1, Triton will reach Neptune's Roche limit in about 3.6 Gyr with a decrease in orbital inclination to 145 deg from the current 159 deg; in the case of state 2, Triton's inclination will increase to 180 deg in 10-100 million years and then transition to state 1, subsequently reaching the Neptune Roche limit in about 1.4 Gyr.

  2. Energy sources for triton's geyser-like plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Kirk, R.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Four geyser-like plumes were discovered near Triton's south pole in areas now in permanent sunlight. Because Triton's southern hemisphere is nearing a maximum summer solstice, insolation as a driver or a trigger for Triton's geyser-like plumes is an attractive hypothesis. Trapping of solar radiation in a translucent, low-conductivity surface layer (in a solid-state greenhouse), which is subsequently released in the form of latent heat of sublimation, could provide the required energy. Both the classical solid-state greenhouse consisting of exponentially absorbed insolation in a gray, translucent layer of solid nitrogen, and the "super" greenhouse consisting of a relatively transparent solid-nitrogen layer over an opaque, absorbing layer are plausible candidates. Geothermal heat may also play a part if assisted by the added energy input of seasonal cycles of insolation.

  3. A thermal model for the seasonal nitrogen cycle on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal N2-cycle model presently used to characterize such observed phenomena on Triton as atmospheric pressure and surface albedo features at the time of the Voyager encounter incorporates diurnal and seasonal subsurface heat conduction, and can account for the heat capacity of N2 frost deposits. The results obtained by this model differ from those of previous studies in that they do not predict the seasonal freezing-out of the Triton atmosphere; even for a wide range of input parameters, the bright southern polar cap is seen as rather unlikely to be N2. The results support the microphysical arguments for the presence of either dark or smooth translucent N2 frosts on the Triton surface.

  4. Large quasi-circular features beneath frost on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek; Lee, Pascal; Hillier, John

    1992-01-01

    Specially processed Voyager 2 images of Neptune's largest moon, Triton, reveal three large quasi-circular features ranging in diameter from 280 to 935 km within Triton's equatorial region. The largest of these features contains a central irregularly shaped area of comparatively low albedo about 380 km in diameter, surrounded by crudely concentric annuli of higher albedo materials. None of the features exhibit significant topographic expression, and all appear to be primarily albedo markings. The features are located within a broad equatorial band of anomalously transparent frost that renders them nearly invisible at the large phase angles (alpha greater than 90 deg) at which Voyager obtained its highest resolution coverage of Triton. The features can be discerned at smaller phase angles (alpha = 66 deg) at which the frost only partially masks underlying albedo contrasts. The origin of the features is uncertain but may have involved regional cryovolcanic activity.

  5. Neptune and Triton: A Study in Future Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, M. D.; Malaska, M. J.; Hosseini, S.; Mcgranaghan, R.; Fernandes, P. A.; Fougere, N.; Clegg, R. N.; Scully, J.; Alibay, F.; Ries, P.; Craig, P. L.; Hutchins, M. L.; Leonard, J.; Uckert, K.; Patthoff, A.; Girazian, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Neptune provides a unique natural laboratory for studying the dynamics of ice giants. Last visited by Voyager 2 in 1989, Neptune and its moon Triton hold important clues to the evolution of the solar system. The Voyager 2 flyby revealed Neptune to be a dynamic world with large storms, unparalleled wind speeds, and an unusual magnetic field. Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, is believed to be a captured Kuiper Belt Object with a thin atmosphere and possible sub-surface ocean. Further study of the farthest planet in our solar system could offer new insights into the dynamics of ice-giant exoplanets, and help us understand their complex atmospheres. The diverse science questions associated with Neptune and Triton motivate the complex and exciting mission proposed in this study. The proposed mission follows the guidelines of the 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and optimizes the number of high priority science goals achieved, while still maintaining low mission costs. High priority science goals include understanding the structure, composition, and dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere and magnetosphere, as well as analyzing the surface of Triton. With a budget of $1.5 billion, the mission hosts an atmospheric probe and suite of instruments equipped with technologies significantly more advanced than those carried by Voyager 2. Additionally, the mission offers improved spatial coverage and higher resolution measurements than any previously achieved at Neptune. The proposed spacecraft would complete an orbital tour of Neptune and execute several close flybys of Triton. Further study of Neptune and Triton will provide exciting insights into what lies on the edge of our solar system and beyond. This study was prepared in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's 2013 Planetary Science Summer School.

  6. Grain metamorphism in polar nitrogen ice on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    The rate of nitrogen grain growth on putative N2-rich polar caps on Triton is calculated. For most plausible assumptions of independent variables, mean grain sizes in polar N2 are meter-scale. Triton's polar caps should constitute the definitive solar-system test bed for the process of ice grain metamorphism. Interpretation of data already in hand may require long path length through condensed N2, possibly due to grain growth. Upcoming Voyager data may clarify the situation, although possible complications in detecting a glaze of N2 ice exist.

  7. Triton's cratering record and its time of capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.; Croft, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Recent impact crater counts on the Voyager 2 high resolution images of Triton have resulted in a more accurate crater size/frequency distribution down to about 3 km diameter. These counts reveal a size/frequency distribution characterized by a differential -4 slope. This is consistent with the observation that there are no craters larger than 27 km diameter on the 20 percent of Triton viewed at resolutions capable of detecting them. A -4 slope is deficient in large craters and at the very low crater density on Triton no craters larger than about 30 km are expected on just 20 percent of the satellite. The Triton size distribution is significantly different from the differential -3 slope of the fresh crater population on Miranda, but both show leading/trailing asymmetries. Since Miranda is in prograde orbit this crater population is probably due to objects in heliocentric orbit, i.e., comets. If this crater population is due to comets, then the significantly different crater population on Triton is probably due to some other population of impacting objects. The most likely origin of these objects is planetesimals in planetocentric orbits. Because Triton is in retrograde orbit, objects in prograde planetocentric orbits will also produce a leading/trailing asymmetry. If the Triton craters are largely the result of objects in planetocentric orbit, then where are the comet craters that should be there if they have a differential -3 distribution function as inferred from the Miranda fresh crater population? The most likely answer is that they are there, but at such a low density that they can not be distinguished from the planetocentric population. An upper bound on this density can be estimated by determining the density of a crater population with a differential -3 slope where no craters larger than 27 km would be expected on the 20 percent of Triton viewed by Voyager at resolutions sufficient to detect them. This density is at the density of the largest crater. At this

  8. Voyager photometry of Triton - Haze and surface photometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton at 0.41, 0.48, and 0.56 micron filter wavelengths are analyzed using a model which combines an improved version of Hapke's photometric equation with a thin atmospheric haze layer in the appropriate spherical geometry. The model is shown to describe accurately the phase curves over a range of phase angles and to agree with disk-resolved brightness scans along the photometric equator and mirror meridian. According to the model, the photometric parameters of Triton's regolith are reasonably typical of icy satellites, except for the extremely high (close to unity) single-scattering albedo.

  9. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  10. Photochemistry of Triton's atmosphere and ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3×10-4 in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/cm2/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/cm2/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/cm2/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K=4×103 cm2/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1+/-0.8)×1011 cm-3. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (λ<1000 Å) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 108 W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, N2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7×1024 s-1, 4.5×1025 s-1, 2.4×1025 s-1, 4.4×1022 s-1, and 1.1×1024 s-1, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO+ as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C+ as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C+ and N+ ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there are four basic unknown values which have strong impacts on the composition and

  11. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-10-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10-4 in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 103sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8)x IO11/cu cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 108 W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, 0, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 1024/ s, 4.5 x 1025/s, 2.4 x 1025/s, 4.4 x 1022/s, and 1.1 x 1024, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there are four basic unknown values which have strong impacts

  12. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3)sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8)x IO(exp 11)/cu cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, 0, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24), respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there

  13. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3) sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 11)/cc cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A)) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/ s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24)/ s, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Iono- spheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show

  14. Photochemistry of Triton's atmosphere and ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Krasnopolsky, V A; Cruikshank, D P

    1995-10-25

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(-4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/cm2/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/cm2/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/cm2/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(3) cm2/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(11) cm-3. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda < 1000 angstroms) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(24) s-1, 4.5 x 10(25) s-1, 2.4 x 10(25) s-1, 4.4 x 10(22) s-1, and 1.1 x 10(24) s-1, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO+ as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C+ as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C+ and N+ ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there are four basic unknown values which have

  15. Foil support structure for large electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Brucker, J.P.; Rose, E.A.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes a novel support structure for a vacuum diode used to pump a gaseous laser with an electron beam. Conventional support structures are designed to hold a foil flat and rigid. This new structure takes advantage of the significantly greater strength of metals in pure tension, utilizing curved shapes for both foil and support structure. The shape of the foil is comparable to the skin of a balloon, and the shape of the support structures is comparable to the cables of a suspension bridge. This design allows a significant reduction in foil thickness and support structure mass, resulting in a lower electron-beam loss between diode and laser gas. In addition, the foil is pre-formed in the support structure at pressures higher than operating pressure. Therefore, the foil is operated far from the yield point. Increased reliability is anticipated.

  16. Efficiency and lifetime of carbon foils

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Kostin, M.; Tang, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Charge-exchange injection by means of carbon foils is a widely used method in accelerators. This paper discusses two critical issues concerning the use of carbon foils: efficiency and lifetime. An energy scaling of stripping efficiency was suggested and compared with measurements. Several factors that determine the foil lifetime--energy deposition, heating, stress and buckling--were studied by using the simulation codes MARS and ANSYS.

  17. The Impact of Developmental Education at Triton College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chand, Sunil

    1985-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the Developmental Education Program at Triton College: student placement, courses, faculty selection, reading and writing instruction, mathematics instruction, the Learning Assistance Center (LAC), LAC tutoring, LAC special projects, LAC management, special needs assistance program for disabled students, and…

  18. Triton College: A Review of the Student Personnel Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyerl, Merrill C.; And Others

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of a review of the student personnel services program at Triton College (Illinois), conducted by a team from the Consulting Service of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. The report briefly describes the college and its administration and suggests a reorganization of…

  19. Wave Features of the Neptune's Satellites: Triton, Proteus, Nereid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2014-07-01

    Fastly orbiting Triton shows Mars-like tectonic dichotomy and very fine granulation 18 km across. Observed Proteus' granules are due to wave modulation. Nereid's fr.is close to that of Earth, thus their relatively sized granules are quite similar.

  20. Technical Development Path for Foil Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.

  1. Free Surface and Flapping Foil Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy

    2014-11-01

    Flapping foils for station-keeping of a near-surface body in a current is analyzed using a finite-difference method based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The foils are hinge-connected to the aft of the body and subject to pitch oscillation. Results are obtained for a range of Strouhal number, Froude number, unsteady frequency parameter τ, Reynolds number and the depth of foil submergence. Results show that at low Strouhal number (St < 0 . 1) and sub-critical unsteady parameter τ < 0 . 25 , the flapping generates drag instead of thrust. At high Strouhal number and super-critical value of the unsteady parameter (τ > 0 . 25) flapping generates high thrust with low efficiency. Thrust and efficiency are found to decrease with decreasing submergence depth of the foil. At the critical τ = 0 . 25 and shallow submergence of the foil, the standing wave generated above the foil continues to grow until breaking; both the thrust and efficiency of the foil are reduced at the critical τ. The necessary conditions for optimal thrust generation by a flapping foil underneath the free surface are found to be (i) Strouhal number in the range from 0.25 to 0.35, (ii) unsteady parameter τ > 0 . 25 and (iii) the maximum angle of attack less than 15° for the flat-plate foil. Supported by the US Office of Naval Research through the Naval Engineering Education Center (NEEC) Consortium of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  2. On the surface composition of Triton's southern latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, B. J.; Young, L. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Olkin, C. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of an investigation to determine the longitudinal (zonal) distributions and temporal evolution of ices on the surface of Triton. Between 2002 and 2014, we obtained 63 nights of near-infrared (0.67-2.55 μ m) spectra using the SpeX instrument at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Triton has spectral features in this wavelength region from N2, CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O. Absorption features of ethane (C2H6) and 13CO are coincident at 2.405 μ m, a feature that we detect in our spectra. We calculated the integrated band area (or fractional band depth in the case of H2O) in each nightly average spectrum, constructed longitudinal distributions, and quantified temporal evolution for each of the chosen absorption bands. The volatile ices (N2, CO, CH4) show significant variability over one Triton rotation and have well-constrained longitudes of peak absorption. The non-volatile ices (CO2, H2O) show poorly-constrained peak longitudes and little variability. The longitudinal distribution of the 2.405 μ m band shows little variability over one Triton rotation and is 97 ± 44 ° and 92 ± 44 ° out of phase with the 1.58 μ m and 2.35 μ m CO bands, respectively. This evidence indicates that the 2.405 μ m band is due to absorption from non-volatile ethane. CH4 absorption increased over the period of the observations while absorption from all other ices showed no statistically significant change. We conclude from these results that the southern latitudes of Triton are currently dominated by non-volatile ices and as the sub-solar latitude migrates northwards, a larger quantity of volatile ice is coming into view.

  3. A TENTATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF HCN ICE ON TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdorf, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Nakamura, R.; Orton, G.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.

    2010-08-01

    Spectra of Triton between 1.8 and 5.5 {mu}m, obtained in 2007 May and 2009 November, have been analyzed to determine the global surface composition. The spectra were acquired with the grism and the prism of the Infrared Camera on board AKARI with spectral resolutions of 135 and 22, respectively. The data from 4 to 5 {mu}m are shown in this Letter and compared to the spectra of N{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}, i.e., all the known ices on this moon that have distinct bands in this previously unexplored wavelength range. We report the detection of a 4{sigma} absorption band at 4.76 {mu}m (2101 cm{sup -1}), which we attribute tentatively to the presence of solid HCN. This is the sixth ice to be identified on Triton and an expected component of its surface because it is a precipitating photochemical product of Triton's thin N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} atmosphere. It is also formed directly by irradiation of mixtures of N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} ices. Here we consider only pure HCN, although it might be dissolved in N{sub 2} on the surface of Triton because of the evaporation and recondensation of N{sub 2} over its seasonal cycle. The AKARI spectrum of Triton also covers the wavelengths of the fundamental (1-0) band of {beta}-phase N{sub 2} ice (4.296 {mu}m, 2328 cm{sup -1}), which has never been detected in an astronomical body before, and whose presence is consistent with the overtone (2-0) band previously reported. Fundamental bands of CO and CO{sub 2} ices are also present.

  4. Foil bearing lubrication theory including compressibility effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Catalano, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine the film thickness in a foil bearing. Using the Reynolds equation and including the compressibility effects of the gas, an equation was developed applicable to the film thickness in a foil bearing. The bearing was divided into three regions, namely, the entrance region, middle region and exit region. Solutions are obtained for the film thickness in each region.

  5. Chromic acid anodizing of aluminum foil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, H.

    1988-01-01

    The success of the Space Station graphite/epoxy truss structure depends on its ability to endure long-term exposure to the LEO environment, primarily the effects of atomic oxygen and the temperture cycling resulting from the 94 minute orbit. This report describes the development and evaluation of chromic acid anodized (CAA) aluminum foil as protective coatings for these composite tubes. Included are: development of solar absorptance and thermal emittance properties required of Al foil and development of CAA parameters to achieve these optical properties; developing techniques to CAA 25 ft lengths of Al foil; developing bonding processes for wrapping the Al foil to graphite/epoxy tubes; and atomic oxygen testing of the CAA Al foil. Two specifications were developed and are included in the report: Chromic Acid Anodizing of Aluminum Foil Process Specification and Bonding of Anodized Aluminum Foil to Graphite/Epoxy Tubes. Results show that CAA Al foil provides and excellent protective and thermal control coating for the Space Station truss structure.

  6. Nuclear Propulsion using Thin Foiled Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.

    1998-11-01

    A new way to produce plasma for nuclear propulsion is proposed. A thin foiled fuel can be used for converting fission energy to propulsion energy efficiently. The fission products coming out of the thin foil directly ionize the hydrogen molecules which are used for propulsion. Thus very small portion of fission energy deposited in the thin foil, and integrity of the thin foiled fuel can be maintained even in high nuclear power. Fuel material with large thermal fission cross-section is preferable to make thin foiled fuel and the heat deposition in the foil can be reduced. To get high power from the foiled fuel assembly, thermal neutrons which are created out from the assembly can be supplied, or the assembly itself can create the high intensity thermal neutrons by self-multiplication. A flexible design of a highly efficient nuclear propulsion system can be made. The thickness of the foil and the maintenance of the thermo-mechanical integrity can be determined from the fission cross-section and the slowing down power for fission products. The talk discusses the issues related to heat removal from the assembly.

  7. Barrier Foil Heating Simulations Using LASNEX

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D D

    2002-03-12

    It is necessary to place a barrier foil in front of the X-ray converter target to prevent the backstreaming ions. This research note presents the simulations of foil heating using the latest EOS tables. LASNEX simulations are carried out using both DARHT-II and ETA-II beam parameters. Results for all the foils studied here, using the DARHT-II beam parameters, show that the integrated line density along the axis at the end of the 4th pulse remains essentially unchanged even if the foils are heated by beams with relatively small beam spot sizes. The temperature can reach up to 3000 C on graphite foil but can only reach several hundred degree Celsius on Mylar foil. Simulations also show that ETA-II beam can create a ''burn-through'' hole on all the foils except graphite and diamond foils, which may require pre-heat. The threshold beam spot size required for hole formation will be compared with LASNEX simulation for the purpose of code verification.

  8. Hot foil transducer skin friction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranas, T. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The device utilizes foil transducers with only one edge exposed to the fluid flow. The surfaces are polished producing a foil transducer that does not generate turbulence while sufficiently thick to carry the required electrical current for high temperature fluid flow. The assembly utilizes a precut layered metal sandwich with attached electrodes eliminating a need for welding and individual sensor calibration.

  9. Polar Wander on Triton and Pluto Due to Volatile Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2002-01-01

    Polar wander may occur on Triton and Pluto because of volatile migration. Triton, with its low obliquity, can theoretically sublimate volatiles (mostly nitrogen) at the rate of approximately 10(exp 14) kilograms per year from the equatorial regions and deposit them at the poles. Assuming Triton to be rigid on the sublimation timescale, after approximately 10(exp 5) years the polar caps would become large enough to cancel the rotational flattening, with a total mass equivalent to a global layer approximately 120-250 m in depth. At this point the pole wanders about the tidal bulge axis, which is the line joining Triton and Neptune. Rotation about the bulge axis might be expected to disturb the leading side/trailing side cratering statistics. Because no such disturbance is observed, it may be that Triton's mantle viscosity is too high but its surface volatile inventory is too low to permit wander. On the other hand, its mantle viscosity might be low, so that any uncompensated cap load might be expected to wander toward the tidal bulge axis. In this case, the axis of wander passes through the equator from the leading side to the trailing side; rotation about this wander axis would not disturb the cratering statistics. Low-viscosity polar wander may explain the bright southern hemisphere: this is the pole which is wandering toward the equator. In any case the permanent polar caps may be geologically very young. Polar wander may possibly take place on Pluto, due to its obliquity oscillations and perihelion-pole geometry. However, Pluto is probably not experiencing any wander at present. The Sun has been shining strongly on the poles over the last half of the obliquity cycle, so that volatiles should migrate to the equator, stabilizing the planet against wander. Spacecraft missions to Triton and Pluto which measure the dynamical flattening could give information about the accumulation of volatiles at the poles. Such information is best obtained by measuring gravity and

  10. A Preliminary Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.; Bruckner, Robert J.; Howard, S. Adam

    2006-01-01

    Recent breakthrough improvements in foil gas bearing load capacity, high temperature tribological coatings and computer based modeling have enabled the development of increasingly larger and more advanced Oil-Free Turbomachinery systems. Successful integration of foil gas bearings into turbomachinery requires a step wise approach that includes conceptual design and feasibility studies, bearing testing, and rotor testing prior to full scale system level demonstrations. Unfortunately, the current level of understanding of foil gas bearings and especially their tribological behavior is often insufficient to avoid developmental problems thereby hampering commercialization of new applications. In this paper, a new approach loosely based upon accepted hydrodynamic theory, is developed which results in a "Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map" to guide the integration process. This performance map, which resembles a Stribeck curve for bearing friction, is useful in describing bearing operating regimes, performance safety margins, the effects of load on performance and limiting factors for foil gas bearings.

  11. Nitrogen airglow sources - Comparison of Triton, Titan, and earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Meier, R. R.; Summers, Michael E.; Strickland, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    The individual contributions of direct solar excitation, photoelectron excitation, and magnetospheric electron excitation of Triton and Titan airglow observed by the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) are quantified. The principal spectral features of Triton's airglow are shown to be consistent with precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with power dissipation about 500 million W. Solar excitation rates of the dominant N2 and N(+) emission features are factors of 2-7 weaker than magnetospheric electron excitation. On Titan, the calculated disk center and bright limb N(+) 1085 A intensities due to solar excitation agree with observed values, while the 970 A feature is mostly N21 c5 band emission. The calculated LBH intensity by photoelectrons suggests that magnetospheric electrons play a minor role in Titan's UV airglow. On earth, solar/photoelectron excitation explains the observed N(+) 1085 A and LBH intensites and accounts for only 40 percent of the N(+) 916 A intensity.

  12. Charge-exchange reactions with a radioactive triton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenecke, J.

    1998-12-21

    A high-resolution (t, {sup 3}He) test experiment has been performed recently by making use of a secondary triton beam produced by fragmentation of {alpha}-particles. The purpose of this charge-exchange experiment was to achieve good energy resolution in an (n,p)-type reaction at intermediate bombarding energies. The experiment was carried out with the K1200 cyclotron at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the A1200 beam-analysis system and the S800 magnetic spectrometer. The beam-analysis system was used to transport the energy-dispersed radioactive triton beam from the production target to the target position, and the magnetic spectrometer was used to focus the dispersion-matched {sup 3}He particles from the (t, {sup 3}He) reaction at 0 degree sign onto the focal plane of the spectrometer. An energy resolution of 200-250 keV was achieved.

  13. Triton and Nereid astrographic observations from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the reduced astrographic observations of Triton and Nereid derived from Voyager 2 imaging data. The data set contains 496 sets of spacecraft-centered fight ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations. The details of the conversion process from imaging to astrographic observations are given. The effect of using the astrographic rather than imaging form in ephemeris improvement is evaluated.

  14. A NEPtune/Triton Vision Mission Using Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienstock, B.; Atkinson, D. H.; Baines, K.; Mahaffy, P.; Atreya, S.; Stern, A.; Steffes, P.; Wright, M.; Ball Collaboration; Boeing Collaboration

    2005-08-01

    The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the ``Gas Giants" Jupiter and Saturn, and the ``Ice Giants" Uranus and Neptune. While the Gas Giants primarily comprise hydrogen and helium, the Ice Giants appear fundamentally different, containing significant amounts of the heavier elements including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur. Comparisons of the internal structure and overall composition of the Gas and Ice Giants will yield valuable insights into the processes that formed our solar system and possibly extrasolar systems. By 2012 detailed studies of the chemical and physical properties of Jupiter and Saturn will have been completed by the Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, and Juno missions. A Neptune Orbiter with Probes mission would deliver the corresponding key data for an Ice Giant. Such a mission to study Triton, Nereid, the other icy satellites of Neptune, Neptune's system of rings, and the deep Neptune atmosphere to pressures ranging from several hundred bars to possibly several kilobars has been studied. Power and propulsion would be provided using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technologies. This ambitious mission requires a number of technical issues be investigated and resolved, including: (1) developing a reasonable mission design that allows proper targeting and timing of the entry probe(s) while offering adequate opportunities for Triton, small icy satellite, and ring science, (2) giant-planet atmospheric probe thermal protection system (TPS) design, (3) deep probe design including pressure vessel, seals, windows, penetrations and inlets, (4) deep probe telecommunications through Neptune's dense and absorbing atmosphere, 5) Triton lander design to conduct extended surface science, and (6) defining an appropriate suite of science instruments for the Orbiter, Probes and Landers to explore the depths of the Neptune atmosphere, magnetic field, Triton, and the icy satellites utilizing the ample mass and power

  15. Neptune's Triton: A moon rich in dry ice and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, A.J.R.

    1989-08-01

    The encounter of the spacecraft Voyager 2 with Neptune and its large satellite Triton in August 1989 will provide a crucial test of ideas regarding the origin and chemical composition of the outer solar system. In this pre-encounter publication, the possibility is quantified that Titron is a captured moon which, like Pluto and Charon, originally condensed as a major planetesimal within the gas ring that was shed by the contracting protosolar cloud at Neptune's orbit. Ideas of supersonic convective turbulence are used to compute the gas pressure, temperature and rat of catalytic synthesis of CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and C(s) within the protosolar cloud, assuming that all C is initially present as CO. The calculations lead to a unique composition for Triton, Pluto, Charon: each body consists of, by mass, 18 1/2% solid CO{sub 2} ice, 4 percent graphite, 1/2% CH{sub 4} ice, 29 percent methanated water ice and 48 percent of anhydrous rock. This mix has a density consistent with that of the Pluto-Charon system and yields a predicted mean density for Triton of 2.20 + or - 0.5 g/cu cm, for satellite radius equal to 1,750 km.

  16. Neptune's Triton: A moon rich in dry ice and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, A. J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The encounter of the spacecraft Voyager 2 with Neptune and its large satellite Triton in August 1989 will provide a crucial test of ideas regarding the origin and chemical composition of the outer solar system. In this pre-encounter publication, the possibility is quantified that Titron is a captured moon which, like Pluto and Charon, originally condensed as a major planetesimal within the gas ring that was shed by the contracting protosolar cloud at Neptune's orbit. Ideas of supersonic convective turbulence are used to compute the gas pressure, temperature and rat of catalytic synthesis of CH4, CO2, and C(s) within the protosolar cloud, assuming that all C is initially present as CO. The calculations lead to a unique composition for Triton, Pluto, Charon: each body consists of, by mass, 18 1/2 percent solid CO2 ice, 4 percent graphite, 1/2 percent CH4 ice, 29 percent methanated water ice and 48 percent of anhydrous rock. This mix has a density consistent with that of the Pluto-Charon system and yields a predicted mean density for Triton of 2.20 + or - 0.5 g/cu cm, for satellite radius equal to 1,750 km.

  17. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  18. Neptune and Triton: Essential pieces of the Solar System puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A.; Achilleos, N.; Agnor, C. B.; Campagnola, S.; Charnoz, S.; Christophe, B.; Coates, A. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Jones, G. H.; Lamy, L.; Marzari, F.; Nettelmann, N.; Ruiz, J.; Ambrosi, R.; Andre, N.; Bhardwaj, A.; Fortney, J. J.; Hansen, C. J.; Helled, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Orton, G.; Ray, L.; Reynaud, S.; Sergis, N.; Srama, R.; Volwerk, M.

    2014-12-01

    The planet Neptune and its largest moon Triton hold the keys to major advances across multiple fields of Solar System science. The ice giant Neptune played a unique and important role in the process of Solar System formation, has the most meteorologically active atmosphere in the Solar System (despite its great distance from the Sun), and may be the best Solar System analogue of the dominant class of exoplanets detected to date. Neptune's moon Triton is very likely a captured Kuiper Belt object, holding the answers to questions about the icy dwarf planets that formed in the outer Solar System. Triton is geologically active, has a tenuous nitrogen atmosphere, and is predicted to have a subsurface ocean. However, our exploration of the Neptune system remains limited to a single spacecraft flyby, made by Voyager 2 in 1989. Here, we present the high-level science case for further exploration of this outermost planetary system, based on a white paper submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) for the definition of the second and third large missions in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. We discuss all the major science themes that are relevant for further spacecraft exploration of the Neptune system, and identify key scientific questions in each area. We present an overview of the results of a European-led Neptune orbiter mission analysis. Such a mission has significant scope for international collaboration, and is essential to achieve our aim of understanding how the Solar System formed, and how it works today.

  19. Triton memory time in solid DT and its nuclear polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P. C.; Fearon, E. M.; Mapoles, E. R.; Sater, J. D.; Collins, G. W.; Gaines, J. R.; Sherman, R. H.; Bartlit, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The expected value of nuclear spin polarization to inertial confinement fusion is recapitulated. A comparison of brute force versus dynamic nuclear polarization, as applied to solid deuterium-tritium, is given, and the need for a long triton polarization memory time (longitudinal nuclear relaxation time) is shown. The time constant for 25 mol%T/sub 2/-50 DT-25 D/sub 2/ is a short 0.3 s at 5/degree/K and waiting lowers it to 0.1 s. Use of 90 to 96 mol% molecular DT raises the time constant to 0.9 s and addition of about 20 mol% nH/sub 2/ increases it to 5 to 7 s. The theory shows that the species shortening the triton memory time is the J = 1 T/sub 2/, which can be reduced in our samples only by self-catalysis. The heating in order to mix in nH/sub 2/ increases the percent of J = 1 T/sub 2/ and mixing may not be perfect. The experiments have increased the triton memory time twenty-fold and shown that removal of the J = 1 T/sub 2/ is the key to improved results.

  20. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    PubMed

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts. PMID:20234007

  1. Assembly Methods for Etched Foil Regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Matthew P.

    2004-06-01

    Etched foil appears to offer substantial advantages over other regenerator materials, especially for annular regenerators. However, assembly of etched foil regenerators has been difficult because etching regenerator patterns in foil is most satisfactorily accomplished using pieces too small for a complete, spiral-wrapped regenerator. Two techniques have been developed to deal with that problem: For spiral-wrapped regenerators, a new technique for joining pieces of foil using tabs has been successfully employed. The joints are no thicker than the parent material. The tabs substantially fill the holes into which they are locked, virtually eliminating any undesired leak path through the regenerator. The holes constitute breaks in the conductive path through the regenerator. A patent is pending. An alternate method is to insert pieces of foil in a cylindrical housing one at a time. An inflatable bladder presses each newly-inserted piece of foil against the previous layer until both edges slip past each other and contact the previously-installed piece. When the bladder is deflated, the natural springiness of the foil causes the cut edges to seek the wall and meet each other in a butt joint. A patent on the method has been issued; a patent on the resulting regenerator is pending.

  2. Producing carbon stripper foils containing boron

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, J. O. Jr.

    2012-12-19

    Parameters being actively tested by the accelerator community for the purpose of extending carbon stripper foil lifetimes in fast ion beams include methods of deposition, parting agents, mounting techniques, support (fork) materials, and inclusion of alloying elements, particularly boron. Specialized production apparatus is required for either sequential deposition or co-deposition of boron in carbon foils. A dual-use vacuum evaporator for arc evaporation of carbon and electron-beam evaporation of boron and other materials has been built for such development. Production of both carbon and boron foils has begun and improvements are in progress.

  3. Voyager radio science observations of neptune and triton.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G L; Sweetnam, D N; Anderson, J D; Borutzki, S E; Campbell, J K; Eshleman, V R; Gresh, D L; Gurrola, E M; Hinson, D P; Kawashima, N; Kursinski, E R; Levy, G S; Lindal, G F; Lyons, J R; Marouf, E A; Rosen, P A; Simpson, R A; Wood, G E

    1989-12-15

    The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptune system included radio science investigations of the masses and densities of Neptune and Triton, the low-order gravitational harmonics of Neptune, the vertical structures of the atmospheres and ionospheres of Neptune and Triton, the composition of the atmosphere of Neptune, and characteristics of ring material. Demanding experimental requirements were met successfully, and study of the large store of collected data has begun. The initial search of the data revealed no detectable effects of ring material with optical depth tau [unknown] 0.01. Preliminary representative results include the following: 1.0243 x 10(26) and 2.141 x 10(22) kilograms for the masses of Neptune and Triton; 1640 and 2054 kilograms per cubic meter for their respective densities; 1355 +/- 7 kilometers, provisionally, for the radius of Triton; and J(2) = 3411 +/- 10(x 10(-6)) and J(4) = -26(+12)(-20)(x10(-6)) for Neptune's gravity field (J>(2) and J(4) are harmonic coefficients of the gravity field). The equatorial and polar radii of Neptune are 24,764 +/- 20 and 24,340 +/- 30 kllometers, respectively, at the 10(5)-pascal (1 bar) pressure level. Neptune's atmosphere was probed to a pressure level of about 5 x 10(5) pascals, and effects of a methane cloud region and probable ammonia absorption below the cloud are evident in the data. Results for the mixing ratios of helium and ammonia are still being investigated; the methane abundance below the clouds is at least 1 percent by volume. Derived temperature-pressure profiles to 1.2 x 10(5) pascals and 78 kelvins (K) show a lapse rate corresponding to "frozen" equilibrium of the para- and ortho-hydrogen states. Neptune's ionosphere exhibits an extended topside at a temperature of 950 +/- 160 K if H(+) is the dominant ion, and narrow ionization layers of the type previously seen at the other three giant planets. Triton has a dense ionosphere with a peak electron concentration of 46 x 10(9) per cubic meter at an

  4. Bonded Invar Clip Removal Using Foil Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T.; Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    A new process uses local heating and temperature monitoring to soften the adhesive under Invar clips enough that they can be removed without damaging the composite underneath or other nearby bonds. Two 1x1 in. (approx.2.5x2.5 cm), 10-W/sq in. (approx.1.6-W/sq cm), 80-ohm resistive foil Kapton foil heaters, with pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, are wired in parallel to a 50-V, 1-A limited power supply. At 1 A, 40 W are applied to the heater pair. The temperature is monitored in the clip radius and inside the tube, using a dual thermocouple readout. Several layers of aluminum foil are used to speed the heat up, allowing clips to be removed in less than five minutes. The very local heating via the foil heaters allows good access for clip removal and protects all underlying and adjacent materials.

  5. Application of foil bearings to helium turbocompressor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.Ming; Howarth, R.; Bernard, Geren; Theilacker, Jay C.; Soyars, William M.; /Fermilab

    2001-01-01

    Hydrodynamic gas-lubricated foil bearings are ideal for machinery that operates at high speed or in extreme-temperature environments. As motors and generators run at higher speeds with more torque capacity, the need for commonly available, robust, high-speed, low-loss foil bearings is clear. This paper presents an application example of the successful replacement of a tape-type bearing for a bump-type bearing in a helium turbocompressor. Both bearing types are described, as are the steps involved in design and fabrication of the bump bearing, and results of comparison tests between the original and replacement bearings. Methods to analyze bump-type foil bearings with commercially available software are reviewed to further emphasize the inherent simplicity of these bearings. By providing the engineering community with the understanding needed to successfully apply foil bearings, the authors hope that the benefits and true potential of this technology will finally be realized.

  6. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  7. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Wahby, Mayssaa M

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140-145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  8. Triton's surface properties - A preliminary analysis from ground-based, Voyager photopolarimeter subsystem, and laboratory measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Lane, A. L.; Gibson, J.; Burrows, H.; Nelson, R. M.; Bliss, D.; Smythe, W.; Garkanian, V.; Wallis, B.

    1991-01-01

    The surface properties of Triton were investigated using data from the ground-based and Voyager photopolarimeter subsystem (PPS) observations of Triton's phase curve. The results indicate that Triton has a high single-scattering albedo (0.96 +/-0.01 at 0.75 micron) and an unusually compacted surface, possibly similar to that of Europa. Results also suggest that Triton's single-particle phase function and the macroscopically rough character of its surface are similar to those of most other icy satellites.

  9. Rotationally resolved midultraviolet studies of Triton and the Pluto/Charon system. I - IUE results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Brosch, Noah; Barker, Edwin S.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The present uniform analysis of the full set of IUE spectra of Pluto + Charon and Triton attempts to characterize these objects' UV photometric properties variation with rotational phase, giving attention to the 2550-3200 A range. The visible-UV color differentiation increases as Pluto reaches its maximum bolometric brightness; the IUE data suggests that this could be due to a UV surface absorption feature on Pluto or Charon. Typical UV albedos are found on Triton which agree with Voyager photopolarimeter results; Pluto's albedo is much lower than that of Triton, but the amplitude of the Pluto UV lightcurve is greater than that of Triton.

  10. TRITON: graphic software for rational engineering of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Damboský, J; Prokop, M; Koca, J

    2001-01-01

    Engineering of the catalytic properties of enzymes requires knowledge about amino acid residues interacting with the transition state of the substrate. TRITON is a graphic software package for modelling enzymatic reactions for the analysis of essential interactions between the enzyme and its substrate and for in silico construction of protein mutants. The reactions are modelled using semi-empirical quantum-mechanic methods and the protein mutants are constructed by homology modelling. The users are guided through the calculation and data analysis by wizards. PMID:11252253

  11. Energy balance and plume dynamics in Triton's lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I.; Hunten, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    The present study of the thermal balance-affecting relationships among Triton lower atmosphere thermal conduction, eddy mixing, condensation, and radiative heating indicates that, while the temperature gradient is negative in the lower atmosphere, it becomes positive at higher altitudes due to the downward conduction of ionospheric heat. This temperature profile is essentially consistent with radio-occultation experiment data; the geyser-like plumes observed by Voyager suggest that the Trioton atmosphere's convective and conductive regions join near 10-km altitude, and that the values inferred for the eddy diffusion and heat-transport coefficients indicate a profile reminiscent of the earth's. 28 refs.

  12. Triton's geyser-like plumes - Discovery and basic characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Becker, T. L.; Kieffer, S. W.; Brown, R. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Johnson, T. V.

    1990-01-01

    One model for the mechanism driving the plumes of the four active geyser-like eruptions observed by Voyager 2 on Triton is a heating up of nitrogen ice in a subsurface greenhouse environment, where nitrogen gas pressurized by solar heating explosively vents to the surface carrying clouds of ice and dark particles into the atmosphere. A temperature increase of less than 4 K above the ambient surface value of 38 + or - 3 K suffices to drive the plumes to 8-km altitude. Each eruption may last a year or more, over the course of which 0.1 cu km of ice is sublimed.

  13. Energy balance and plume dynamics in Triton's lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yelle, Roger V.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hunten, Donald M.

    1991-01-01

    The present study of the thermal balance-affecting relationships among Triton lower atmosphere thermal conduction, eddy mixing, condensation, and radiative heating indicates that, while the temperature gradient is negative in the lower atmosphere, it becomes positive at higher altitudes due to the downward conduction of ionospheric heat. This temperature profile is essentially consistent with radio-occultation experiment data; the geyser-like plumes observed by Voyager suggest that the Trioton atmosphere's convective and conductive regions join near 10-km altitude, and that the values inferred for the eddy diffusion and heat-transport coefficients indicate a profile reminiscent of the earth's.

  14. Routine production of a triton beam for an FN accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.W.; Ashbaugh, P.G.; Stark, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The use of triton beams from tritiated titanium inserts in a sputter ion source has become a significant part of the McMaster Nuclear Physics programme. Tritium beams have been run on the McMaster University FN Tandem since 1978 on the basis of one scheduled running period per year accumulating a total of over 4000 hours of running time. Beams of up to one microamp are routinely put on target. Procedures for safe maintenance and operation of such a source have been developed, and techniques for handling up to 40 TBq (about 1000 Ci) of tritium have been approved by the Atomic Energy Control Board.

  15. Geology of the southern hemisphere of Triton: No polar cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P.; Moore, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The bright southern hemisphere, comprising Uhlanga Regio, is perhaps the most poorly understood geologic province on Triton. The entire bright southern hemisphere has been described as a bright polar 'cap', implying a seasonal origin, or as a permanent geologic terrain distinct from the equatorial terrains. Also, thermal models have predicted seasonal migration of frosts and ices from the presently sun-lit south latitudes to the dark northern latitudes. The distribution of frosts and geologic history of this region must be determined observationally. We reexamine the geology of this terrain with the goal of answering these questions.

  16. Diapirism on Triton - A record of crustal layering and instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul; Jackson, M. P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Cantaloupe terrain on Neptune's large, icy satellite Triton comprises an organized cellular pattern of noncircular dimples that structurally and geologically most closely resemble salt diapirs exposed on Earth. The mean separation of these cells is 47 km. Modeling of the cells as compositionally driven diapirs suggests that cantaloupe terrain forms by gravity-driven overturn within an ice crust about 20 km thick with a maximum viscosity of 10 exp 22 Pa s. These diapirs probably formed as a result of a density inversion in a layered crust composed partly of ice phases other than water ice.

  17. Diapirism on Triton - A record of crustal layering and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul; Jackson, M. P. A.

    1993-04-01

    Cantaloupe terrain on Neptune's large, icy satellite Triton comprises an organized cellular pattern of noncircular dimples that structurally and geologically most closely resemble salt diapirs exposed on Earth. The mean separation of these cells is 47 km. Modeling of the cells as compositionally driven diapirs suggests that cantaloupe terrain forms by gravity-driven overturn within an ice crust about 20 km thick with a maximum viscosity of 10 exp 22 Pa s. These diapirs probably formed as a result of a density inversion in a layered crust composed partly of ice phases other than water ice.

  18. The interaction of phosphatidylcholine bilayers with Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Goñi, F M; Urbaneja, M A; Arrondo, J L; Alonso, A; Durrani, A A; Chapman, D

    1986-11-01

    The interaction of multilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 has been studied under equilibrium conditions, specially in the sub-lytic range of surfactant concentrations. Equilibrium was achieved in less than 24 h. Estimations of detergent binding to bilayers, using [3H]Triton X-100, indicate that the amphiphile is incorporated even at very low concentrations (below its critical micellar concentration); a dramatic increase in the amount of bound Triton X-100 occurs at detergent concentrations just below those producing membrane solubilization. Solubilization occurs at phospholipid/detergent molar ratios near 0.65 irrespective of lipid concentration. The perturbation produced by the surfactant in the phospholipid bilayer has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, NMR and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. At low detergent concentration (lipid/detergent molar ratios above 3), a reduction in 2H-NMR quadrupolar splitting occurs, suggesting a decrease in the static order of the acyl chains; the same effect is detected by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the form of blue shifts of the methylene stretching vibration bands. Simultaneously, the enthalpy variation of the main phospholipid phase transition is decreased by about a third with respect to its value in the pure lipid/water system. For phospholipid/detergent molar ratios between 3 and 1, the decrease in lipid static order does not proceed any further; rather an increase in fluidity is observed, characterized by a marked decrease in the midpoint transition temperature of the gel-to-fluid phospholipid transition. At the same time an isotropic component is apparent in both 31P-NMR and 2H-NMR spectra, and a new low-temperature endotherm is detected in differential scanning calorimetric traces. When phospholipid and Triton X-100 are present at equimolar ratios some bilayer structure persists, as judged from calorimetric observations, but NMR reveals

  19. Cryostat with Foil and MLI

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Peter K.F.; Gung, Chen-yu

    2005-10-06

    Induction cores are used to accelerate heavy ion beam array, which are built around the outer diameter of the cryostat housing the superconducting quadruple array. Compact cryostat is highly desirable to reduce the cost of the induction cores. Recent experiences in fabrication of a cryostat for single beam transport revealed that it is possible to reduce the spacing in the cryostat vacuum jacket by using low-emissivity thermal insulation material instead of conventional MLI. However, it is labor-intensive to install the new type of insulation as compared with using MLI. It is promising to build a cost-effective compact cryostat for quadruple magnet array for heavy ion beam array transport by using low-emissivity material combined with conventional MLI as radiation insulation. A matrix of insulation designs and tests will be performed as the feasibility study and for the selection of the optimal thermal insulation as the Phase I work. The selected mixed insulation will be used to build prototype compact cryostats in the Phase II project, which are aiming for housing quadruple doublet array. In this STTR phase I study, a small cryostat has been designed and built to perform calorimetric characterization of the heat load in a liquid helium vessel insulated with a vacuum layer with a nominal clearance of 3.5 mm. The vacuum clearance resembled that used in the warm-bore beam tube region in a prototype cryostat previously built for the heavy ion beam transport experiment. The vacuum clearance was geometrically restricted with a heater shell with the temperature controlled at near 300 K. Various combinations of radiation and thermal shields were installed in the tight vacuum clearance for heat load measurements. The measured heat loads are reported and compared with previous test result using a compact vacuum layer. Further developments of the thermal insulations used in the present study are discussed. The compact cryostat with foil and MLI insulation may be used in the

  20. The role of nonuniform internal heating in Triton's energy budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Triton's large heliocentric distance and high albedo, combined with its unusually large silicate mass fraction, make internal heating more important in its energy budget than in that of any other icy satellite. Brown et al. have recently estimated that the average radiogenic heat flux (which is probably between 3.3 and 6.6 mW/sq m depending on core size and composition) may equal 5 to 20 pct. of the average absorbed insolation. On a global scale, this additional energy input appreciably increases the thermal emissivity required to be consistent with the observed surface temperature. Brown et al. also speculated that spatial variations of the internal flux may change the local sublimation deposition balance enough to lead to observable modifications of the distribution of volatiles on Triton's surface. An attempt is made to estimate the magnitude of internal heat flux variations due to the insulating effect of the polar caps, to mantle convection, and to cryovolcanism; the importance is evaluated of these variations in modifying the volatile distribution.

  1. Scatterers in Triton's atmosphere - Implications for the seasonal volatile cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Schwartz, Joel M.; Rages, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    Nitrogen and methane ices on the surface of Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, are exchanged between the summer and winter hemispheres on a seasonal time scale. Images of the satellite's sky obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft show the presence of several types of scattering materials that provide insights into this seasonal cycle of volatiles. Discrete clouds, probably composed of N2 ice particles, arise in regions of active sublimation. They are found chiefly poloward of 30 deg S in the southern, summer hemisphere. Haze particles, probably made of hydrocarbon ices, are present above most, but not all places. Recent snowfall may have occurred at low southern latitudes in places where they are absent. The latent heat released in the formation of the discrete clouds may have a major impact on the thermal balance of the lower atmosphere. Triton may have been less red at the time of the Voyager flyby than 12 years earlier due to recent N2 snowfall at a wide range of latitudes.

  2. The nature of the hydrogen tori of Titan and Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Marconi, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    The nature of the hydrogen tori of Titan and Triton is examined. Critical time scales of the two tori are discussed. For the Titan torus, where atom-atom collisions are not important, the time scale for solar radiation pressure to act on the system is shown to be comparable to the hydrogen lifetime due to ionization and charge exchange losses by solar, magnetospheric, and solar wind processes. The solar radiation pressure then provides a mechanism which destroys the initial azimuthal symmetry of the hydrogen atom orbits about the planet and causes atom orbits to move inward and to collide with the planet on its dusk side. For Triton, the atom-atom collision time scale dominates all other time scales in the system. The evolution of the torus is then an inherently nonlinear problem that depends upon the collisional redistribution of atom-orbit velocities in the presence of a planetary gravitational force field. This nonlinear process introduces an expansion mechanism into the torus problem which dramatically alters its structure.

  3. USE OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS (ELISA) FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TRITON X NONIONIC DETERGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 4-t-octylphenyl ethoxylates such as Triton X-100 was developed. Both the 4-t-octylphenyl and the ethoxylate moiety were required for antibody recognition since members of the Triton N series showed low cross-reactivity, and polyeth...

  4. Effects of Triton X-100 nanoaggregates on dimerization and antioxidant activity of morin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiya; Guo, Rong

    2008-01-01

    Dimerization and antioxidant activity of morin in the Triton X-100 micelles were studied by electronic absorption, ATR-FTIR spectra, cyclic voltammetric, DSC, freeze-fracture TEM, molecular modeling and ab initio quantum calculations. Morin can be solubilized in the Triton X-100 micelles and show selective dimerization in Triton X-100 micelles with different structures. In Triton X-100 spherical micelles, morin always exists in the form of dimer, and in Triton X-100 rodlike micelles, it is always in the form of monomer. The solubilization of morin dimer in Triton X-100 spherical micelles changes the micelle morphology from spherical to cubelike, and the size of the single micelle is also increased, while morin monomer links the Triton X-100 rodlike micelles and forms a kind of network micelle structure with the size of the "rod" unchanged. Solubilized and concentrated in Triton X-100 micelles, morin can protect human serum albumin from the damage induced by hydroxyl radicals effectively and even can form a kind of protein complex with human serum albumin showing more thermal stability. PMID:18510337

  5. Status of Genesis Mo-Pt Foils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.; Butterworth, A. L.; Caffee, M. W.; Clark, B.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Komura, K.; Westphal, A. J.; Welten, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 8,000 sq cm of Mo-coated Pt foils were exposed to solar wind for 884 days by the Genesis mission. Solar wind ions were captured in the surface of the Mo. Our objective is the measurement of long-lived radionuclides, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and Mn-53, and short-lived radionuclides, such as Na-22 and Mn-54, in the captured sample of solar wind. The expected flux of these nuclides in the solar wind is 100 atom/sq cm yr or less. The hard landing of the SRC (Sample Return Capsule) at UTTR (Utah Test and Training Range) has resulted in contaminated and crumpled foils. Here we present a status report and revised plan for processing the foils.

  6. Two High-Temperature Foil Journal Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2006-01-01

    An enlarged, high-temperature-compliant foil bearing has been built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of such bearings for use in aircraft gas turbine engines. Foil bearings are attractive for use in some machines in which (1) speeds of rotation, temperatures, or both exceed maximum allowable values for rolling-element bearings; (2) conventional lubricants decompose at high operating temperatures; and/or (3) it is necessary or desirable not to rely on conventional lubrication systems. In a foil bearing, the lubricant is the working fluid (e.g., air or a mixture of combustion gases) in the space between the journal and the shaft in the machine in which the bearing is installed.

  7. Stability of Triton's Albedo from 1985 Through 1997: Implications for the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.

    2000-01-01

    Recent occultation results indicate that an increase in temperature may have occurred in the atmosphere of Triton during the past 8 years (Elliot et al. 1998; Olkin et al. 1997). The atmosphere is thought to be in vapor pressure equilibrium with the surface frosts, hence changes in frost coverage can have significant implications for atmospheric stability. We have a long- term set of multiwavelength data on Triton spanning more than a decade (the data were obtained for Neptune observations, but Triton is visible in most of the images). Over that time, the data were obtained with nearly identical filters. Thus far, only one year's worth of one wavelength has been analyzed for Triton (Lark et al. 1989). We proposed to complete a comprehensive and self-consistent analysis of the complete Triton data set. One year was funded of a requested three-year program.

  8. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  9. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    DOEpatents

    Elpern, David G.; McCabe, Niall; Gee, Mark

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  10. Diffusion of hydrogen in zirconium foil

    SciTech Connect

    Schur, D.V.; Pishuk, V.K.; Adejev, V.M.; Zaginaichenko, S.Y.

    1998-12-31

    The authors of present research have used in experiments the atomic hydrogen and metallic foil 25--30 {micro}m thick. It has been supposed that these technical operations will permit excluding the influence of surface and diffusional processes on the rate of Me-H interaction. The series of experiments have been carried out and they confirm this assumption. It has been shown that hydrogenation reaction of zirconium foil in atomic hydrogen conforms to the topochemical model of volume segregation of interaction product, and the rate of its flow is independent of the surface processes and hydrogen diffusion in volume.

  11. Steel Foil Improves Performance Of Blasting Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Perry, Ronnie; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Blasting caps, which commonly include deep-drawn aluminum cups, give significantly higher initiation performance by application of steel foils on output faces. Steel closures 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick more effective than aluminum. Caps with directly bonded steel foil produce fragment velocities of 9,300 ft/s (2.8 km/s) with large craters and unpredictable patterns to such degree that no attempts made to initiate explosions. Useful in military and aerospace applications and in specialized industries as mining and exploration for oil.

  12. Thrust augmentation in tandem flapping foils by foil-wake interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Erik; Lauder, George

    2006-11-01

    Propulsion by pitching and heaving airfoils and hydrofoils has been a focus of much research in the field of biologically inspired propulsion. Organisms that use this sort of propulsion are self-propelled, so it is difficult to use standard experimental metrics such as thrust and drag to characterize performance. We have constructed a flapping foil robot mounted in a flume on air-bearings that allows for the determination of self-propelled speed as a metric of performance. We have used a pair of these robots to examine the impact of an upstream flapping foil on a downstream flapping foil as might apply to tandem fins of a swimming organism or in-line swimming of schooling organisms. Self-propelled speed and a force transducer confirmed significant thrust augmentation for particular foil-to-foil spacings, phase differences, and flapping frequencies. Flow visualization shows the mechanism to be related to the effective angle of attack of the downstream foil due to the structure of the wake of the upstream foil. This confirms recent computational work and the hypotheses by early investigators of fish fluid dynamics.

  13. A search for ethane on Pluto and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMeo, Francesca E.; Dumas, Christophe; de Bergh, Catherine; Protopapa, Silvia; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Merlin, Frédéric; Barucci, Maria A.

    2010-07-01

    We present here a search for solid ethane, C 2H 6, on the surfaces of Pluto and Triton, based on near-infrared spectral observations in the H and K bands (1.4-2.45 μm) using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). We model each surface using a radiative transfer model based on Hapke theory (Hapke, B. [1993]. Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK) with three basic models: without ethane, with pure ethane, and with ethane diluted in nitrogen. On Pluto we detect weak features near 2.27, 2.405, 2.457, and 2.461 μm that match the strongest features of pure ethane. An additional feature seen at 2.317 μm is shifted to longer wavelengths than ethane by at least 0.002 μm. The strength of the features seen in the models suggests that pure ethane is limited to no more than a few percent of the surface of Pluto. On Triton, features in the H band could potentially be explained by ethane diluted in N, however, the lack of corresponding features in the K band makes this unlikely (also noted by Quirico et al. (Quirico, E., Doute, S., Schmitt, B., de Bergh, C., Cruikshank, D.P., Owen, T.C., Geballe, T.R., Roush, T.L. [1999]. Icarus 139, 159-178)). While Cruikshank et al. (Cruikshank, D.P., Mason, R.E., Dalle Ore, C.M., Bernstein, M.P., Quirico, E., Mastrapa, R.M., Emery, J.P., Owen, T.C. [2006]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 38, 518) find that the 2.406-μm feature on Triton could not be completely due to 13CO, our models show that it could not be accounted for entirely by ethane either. The multiple origin of this feature complicates constraints on the contribution of ethane for both bodies.

  14. A Neptune/Triton Vision Mission Using Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, P.; Bienstock, B.; Atkinson, D. H.; Baines, K.; Mahaffey, P.; Atreya, S.; Stern, A.; Wright, M.

    2004-12-01

    The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the `gas giants' Jupiter and Saturn, primarily comprising hydrogen and helium; and the `ice giants' Uranus and Neptune that are believed to contain significant amounts of the heavier elements including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur. Detailed comparisons of the internal structures and compositions of the gas giants with those of the ice giants will yield valuable insights into the processes that formed the solar system and, perhaps, extrasolar systems. By 2012, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, and possibly a New Frontiers Jupiter mission will have yielded significant information on the chemical and physical properties of Jupiter and Saturn. A Neptune mission would deliver the corresponding key data for an ice giant planet. A Neptune Orbiter with Probes mission utilizing nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) to study Triton, Nereid, the other icy satellites of Neptune, Neptune's system of rings, and the deep Neptune atmosphere to pressures ranging from several hundred bars to possibly several kilobars is being examined. Power and propulsion would be provided using nuclear electric technologies. Such an ambitious mission requires a number of technical issues be investigated and resolved, including: (1) developing a realizable mission design that allows proper targeting and timing of the entry probe(s) while offering adequate opportunities for detailed measurements of Triton, the other icy satellites and ring science, (2) giant-planet atmospheric probe thermal protection system (TPS) design, (3) descent probe design including seals, windows, penetrations and inlets, and pressure vessel, (4) probe telecommunications through the dense and absorbing Neptunian atmosphere, and (5) within NEP mass and power constraints, defining an appropriate suite of science instruments to explore the depths of the Neptune atmosphere, magnetic field, Triton, and the icy satellites. Another driving factor in

  15. Tight, Flat, Smooth, Ultrathin Metal Foils for Locating Synchrotron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Connie S.; Stoner, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It is often desired to locate a synchrotron x-ray beam precisely in space with minimal disturbance of its spatial profile and spectral content. This can be done by passing the beam through an ultrathin, flat, smooth metal foil having well-defined composition, preferably a single chemical element such as chromium, titanium or aluminum. Localized fluorescence of the foil at characteristic x-ray lines where the x-ray beam passes through the foil serves to locate the beam in two dimensions. Use of two such foils along the beam direction locates the x-ray beam spatially and identifies precisely its direction. The accuracy of determining these parameters depends in part upon high uniformity in the thickness of the foil(s), good planarity, and smoothness of the foil(s). In practice, several manufacturing steps to produce a foil must be carried out with precision. The foil must be produced on a smooth removable substrate in such a way that its thickness (or areal density) is as uniform as possible. The foil must be fastened to a support ring that maintains the foil's surface quality, and it must be then stretched onto a frame that produces the desired mirror flatness. These steps are illustrated and some of the parameters specifying the quality of the resulting foils are identified.

  16. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Robert W; Plum, Michael A; Wilson, Leslie L; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I; Takagi, A

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} foils as large as 17 x 25 mm{sup 2} have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 {micro}C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H{sup -}) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  17. Measurements of energetic confined alphas and tritons on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Duong, H.H.; McChesney, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration involving General Atomics, the A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the energy distribution of the fast-confined alpha particles in DT experiments on TFIR is being measured by active neutral particle analysis using the ablation cloud surrounding an injected impurity pellet as the neutralizer. Recent papers reported the first measurements of the energy distribution fast confined alpha particles and examined the influence of magnetic field ripple and sawtooth oscillations on the behavior of the alpha energy spectra and radial density distributions. This paper focuses on alpha and triton measurements in the core of quiescent TFTR discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity.

  18. Origin of the Earths's Moon and Neptune's Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Fred

    2015-08-01

    In view of the recently reported chemical similarities between lunar and earth specimen, interest in the lunar origin has been reawakened. A new approach is presented here. A necessary condition for a lunar spin-off requires that the primitive earth has expanded since its inception. Then, utilizing the non-controversial conservation of total angular momentum of the earth-moon system, one can readily derive the initial physical conditions for the moon's escape (spin-off) from the upper surface of a rapidly spinning, diminutive earth. Detailed calculations will be presented for both the Moon-Earth and Triton-Neptune's early evolutionary developments. The results have implications to theories relating the origin of the solar system.

  19. The effect of surface roughness on Triton's volatile distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yelle, Roger V.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of radiative equilibrium temperatures on Triton's rough surface suggest that significant condensation of N2 may be occurring in the northern equatorial regions, despite their relatively dark appearance. The bright frost is not apparent in the Voyager images because it tends to be concentrated in relatively unilluminated facets of the surface. This patchwork of bright frost-covered regions and darker bare ground may be distributed on scales smaller than that of the Voyager resolution; as a result the northern equatorial regions may appear relatively dark. This hypothesis also accounts for the observed wind direction in the Southern Hemisphere because it implies that the equatorial regions are warmer than the south polar regions.

  20. Properties of haze in the atmosphere of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Sandel, B. R.; Herbert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Voyager UV spectrometer measurements of CH4 and haze of the Triton atmosphere combined with the haze brightness profile determined by the narrow angle camera are used to infer a haze optical thickness of 0.024 at 1500 A and 0.0078 in the spectral range of the narrow angle camera centered at 4700A, rho/gamma = 0.36 +/- 0.1 g/cu cm (gamma is the quantum yield of condensate), and values of r(c) varying from 0.1 +/- 0.02 micron at 30 km to 0.15 +/- 0.03 micron near the surface. Other auxiliary properties of the haze are also determined. The value found for rho/gamma corresponds to a packing coefficient of 0.6 gamma if C2H4 is the main condensible species.

  1. Surface and airborne evidence for plumes and winds on triton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, C.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Terrile, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Aeolian features on Triton that were imaged during the Voyager Mission have been grouped. The term "aeolian feature" is broadly defined as features produced by or blown by the wind, including surface and airborne materials. Observations of the latitudinal distributions of the features probably associated with current activity (known plumes, crescent streaks, fixed terminator clouds, and limb haze with overshoot) all occur from latitude -37?? to latitude -62??. Likely indicators of previous activity (dark surface streaks) occur from latitude -5?? to -70??, but are most abundant from -15?? to -45??, generally north of currently active features. Those indicators which give information on wind direction and speed have been measured. Wind direction is a function of altitude. The predominant direction of the surface wind streaks is found to be between 40?? and 80?? measured clockwise from north. The average orientation of streaks in the northeast quadrant is 59??. Winds at 1- to 3-kilometer altitude are eastward, while those at >8 kilometers blow west.

  2. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton

  3. Foil Panel Mirrors for Nonimaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuyper, D. J.; Castillo, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Large durable, lightweight mirrors made by bonding thick aluminum foil to honeycomb panels or other rigid, flat backings. Mirrors suitable for use as infrared shields, telescope doors, solar-furnance doors, advertising displays, or other reflectors that require low thermal emissivity and high specularity but do not require precise surface figure necessary for imaging.

  4. Thermal Sensitive Foils in Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochnícek, Zdenek; Konecný, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and…

  5. Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

  6. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  7. Strong field electrodynamics of a thin foil

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Rykovanov, Sergey G.; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2013-12-15

    Exact solutions describing the nonlinear electrodynamics of a thin double layer foil are presented. These solutions correspond to a broad range of problems of interest for the interaction of high intensity laser pulses with overdense plasmas, such as frequency upshifting, high order harmonic generation, and high energy ion acceleration.

  8. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  9. Triton X-100 pretreatment of LR-white thin sections improves immunofluorescence specificity and intensity.

    PubMed

    Ghrebi, Salem S; Owen, Gethin Rh; Brunette, Donald M

    2007-07-01

    The staining of intracellular antigenic sites in postembedded samples is a challenging problem. Deterioration of antigenicity and limited antibody accessibility to the antigen are commonly encountered on account of processing steps. In this study preservation of the antigen was achieved by fixing the tissues with mild fixatives, performing partial dehydration, and embedding in a low crosslinked hydrophilic acrylic resin, LR-White. Permeabilization of cell membranes with Triton X-100 is well documented but can affect some antigen conformations. We tested the effect of Triton X-100 on the ED1 antigen present in the lysosomal membrane of the macrophage in cell culture. The ED1 antigen in the lysosome was resistant to extraction by Triton X-100. Interestingly pretreating the LR-White sections of macrophage pellets with Triton X-100 improved the staining intensity of ED1. The most intense and clear specific fluorescent staining was observed when sections were pretreated with 0.2% Triton X-100 for 2 min. Longer exposure of sections to 0.2% Triton or 2 min exposure to 2% Triton lead to reduced ED1 labeling. SEM observations indicated that the detergent extracted a component from the cells and not the resin and was determined to be lipid. This novel technique could be applied in many research areas where postembedding fluorescent immunolabeling with higher labeling intensity is desired. PMID:17380496

  10. Analytical theory of motion and new ephemeris of Triton from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.; Samorodov, M. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Modelling the motion of Triton, the main satellite of Neptune, is specific. Earlier researchers built Triton's ephemeris by numerical integration of the equations of its motion. However, these ephemeris can be accessed only by using online ephemeris server or by borrowing a special calculating program and huge data file from authors of the ephemeris. In addition, the interval of the earlier ephemeris is limited. In this paper, simple and easily programmable formulae are presented for computing Triton's ephemeris for any instant of time. The formulae are based on a new analytical theory of Triton's motion all necessary perturbing factors being taken into consideration. The parameters of the theory are fit to all published observations made from 1847 to 2012 (10 254 observations in total). After the parameters were fit to observations, the root-mean-square residuals were 0.228 arcsec, the weighted average residual being 0.036 arcsec. The new ephemeris of Triton slightly differs from those produced by other authors because of differences in the sets of used observations. The new ephemeris of Triton are put on our online ephemeris server. It is shown that the available observations do not allow to determine reliably the quadratic term in the orbital longitude of Triton. Such a term would be an additional indicator of the accuracy of the theory and observations.

  11. Some remarks on the capture of Triton and the origin of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinella, P.; Milani, A.; Nobili, A. M.; Valsecchi, G. B.

    1980-12-01

    Harrington and Van Flandern (1979, Icarus39, 131-136) suggests that the irregular features of the Neptunian satellite system and Pluto's escape were caused by an encounter with a massive external body. They rule out the alternative mechanism based on the capture of Triton (which seems more plausible because it does not appeal to any unobserved object) on the basis of an incorrect deduction from McCord's (1966, Astron. J.71, 585-590) analysis on the tidal decay of Triton's orbit. As a matter of fact, many recent results show that satellite captures are possible, and in the case of Triton several arguments support this interpretation.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer. 1. Transport of triton X-100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.A.; Sahoo, D.; Mclellan, H.M.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Transport of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) at aqueous concentrations less than 400 mg/L through a trichloroethene-contaminated sand-and-gravel aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, has been studied through a series of laboratory and field experiments. In the laboratory, batch and column experiments were conducted to quantify the rate and amount of Triton X-100 sorption to the aquifer sediments. In the field, a 400 mg/L aqueous Triton X-100 solution was injected into the aquifer at a rate of 26.5 L/min for a 35-d period. The transport of Triton X-100 was monitored by sampling and analysis of groundwater at six locations surrounding the injection well. Equilibrium batch sorption experiments showed that Triton X-100 sorbs strongly and nonlinearly to the field soil with the sharpest inflection point of the isotherm occurring at an equilibrium aqueous Triton X-100 concentration close to critical micelle concentration. Batch, soil column, and field experimental data were analyzed with zero-, one-, and two- dimensional (respectively) transient solute transport models with either equilibrium or rate-limited sorption. These analyses reveal that Triton X- 100 sorption to the aquifer solids is slow relative to advective and dispersive transport and that an equilibrium sorption model cannot simulate accurately the observed soil column and field data. Comparison of kinetic sorption parameters from batch, column, and field transport data indicate that both physical heterogeneities and Triton X-100 mass transfer between water and soil contribute to the kinetic transport effects.Transport of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) at aqueous concentrations less than 400 mg/L through a trichloroethene-contaminated sand-and-gravel aquifer was studied. Equilibrium batch sorption experiments showed that Triton X-100 sorbs strongly and nonlinearly to the field soil with the sharpest inflection point of the isotherm occurring at an equilibrium aqueous Triton X-100 concentration close to

  13. The influence of thermal inertia on temperatures and frost stability on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John R.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    It is presently argued, in view of (1) a thermal inertia model for the surface of Triton which (like previous ones) predicts a monotonic recession of permanent N2 deposits toward the poles and very little seasonal N2 frost in the southern hemisphere, and (2) new spectroscopic evidence for nonvolatile CO2 on Triton's bright southern hemisphere, that much of that bright southern material is not N2. Such bright southern hemisphere volatiles may allow the formation of seasonal frosts, thereby helping to explain the observed spectroscopic changes of Triton during the last decade.

  14. Optical and electrical performance of commercially manufactured large GEM foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posik, M.; Surrow, B.

    2015-12-01

    With interest in large area GEM foils increasing and CERN being the only main distributor, keeping up with the demand for GEM foils will be difficult. Thus the commercialization of GEMs is being established by Tech-Etch of Plymouth, MA, USA using single-mask techniques. We report here on the first of a two step quality verification of the commercially produced 10×10 cm2 and 40×40 cm2 GEM foils, which includes characterizing their electrical and geometrical properties. We have found that the Tech-Etch foils display excellent electrical properties, as well as uniform and consistent hole diameters comparable to established foils produced by CERN.

  15. Nuclear target foil fabrication for the Romano Event

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, J.W.; Romo, J.G. Jr.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-06-19

    The Vacuum Processes Lab, of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division, was requested to provide 250 coated Parylene target foils for a nuclear physics experiment titled the ROMANO Event. Due to the developmental nature of some of the fabrication procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were produced to satisfy the event's needs. The foils were used in the experiment as subkilovolt x-ray, narrow band pass filters, and wide band ultraviolet filters. This paper is divided into three sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, and (3) foil and substrate inspections.

  16. Carbon stripper foils for heavy-ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon stripper foils have for many years been successfully used with accelerators because they yield higher average charge states than gas strippers. However, with the development of heavy ion accelerators and the resulting use of heavier ions, the carbon stripper foil lifetimes are greatly reduced. Even when using the new foils changer systems, which typically contain two hundred foils or more, it becomes necessary to have frequent accelerator shutdowns for foil reloading. The rate of experiment interruption makes it clear a new approach is necessary to increase foil lifetimes. Several techniques have been tried with varying degrees of success to strengthen these foils so that they will last longer; the most successful one reported a lifetime increase of the order of a factor of 30 over foils produced in the conventional manner. Methods of producing various types of foils will be presented, a discussion will be given on theories for foil breakage, and some new ideas will be introduced for further increasing foil lifetimes.

  17. Impact of GEM foil hole geometry on GEM detector gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadzhinova, A.; Nolvi, A.; Veenhof, R.; Tuominen, E.; Hæggström, E.; Kassamakov, I.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed 3D imaging of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil hole geometry was realized. Scanning White Light Interferometry was used to examine six topological parameters of GEM foil holes from both sides of the foil. To study the effect of the hole geometry on detector gain, the ANSYS and Garfield ++ software were employed to simulate the GEM detector gain on the basis of SWLI data. In particular, the effective gain in a GEM foil with equally shaped holes was studied. The real GEM foil holes exhibited a 4% lower effective gain and 6% more electrons produced near the exit electrode of the GEM foil than the design anticipated. Our results indicate that the GEM foil hole geometry affects the gain performance of GEM detectors.

  18. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOEpatents

    Webb, B.J.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Prater, J.T.; DeSteese, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed. 11 figs.

  19. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  20. FoilSim: Basic Aerodynamics Software Created

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ruth A.

    1999-01-01

    FoilSim is interactive software that simulates the airflow around various shapes of airfoils. The graphical user interface, which looks more like a video game than a learning tool, captures and holds the students interest. The software is a product of NASA Lewis Research Center s Learning Technologies Project, an educational outreach initiative within the High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP).This airfoil view panel is a simulated view of a wing being tested in a wind tunnel. As students create new wing shapes by moving slider controls that change parameters, the software calculates their lift. FoilSim also displays plots of pressure or airspeed above and below the airfoil surface.

  1. Relativistic Electron Transport Through Carbon Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliger, M.; Takasi, K.; Reinhold, C. O.; Takabayashi, Y.; Ito, T.; Komaki, K.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.

    We present a theoretical study of convoy electron emission resulting from transmission of relativistic 390 MeV/amu Ar17+ ions through carbon foils of various thicknesses. Our approach is based on a Langevin equation describing the random walk of the electron initially bound to the argon nucleus and later in the continuum. The calculated spectra of ejected electrons in the forward direction exhibit clear signatures of multiple scattering and are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental data.

  2. Spectroscopic determination of the phase composition and temperature of nitrogen ice on Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryka, K. A.; Brown, R. H.; Anicich, V.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Owen, T. C.

    1993-08-01

    Laboratory spectra of the first overtone band (2.1480 microns, 4655.4 reciprocal cm) of solid nitrogen show additional structure at 2.1618 microns (4625.8 reciprocal cm) over a limited temperature range. The spectrum of Neptune's satellite Triton shows the nitrogen overtone band as well as the temperature-sensitive component. The temperature dependence of this band may be used in conjunction with ground-based observations of Triton as an independent means of determining the temperature of surface deposits of nitrogen ice. The surface temperature of Triton is found to be 38.0 +2.0 or -1.0 K, in agreement with previous temperature estimates and measurements. There is no spectral evidence for the presence of alpha-nitrogen on Triton's surface, indicating that there is less than 10 percent carbon monoxide in solid solution with the nitrogen on the surface.

  3. Temperature and thermal emissivity of the surface of Neptune's satellite Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Smythe, William D.; Wallis, Brad D.; Horn, Linda J.; Lane, Arthur L.; Mayo, Marvin J.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the preliminary results from the Voyager mission to the Neptune system has provided the scientific community with several methods by which the temperature of Neptune's satellite Triton may be determined. If the 37.5 K surface temperature reported by several Voyager investigations is correct, then the photometry reported by the imaging experiment on Voyager requires that Triton's surface have a remarkably low emissivity. Such a low emissivity is not required in order to explain the photometry from the photopolarimeter experiment on Voyager. A low emissivity would be inconsistent with Triton having a rough surface at the about 100-micron scale as might be expected given the active renewal processes which appear to dominate Triton's surface.

  4. A new spectrum of Triton near the time of the Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, William M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    A 5200-10,000 A spectrum of Triton that was telescopically obtained during the summer of 1989, just before the Voyager II encounter with the Neptune system, exhibits a measurable 8900 A CH4 ice absorption band. A combination of these data with those of Voyager indicates that the absorption is caused solely by Triton surface CH4 ice. A Hapke-type model for the Triton spectrum (1) sets a 20-micron lower limit on the CH4 ice's mean grain size (although it is suspected that actual grain size is closer to 100 microns), and (2) indicates that CH4 ice is widely distributed on the southern-hemisphere surface of Triton.

  5. Nucleon and triton production from nucleon-induced reactions on 7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Guo, Hairui; Nagaoka, Kohei; Matsumoto, Takuma; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    Nucleon (N) and triton production from nucleon-induced reactions on 7Li at an incident energy of 14 MeV are analyzed by using three-body continuum discretized coupled channels method (CDCC), final state interaction (FSI) model, and sequential decay (SD) model. The CDCC is used to describe nucleon and triton production via breakup continuum channels, 7Li(N,N')7Li*→ t + α. Triton production from p(n) + 7Li → t + 5Li(5He) channel and nucleon production from sequential decay of the ground-state 5Li(5He) are calculated by the FSI model and the SD model, respectively. The calculated double differential cross sections for both nucleon and triton production are in good agreement with experimental ones except at relatively low nucleon emission energies.

  6. Spectroscopic determination of the phase composition and temperature of nitrogen ice on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tryka, Kimberly A.; Brown, Robert H.; Anicich, Vincent; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Owen, Tobias C.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of the first overtone band (2.1480 microns, 4655.4 reciprocal cm) of solid nitrogen show additional structure at 2.1618 microns (4625.8 reciprocal cm) over a limited temperature range. The spectrum of Neptune's satellite Triton shows the nitrogen overtone band as well as the temperature-sensitive component. The temperature dependence of this band may be used in conjunction with ground-based observations of Triton as an independent means of determining the temperature of surface deposits of nitrogen ice. The surface temperature of Triton is found to be 38.0 +2.0 or -1.0 K, in agreement with previous temperature estimates and measurements. There is no spectral evidence for the presence of alpha-nitrogen on Triton's surface, indicating that there is less than 10 percent carbon monoxide in solid solution with the nitrogen on the surface.

  7. Neptune's capture of its moon Triton in a binary-planet gravitational encounter.

    PubMed

    Agnor, Craig B; Hamilton, Douglas P

    2006-05-11

    Triton is Neptune's principal satellite and is by far the largest retrograde satellite in the Solar System (its mass is approximately 40 per cent greater than that of Pluto). Its inclined and circular orbit lies between a group of small inner prograde satellites and a number of exterior irregular satellites with both prograde and retrograde orbits. This unusual configuration has led to the belief that Triton originally orbited the Sun before being captured in orbit around Neptune. Existing models for its capture, however, all have significant bottlenecks that make their effectiveness doubtful. Here we report that a three-body gravitational encounter between a binary system (of approximately 10(3)-kilometre-sized bodies) and Neptune is a far more likely explanation for Triton's capture. Our model predicts that Triton was once a member of a binary with a range of plausible characteristics, including ones similar to the Pluto-Charon pair. PMID:16688170

  8. Brazing Inconel 625 Using the Copper Foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2013-12-01

    Brazing Inconel 625 (IN-625) using the copper foil has been investigated in this research. The brazed joint is composed of nanosized CrNi3 precipitates and Cr/Mo/Nb/Ni quaternary compound in the Cu/Ni-rich matrix. The copper filler 50 μm in thickness is enough for the joint filling. However, the application of Cu foil 100 μm in thickness has little effect on the shear strength of the brazed joint. The specimen brazed at 1433 K (1160 °C) for 1800 seconds demonstrates the best shear strength of 470 MPa, and its fractograph is dominated by ductile dimple fracture with sliding marks. Decreasing the brazing temperature slightly decreases the shear strength of the brazed joint due to the presence of a few isolated solidification shrinkage voids smaller than 15 μm. Increasing the brazing temperature, especially for the specimen brazed at 1473 K (1200 °C), significantly deteriorates the shear strength of the joint below 260 MPa because of coalescence of isothermal solidification shrinkage voids in the joint. The Cu foil demonstrates potential in brazing IN-625 for industrial application.

  9. Optofluidic dye laser in a foil.

    PubMed

    Vannahme, Christoph; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Mappes, Timo; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-04-26

    First order distributed feedback optofluidic dye lasers embedded in a 350 microm thick TOPAS((R)) foil are demonstrated. They are designed in order to give high output pulse energies. Microfluidic channels and first order distributed feedback gratings are fabricated in parallel by thermal nanoimprint into a 100 microm foil. The channels are closed by thermal bonding with a 250 microm thick foil and filled with 5.10(-3) mol/l Pyrromethene 597 in benzyl alcohol. The fluid forms a liquid core single mode slab waveguide of 1.6 microm height on a nanostructured grating area of 0.5 x 0.5 mm(2). This results in a large gain volume. Two grating periods of 185 nm and 190 nm yield single mode laser light emission at 566 nm and 581 nm respectively. High emitted pulse energies of more than 1 microJ are reported. Stable operation for more than 25 min at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate is achieved. PMID:20588775

  10. Optical quality assurance of GEM foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildén, T.; Brücken, E.; Heino, J.; Kalliokoski, M.; Karadzhinova, A.; Lauhakangas, R.; Tuominen, E.; Turpeinen, R.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis software was developed for the high aspect ratio optical scanning system in the Detector Laboratory of the University of Helsinki and the Helsinki Institute of Physics. The system is used e.g. in the quality assurance of the GEM-TPC detectors being developed for the beam diagnostics system of the SuperFRS at future FAIR facility. The software was tested by analyzing five CERN standard GEM foils scanned with the optical scanning system. The measurement uncertainty of the diameter of the GEM holes and the pitch of the hole pattern was found to be 0.5 μm and 0.3 μm, respectively. The software design and the performance are discussed. The correlation between the GEM hole size distribution and the corresponding gain variation was studied by comparing them against a detailed gain mapping of a foil and a set of six lower precision control measurements. It can be seen that a qualitative estimation of the behavior of the local variation in gain across the GEM foil can be made based on the measured sizes of the outer and inner holes.