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Sample records for dolphin kick hydrodynamics

  1. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency. PMID:21840077

  2. A computational method for analysis of underwater dolphin kick hydrodynamics in human swimming.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Mark, Russell; Hahn, James

    2009-03-01

    We present a new method that combines the use of laser body scans, underwater video footage, software-based animation, and a fully unsteady computational fluid dynamics technique to simulate and examine the hydrodynamics of the dolphin kick. The focus of the current work is to model this particular stroke in all its complexity with minimal ad-hoc assumptions or simplifications. Simulations of one female and one male swimmer (both at about 1.7 m beneath the water surface) at velocities of 0.95 and 1.31 m/s and Strouhal numbers of 1.21 and 1.06 respectively are presented. Vorticity and fluid velocity profiles in the wake are examined in detail for both swimmers. A three-dimensional vortex ring is clearly identified in the wake for one of the cases and a two-dimensional slice through the ring corroborates previous experiments of Miwa et al. (2006). We also find that most of the thrust is produced by the feet and in both cases the down-kick produces much larger thrust than the up-kick. PMID:19391495

  3. Computational Modeling of the Dolphin Kick in Competitive Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebbeck, A.; Mark, R.; Bhanot, G.

    2005-11-01

    Numerical simulations are being used to study the fluid dynamics of the dolphin kick in competitive swimming. This stroke is performed underwater after starts and turns and involves an undulatory motion of the body. Highly detailed laser body scans of elite swimmers are used and the kinematics of the dolphin kick is recreated from videos of Olympic level swimmers. We employ a parallelized immersed boundary method to simulate the flow associated with this stroke in all its complexity. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with this stroke and hydrodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of the thrust producing mechanisms.

  4. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Matthias; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Bleicher, Marcus; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.

  5. The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting

    PubMed Central

    Weihs, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/sec. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members. PMID:15132740

  6. Propulsive efficiency of the underwater dolphin kick in humans.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Fish, Frank; Mark, Russell

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional fully unsteady computational fluid dynamic simulations of five Olympic-level swimmers performing the underwater dolphin kick are used to estimate the swimmer's propulsive efficiencies. These estimates are compared with those of a cetacean performing the dolphin kick. The geometries of the swimmers and the cetacean are based on laser and CT scans, respectively, and the stroke kinematics is based on underwater video footage. The simulations indicate that the propulsive efficiency for human swimmers varies over a relatively wide range from about 11% to 29%. The efficiency of the cetacean is found to be about 56%, which is significantly higher than the human swimmers. The computed efficiency is found not to correlate with either the slender body theory or with the Strouhal number. PMID:19388788

  7. An origin for pulsar kicks in supernova hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam; Hayes, John

    1996-04-01

    It is now believed that pulsars comprise the fastest population of stars in the galaxy. With inferred mean, root-mean-square, and maximum 3-D pulsar speeds of ~300-500 km/s, ~500 km/s, and ~2000 km/s, respectively, the question of the origin of such singular proper motions becomes acute. What mechanism can account for speeds that range from zero to twice the galactic escape velocity? We speculate that a major vector component of a neutron star's proper motion comes from the hydrodynamic recoil of the nascent neutron star during the supernova explosion in which it is born. Recently, theorists have shown that asymmetries and instabilities are a natural aspect of supernova dynamics. In this paper, we highlight two phenomena: 1) the ``Brownian-like'' stochastic motion of the core in response to the convective ``boiling'' of the mantle of the protoneutron star during the post-bounce, pre-explosion accretion phase, and 2) the asymmetrical bounce and explosion of an aspherically collapsing Chandrasekhar core. In principle, either phenomenon can leave the young neutron star with a speed of hundreds of kilometers per second. However, neither has yet been adequately simulated or explored. The two-dimensional radiation/hydrodynamic calculations we present here provide only crude estimates of the potential impulses due to mass motions and neutrino emissions. A comprehensive and credible investigation will require fully three-dimensional numerical simulations not yet possible. Nevertheless, we have in the asymmetric hydrodynamics of supernovae a natural means of imparting respectable kicks to neutron stars at birth, though speeds approaching 1000 km/s are still problematic.

  8. Pushing the limit: investigation of hydrodynamic forces on a trapped particle kicked by a laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Villadsen, Naja; Andreasen, Daniel Ø; Hagelskjær, Jesper; Thøgersen, Jan; Imparato, Alberto; Keiding, Søren Rud

    2015-05-18

    We introduce a new optical technique where a train of short optical pulses is utilized to disturb a trapped microscopic particle. Using fast (250 kHz) and accurate (nm) detection of the position of the particle, accurately synchronized to the repetition rate of the laser pulses, we can coherently superimpose the displacement caused by each individual laser pulse. Thereby we are able to both bypass the influence from the Brownian motion of the trapped particle and to simultaneously increase the ability to localize its average trajectory by √n, where n is the number of repetitive pulses. In the results presented here we utilize a train of 1200 pulses to kick a 5 μm polystyrene sphere and obtain a spatial resolution corresponding to 0.09 nm and a time resolution of 4 μs. The magnitude of the optical force pushing the particle corresponds to ∼ 10(4)g and enables an investigation of both the hydrodynamical drag and the inertial effects caused by the particle and the surrounding liquid. Our results enables a more accurate testing of the existing extended models for the hydrodynamic drag and we discuss the observed agreement between experiments and theory. PMID:26074567

  9. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices. PMID:15132739

  10. Computational modeling and analysis of the hydrodynamics of human swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Loebbecke, Alfred

    Computational modeling and simulations are used to investigate the hydrodynamics of competitive human swimming. The simulations employ an immersed boundary (IB) solver that allows us to simulate viscous, incompressible, unsteady flow past complex, moving/deforming three-dimensional bodies on stationary Cartesian grids. This study focuses on the hydrodynamics of the "dolphin kick". Three female and two male Olympic level swimmers are used to develop kinematically accurate models of this stroke for the simulations. A simulation of a dolphin undergoing its natural swimming motion is also presented for comparison. CFD enables the calculation of flow variables throughout the domain and over the swimmer's body surface during the entire kick cycle. The feet are responsible for all thrust generation in the dolphin kick. Moreover, it is found that the down-kick (ventral position) produces more thrust than the up-kick. A quantity of interest to the swimming community is the drag of a swimmer in motion (active drag). Accurate estimates of this quantity have been difficult to obtain in experiments but are easily calculated with CFD simulations. Propulsive efficiencies of the human swimmers are found to be in the range of 11% to 30%. The dolphin simulation case has a much higher efficiency of 55%. Investigation of vortex structures in the wake indicate that the down-kick can produce a vortex ring with a jet of accelerated fluid flowing through its center. This vortex ring and the accompanying jet are the primary thrust generating mechanisms in the human dolphin kick. In an attempt to understand the propulsive mechanisms of surface strokes, we have also conducted a computational analysis of two different styles of arm-pulls in the backstroke and the front crawl. These simulations involve only the arm and no air-water interface is included. Two of the four strokes are specifically designed to take advantage of lift-based propulsion by undergoing lateral motions of the hand

  11. A Study of Kinematics Modeling and the Computational Optimization of the Human Underwater Undulatory Kick by Comparison of Swimmers and Body Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoran; Liu, Geng; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Underwater Undulatory Swimming (UUS), better known as the underwater dolphin kick, is the most important technique in competitive swimming. Faster than three of the four strokes in swimming, UUS is permitted in the 15 m after dives and turns. In this study, we compared the UUS of a college-level swimmer and a younger swimmer. 3D human models were built and reconstructed using stereo-videos for identifying key components of undulatory kick kinematics with respect to strongly flexing joints. A gradient-based optimizer and an immersed boundary method based CFD solver was then used to study the hydrodynamic performance of each swimmer. Optimal settings of current kinematic models will help us to understand the efficiency of the observed undulatory kick mechanisms and further improvements of the human UUS strategy. This work is supported by NSF CEBT-1313217 and UVa HooS-STER program.

  12. A Study of a Mechanical Swimming Dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lilly; Maass, Daniel; Leftwich, Megan; Smits, Alexander

    2007-11-01

    A one-third scale dolphin model was constructed to investigate dolphin swimming hydrodynamics. Design and construction of the model were achieved using body coordinate data from the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) to ensure geometric similarity. The front two-thirds of the model are rigid and stationary, while an external mechanism drives the rear third. This motion mimics the kinematics of dolphin swimming. Planar laser induced florescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to study the hydrodynamics of the wake and to develop a vortex skeleton model.

  13. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  14. Kick-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Armando

    2006-05-01

    Most problems in physics textbooks are highly idealized to keep them analytically manageable. However, in dealing with daily phenomena, some models presented in textbooks are oversimplified. The discrepancy between what students observe and what these models predict may cause frustration or even distrust. On the other hand, it is crucial to develop intuition to discover the relevant parameters as well as appropriate optimizations—a common perspective in engineering that is not always stressed in physics. This paper addresses these topics in a concrete situation: kicking a soccer ball. The problem is formulated as follows: Given the physical constraints of the athlete, how does one achieve maximum initial velocity and range?

  15. Douglas RD-2 Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Douglas RD-2 Dolphin: Originally purchased with the presumed use as a Presidential aircraft, this Douglas RD-2 was turned over to the NACA in December 1939 without ever fulfilling its intended role. The Dolphin was a type familiar to the NACA, who were testing a Army version of the Douglas amphibian, an OA-4V with a nosewheel.

  16. Chaos in kicked ratchets.

    PubMed

    Zarlenga, D G; Larrondo, H A; Arizmendi, C M; Family, Fereydoon

    2015-03-01

    We present a minimal one-dimensional deterministic continuous dynamical system that exhibits chaotic behavior and complex transport properties. Our model is an overdamped rocking ratchet with finite dissipation, that is periodically kicked with a δ function driving force, without finite inertia terms or temporal or spatial stochastic forces. To our knowledge this is the simplest model reported in the literature for a ratchet, with this complex behavior. We develop an analytical approach that predicts many key features of the system, such as current reversals, as well as the presence of chaotic behavior and bifurcation. Our analytical approach allows us to study the transition from regular to chaotic motion as well as a tangent bifurcation associated with this transition. We show that our approach can be easily extended to other types of periodic driving forces. The square wave is shown as an example. PMID:25871166

  17. Kick Dis Power Puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    There is a new toy available that can be used to demonstrate many interesting physics principles. It is called the "Kick Dis Power Puck" and is basically a round plastic hovercraft with a soft cushion material around the perimeter (Fig. 1). It is a product of the Estes Company, which is well known for their model rockets, and is available from advertisers in this journal.1,2 The puck has a diameter of 19.5 cm and comes in two colors, red or green. The two samples I purchased had masses of 307 g and 303 g, respectively. There is a forceful, built-in fan, which is run by a rechargeable battery and powers the puck for about 30 minutes. A 9-V battery charger completes the package, which sells for about 45.

  18. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  19. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  20. Parameter space for successful soccer kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Brandon G.; Goff, John Eric

    2006-07-01

    A computational model of two important types of soccer kicks, the free kick and the corner kick, is developed with the goal of determining the success rate for each type of kick. What is meant by 'success rate' is the probability of getting an unassisted goal via a free kick and the probability of having a corner kick reach an optimum location so that a teammate's chance of scoring a goal is increased. Success rates are determined through the use of four-dimensional parameter space volumes. A one-in-ten success rate is found for the free kick while the corner-kick success rate is found to be one in four.

  1. Echolocation signals of wild dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, W. W. L.

    2004-07-01

    Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

  2. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  3. Kicked Neutron Stars and Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban

    1997-04-01

    Because of the large kick velocities with which neutron stars are born in supernova explosions, their spatial distribution is more extended than that of their progenitor stars. The large scale height of the neutron stars above the disk plane makes them potential candidates for microlensing of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Adopting for the distribution of kicks the measured velocities of young pulsars, we obtain a microlensing optical depth of τ ~ 2N10 × 10-8 (where N10 is the total number of neutron stars born in the disk in units of 1010). The event duration distribution has the interesting property of being peaked at T ~ 60-80 days, but for the rates to be relevant for the present microlensing searches, it would require N10 >~ 1, a value larger than the usually adopted ones (N10 ~ 0.1-0.2).

  4. Perform kicking with or without jumping: joint coordination and kinetic differences between Taekwondo back kicks and jumping back kicks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Wang, Ying-Hsun; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Mao; Huang, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated joint coordination differences between Taekwondo back kicks and jumping back kicks, and how jumping (in performing the latter) would alter engaging ground reaction forces (GRF) in executing kicking. Ten skilful athletes volunteered to perform both kinds of kicking within the shortest time for three successful trials. Three high-speed cameras and two force platforms were used for data collection, and the trial with the shortest execution time was selected for analysis. Movements were divided into the rotation and attack phases. With comparable execution time and maximum joint linear/angular speeds, back kicks and jumping back kicks differ mainly in larger GRF in the latter, and in greater target acceleration in the former probably because the support leg prevented athletes' rebounding after impact. In addition, more prominent antiphase and in-phase coordination between the shoulder segment and knee joint, and elongated rotation phase were found in jumping back kicks. Larger GRF values in jumping back kicks were generated for jump take-off rather than for a more powerful attack. In back kicks although the support leg remained ground contact, greatly decreased GRF in the attack phase suggested that the support leg mainly served as a rotation axis. PMID:25599144

  5. The Promise of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Alexis; Dustin, Dan; Wolff, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes how people with disabilities can benefit from working and playing in the water with dolphins, focusing on the many positive benefits of dolphin-assisted therapy and discussing several hypotheses about why dolphin-assisted therapy is so effective. The article describes two dolphin-assisted therapy programs and presents contact information…

  6. Douglas OA-4A Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Douglas OA-4A Dolphin: This twin-engine Douglas OA-4A Dolphin was unusual in comparison with other OA-4s in that it employed a nose wheel instead of a tail wheel during its NACA testing at Langley. Here is is seen in the NACA hangar in September 1938.

  7. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  8. Steering random walks with kicked ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Marcel; Groiseau, Caspar; Lam, W. K.; Burioni, Raffaella; Vezzani, Alessandro; Summy, Gil S.; Wimberger, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    The kicking sequence of the atom-optics kicked rotor at quantum resonance can be interpreted as a quantum random walk in momentum space. We show how such a walk can become the basis for nontrivial classical walks by applying a random sequence of intensities and phases of the kicking lattice chosen according to a probability distribution. This distribution converts on average into the final momentum distribution of the kicked atoms. In particular, it is shown that a power-law distribution for the kicking strengths results in a Lévy walk in momentum space and in a power law with the same exponent in the averaged momentum distribution. Furthermore, we investigate the stability of our predictions in the context of a realistic experiment with Bose-Einstein condensates.

  9. Vaginal calculi in the dolphin.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, J E; Walker, W A

    1977-10-01

    Examination of the reproductive tract of a mature spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata , revealed 13 vaginal calculi, composed primarily of calcium phosphate compounds. Vaginal calculi also were found in two mature Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and in six mature Delphinus delphis . PMID:24228951

  10. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  11. NASA Kicks Off Summer of Innovation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, astronaut Leland Melvin and others joined students at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California to kick off the Summer of Innovation, an initiative to engage...

  12. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.; White, D. )

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  13. Dolphin Morbillivirus Epizootic Resurgence, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007, >100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990. PMID:18325265

  14. Advanced kick detection systems improve HPHT operations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.W.R.; Hendriks, P.; Surewaard, J.H.G.

    1995-09-01

    Many high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) wells are often characterized by the small margins that can exist between pore pressure and formation strength. Therefore, it is not surprising that kicks are far more likely to occur in HPHT wells and that a greater risk of internal blowout exists. The development and application of advanced kick detection systems for HPHT wells can help manage risks and improve drilling efficiency. Such systems enable earlier well shut-in, minimizing both the influx volume and the subsequent well bore pressures. This in turn lowers the risk, time and cost required for well control operations. Carefully considered application of these systems can also justify favorable economic benefits by optimization of the HPHT preliminary casing design. Minimizing kick volume can be important for the critical HPHT hole sections, where a reduced operating margin between pore pressure and fracture gradient exists, defining small design kick tolerance limits to permit safe drilling ahead to reach specified objectives. Kick detection for HPHT wells equivalent to less than 5 bbl of gas influx are often necessary to adequately minimize the risk of internal blowout and obtain the same levels of safety which are applied to conventional wells. This paper reviews these systems for both on-shore and off-shore operations.

  15. Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Koppitz, Michael; van Meter, James R.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2006-12-01

    Recent developments in numerical relativity have made it possible to reliably follow the coalescence of two black holes from near the innermost stable circular orbit to final ringdown. This opens up a wide variety of exciting astrophysical applications of these simulations. Chief among these is the net kick received when two unequal mass or spinning black holes merge. The magnitude of this kick has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. Here we report the first accurate numerical calculation of this kick, for two nonspinning black holes in a 1.5:1 mass ratio, which is expected on the basis of analytic considerations to give a significant fraction of the maximum possible recoil. We have performed multiple runs with different initial separations, orbital angular momenta, resolutions, extraction radii, and gauges. The full range of our kick speeds is 86-116 km s-1, and the most reliable runs give kicks between 86 and 97 km s-1. This is intermediate between the estimates from two recent post-Newtonian analyses and suggests that at redshifts z>~10, halos with masses <~109 Msolar will have difficulty retaining coalesced black holes after major mergers.

  16. Swimming Speed of The Breaststroke Kick

    PubMed Central

    Strzała, Marek; Krężałek, Piotr; Kaca, Marcin; Głąb, Grzegorz; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Tyka, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    The breaststroke kick is responsible for a considerable portion of the forward propulsion in breaststroke swimming. The aim of this study was to measure selected anthropometric variables and functional properties of a swimmer’s body: length of body parts; functional range of motion in the leg joints and anaerobic power of the lower limbs. Chosen kinematic variables useful in the evaluation of swimming performance in the breaststroke kick were evaluated. In the present research, swimming speed using breaststroke kicks depended to the largest extent on anaerobic endurance (0.46, p < 0.05 partial correlations with age control). In addition, knee external rotation and swimming technique index had an impact on swimming speed and kick length (both partial correlations with age control 0.35, p < 0.08). A kinematic analysis of the breaststroke kick hip displacement compatible with horizontal body displacement was significantly negatively correlated with foot slip in the water opposite to body displacement (partial correlations: with leg length control −0.43, p < 0.05; with shank length control −0.45, p < 0.05, respectively). Present research and measurements of selected body properties, physical endurance and kinematic movement analysis may help in making a precise determination of an athlete’s talent for breaststroke swimming. PMID:23486737

  17. Iron Indices in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Johnson, Shawn P; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Greg; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were measured in 181 samples from 141 dolphins in 2 managed collections and 2 free-ranging populations. Although no iron indices increased with age among free-ranging dolphins, ferritin increased with age in managed collections. Dolphins from managed collections had higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation values than did free-ranging dolphins. Dolphins with high serum iron (exceeding 300 μg/dL) were more likely to have elevated ferritin but not ceruloplasmin or haptoglobin, demonstrating that high serum levels of iron are due to a true increase in total body iron. A time-series study of 4 dolphins with hemochromatosis that were treated with phlebotomy demonstrated significant decreases in serum ferritin, iron, and TIBC between pre- and posttreatment samples; transferrin saturation initially fell but returned to prephlebotomy levels by 6 mo after treatment. Compared with those in managed collections, wild dolphins were 15 times more likely to have low serum iron (100 μg/dL or less), and this measure was associated with lower haptoglobin. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins in managed collections are more likely to have greater iron stores than are free-ranging dolphins. Determining why this situation occurs among some dolphin populations and not others may improve the treatment of hemochromatosis in dolphins and provide clues to causes of nonhereditary hemochromatosis in humans. PMID:23561885

  18. Iron indices in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Johnson, Shawn P; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Greg; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were measured in 181 samples from 141 dolphins in 2 managed collections and 2 free-ranging populations. Although no iron indices increased with age among free-ranging dolphins, ferritin increased with age in managed collections. Dolphins from managed collections had higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation values than did free-ranging dolphins. Dolphins with high serum iron (exceeding 300 μg/dL) were more likely to have elevated ferritin but not ceruloplasmin or haptoglobin, demonstrating that high serum levels of iron are due to a true increase in total body iron. A time-series study of 4 dolphins with hemochromatosis that were treated with phlebotomy demonstrated significant decreases in serum ferritin, iron, and TIBC between pre- and posttreatment samples; transferrin saturation initially fell but returned to prephlebotomy levels by 6 mo after treatment. Compared with those in managed collections, wild dolphins were 15 times more likely to have low serum iron (100 μg/dL or less), and this measure was associated with lower haptoglobin. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins in managed collections are more likely to have greater iron stores than are free-ranging dolphins. Determining why this situation occurs among some dolphin populations and not others may improve the treatment of hemochromatosis in dolphins and provide clues to causes of nonhereditary hemochromatosis in humans. PMID:23561885

  19. Superballistic wavepacket spreading in double kicked rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ping; Wang, Jiao

    2016-08-01

    We investigate possible ways in which a quantum wavepacket spreads. We show that in a general class of double kicked rotor system, a wavepacket may undergo superballistic spreading; i.e., its variance increases as the cubic of time. The conditions for the observed superballistic spreading and two related characteristic time scales are studied. Our results suggest that the symmetry of the studied model and whether it is a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser system are crucial to its wavepacket spreading behavior. Our study also sheds new light on the exponential wavepacket spreading phenomenon previously observed in the double kicked rotor system.

  20. {delta}-kick cooling using the Ioffe-Pritchard potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T.; Kato, T.; Tanami, Y.; Nakamatsu, H.

    2006-06-15

    We demonstrated {delta}-kick cooling of sodium atoms with a three-dimensional anisotropic harmonic potential. The radius and temperature of the atomic cloud oscillated with kick time, indicating that the elongated atomic distribution in phase space rotates in the Ioffe-Pritchard potential. The temperature of kicked atoms was reduced to below the recoil temperature.

  1. An Interview with a Dolphin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Kathy; Keilty, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    A fabricated conversation between two humans and a dolphin at Marineland illustrates man's relationship to nature and the impact that human actions have on living creatures and the environment, and stresses developing a deeper understanding and value for the natural world and consideration of the universality of continued human error and…

  2. Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Dale, Choi; Koppitz, Michael; vanMeter, James R.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in numerical relativity have made it possible to follow reliably the coalescence of two black holes from near the innermost stable circular orbit to final ringdown. This opens up a wide variety of exciting astrophysical applications of these simulations. Chief among these is the net kick received when two unequal mass or spinning black holes merge. The magnitude of this kick has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation; and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. Here we report the first accurate numerical calculation of this kick, for two nonspinning black holes in a 1.5:1 mass ratio, which is expected based on analytic considerations to give a significant fraction of the maximum possible recoil. Our estimated kick is 10(exp 5) km/s with an error of less than 10%. This is intermediate between the estimates from two recent post-Newtonian analyses and suggests that at redshifts z greater than or approx. equal to 10, halos with masses less than or approx. equal to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass will have difficulty retaining coalesced black holes after major mergers.

  3. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: Claims versus Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Fiksdal, Britta L.; Houlihan, Daniel; Barnes, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and critique studies that have been conducted on dolphin-assisted therapy for children with various disorders. Studies have been released claiming swimming with dolphins is therapeutic and beneficial for children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, physical disabilities, and other psychological disorders. The majority of the studies conducted supporting the effectiveness of dolphin-assisted therapy have been found to have major methodological concerns making it impossible to draw valid conclusions. Readers will be informed of the history of, theory behind, and variations of dolphin-assisted therapy along with a review and critique of studies published which purportedly support its use. PMID:22928101

  4. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  5. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  6. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  7. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  8. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  9. Where's That Dolphin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Carolyn; Curran, Mary Carla; Cox, Tara

    2013-01-01

    In this article , the authors describe an activity in which students in Savannah, Georgia, use handheld GPS devices to record the sightings of bottlenose dolphins, examine spatial data from five pairs of dolphins in the study, and then form hypotheses about the spatial patterns they observe. In the process, they learn not only about the ecology of…

  10. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  11. Kicking atoms with finite duration pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Julia; Chai, Shijie; Daszuta, Boris; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    The atom optics delta-kicked particle is a paradigmatic system for experimental studies of quantum chaos and classical-quantum correspondence. It consists of a cloud of laser cooled atoms exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave of far off-resonant laser light. A purely quantum phenomena in such systems are quantum resonances which transfers the atoms into a coherent superposition of largely separated momentum states. Using such large momentum transfer ``beamsplitters'' in atom interferometers may have applications in high precision metrology. The growth in momentum separation cannot be maintained indefinitely due to finite laser power. The largest momentum transfer is achieved by violating the usual delta-kick assumption. Therefore we explore the behavior of the atom optics kicked particle with finite pulse duration. We have developed a semi-classical model which shows good agreement with the full quantum description as well as our experiments. Furthermore we have found a simple scaling law that helps to identify optimal parameters for an atom interferometer. We verify this by measurements of the ``Talbot time'' (a measurement of h/m) which together with other well-known constants constitute a measurement of the fine structure constant.

  12. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.B. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  13. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J.

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ˜500 km s-1 , which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  14. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500  km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy. PMID:27419556

  15. The biomechanics of kicking in soccer: a review.

    PubMed

    Lees, A; Asai, T; Andersen, T B; Nunome, H; Sterzing, T

    2010-06-01

    Kicking is the defining action of soccer, so it is appropriate to review the scientific work that provides a basis of our understanding of this skill. The focus of this review is biomechanical in nature and builds on and extends previous reviews and overviews. While much is known about the biomechanics of the kicking leg, there are several other aspects of the kick that have been the subject of recent exploration. Researchers have widened their interest to consider the kick beginning from the way a player approaches the ball to the end of ball flight, the point that determines the success of the kick. This interest has encapsulated characteristics of overall technique and the influences of the upper body, support leg and pelvis on the kicking action, foot-ball impact and the influences of footwear and soccer balls, ball launch characteristics and corresponding flight of the ball. This review evaluates these and attempts to provide direction for future research. PMID:20509089

  16. Condensate kicks pose additional problems for deep well control

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B.; Yerlett, T.K.; Brown, N.P.; Hamilton, T.A.P.

    1996-06-17

    Modeling condensate and gas kicks in a deep North Sea well helps drillers understand what to expect after prompt kick detection in a straight-forward kick circulation program with competent choke handling. Concerns have been raised in the industry that as a condensate kick is taken and subsequently circulated out of the well, unexpected surface indications may be present. Blowouts, resulting from uncontrolled kicks, could be particularly hazardous for condensate fields as these are often high-pressure, high-temperature operations. A deeper understanding of the differences, and similarities, between gas and condensate kicks has resulted from an investigation by Infochem Computer Services Ltd., funded by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE). This study has led to an assessment of the practical significance of any differences for the personnel involved in well control.

  17. Chromaticity measurement using a continuous head-tail kicking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Ranjbar, V.H.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2007-06-01

    In the classical head-tail chromaticity measurement technique, a single large kick is applied transversely to the beam. The resulting phase difference between the head and the tail is measured and the chromaticity extracted. In the continuous head-tail kicking technique, a very small transverse kick is applied to the beam and the asymptotic phase difference between the head and the tail is found to be a function of chromaticity. The advantage of this method is that since the tune tracker PLL already supplies the small transverse kicks, no extra modulation is required.

  18. Power coupler kick of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; E. Laxdal, R.; Zvyagintsev, V.; Yu., Chao; C., Gong; Koscielniak, S.

    2011-06-01

    The TRIUMF Injector CryoModule (ICM) adapted two superconducting single cavities as the capture section for the low injecting energy of 100 keV electrons. Coupler kick induced beam deflection and projected emittance growth are one of the prime concerns of the beam stability, especially at low energies. In low energy applications, the electron velocity changes rapidly inside the cavity, which makes the numerical analysis much more complicated. The commonly used theoretical formulas of the direct integral or the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem is not suitable for the kick calculation of β < 1 electrons. Despite that, the above mentioned kick calculation method doesn't consider injecting electron energy, the beam offset due to the coupler kick may not be negligible because of the low injection energy even if the kick is optimized. Thus the beam dynamics code TRACK is used here for the simulation of the power coupler kick perturbation. The coupler kick can be compensated for by a judicious choice of the coupler position in successive cavities from upstream to downstream. The simulation shows that because of the adiabatic damping by the following superconducting 9-cell cavity, even for the worst orbit distortion case after two capture cavities, the kick is still acceptable at the exit of the ICM after reaching 10 MeV. This paper presents the analysis of the transverse kick and the projected emittance growth induced by the coupler for β < 1 electrons. The simulated results of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities are described and presented.

  19. Lobomycosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: estimation of prevalence, temporal trends, and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, M Elizabeth; Reif, John S; Mazzoil, Marilyn; McCulloch, Stephen D; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D

    2008-09-01

    Lobomycosis (lacaziosis) is a chronic fungal disease of the skin that affects only dolphins and humans. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of lobomycosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (IRL). We studied the occurrence and distribution of lobomycosis in the IRL using photo-identification survey data collected between 1996 and 2006. Our objectives were to (1) determine the sensitivity and specificity of photo-identification for diagnosis of lobomycosis in free-ranging dolphins; (2) determine the spatial distribution of lobomycosis in the IRL; and (3) assess temporal patterns of occurrence. Photographs from 704 distinctly marked dolphins were reviewed for skin lesions compatible with lobomycosis. The presumptive diagnosis was validated by comparing the results of photographic analysis with physical examination and histologic examination of lesion biopsies in 102 dolphins captured and released during a health assessment and 3 stranded dolphins. Twelve of 16 confirmed cases were identified previously by photography, a sensitivity of 75%. Among 89 dolphins without disease, all 89 were considered negative, a specificity of 100%. The prevalence of lobomycosis estimated from photographic data was 6.8% (48/704). Spatial distribution was determined by dividing the IRL into six segments based on hydrodynamics and geographic features. The prevalence ranged from <1% in the Mosquito Lagoon to 16.9% in the south Indian River. The incidence of the disease did not increase during the study period, indicating that the disease is endemic, rather than emerging. In summary, photo-identification is a useful tool to monitor the course of individual and population health for this enigmatic disease. PMID:18712442

  20. Quantitative examination of the bottlenose dolphin cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Alicia; Grisham, William; Sheh, Colleen; Annese, Jacopo; Ridgway, Sam

    2013-08-01

    Neuroanatomical research into the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has revealed striking similarities with the human brain in terms of size and complexity. However, the dolphin brain also contains unique allometric relationships. When compared to the human brain, the dolphin cerebellum is noticeably larger. Upon closer examination, the lobule composition of the cerebellum is distinct between the two species. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to analyze cerebellar anatomy in the bottlenose dolphin and measure the volume of the separate cerebellar lobules in the bottlenose dolphin and human. Lobule identification was assisted by three-dimensional modeling. We find that lobules VI, VIIb, VIII, and IX are the largest lobules of the bottlenose dolphin cerebellum, while the anterior lobe (I-V), crus I, crus II, and the flocculonodular lobe are smaller. Different lobule sizes may have functional implications. Auditory-associated lobules VIIb, VIII, IX are likely large in the bottlenose dolphin due to echolocation abilities. Our study provides quantitative information on cerebellar anatomy that substantiates previous reports based on gross observation and subjective analysis. This study is part of a continuing effort toward providing explicit descriptions of cetacean neuroanatomy to support the interpretation of behavioral studies on cetacean cognition. PMID:23775830

  1. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  2. Examining Impulse-Variability in Kicking.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Andrew; Molina, Sergio L; McKibben, Jonathon; Stodden, David F

    2016-07-01

    This study examined variability in kicking speed and spatial accuracy to test the impulse-variability theory prediction of an inverted-U function and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Twenty-eight 18- to 25-year-old adults kicked a playground ball at various percentages (50-100%) of their maximum speed at a wall target. Speed variability and spatial error were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with built-in polynomial contrasts. Results indicated a significant inverse linear trajectory for speed variability (p < .001, η2= .345) where 50% and 60% maximum speed had significantly higher variability than the 100% condition. A significant quadratic fit was found for spatial error scores of mean radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .474) and subject-centroid radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .453). Findings suggest variability and accuracy of multijoint, ballistic skill performance may not follow the general principles of impulse-variability theory or the speed-accuracy trade-off. PMID:26011920

  3. Dynamics of dolphin porpoising revisited.

    PubMed

    Weihs, D

    2002-11-01

    Porpoising is the popular name for the high-speed surface piercing motion of dolphins and other species, in which long, ballistic jumps are alternated with sections of swimming close to the surface. The first analysis of this behavior (Au and Weihs, 1980) showed that above a certain "crossover" speed this behavior is energetically advantageous, as the reduction in drag due to movement in the air becomes greater than the added cost of leaping.Since that publication several studies documented porpoising behavior at high speeds. The observations indicated that the behavior was more complex than previously assumed. The leaps were interspersed with relatively long swimming bouts, of about twice the leap length. In the present paper, the possibility of dolphins using a combination of leaping and burst and coast swimming is examined. A three-phase model is proposed, in which the dolphin leaps out of the water at a speed U(f), which is the final speed obtained at the end of the burst phase of burst and coast swimming. The leap is at constant speed and so the animal returns to the water at U(f), goes to a shallow depth and starts horizontal coasting while losing speed, till it reaches U(i). At that point it starts active swimming, accelerating to U(f). It then starts the next leap. Ranges of speeds for which this three-stage swimming is advantageous are calculated as a function of animal and physical parameters.NotationC-Constant defined in equation (12)C(D)-Coasting drag coefficientD-Dragg-Gravitational accelerationH-Height of jumpJ-Energy required for jumpk-Ratio of swim length to jump lengthl-DistanceL-Total distance (eq. 28)m-Added massM-Animal massM(1)-Total massr-Coefficient defined in eq. (22)R-Ratio of energies, for three-phase swimmingR(2)-Ratio of energies, for burst and coast swimmingt-TimeT-ThrustU-SpeedV-Body volumeW-Weightα-Emergence (=return) angleβ-Swim / coast drag penalty ratioγ-Surface effects drag ratioρ-Density of seawater and cetacean

  4. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, S.; Moore, M. J.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, K.; Sharp, S.; Harry, C. T.; Hoppe, J.; Niemeyer, M.; Lentell, B.; Wells, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber–muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

  5. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

  6. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. PMID:22622768

  8. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  9. Drafting mechanisms between a dolphin mother and calf.

    PubMed

    Shoele, Kourosh; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    We numerically study the drafting mechanisms between a dolphin mother and her calf swimming near the free surface. Formation locomotion between the cetacean mother-calf pair provides a way for the mother to assist the calf in its locomotion. Depending on the age and size of the calf, it swims at neonate, echelon, and infant positions. At each position, the effects of the calf's size, swimming speed, proximity to the free surface and the formation pattern are investigated and the optimal configurations predicted by the model based on the swimming hydrodynamics are compared with previous observations. It is shown that the neonate position is the optimal formation for controlling the separation of the calf, and the echelon position is the most hydrodynamically efficient position in transferring the thrust force from the mother to the calf. The infant position, on the other hand, avoids the energy loss due to wave generation so that it improves the self-propulsion performance of an older calf. PMID:26235288

  10. Left-right asymmetry in two types of soccer kick.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, B D; Tumilty, D M

    1993-01-01

    The ability to kick with both feet is regarded as a desirable skill in high level soccer players; however, most players display a dominance of kicking ability on one side. This study investigated the characteristics of asymmetry in two types of soccer kick. A low drive and a chip kick from both the left and right foot of 12 élite junior soccer players were analysed. Kick velocity, kick accuracy, position of the plant foot from the ball centre, and time from foot plant to ball contact were measured for each kick. Knee extension and flexion strength were also determined for each leg at 60 degree s-1, 180 degree s-1 and 240 degrees s-1 on a Cybex II Isokinetic Dynamometer. A single factor repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to velocity, plant foot position and timing parameters to compare between sides and between shots. chi 2 analysis was used to compare accuracy between shots and between sides, and a paired Student's t test was used to compare strength parameters between sides. Pearson's product moment correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between velocity and both leg strength and the time from foot plant to ball contact. Significance was set at P < or = 0.05. The results showed that this group had strength dominance at all speeds tested on the right side and better drive kick performance with their right leg as determined by mean(s.d.) velocity (79(6) versus 66(8) km h-1) and accuracy (66.6% versus 33.3%). There was no difference in these parameters between sides for chip kicks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8130965

  11. Bobbing and kicks in electromagnetism and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Harte, Abraham I.; Wald, Robert M.

    2010-05-15

    We study systems analogous to binary black holes with spin in order to gain some insight into the origin and nature of 'bobbing' motion and 'kicks' that occur in this system. Our basic tool is a general formalism for describing the motion of extended test bodies in an external electromagnetic field in curved spacetime and possibly subject to other forces. We first show that bobbing of exactly the type as observed in numerical simulations of the binary black hole system occurs in a simple system consisting of two spinning balls connected by an elastic band in flat spacetime. This bobbing may be understood as arising from the difference between a spinning body's 'lab frame centroid' and its true center of mass, and is purely 'kinematical' in the sense that it will appear regardless of the forces holding two spinning bodies in orbit. Next, we develop precise rules for relating the motion of charged bodies in a stationary external electromagnetic field in flat spacetime with the motion of bodies in a weakly curved stationary spacetime. We then consider the system consisting of two orbiting charges with magnetic dipole moment and spin at a level of approximation corresponding to 1.5 post-Newtonian order. Here we find that considerable amounts of momentum are exchanged between the bodies and the electromagnetic field; however, the bodies store this momentum entirely as ''hidden'' mechanical momentum, so that the interchange does not give rise to any net bobbing. The net bobbing that does occur is due solely to the kinematical spin effect, and we therefore argue that the net bobbing of the electromagnetic binary is not associated with possible kicks. We believe that this conclusion holds in the gravitational case as well.

  12. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    Basic Radiation Theory Specific Intensity Photon Number Density Photon Distribution Function Mean Intensity Radiation Energy Density Radiation Energy Flux Radiation Momentum Density Radiation Stress Tensor (Radiation Pressure Tensor) Thermal Radiation Thermodynamics of Thermal Radiation and a Perfect Gas The Transfer Equation Absorption, Emission, and Scattering The Equation of Transfer Moments of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Photon 4-Momentum Lorentz Transformation of the Specific Intensity, Opacity, and - Emissivity Lorentz Transformation of the Radiation Stress Energy Tensor The Radiation 4-Force Density Vector Covariant Form of the Transfer Equation Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Inertial-Frame Radiation Equations Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Comoving-Frame Equation of Transfer Special Relativistic Derivation (D. Mihalas) Consistency Between Comoving-Frame and Inertial-Frame Equations Noninertial Frame Derivation (J. I. Castor) Analysis of O (v/c) Terms Lagrangian Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Momentum Equation Gas Energy Equation First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiation Field First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiating Fluid Mechanical Energy Equation Total Energy Equation Consistency of Different Forms of the Radiating-Fluid Energy - and Momentum Equations Consistency of Inertial-Frame and Comoving-Frame Radiation Energy - and Momentum Equations Radiation Diffusion Radiation Diffusion Nonequilibrium Diffusion The Problem of Flux Limiting Shock Propagation: Numerical Methods Acoustic Waves Numerical Stability Systems of Equations Implications of Shock Development Implications of Diffusive Energy Transport Illustrative Example Numerical Radiation Hydrodynamics Radiating Fluid Energy and Momentum Equations Computational Strategy Energy Conservation Formal Solution Multigroup Equations An Astrophysical Example Adaptive-Grid Radiation

  13. Constraints on the Nature of CID-42: Recoil Kick or Supermassive Black Hole Pair?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsecscale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity approximately greater than 1300 km s(exp -1). Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk approximately greater than 2000 km s(exp -1)). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton-thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad and narrow line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  14. Constraints on the nature of CID-42: recoil kick or supermassive black hole pair?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. As an apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsec-scale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity of ≳ 1300 km s-1. Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk ≳ 2000 km s-1). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad-line and narrow-line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  15. 20. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DOLPHIN. (Photographed from boat) NOTE CUTWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DOLPHIN. (Photographed from boat) NOTE CUTWATER ON UPSTREAM SIDE OF DOLPHIN, AND THAT DOLPHIN IS OCTAGONAL AS OPPOSED TO CIRCULAR DESIGN OF CENTER PIER. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  16. Fatal Systemic Morbillivirus Infection in Bottlenose Dolphin, Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Zucca, Daniele; Arbelo, Manuel; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Andrada, Marisa; Déniz, Soraya; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A systemic morbillivirus infection was diagnosed postmortem in a juvenile bottlenose dolphin stranded in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean in 2005. Sequence analysis of a conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicated that the virus is closely related to dolphin morbillivirus recently reported in striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24447792

  17. Fatal systemic morbillivirus infection in bottlenose dolphin, canary islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Eva; Zucca, Daniele; Arbelo, Manuel; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Andrada, Marisa; Déniz, Soraya; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    A systemic morbillivirus infection was diagnosed postmortem in a juvenile bottlenose dolphin stranded in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean in 2005. Sequence analysis of a conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicated that the virus is closely related to dolphin morbillivirus recently reported in striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24447792

  18. Kicked Bose-Einstein Condensates: in Search of Exponential Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, T. S.; Rancon, A.; Ruostekoski, J.

    Bose-Einstein condensates subject to short pulses ("kicks") from standing waves of light represent a nonlinear analogue of the well-known chaos paradigm, the quantum kicked rotor. We review briefly our current understanding of dynamical or exponential instability in weakly kicked BECs. Previous studies of the onset of dynamical instability associated it with some form of classical chaos. We show it is due to parametric instability: resonant driving of certain collective modes. We map the zones of instability and calculate the Liapunov exponents.

  19. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish

  20. Dolphin sonar detection and discrimination capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2001-05-01

    Dolphins have a very sophisticated short range sonar that surpasses all technological sonar in its capabilities to perform complex target discrimination and recognition tasks. The system that the U.S. Navy has for detecting mines buried under ocean sediment is one that uses Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. However, close examination of the dolphin sonar system will reveal that the dolphin acoustic hardware is fairly ordinary and not very special. The transmitted signals have peak-to-peak amplitudes as high as 225-228 dB re 1 μPa which translates to an rms value of approximately 210-213 dB. The transmit beamwidth is fairly broad at about 10o in both the horizontal and vertical planes and the receiving beamwidth is slightly broader by several degrees. The auditory filters are not very narrow with Q values of about 8.4. Despite these fairly ordinary features of the acoustic system, these animals still demonstrate very unusual and astonishing capabilities. Some of the capabilities of the dolphin sonar system will be presented and the reasons for their keen sonar capabilities will be discussed. Important features of their sonar include the broadband clicklike signals used, adaptive sonar search capabilities and large dynamic range of its auditory system.

  1. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  2. Swift Probes Exotic Object: 'Kicked' Black Hole or Mega Star?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Zoom into Markarian 177 and SDSS1133 and see how they compare with a simulated galaxy collision. When the central black holes in these galaxies combine, a "kick" launches the merged black hole on a...

  3. Information transmission and control in a chaotically kicked spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Lucile; Viennot, David

    2016-06-01

    We study spin chains submitted to disturbed kick trains described by classical dynamical processes. The spin chains are coupled by Heisenberg and Ising-Z models. We consider chaotic processes by using the kick irregularity in the multipartite system (the spin chain). We show that both couplings transmit the chaos disorder differently along the spin chain but conserve the horizon of coherence (when the disorder into the kick bath is transmitted to the spin chain). An example of information transmission between the spins of the chain coupled by a Heisenberg interaction shows the interest of the horizon of coherence. The use of some chosen stationary kicks disturbed by a chaotic environment makes it possible to modify the information transmission between the spins and to perform a free control during the horizon of coherence.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation from a kicked sheet of charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, P. C.

    1986-03-01

    The plane-wave electromagnetic fields for a kicked sheet of charge are found and then compared with the fields obtained by superimposing the radiation fields of the individual charges in the plane. Unlike the case of the oscillating sheet of charge discussed in The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. I [R. P. Feynman et al. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1963)], the plane-wave fields of the kicked sheet differ from the fields obtained by superposition of the individual radiation fields. The resolution of this problem requires consideration of relativistic effects even though the velocity of the sheet after the kick may be as small as desired. The relation between the solution for the kicked sheet and solution for the oscillating sheet is discussed, and it is shown how the two solutions are consistent if all contributions to the fields are taken into account.

  5. NASA Kicks Off Summer of Innovation - Duration: 118 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, astronaut Leland Melvin and others joined students at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California to kick off the Summer of Innovation, an initiative to engage...

  6. Recoiling from a Kick in the Head-On Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Van Meter, James

    2007-01-01

    Recoil "kicks" induced by gravitational radiation are expected in the inspiral and merger of black holes. Recently the numerical relativity community has begun to measure the significant kicks found when both unequal masses and spins are considered. Because understanding the cause and magnitude of each component of this kick may be complicated in inspiral simulations, we consider these effects in the context of a simple test problem. We study recoils from collisions of binaries with initially head-on trajectories, starting with the simplest case of equal masses with no spin; adding spin and varying the mass ratio, both separately and jointly. We find spin-induced recoils to be significant even in head-on configurations. Additionally, it appears that the scaling of transverse kicks with spins is consistent with post-Newtonian (PN) theory, even though the kick is generated in the nonlinear merger interaction, where PN theory should not apply. This suggests that a simple heuristic description might be effective in the estimation of spin-kicks.

  7. Dolphin pox: a skin disease of cetaceans.

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, J R; Hicks, B D; St Aubin, D J

    1979-01-01

    Poxvirus has been identified morphologically from skin lesions in captive and free-ranging bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus and a stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. The lesions, commonly referred to as ring or pinhole lesions, appear as solitary or coalesced circular grey blemishes. Advanced ring lesions may take the form of black punctiform stippled patterns known as "tattoo". Histologically, the stratum externum is thickened, and there is ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intractyoplasmic inclusions in the stratum intermedium. These includions contain virus particles which exhibit typical poxvirus morphology. Stress, environmental conditions and general health appear to play a major role in the clinical manifestation of dolphin pox. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:232852

  8. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    PubMed

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission. PMID:19066625

  9. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Jennifer D.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Pawloski, Jeffrey L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 μPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 μPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mfp=47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf0=56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (MBW=39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (MRMS=23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 μs. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  10. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  11. Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Operating ground-based gravitational wave detectors and a planned instrument in space are bringing about the new field of gravitational wave astronomy. A prime source for any of these observatories is the merger of a system of two black holes. Brought together by copious losses of gravitational-wave energy, these systems merge in a burst of energy with a peak power exceeding any electromagnetic source. Observations of these sources will generate a wealth of astrophysical information, and may provide an unparalleled probe of strong-field gravitational physics, but a full interpretation of the observations will require detailed predictions from General Relativity. I will discuss recent advances in numerical simulations of binary black hole systems which are generating dramatic progress in understanding binary black hole mergers. Recent achievements include the first simulations of binary black hole systems through several orbits and merger, leading to detailed predictions for the final portion of the gravitational radiation waveforms from equal-mass mergers. For unequal-mass mergers, it has recently become possible to measure the impulsive kick imparted to the final black hole, by the asymmetry of the merger radiation. These first results announce an accelerating wave of progress soon to come from the energetic field of numerical relativity.

  12. Catastrophic consequences of kicking the chameleon.

    PubMed

    Erickcek, Adrienne L; Barnaby, Neil; Burrage, Clare; Huang, Zhiqi

    2013-04-26

    The physics of the "dark energy" that drives the current cosmological acceleration remains mysterious, and the dark sector may involve new light dynamical fields. If these light scalars couple to matter, a screening mechanism must prevent them from mediating an unacceptably strong fifth force locally. Here we consider a concrete example: the chameleon mechanism. We show that the same coupling between the chameleon field and matter employed by the screening mechanism also has catastrophic consequences for the chameleon during the Universe's first minutes. The chameleon couples to the trace of the stress-energy tensor, which is temporarily nonzero in a radiation-dominated universe whenever a particle species becomes nonrelativistic. These "kicks" impart a significant velocity to the chameleon field, causing its effective mass to vary nonadiabatically and resulting in the copious production of quantum fluctuations. Dissipative effects strongly modify the background evolution of the chameleon field, invalidating all previous classical treatments of chameleon cosmology. Moreover, the resulting fluctuations have extremely high characteristic energies, which casts serious doubt on the validity of the effective theory. Our results demonstrate that quantum particle production can profoundly affect scalar-tensor gravity, a possibility not previously considered. Working in this new context, we also develop the theory and numerics of particle production in the regime of strong dissipation. PMID:23679701

  13. Is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?

    PubMed

    van Elk, C E; van de Bildt, M W G; Jauniaux, T; Hiemstra, S; van Run, P R W A; Foster, G; Meerbeek, J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Kuiken, T

    2014-11-01

    The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. In 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. In these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. Therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphins with morbillivirus infection into a rehabilitation center provided a unique opportunity to investigate the virulence of morbillivirus in this species. By phylogenetic analysis, the morbilliviruses in both animals were identified as a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) most closely related to that detected in a white-beaked dolphin in Germany in 2007. Both animals were examined clinically and pathologically. Case No. 1 had a chronic neural DMV infection, characterized by polioencephalitis in the cerebrum and morbillivirus antigen expression limited to neurons and glial cells. Surprisingly, no nervous signs were observed in this animal during the 6 months before death. Case No. 2 had a subacute systemic DMV infection, characterized by interstitial pneumonia, leucopenia, lymphoid depletion, and DMV antigen expression in mononuclear cells and syncytia in the lung and in mononuclear cells in multiple lymphoid organs. Cause of death was not attributed to DMV infection in either animal. DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins. PMID:24399208

  14. Hydrodynamic supercontinuum.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Genty, G; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N

    2013-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of multi-bound-soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) in the context of hydrodynamic surface gravity waves. Higher-order N-soliton solutions with N=2, 3 are studied in detail and shown to be associated with self-focusing in the wave group dynamics and the generation of a steep localized carrier wave underneath the group envelope. We also show that for larger input soliton numbers, the wave group experiences irreversible spectral broadening, which we refer to as a hydrodynamic supercontinuum by analogy with optics. This process is shown to be associated with the fission of the initial multisoliton into individual fundamental solitons due to higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS. Numerical simulations using an extended NLS model described by the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation, show excellent agreement with experiment and highlight the universal role that higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS play in supercontinuum generation. PMID:23952405

  15. Kinematic analysis of the instep kick in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Kapidžić, Alen; Huremović, Tarik; Biberovic, Alija

    2014-09-29

    We attempted to establish which applied kinematic variables significantly contributed to the efficiency of the instep kick motion in soccer. The study sample comprised 13 boys (age: 13 ± 0.5 yrs; body mass: 41.50 ± 8.40 kg; body height: 151.46 ± 5.93 cm) from the FC Sloboda school of soccer. Each participant performed three kicks with maximum strength that were video recorded with two synchronized cameras (Casio Ex-F1) positioned 12 m away from the place of the kick. Data were collected by analyzing the video recordings of each kick. Data processing was performed using the APAS motion analysis system (Ariel Dynamics Inc., San Diego, CA). On the basis of the forward selection method of multiple regression analysis, we determined the correlations between the prediction variables and the selected criteria (speed of the ball; p = 0.01). On the basis of the regression coefficients, it was concluded that two variables significantly contributed to the speed of the ball: speed of the foot of the kicking leg at the time of contact with the ball (p = 0.01) and the distance between the angle support leg and center of the ball ("foot posterior displacement") (p = 0.01). In order to achieve the best possible technical performance and, therefore, a higher speed of the ball, soccer players must pay attention to two important elements during training. First, it is necessary to position the support leg as close to the ball as possible and, second, maximize the force used in the initial phases of the kick to achieve a high speed of the kicking foot. PMID:25414742

  16. 76 FR 51943 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Dolphin Conservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...; International Dolphin Conservation Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (NOAA) collects information to implement the International Dolphin Conservation Program Act (Act). The... ] nations in the International Dolphin Conservation Program that would otherwise be under embargo. The...

  17. 77 FR 22759 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Bottlenose Dolphin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Region Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation Outreach Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... bottlenose dolphins, which are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. In particular, the surveys... regulations prohibiting feeding and harassment of bottlenose dolphins, and how they gained their knowledge...

  18. Estimating gas kick arrival to better manage surface flow

    SciTech Connect

    Merryman, J.

    1997-06-01

    There are many quality, expertly designed programs for teaching rig crews prevention and control of well kicks. Much time and money has been spent training rig crews for procedures and methods to avoid kicks, and what to do if you have one, even though all accepted practices were followed. One false/bad result from this training is that individuals have come away from this training believing that once a gas kick is circulated through the choke, all problems are simple and manageable, i.e., the danger has passed. What you do with gas once it is downstream of the choke has not been given enough emphasis in some training programs, including the one the author is involved in. This article, prepared from experiences on actual rig locations in Wyoming and Argentina, and developed for well control training in Parker Drilling Co.`s Training Center, Odessa, Texas, describes a method for estimating the time, in pump strokes and/or minutes, for a gas kick to reach surface. Reducing pump strokes (circulating flowrate) and knowing available time to gas kick arrival allows the crew to prepare surface handling equipment. Common misconceptions about gas handling and potential resulting problems are noted. An example calculation describes the calculation procedure.

  19. a Study on Impact Analysis of Side Kick in Taekwondo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Young-Shin; Han, Kyu-Hyun

    Taekwondo is a martial art form and sport that uses the hands and feet for attack and defense. Taekwondo basic motion is composed of the breaking, competition and poomsea motions. The side kick is one of the most important breaking motions. The side kick with the front foot can be made in two steps. In the first step, the front foot is extended forward from the back stance free-fighting position. For the second step, the rear foot is followed simultaneously. Then, the side kick is executed while the entire body weight rests on the rear foot. In this paper, the impact analysis on a human model for kicking posture was carried out. The ADAMS/LifeMOD used numerical modeling and simulation for the side kick. The numerical human models for assailant and opponent in competition motion were developed. The maximum impact force on the human body was obtained by experiment and was applied to impact simulation. As a result, the impact displacement and velocity of the numerical human model were investigated.

  20. Radiation hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1982-12-31

    This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.

  1. A dynamic computer model of a kicking well

    SciTech Connect

    Nickens, H.V.

    1987-06-01

    The dynamic effects of variable pump flow rate, formation-influx distribution, blowout preventer (BOP) and choke closure, choke adjustments, and well stabilization are accounted for in the analysis of a kicking well by solution of the appropriate mass- and momentum-balance equations. In the gas/liquid regions, the system is modeled as separated flow. The mass-balance equations are solved for the gas and liquid separately, but the momentum equation is solved for the mixture. The model predicts the detailed flow and pressure response of the well at all times and wellbore locations during the kick. The model is currently capable of simulating a single kick in a vertical hole (surface or subsea with water-based mud and the bit on bottom. The drillers' method (DM), wait/weight (WW), or dynamic kill-control procedures for either a ''perfect controller'' (constant bottomhole pressure (BHP)) or for any of several choke-control procedures may be simulated.

  2. Review: Modelling of meniscus of knee joint during soccer kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Mohd; Firdaus Jaafar, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    Knee is a part of the body that located between thigh and shank is one of the most complicated and largest joints in the human body. The common injuries that occur are ligaments, meniscus or bone fracture. During soccer games, the knee is the most critical part that will easily injure due to the shock from an external impact. Torn meniscus is one of the effects. This study will investigate the effect towards the meniscus within the knee joint during soccer ball kicking. We conduct a literary review of 14 journals that discuss the general view of meniscus and also soccer kicking. The selected topics for this review paper are meniscal function, meniscal movement, meniscal tears and also instep kick. As a finding, statistics show that most meniscal tears (73%) occurred in athletes who were soccer players, basketball players or skiers. The tear is frequently happening at the medial side rather than lateral side with a percentage of 70%.

  3. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz. PMID:21987441

  4. Comets Kick up Dust in Helix Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Helix nebula, a cosmic starlet often photographed by amateur astronomers for its vivid colors and eerie resemblance to a giant eye.

    The nebula, located about 700 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius, belongs to a class of objects called planetary nebulae. Discovered in the 18th century, these colorful beauties were named for their resemblance to gas-giant planets like Jupiter.

    Planetary nebulae are the remains of stars that once looked a lot like our sun. When sun-like stars die, they puff out their outer gaseous layers. These layers are heated by the hot core of the dead star, called a white dwarf, and shine with infrared and visible colors. Our own sun will blossom into a planetary nebula when it dies in about five billion years.

    In Spitzer's infrared view of the Helix nebula, the eye looks more like that of a green monster's. Infrared light from the outer gaseous layers is represented in blues and greens. The white dwarf is visible as a tiny white dot in the center of the picture. The red color in the middle of the eye denotes the final layers of gas blown out when the star died.

    The brighter red circle in the very center is the glow of a dusty disk circling the white dwarf (the disk itself is too small to be resolved). This dust, discovered by Spitzer's infrared heat-seeking vision, was most likely kicked up by comets that survived the death of their star. Before the star died, its comets and possibly planets would have orbited the star in an orderly fashion. But when the star blew off its outer layers, the icy bodies and outer planets would have been tossed about and into each other, resulting in an ongoing cosmic dust storm. Any inner planets in the system would have burned up or been swallowed as their dying star expanded.

    So far, the Helix nebula is one of only a few dead-star systems in which evidence for comet survivors has been found.

    This image

  5. Rotational swimming tendencies in the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Sobel, N; Supin, A Y; Myslobodsky, M S

    1994-11-16

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that dolphins placed in a pool exhibit stereotypic swimming in circles. The present study confirmed these observations in a sample of thirteen dolphins. The majority of dolphins (84.6%) showed highly consistent directional swimming in counterclockwise circles. The latter directionality held throughout the circadian cycle and resisted environmental manipulations. Only social interaction was capable of altering the directionality of circumnavigation. The consistency of unidirectional swimming is considered paradoxical in view of the existing evidence regarding the alternating of hemispheric activity in sleeping dolphins. PMID:7880453

  6. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine. PMID:23034277

  7. Motional stability of the quantum kicked rotor: A fidelity approach

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, F.; Bienert, M.; Schleich, W.P.; Seligman, T.H.; Raizen, M.

    2005-04-01

    We propose an atom optics experiment to measure the stability of the quantum kicked rotor under perturbations of the Hamiltonian. We avail ourselves of the theory of Loschmidt echoes, i.e., we consider the overlap of a quantum state evolved in a perturbed and an unperturbed potential. Atom interferometry allows us to determine the overlap integral in amplitude and phase. A numerical analysis of the kicked rotor in various regimes shows that the quantum signatures of specific classical properties can be detected experimentally.

  8. Displacement of X-ray binaries: constraints on the natal kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Context. This work uses the measured luminosity vs. displacement (LX vs. R) distribution of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) to constrain the dispersion of kick velocity σkick, which is an important parameter affecting the system velocity of a binary, and hence its spatial offset from the point of origin. Aims: The aim is to constrain the natal kicks and discriminate between models by comparing the observed LX vs. R distributions with the theoretical simulations. Methods: Using an up-to-date evolutionary population synthesis technique, the spatial offsets of HMXBs are modeled for a range of theoretical models describing the natal kicks, including different choices of the dispersion of kick velocity σkick, as well as different theoretical treatments for black hole (BH) natal kicks. Results: The study shows that the value of σkick for neutron stars (NSs) is constrained to be greater than ~100 km s-1, while σkick on the order of several tens of km s-1 may be excluded, though a low or absent natal kick for electron capture supernovae NSs is permitted. In particular, BH natal kicks are found not indispensable to account for the LX vs. R distributions. It is more interesting that full BH natal kicks (i.e., similar to those that NSs may receive) are likely to be ruled out in this study, which is in contrast with the recent finding to explain the observed distribution of low-mass X-ray binaries hosting BHs.

  9. ABR frequency tuning curves in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Supin, A Y; Popov, V V; Klishin, V O

    1993-11-01

    Tone-tone masking was used to determine auditory brain-stem response tuning curves in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in a simultaneous-masking paradigm. The Q10 of the curves was as large as 16-19 in the frequency range 64-128 kHz. In the range 45-16 kHz, Q10 decreased proportionally to the frequency with the bandwidth of the curves being constant, about 3.5-4 kHz at the 10-dB level. Tuning curves below 45 kHz are supposed to reflect broad spectral bandwidth of the probe's effective part which is no longer than 0.5 ms, irrespective of actual probe duration. Tuning curves above 64 kHz are supposed to reflect the real frequency tuning of the dolphin's auditory system. PMID:8263842

  10. Sleep behaviour: sleep in continuously active dolphins.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yuske; Arai, Kazutoshi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2006-06-22

    Sleep has been assumed to be necessary for development and to be a vital function in mammals and other animals. However, Lyamin et al. claim that in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), neonates and their mothers show almost no sleep behaviour for the first month after birth; this conclusion is based on their observation that the cetaceans keep swimming, avoid obstacles and rarely close their eyes for 24 hours a day throughout that period. Here we analyse the behaviour and eye closure of three neonate-mother pairs of bottlenose dolphins and find that, although the animals tend to open both eyes when surfacing to breathe, one or both eyes are closed during 'swim rest', an underwater sleeping behaviour that is associated with continuous activity. This observation calls into question the conclusions of Lyamin et al., who overlooked this type of sleep by analysing the animals' eye state only when they surfaced to breathe. PMID:16791150

  11. Computer derivation of some dolphin echolocation signals.

    PubMed

    Altes, R A

    1971-09-01

    Recent advances in radar theory have given rise to a straightforward method of sonar signal design. The method involves computer maximization of a signal-to-interference ratio. The procedure has been used to derive sonar signals that can accurately measure target velocity. When two dolphins were placed in a situation conducive to the utilization of such signals, their waveforms were similar to those that had been theoretically derived. PMID:17751313

  12. Unihemispheric sleep deprivation in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Oleksenko; Mukhametov; Polyakova; Supin; Kovalzon

    1992-03-01

    Unihemispheric and bihemispheric sleep deprivation were performed in bottlenose dolphins. One brain hemisphere was capable of being deprived of delta (0.5-3.0 Hz) sleep in the former condition. Here, an increase in sleep pressure was observed during sleep deprivation in the deprived hemisphere. In the recovery sleep, following unihemispheric sleep deprivation, there was a rebound of delta sleep only in the deprived hemisphere. Following bihemispheric sleep deprivation the animals exhibited an increase in delta sleep in both hemispheres. PMID:10607024

  13. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Biancani, Barbara; Furlati, Stefano; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Consolandi, Clarissa; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Cetaceans have evolved from herbivorous terrestrial artiodactyls closely related to ruminants and hippopotamuses. Delphinidae, a family included in this order, represent an extreme and successful re-adaptation of mammalian physiology to the marine habitat and piscivorous diet. The anatomical aspects of Delphinidae success are well understood, whereas some physiological aspects of their environmental fitness are less defined, such as the gut microbiota composition and its adaptation to their dietary niche. Here, we explored the faecal microbiota structure of nine adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and one breast-fed calf living in a controlled environment. According to our findings, dolphins possess a unique microbiota profile within the Mammalia class, highly resembling that of carnivorous marine fishes. The breast-fed calf showed a distinctive compositional structure of the gut microbial ecosystem, which partially overlaps with the mother's milk microbiota. Taken together, our data indicate that in dolphins the adaptation to the marine niche and piscivorous diet involved the convergence of their gut microbiota structure with that of marine fishes, overcoming the gut microbiota phylogenetic inertia previously described in terrestrial mammalians. PMID:26960390

  14. Observations of vaginal calculi in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, C D; Rennie, C J

    1991-07-01

    Vaginal calculi have been described from the common (Delphinus delphis), Pacific white-sided (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and spotted (Stenella attenuata) dolphins. We describe additional calculi found in six sexually mature D. delphis from southern California. Three calculi were large (ca. 7 x 5 cm), exhibited concentric layer crystallization, and were unique from previously published descriptions. One calculus described previously and one in our sample appeared to be a fetal skeleton and skull respectively. Using CAT scans of a first trimester northern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) and of a near term Delphinus delphis, we discuss the potential origin and development of vaginal calculi through analysis of ossification in embryonic delphinids. We hypothesize that the calculi represented spontaneous incomplete abortion with retention of part or all of the fetus in the distal reproductive tract. The form of the calculus relates to the degree of skeletal development at the time of fetal death. Calculi from a pregnant dolphin provided one measure of residence time. PMID:1920661

  15. An evolutionary approach to simulated football free kick optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Martin; Coupland, Simon

    We present a genetic algorithm-based evolutionary computing approach to the optimisation of simulated football free kick situations. A detailed physics model is implemented in order to apply evolutionary computing techniques to the creation of strategic offensive shots and defensive player locations.

  16. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  17. Entanglement dynamics for a conditionally kicked harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrais, Eric G.; Sales, J. S.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2016-08-01

    The time evolution of the quantum kicked harmonic oscillator (KHO) is described by the Floquet operator which maps the state of the system immediately before one kick onto the state at a time immediately after the next. Quantum KHO is characterized by three parameters: the coupling strength V 0, the so-called Lamb–Dicke parameter η whose square is proportional to the effective Planck constant {{\\hslash }}{{eff}}, and the ratio T of the natural frequency of the oscillator and the kick frequency. To a given coupling strength and depending on T being a natural or irrational number, the phase space of the classical kicked oscillator can display different behaviors, as for example, stochastic webs or quasicrystal structures, thus showing a chaotic or localized behavior that is mirrored in the quantum phase space. On the other hand, the classical limit is studied letting {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} become negligible. In this paper we investigate how the ratio T, considered as integer, rational or irrational, influences the entanglement dynamics of the quantum KHO and study how the entanglement dynamics behaves when varying either V 0 or {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} parameters.

  18. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices. PMID:27155962

  19. Resonant quantum kicked rotor with two internal levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Guzmán; Romanelli, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    We study a system consisting of a quantum kicked rotor with an additional degree of freedom. We show analytically and numerically that this model is characterized by its quantum resonances with ballistic spreading and by the entanglement between the internal and momentum degrees of freedom. We conclude that the model shows certain interesting similarities with the standard quantum walk on the line.

  20. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  1. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  2. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  3. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  4. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  5. Neutron Star Kicks and their Relationship to Supernovae Ejecta Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume the velocity is given by vkick = α (Mejecta/Mremnant) + β . To test this simple relationship we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different α and β values and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of α = 70 km s-1 and β = 110 km s-1 reproduce the Hobbs et al. (2005) observed 2-dimensional velocities and α = 70 km s-1 and β = 120 km s-1 reproduce their inferred 3-dimensional velocity distribution for nearby single neutron stars with ages less than 3 Myrs. After testing isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis `kick' orientations, we find no statistical preference for a `kick' orientation. While ejecta mass cannot be the only factor that determines the velocity of supernovae compact remnants, we suggest it is a significant contributor and that the ejecta based `kick' should replace the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution currently used in many population synthesis codes.

  6. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Coast Charts 1:80,000 scale), and as described in 33 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section...

  7. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Coast Charts 1:80,000 scale), and as described in 33 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section...

  8. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Coast Charts 1:80,000 scale), and as described in 33 CFR part 80... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section...

  9. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Coast Charts 1:80,000 scale), and as described in 33 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section...

  10. 50 CFR 229.35 - Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Coast Charts 1:80,000 scale), and as described in 33 CFR part 80... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan... § 229.35 Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section...

  11. Dolphin "packet" use during long-range echolocation tasks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2013-03-01

    When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude. PMID:23464048

  12. Hawaiian spinner dolphins aggregate midwater food resources through cooperative foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Au, Whitlow

    2003-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that spinner dolphins in Hawaii may actively aggregate their prey through cooperative foraging, a 200-kHz multi-beam sonar (Simrad MS2000) was used to observe 323 groups of spinner dolphins foraging within a midwater, micronekton sound-scattering layer off Oahu. Strong cooperation was observed in groups of 8-14 pairs of spinner dolphins. The dolphin group size was highest at midnight when the density of prey was highest and was significantly higher in Makua Beach, where the prey density was higher, than Electric Beach, where the prey density was lower. Cooperative groups of dolphins aggregated their food resources, apparently using their preys' avoidance behavior to create distinct, high-density patches in the prey. Prey aggregation was strongly stereo-typed, regardless of the distribution of the scattering layer. Dolphins swam around the edge of a 28-40 m diameter circle at least 5 times, concentrating prey within this area before pairs of dolphins on opposite sides of the circle swapped positions in the circle, swimming through the high density prey 'donut' they had formed. The hypothesis that nocturnal animals aggregate prey in midwater could not have been tested without the three-dimensional information on prey distribution and dolphin geometry provided by the multi-beam.

  13. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROUNDHOUSE KICK ACCORDING TO HEIGHT AND DISTANCE IN TAEKWONDO

    PubMed Central

    Falco, C.

    2013-01-01

    Competition regulation in taekwondo has experienced several changes during the last few years, for example, kicks to the head score more points than kicks to the chest. In addition, some external factors such as the height of target and execution distance seem to affect the kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse selected biomechanical parameters (impact force, reaction time, and execution time) according to the height and execution distance in two different male groups (experts (n = 12) and novices (n = 21)). Athletes kicked twice from every execution distance (short, normal and long) and towards two different heights of target (chest and head) in a random order. Novices kicked to the head with a longer reaction time than to the chest (p < 0.05) but experts were able to kick with similar performance for both heights. From short and normal distances experts kicked with similar performance; whereas from the normal distance novices had longer reaction and execution time than from the short distance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in counterattacking situations, experts should perform the roundhouse kick to the head instead of to the chest, because it produces better scores with similar performance; whereas novice athletes should avoid kicking to the head because they are not able to kick with similar performance. Moreover, it is recommended that during counterattacks higher-level taekwondo athletes should intend to kick from normal distances. PMID:24744499

  14. Is soccer kick performance better after a "faking" (cutting) maneuver task?

    PubMed

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2011-03-01

    Cutting in soccer is a common skill used to avoid the opponent's pressure but the potential effects of such a skill on instep kicking performance have not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in lower limb biomechanics between straight approach soccer kicks and kicks performed following a cutting maneuver task. Ten young amateur soccer players performed, in a random order, instep kicks after a two-step straight approach run and kicks after a double "faking" cutting maneuver task. The results showed that kicking after a cutting maneuver task displayed significantly lower ball speed values compared with the straight approach instep kicking (16.73 vs. 19.78 m/s, respectively; p < 0.05). Moreover, analysis of variance showed significant differences between the two kicking conditions in ankle, knee and hip joint displacements. The present study indicated that performing instep kicks after a double-cutting maneuver reduces ball and foot speed probably due to increasing joint frontal and transverse plane rotations. Improvements in the performance of the cutting maneuver task through training might result in better transfer of energy and speed to the kicking task thus permitting players to perform more powerful kicks under realistic game conditions. PMID:21560750

  15. Perception time and movement time in dolphin pulsing and whistling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Sam; Carder, Donald

    2002-05-01

    Auditory/vocal response time was separated into perception time (PT) and movement time (MT) in trials with bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)-two males and one female. Pressure catheters accepted into the nasal cavity by each dolphin recorded the pressure increase that preceded sound production. Time from acoustic stimulus onset to onset of pressure rise was recorded as PT (range 57 to 314 ms) and pressure rise onset to dolphin sound onset was recorded as MT (range 63 to 363 ms). Blindfolded dolphins trained to report a target by whistling often responded before completion of their 200- to 800-ms echolocation click trains. Detection of the target, indicated by whistling, before termination of the animal's own click train, suggests that dolphins do not voluntarily respond to each successive click but rather set a rhythm such that each click is emitted about 20 ms after the target echo arrives.

  16. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  17. Transverse emittance dilution due to coupler kicks in linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brandon; Hoffstaetter, Georg H.

    2007-11-01

    One of the main concerns in the design of low emittance linear accelerators (linacs) is the preservation of beam emittance. Here we discuss one possible source of emittance dilution, the coupler kick, due to transverse electromagnetic fields in the accelerating cavities of the linac caused by the power coupler geometry. In addition to emittance growth, the coupler kick also produces orbit distortions. It is common wisdom that emittance growth from coupler kicks can be strongly reduced by using two couplers per cavity mounted opposite each other or by having the couplers of successive cavities alternate from above to below the beam pipe so as to cancel each individual kick. While this is correct, including two couplers per cavity or alternating the coupler location requires large technical changes and increased cost for superconducting cryomodules where cryogenic pipes are arranged parallel to a string of several cavities. We therefore analyze consequences of alternate coupler placements. We show here that alternating the coupler location from above to below compensates the emittance growth as well as the orbit distortions. For sufficiently large Q values, alternating the coupler location from before to after the cavity leads to a cancellation of the orbit distortion but not of the emittance growth, whereas alternating the coupler location from before and above to behind and below the cavity cancels the emittance growth but not the orbit distortion. We show that cancellations hold for sufficiently large Q values. These compensations hold even when each cavity is individually detuned, e.g., by microphonics. Another effective method for reducing coupler kicks that is studied is the optimization of the phase of the coupler kick so as to minimize the effects on emittance from each coupler. This technique is independent of the coupler geometry but relies on operating on crest. A final technique studied is symmetrization of the cavity geometry in the coupler region with

  18. Adaptive changes in locust kicking and jumping behaviour during development

    PubMed

    Norman

    1995-01-01

    The hind, or metathoracic, leg of a locust is specialised, enabling it to store energy that is used to extend the tibia rapidly during kicking and jumping; behaviours which share a common motor pattern. This study describes developmental changes in kicking and jumping behaviour and relates these changes to the development of the exoskeleton and jumping performance. In mature adults and intermoult larvae, the exoskeleton is strong and kicks can readily be elicited. Before and after the adult moult, when the exoskeleton is weak, kicks can be elicited less frequently, thus avoiding skeletal damage. At these times, animals do not generate the adult motor pattern for kicking, so that extension of the tibia is powered by direct muscle contraction, rather than through the release of stored energy. The muscles of all newly moulted animals are capable of generating sufficient force to damage the leg, but 14 days later the muscles can rarely generate sufficient force to damage the leg. To mimic the forces generated during the preparation for a kick, when the flexor and extensor tibiae muscles co-contract, the extensor muscle was stimulated electrically at a range of frequencies and the nature and occurrence of the resulting mechanical damage to components of the skeleton were assessed over a 14 day period following the adult moult. In newly moulted animals, the proximal femur partially collapses and thus protects the leg from damage before the muscles generate sufficient force to damage chronically other components of the leg. This partial collapse of the femur is reversible when the extensor muscle is activated at low frequency, but high frequencies cause permanent damage. The muscles of all animals 1 day after the moult are also capable of generating sufficient force to damage the leg, but the proximal tibia breaks most commonly in the region where the extensor muscle apodeme attaches. 5 days after the moult, the muscles in only 50 % of animals can damage the leg and most

  19. 3D Kinematics and Hydrodynamic Analysis of Freely Swimming Cetacean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Sheinberg, Dustin; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank; Javed, Joveria

    2015-11-01

    It's widely thought that flexibility and the ability to control flexibility are crucial elements in determining the performance of animal swimming. However, there is a lack of quantification of both span-wise and chord-wise deformation of Cetacean's flukes and associated hydrodynamic performance during actively swimming. To fill this gap, we examined the motion and flexure of both dolphin fluke and orca fluke in steady swimming using a combined experimental and computational approach. It is found that the fluke surface morphing can effectively modulate the flow structures and influence the propulsive performance. Findings from this work are fundamental for understanding key kinematic features of effective Cetacean propulsors, and for quantifying the hydrodynamic force production that naturally occurs during different types of swimming. This work is supported by ONR MURI N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  20. Kicked-Harper model versus on-resonance double-kicked rotor model: from spectral difference to topological equivalence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailong; Ho, Derek Y H; Lawton, Wayne; Wang, Jiao; Gong, Jiangbin

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have established that, in addition to the well-known kicked-Harper model (KHM), an on-resonance double-kicked rotor (ORDKR) model also has Hofstadter's butterfly Floquet spectrum, with strong resemblance to the standard Hofstadter spectrum that is a paradigm in studies of the integer quantum Hall effect. Earlier it was shown that the quasienergy spectra of these two dynamical models (i) can exactly overlap with each other if an effective Planck constant takes irrational multiples of 2π and (ii) will be different if the same parameter takes rational multiples of 2π. This work makes detailed comparisons between these two models, with an effective Planck constant given by 2πM/N, where M and N are coprime and odd integers. It is found that the ORDKR spectrum (with two periodic kicking sequences having the same kick strength) has one flat band and N-1 nonflat bands with the largest bandwidth decaying in a power law as ~K(N+2), where K is a kick strength parameter. The existence of a flat band is strictly proven and the power-law scaling, numerically checked for a number of cases, is also analytically proven for a three-band case. By contrast, the KHM does not have any flat band and its bandwidths scale linearly with K. This is shown to result in dramatic differences in dynamical behavior, such as transient (but extremely long) dynamical localization in ORDKR, which is absent in the KHM. Finally, we show that despite these differences, there exist simple extensions of the KHM and ORDKR model (upon introducing an additional periodic phase parameter) such that the resulting extended KHM and ORDKR model are actually topologically equivalent, i.e., they yield exactly the same Floquet-band Chern numbers and display topological phase transitions at the same kick strengths. A theoretical derivation of this topological equivalence is provided. These results are also of interest to our current understanding of quantum-classical correspondence considering that

  1. [Complex fracture of the larynx caused by a horse kick].

    PubMed

    Kilgué, A; Teudt, I U; Grundmann, T; Püschel, K

    2014-12-01

    Every blunt laryngeal trauma requires examination by an ENT physician and may necessitate observation for a number of hours. The literature shows a heterogeneous picture regarding airway management (tracheotomy vs. intubation). Extremely violence forces such as horse kicks require a tracheotomy, as demonstrated by case studies. In such cases, a high level of responsibility lies with the emergency physician providing the initial treatment. We present the case of a 37-year-old horse trainer, who suffered a horse kick to the larynx with a complex laryngeal fracture. Intubation of the patient by the emergency physician would most probably have led to incorrect placement of the tube or complete displacement of larynx and trachea. In addition to securing a vital airway by tracheotomy, a timely reconstruction of the airways, where necessary by employing the temporary insertion of a tracheal stent, is the treatment of choice. The latter therapy should be applied within the first 6 hours following the accident. PMID:25270837

  2. Coherent control of quantum dynamics in laser kicked molecular rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, Martin; Milner, Valery

    2016-05-01

    We investigate experimentally the dynamics of true quantum kicked rotors - oxygen and nitrogen molecules subject to a sequence of more than 20 ultrashort laser pulses with peak intensities exceeding 1013 W/ cm2 per pulse. Using state-resolved rotational Raman spectroscopy, we show that the centrifugal distortion is the main obstacle in reaching high rotational states, as it results in the coherent oscillations of rotational population similar to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter. We demonstrate that the timing of the individual pulses can be optimized to partially mitigate the centrifugal limit and produce broader rotational wave packets with higher degrees of rotational coherence. Progress towards the experimental observation of Anderson localization in laser-kicked molecular rotors will be discussed.

  3. Application of Kick Minimization to the RTML 'Front End'

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

    2007-02-03

    The ''front end'' of the ILC RTML constitutes the sections of the RTML which are upstream of the first RF cavity of the first stage bunch compressor: specifically, the SKEW, COLL, TURN, SPIN, and EMIT sections. Although in principle it should be easy to transport the beam through these sections with low emittance growth, since the energy spread of the beam is relatively low, in practice it is difficult because of the large number of betatron wavelengths and strong focusing, especially in the TURN section. We report here on the use of the Kick Minimization Method for limiting the emittance growth in the ''front end'' of the RTML. Kick Minimization (KM) is a steering method which balances two optima: minimization of the RMS measured orbit on the BPMs (often called 1:1 steering), and minimization of the RMS corrector strength [1]. The simulation program used for these studies is Lucretia [2].

  4. Behavior During Tethered Kicking in Infants with Periventricular Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Suzann K.; Cole, Whitney; Boynewicz, Kara; Zawacki, Laura L.; Clark, April; Spira-Gaebler, Deborah; DeRegnier, Raye-Anne; Kuroda, Maxine; Kale, Dipti; Bulanda, Michelle; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Describe behavior of children with periventricular brain injury (PBI) in a tethered-kicking intervention. Methods Sixteen infants with PBI were randomly assigned to exercise or no-training in a longitudinal pilot study. Frequency of leg movements and inter-limb coordination were described from videos at 2 and 4 months corrected age (CA). Results Eight of 13 children (62%) with longitudinal data increased the frequency of leg movements while tethered to a mobile between 2 and 4 months CA. Movement frequency was correlated with scores on the Test of Infant Motor Performance, but there were no differences between experimental groups. Children with typical development at 12 months CA increased the proportion of leg movements that were synchronous between 2 and 4 months as did a child with cerebral palsy in the experimental group. Conclusion The tethered-kicking intervention facilitates movement in infants with PBI but effects on development remain to be demonstrated. PMID:26397087

  5. Consciousness in dolphins? A review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Harley, Heidi E

    2013-06-01

    For millennia, dolphins have intrigued humans. Scientific study has confirmed that bottlenose dolphins are large-brained, highly social mammals with an extended developmental period, flexible cognitive capacities, and powerful acoustic abilities including a sophisticated echolocation system. These findings have led some to ask if dolphins experience aspects of consciousness. Recent investigations targeting self-recognition/self-awareness and metacognition, constructs tied to consciousness on some accounts, have analyzed the dolphin's ability to recognize itself in a mirror or on a video as well as to monitor its own knowledge in a perceptual categorization task. The current article reviews this work with dolphins and grapples with some of the challenges in designing, conducting, and interpreting these studies as well as with general issues related to studying consciousness in animals. The existing evidence does not provide a convincing case for consciousness in dolphins. For productive scientific work on consciousness in dolphins (and other animals including humans), we need clearer characterizations of consciousness, better methods for studying it, and appropriate paradigms for interpreting outcomes. A current focus on metamemory in animals offers promise for future discovery in this area. PMID:23649907

  6. Toxoplasmosis in captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and walrus (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Mergl, J; Gehring, E; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Grigg, M E; Su, C; Martineau, D

    2009-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a sea aquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) tested. Two of these dolphins, as well as a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) at the facility, died. Encephalitis and T. gondii tissue cysts were identified in histological sections of the brain of 1 dolphin (dolphin no. 1). Another dolphin (dolphin no. 2) had mild focal encephalitis without visible organisms, but viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice and cats from its brain and skeletal muscle; this strain was designated TgDoCA1. The PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) identified a Type II strain. The DNA sequencing of B1 and SAG1 alleles amplified from TgDoCA1 and directly from the brains of dolphin no. 1 and the walrus showed archetypal alleles consistent with infection by a Type II strain. No unique polymorphisms were detected. This is apparently the first report of isolation of T. gondii from a marine mammal in Canada. PMID:19245284

  7. Pathogen surveillance in wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Jaing, Crystal; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea; McLoughlin, Kevin; Slezak, Tom; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-10-16

    The number and prevalence of diseases is rapidly increasing in the marine ecosystem. Although there is an increase in the number of marine diseases observed world-wide, current understanding of the pathogens associated with marine mammals is limited. An important need exists to develop and apply platforms for rapid detection and characterization of pathogenic agents to assess, prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. In this study, a broad-spectrum molecular detection technology capable of detecting all sequenced microbial organisms, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, was used to assess the microbial agents that could be associated with wild Atlantic dolphins. Blowhole, gastric, and fecal samples from 8 bottlenose dolphins were collected in Charleston, SC, as part of the dolphin assessment effort. The array detected various microbial agents from the dolphin samples. Clostridium perfringens was most prevalent in the samples surveyed using the microarray. This pathogen was also detected using microbiological culture techniques. Additionally, Campylobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Erwinia amylovora, Helicobacter pylori, and Frankia sp. were also detected in more than one dolphin using the microarray, but not in culture. This study provides the first survey of pathogens associated with 3 tissue types in dolphins using a broad-spectrum microbial detection microarray and expands insight on the microbial community profile in dolphins. PMID:26480911

  8. An echolocation visualization and interface system for dolphin research.

    PubMed

    Amundin, Mats; Starkhammar, Josefin; Evander, Mikael; Almqvist, Monica; Lindström, Kjell; Persson, Hans W

    2008-02-01

    The present study describes the development and testing of a tool for dolphin research. This tool was able to visualize the dolphin echolocation signals as well as function as an acoustically operated "touch screen." The system consisted of a matrix of hydrophones attached to a semitransparent screen, which was lowered in front of an underwater acrylic panel in a dolphin pool. When a dolphin aimed its sonar beam at the screen, the hydrophones measured the received sound pressure levels. These hydrophone signals were then transferred to a computer where they were translated into a video image that corresponds to the dynamic sound pressure variations in the sonar beam and the location of the beam axis. There was a continuous projection of the image back onto the hydrophone matrix screen, giving the dolphin an immediate visual feedback to its sonar output. The system offers a whole new experimental methodology in dolphin research and since it is software-based, many different kinds of scientific questions can be addressed. The results were promising and motivate further development of the system and studies of sonar and cognitive abilities of dolphins. PMID:18247918

  9. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  10. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  11. Dynamics of the support leg in soccer instep kicking.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichiro; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sterzing, Thorsten; Shinkai, Hironari; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to illustrate support leg dynamics during instep kicking to evaluate the role of the support leg action in performance. Twelve male soccer players performed maximal instep kicks. Their motions and ground reaction forces were recorded by a motion capture system and a force platform. Moments and angular velocities of the support leg and pelvis were computed using inverse dynamics. In most joints of the support leg, the moments were not associated with or counteracting the joint motions except for the knee joint. It can be interpreted that the initial knee flexion motion counteracting the extension joint moment has a role to attenuate the shock of landing and the following knee extension motion associated with the extension joint moment indirectly contributes to accelerate the swing of kicking leg. Also, appreciable horizontal rotation of the pelvis coincided with increase of the interaction moment due to the hip joint reaction force on the support leg side. It can be assumed that the interaction moment was the main factor causing the pelvis counter-clockwise rotation within the horizontal plane from the overhead view that precedes a proximal-to-distal sequence of segmental action of the swing leg. PMID:24575753

  12. Evaporation and accretion of extrasolar comets following white dwarf kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Metzger, Brian D.; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Several lines of observational evidence suggest that white dwarfs receive small birth kicks due to anisotropic mass-loss. If other stars possess extrasolar analogues to the Solar Oort cloud, the orbits of comets in such clouds will be scrambled by white dwarf natal kicks. Although most comets will be unbound, some will be placed on low angular momentum orbits vulnerable to sublimation or tidal disruption. The dusty debris from these comets will manifest itself as an IR excess temporarily visible around newborn white dwarfs; examples of such discs may already have been seen in the Helix Nebula, and around several other young white dwarfs. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope may distinguish this hypothesis from alternatives such as a dynamically excited Kuiper Belt analogue. Although competing hypotheses exist, the observation that ≳15 per cent of young white dwarfs possess such discs, if interpreted as indeed being cometary in origin, provides indirect evidence that low-mass gas giants (thought necessary to produce an Oort cloud) are common in the outer regions of extrasolar planetary systems. Hydrogen abundances in the atmospheres of older white dwarfs can, if sufficiently low, also be used to place constraints on the joint parameter space of natal kicks and exo-Oort cloud models.

  13. Dolphin's echolocation signals in a complicated acoustic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. P.

    2004-07-01

    Echolocation abilities of a dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ponticus) were investigated in laboratory conditions. The experiment was carried out in an open cage using an acoustic control over the behavior of the animal detecting underwater objects in a complicated acoustic environment. Targets of different strength were used as test objects. The dolphin was found to be able to detect objects at distances exceeding 650 m. For the target location, the dolphin used both single-pulse and multipulse echolocation modes. Time characteristics of echolocation pulses and time sequences of pulses as functions of the distance to the target were obtained.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON NATAL KICKS IN GALACTIC DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki E-mail: b-willems@northwestern.ed

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s{sup -1} and 190-450 km s{sup -1} (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M{sub sun} and 1.4-5.0 M{sub sun} (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s{sup -1} (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M{sub sun} (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s{sup -1}, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as {approx}1.5 M{sub sun} or as high as {approx}8 M{sub sun}. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  15. Electroreception in the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis)

    PubMed Central

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U.; Liebschner, Alexander; Miersch, Lars; Klauer, Gertrud; Hanke, Frederike D.; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2012-01-01

    Passive electroreception is a widespread sense in fishes and amphibians, but in mammals this sensory ability has previously only been shown in monotremes. While the electroreceptors in fish and amphibians evolved from mechanosensory lateral line organs, those of monotremes are based on cutaneous glands innervated by trigeminal nerves. Electroreceptors evolved from other structures or in other taxa were unknown to date. Here we show that the hairless vibrissal crypts on the rostrum of the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), structures originally associated with the mammalian whiskers, serve as electroreceptors. Histological investigations revealed that the vibrissal crypts possess a well-innervated ampullary structure reminiscent of ampullary electroreceptors in other species. Psychophysical experiments with a male Guiana dolphin determined a sensory detection threshold for weak electric fields of 4.6 µV cm−1, which is comparable to the sensitivity of electroreceptors in platypuses. Our results show that electroreceptors can evolve from a mechanosensory organ that nearly all mammals possess and suggest the discovery of this kind of electroreception in more species, especially those with an aquatic or semi-aquatic lifestyle. PMID:21795271

  16. Audiogram variability in normal bottlenose dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarakanov, Mikhail B.; Pletenko, Mikhail G.; Popov, Vladimir V.; Supin, Alexander Ya.

    2005-04-01

    Audiograms have been obtained in about a dozen of odontocete species, but mostly in one or two individuals each. However, some inter-individual difference in hearing sensitivity is inevitable. Therefore, a representative number of animals should be investigated to get a normal audiogram standard. In the present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the audiogram scatter among normal bottlenose dolphins. Measurements were made in dolphins captured in wild and kept in captivity 3 to 5 months, using auditory evoked potential technique (envelope following response) to measure hearing thresholds in far acoustic field. Seven subjects, 5 males and 2 females, provisionally from 3 to 15 years old, were investigated during the summer season of 2004. Hearing thresholds were measured at frequencies from 8 to 152 kHz with quarter-octave steps. All the subjects had qualitatively similar audiograms. The best sensitivity was from 38.9 dB re 1 uPa (at 32 kHz) to 51.9 dB (at 16 kHz), with a minimum of the averaged audiogram of 47.1 dB at 45 kHz. High-frequency cut-off was 152 kHz at a level of 40 dB above the lowest threshold. Standard deviation of threshold was from 4.1 to 10.3 dB. [Work supported by RFBR and Russian President Grants.

  17. Neutrino-Triggered Asymmetric Magnetorotational Pulsar Natal Kick Cherry-Stone Shooting" Mechanism)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-11-01

    The sterile neutrino mechanisms for natal neutron stars kicks are re-analyzed. It is shown that the magnetic field strengths needed for a kick were underestimated essentially. Another mechanism with standard neutrinos is discussed where the outgoing neutrino flux in a supernova explosion with a strong toroidal magnetic field generation causes the field redistribution in "upper" and "lower" hemispheres of the supernova envelope. The resulting magnetic field pressure asymmetry causes the pulsar natal kick.

  18. Final Results on RF and Wake Kicks Caused by the Couplers for the ILC Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lunin, Andrei; Gonin, Ivan; Solyak, Nikolay; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    In the paper the results are presented for calculation of the transverse wake and RF kick from the power and HOM couplers of the ILC acceleration structure. The RF kick was calculated stand-alone by HFSS, CST MWS and COMSOL codes while the wake kick was calculated by GdfidL. The calculation precision and convergence for both cases are discussed and compared to the results obtained independently by other group.

  19. Understanding kick tolerance and its significance in drilling planning and execution

    SciTech Connect

    Redmann, K.P. Jr. )

    1991-12-01

    Kick tolerance is a drilling parameter that has prompted both confusion and misunderstanding in the drilling industry, yet its importance to drilling engineers may be increasing exponentially. The increasing number of worldwide drilling catastrophes may spur government agencies to tighten controls on casing-setting-depth criteria, requiring pipe to be set once minimal kick tolerance values are reached. A thorough understanding of kick tolerance is necessary in both drilling operations and casing program design. Confusion involving kick tolerance may be attributed to the concept of zero gain, which is commonly referred to in many accepted definitions of kick tolerance. This paper presents an innovative approach to determining true kick tolerance that not only incorporates the conditions of an influx within the wellbore but also considers the possible reduction in kick tolerance caused by the circulation of that influx from the wellbore. New techniques are available for hand-held calculators, which are now more accurate in determining influx pressure and volume anywhere within the wellbore. In this paper a typical well example with illustrations describes kick tolerance and emphasizes the influence of other drilling parameters. Integration of kick- tolerance considerations into the well planning process also is demonstrated.

  20. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF DIRECT DRIVE STERLING 'DOLPHIN T' MODEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF DIRECT DRIVE STERLING 'DOLPHIN T' MODEL 4 CYLINDER, GASOLINE TRACTOR-TYPE ENGINE WITH FALKBIBBY FLEXIBLE COUPLING - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  1. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  3. Transmission beam characteristics of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Kloepper, Laura N; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Wan-Hsiu; Jen, I-Fan; Rideout, Brendan P; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    The echolocation system of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) remains poorly studied compared to other odontocete species. In this study, echolocation signals were recorded from a stationary Risso's dolphin with an array of 16 hydrophones and the two-dimensional beam shape was explored using frequency-dependent amplitude plots. Click source parameters were similar to those already described for this species. Centroid frequency of click signals increased with increasing sound pressure level, while the beamwidth decreased with increasing center frequency. Analysis revealed primarily single-lobed, and occasionally vertically dual-lobed, beam shapes. Overall beam directivity was found to be greater than that of the harbor porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, and a false killer whale. The relationship between frequency content, beam directivity, and head size for this Risso's dolphin deviated from the trend described for other species. These are the first reported measurements of echolocation beam shape and directivity in G. griseus. PMID:26827004

  4. Left hemispheric advantage for numerical abilities in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Annette; von Fersen, Lorenzo; Güntürkün, Onur

    2005-02-28

    In a two-choice discrimination paradigm, a bottlenose dolphin discriminated relational dimensions between visual numerosity stimuli under monocular viewing conditions. After prior binocular acquisition of the task, two monocular test series with different number stimuli were conducted. In accordance with recent studies on visual lateralization in the bottlenose dolphin, our results revealed an overall advantage of the right visual field. Due to the complete decussation of the optic nerve fibers, this suggests a specialization of the left hemisphere for analysing relational features between stimuli as required in tests for numerical abilities. These processes are typically right hemisphere-based in other mammals (including humans) and birds. The present data provide further evidence for a general right visual field advantage in bottlenose dolphins for visual information processing. It is thus assumed that dolphins possess a unique functional architecture of their cerebral asymmetries. PMID:15686828

  5. Pathology of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) infected with Brucella ceti.

    PubMed

    González-Barrientos, R; Morales, J-A; Hernández-Mora, G; Barquero-Calvo, E; Guzmán-Verri, C; Chaves-Olarte, E; Moreno, E

    2010-05-01

    Seventeen striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) displaying swimming disorders compatible with neurological syndromes were investigated for Brucella infection. Sixteen dolphins had meningoencephalomyelitis. Serum antibody against Brucella antigen was detected in all 14 animals tested and Brucella ceti was isolated from eight out of nine animals. Brucella antigen was detected in the brain by immunofluorescence, but not by immunohistochemical labelling. By contrast, Brucella antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of animals with severe placentitis and in the mitral valve of animals with myocarditis. The microscopical lesions observed in the tissues of the infected dolphins were similar to those of chronic brucellosis in man. The severity of brucellosis in S. coeruleoalba indicates that this dolphin species is highly susceptible to infection by B. ceti. PMID:19954790

  6. RESEARCH PROSPECTIVES FOR DOLPHIN MORTALITIES IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Second Gulf Breeze Symposium sponsored by EPA's Center for Marine and Estuarine Disease Research focused on scientific research related to dolphin mortalities. uring the symposium, four groups were formed to discuss and evaluate current scientific information, research strate...

  7. Blind river dolphin: first side-swimming cetacean.

    PubMed

    Herald, E S; Brownell, R L; Frye, F L; Morris, E J; Evans, W E; Scott, A B

    1969-12-12

    The blind river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), first written about by Pliny the Elder in A.D. 72, was found (10 November 1968) to be the first known side-swimming cetacean. The rudimentary eye lacks the lens, but anatomical evidence suggests that the eye may serve as a light sensor. The underwater sound emissions of this species, although similar to those of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), appear to be produced constantly. PMID:5350341

  8. Echocardiographic evaluation of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Levine, Gregg; Havlis, Dielle; West, Nicole; Renner, Michael; Rimmerman, Curtis; Stone, Rae

    2006-12-01

    Safe and effective echocardiography would represent a valuable tool for marine mammal veterinarians and physiologists evaluating the dolphin heart. Unfortunately, conventional ultrasound technology (transthoracic echocardiography) has been limited by logistic, anatomic, and behavioral challenges. Five mature male Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were trained for echocardiographic imaging (four for both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging, and one for only transthoracic imaging). It was noted that transesophageal image quality transiently improved when the dolphins spontaneously exhaled. Subsequently, dolphins were conditioned to hold their breath following forced exhalation, and imaging proceeded during such behavioral breath holds. Over 25 transthoracic and 100 transesophageal echocardiographic studies were performed, including both two-dimensional imaging and color flow mapping. Transthoracic imaging yielded poor-quality images of only small portions of the heart. In contrast, transesophageal imaging, which improved dramatically with behavioral breath holding following exhalation, yielded consistently high-quality images of the entire heart (mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves, atrial and ventricular septa, left and right atria, left and right ventricles, and ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery). Color flow mapping demonstrated mild tricuspid regurgitation in all dolphins, and mild aortic regurgitation in one dolphin found to have a pedunculated mass arising from the sinutubular junction just above the aortic valve. There were no complications in nonsedated dolphins. The heart of the bottlenose dolphin can be safely, effectively, and reproducibly evaluated with the use of transesophageal echocardiography in conjunction with behavioral breath holding following forced exhalation. This approach, and the normative echocardiographic data generated from this work, lays the foundation for future echocardiographic studies of

  9. Sound variation and function in captive Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yayoi M; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Iwasaki, Mari; Wakabayashi, Ikuo; Seko, Atsushi; Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-10-01

    Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All recorded sounds were NBHF clicks with peak frequency >110kHz. The recorded click-trains were categorised into four types based on the changing pattern of their Inter-click intervals (ICI): Decreasing type, with continuously decreasing ICI during the last part of the train; Increasing type, with continuously increasing ICI during the last part; Fluctuating type, with fluctuating ICI; and Burst-pulse type, with very short and constant ICI. The frequency of the Decreasing type increased when approaching an object newly introduced to the tank, suggesting that the sound is used for echolocation on approach. The Burst-pulse type suddenly increased in front of the object and was often oriented towards it, suggesting that it was used for echolocation in close proximity to the object. In contrast, the Increasing type was rarely recorded during approach, but increased when a dolphin approached another dolphin. The Increasing and Burst-pulse types also increased when dolphins began social behaviours. These results suggest that some NBHF clicks have functions other than echolocation, such as communication. PMID:25225038

  10. Hearing Loss in Stranded Odontocete Dolphins and Whales

    PubMed Central

    Mann, David; Hill-Cook, Mandy; Manire, Charles; Greenhow, Danielle; Montie, Eric; Powell, Jessica; Wells, Randall; Bauer, Gordon; Cunningham-Smith, Petra; Lingenfelser, Robert; DiGiovanni, Robert; Stone, Abigale; Brodsky, Micah; Stevens, Robert; Kieffer, George; Hoetjes, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70–90 dB) or profound (>90 dB) hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested. PMID:21072206

  11. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    PubMed Central

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. Methods—One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. Results—A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (p≤0.01). Soft tissue trauma was the most common type of injury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (p≤0.05). Annual injury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. Conclusions—The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less. Key Words: injury rates; Muay Thai kick boxing PMID:11579062

  12. Sounds emitted by the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    LILLY, J C; MILLER, A M

    1961-05-26

    The sonic emissions of the bottlenose dolphin are remarkably complex. Three classes of these sounds are discussed and presented graphically. The sine-type wave whistles range in frequency from about 4000 to 18,000 cycles per second. The clicks contain components of this same frequency range plus some components of higher frequencies. Complex waves of high amplitude and of many frequencies are also emitted in water or in air. Situations in which sounds of one or more of these classes can be elicited simultaneously from one and from two restrained animals are described. The necessity for, and occurrence of, creakings for purpose of navigation, ranging, and recognition (sonar) have been eliminated in the experiments under discussion. PMID:13762154

  13. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    PubMed

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  14. Theory of the Anderson transition in the quasiperiodic kicked rotor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chushun; Altland, Alexander; Garst, Markus

    2011-08-12

    We present the first microscopic theory of transport in quasiperiodically driven environments ("kicked rotors"), as realized in recent atom optic experiments. We find that the behavior of these systems depends sensitively on the value of a dimensionless Planck constant h: for irrational values of h/(4π) they fall into the universality class of disordered electronic systems and we describe the corresponding localization phenomena. In contrast, for rational values the rotor-Anderson insulator acquires an infinite (static) conductivity and turns into a "supermetal." We discuss the ensuing possibility of a metal-supermetal quantum phase transition. PMID:21902396

  15. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN... of the vessel BLUE DOLPHIN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Skippered daysailing in...

  16. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  17. Kick Stick Hands-on Challenge: Discover Circuits with PBS's "Design Squad Nation"[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the "Kick Stick" activity from Design Squad Nation, in which kids turn a wooden paint stirrer and circuit into a motorized, spinning arm--then use it to kick a Ping-Pong[R] ball across the floor. Teachers can enrich their students' exploration of circuits and emphasize the engineering design process with "Design Squad…

  18. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...\\ 76 FR 62894 (Oct. 11, 2011). \\3\\ See ``Findings and Recommendations of the SOFA Working Group... Federal Railroad Administration Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching... a railroad employee kicking cars and subsequently going between rolling equipment. In response,...

  19. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  20. Dominant-non-dominant asymmetry of kicking a stationary and rolling ball in a futsal context.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of the asymmetries in the dominant and non-dominant limbs when kicking stationary and rolling balls. Ten experienced Brazilian amateur futsal players participated in this study. Each participant performed kicks under two conditions (stationary ball vs. rolling ball) with the dominant and non-dominant limbs (five kicks per condition per limb). We analysed the kicking accuracy, ball and foot velocities, angular joint displacement and velocity. The asymmetry between the dominant and non-dominant limbs was analysed by symmetry index and two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The results did not reveal any interaction between the condition and limb for ball velocity, foot velocity and accuracy. However, kicking with the dominant limb in both kicks showed higher ball velocity (stationary ball: dominant - 24.27 ± 2.21 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 21.62 ± 2.26 m · s(-1); rolling ball: dominant - 23.88 ± 2.71 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 21.42 ± 2.25 m · s(-1)), foot velocity (stationary ball: dominant - 17.61 ± 1.87 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 15.58 ± 2.69 m · s(-1); rolling ball: dominant - 17.25 ± 2.26 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 14.77 ± 2.35 m · s(-1)) and accuracy (stationary ball: dominant - 1.17 ± 0.84 m and non-dominant - 1.56 ± 1.30 m; rolling ball: dominant - 1.31 ± 0.91 m and non-dominant - 1.97 ± 1.44 m). In addition, the angular joint adjustments were dependent on the limb in both kicks (the kicks with non-dominant limb showed lower hip external rotation than the kicks with the dominant limb), indicating that the hip joint is important in kick performance. In conclusion, the kicks with the non-dominant limb showed different angular adjustments in comparison to kicks with the dominant limb. In addition, kicking a rolling ball with the non-dominant limb showed higher asymmetry for accuracy, indicating that complex kicks are more asymmetric. PMID:25554927

  1. Test of a General Formula for Black Hole Gravitational Wave Kicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Meter, James R.; Miller, M. Coleman; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the gravitational wave kick velocity in the orbital plane of coalescing black holes has been understood for some time, apparently conflicting formulae have been proposed for the dominant outof- plane kick, each a good fit to different data sets. This is important to resolve because it is only the out-of-plane kicks that can reach more than 500 km s-l and can thus eject merged remnants from galaxies. Using a different ansatz for the out-of-plane kick, we show that we can fit almost all existing data to better than 5%. This is good enough for any astrophysical calculation and shows that the previous apparent conflict was only because the two data sets explored different aspects of the kick parameter space.

  2. Dolphin Therapy: The Playful Way to Work toward the Next Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermer, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 children with a physical and/or mental challenge visit the Curacao Dolphin Therapy and Research Center (CDTC) for dolphin-assisted therapy every year. Dolphin therapy appears to be the right approach for many children. With the help of these special and very social animals, it is easier to make contact with the children. It motivates…

  3. 9 CFR 3.111 - Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. 3.111... Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.111 Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. Swim-with-the-dolphin programs shall comply with the requirements in this section, as well as with...

  4. 9 CFR 3.111 - Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. 3.111... Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.111 Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. Swim-with-the-dolphin programs shall comply with the requirements in this section, as well as with...

  5. 9 CFR 3.111 - Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. 3.111... Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.111 Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. Swim-with-the-dolphin programs shall comply with the requirements in this section, as well as with...

  6. 9 CFR 3.111 - Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. 3.111... Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.111 Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. Swim-with-the-dolphin programs shall comply with the requirements in this section, as well as with...

  7. 9 CFR 3.111 - Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. 3.111... Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.111 Swim-with-the-dolphin programs. Swim-with-the-dolphin programs shall comply with the requirements in this section, as well as with...

  8. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Finneran, James J; Fletcher, Elizabeth A; Weisman, Brian C; Ridgway, Sam H

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  9. Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  10. The Effect of Fatigue on Kicking Velocity in Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Ricardo; van den Tillaar, Roland; Marques, Mário C.

    2012-01-01

    Soccer is a game in which fatigue can negatively influence players’ performance. Few studies have examined the practical effects of fatigue on soccer performance skills. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fatigue, acutely induced by means of a soccer specific circuit on ball velocity. Ten amateur soccer players (age 27.3 ± 5.25 yr; experience 16,8 ± 6.05 yr; level secondary division; body height 1,80 m ± 0,06; body mass 75,7 kg ± 5,78), participated in this study and performed maximal instep kicks before and after the implementation of an intensive, intermittent and repeated exercise protocol. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) in ball velocity after just one round of the fatigue circuit. However, after the third circuit ball velocity increased and after the fifth circuit maximal ball velocity increased yet again (compared to the second circuit) and was not significantly different from before commencement of the fatigue protocol. The results partly confirmed the hypothesis of the negative influence of fatigue upon ball velocity in soccer kicking, demonstrating also some variability in the presented values of ball velocity perhaps theoretically accounted for by the general governor model. PMID:23486374

  11. Identifying crater potential improves shallow gas kick control

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L.A. ); Bourgoyne, A.T. )

    1993-12-27

    An understanding of sea floor crater mechanisms can help drillers determine whether to divert or shut in a shallow gas kick. Proper well planning that considers potential shallow gas sources can eliminate some of the more common failure situations with both diverting and shutting in of a well. Current well control practice for land and bottom-supported marine rigs usually calls for shutting in the well when a kick is detected, providing sufficient casing has been set to keep any flow underground. The casing and surface equipment must have an adequately high working pressure to ensure that formation fracture occurs before the equipment fails. Even for high shut-in pressures, an underground blowout is preferable to a surface blowout. An operator may choose to divert the flow if the surface casing is not set deep enough to keep the underground flow outside the casing from breaking through the sediments to the surface. Once the flow reaches the surface, a crater may form at the sea bed, possibly sinking or damaging the rig. Craters increase the difficulty and time required to kill a blowout. The paper describes shallow gas environments, the decision to divert or shut in the well, fluid migration, cement bond failure, hydraulic fracture, shear failure, the effect of fault planes, crater mechanisms, formation liquefaction, piping, caving, historical cases, and a deepwater crater.

  12. The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Murn, Campbell P; Sparkes, Emily L; Daley, Monica A

    2016-01-25

    The study of animal locomotion has uncovered principles that can be applied to bio-inspired robotics, prosthetics and rehabilitation medicine, while also providing insight into musculoskeletal form and function [1-4]. In particular, study of extreme behaviors can reveal mechanical constraints and trade-offs that have influenced evolution of limb form and function [1,2]. Secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius; Figure 1A) are large terrestrial birds of prey endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, which feed on snakes, lizards and small mammals [5]. They frequently kick and stamp on the prey's head until it is killed or incapacitated, particularly when dispatching larger lizards and venomous snakes [5]. The consequences of a missed strike when hunting venomous snakes can be deadly [5], so the kicking strikes of secretary birds require fast yet accurate neural control. Delivery of fast, forceful and accurate foot strikes that are sufficient to stun and kill prey requires precision targeting, demanding a high level of coordination between the visual and neuromuscular systems. PMID:26811886

  13. Deviations from early-time quasilinear behavior for the atom-optics kicked rotor near the classical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Mullins, Terry; Parkins, Scott; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2005-02-01

    We present experimental measurements of the mean energy for the atom-optics kicked rotor after just two kicks. The energy is found to deviate from the quasilinear value for small kicking periods. The observed deviation is explained by recent theoretical results which include the effect of a nonuniform initial momentum distribution, previously applied only to systems using much colder atoms than ours.

  14. Evaluation of Potential Protective Factors Against Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins: Feeding and Activity Patterns of Dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins. PMID:24133483

  15. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins:feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  16. Multidimensional supernova simulations with approximative neutrino transport. I. Neutron star kicks and the anisotropy of neutrino-driven explosions in two spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck, L.; Kifonidis, K.; Janka, H.-Th.; Müller, E.

    2006-10-01

    We study hydrodynamic instabilities during the first seconds of core-collapse supernovae by means of 2D simulations with approximative neutrino transport and boundary conditions that parameterize the effects of the contracting neutron star and allow us to obtain sufficiently strong neutrino heating and, hence, neutrino-driven explosions. Confirming more idealised studies, as well as supernova simulations with spectral transport, we find that random seed perturbations can grow by hydrodynamic instabilities to a globally asymmetric mass distribution in the region between the nascent neutron star and the accretion shock, leading to a dominance of dipole (l=1) and quadrupole (l=2) modes in the explosion ejecta, provided the onset of the supernova explosion is sufficiently slower than the growth time scale of the low-mode instability. By gravitational and hydrodynamic forces, the anisotropic mass distribution causes an acceleration of the nascent neutron star, which lasts for several seconds and can propel the neutron star to velocities of more than 1000 km s-1. Because the explosion anisotropies develop chaotically and change by small differences in the fluid flow, the magnitude of the kick varies stochastically. No systematic dependence of the average neutron star velocity on the explosion energy or the properties of the considered progenitors is found. Instead, the anisotropy of the mass ejection, and hence of the kick, seems to increase when the nascent neutron star contracts more quickly, and thus low-mode instabilities can grow more rapidly. Our more than 70 models separate into two groups, one with high and the other with low neutron star velocities and accelerations after one second of post-bounce evolution, depending on whether the l=1 mode is dominant in the ejecta or not. This leads to a bimodality of the distribution when the neutron star velocities are extrapolated to their terminal values. Establishing a link to the measured distribution of pulsar

  17. A new approach to tag design in dolphin telemetry: Computer simulations to minimise deleterious effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. V.; Wilson, R. P.; Lucke, K.

    2007-02-01

    Remote-sensors and transmitters are powerful devices for studying cetaceans at sea. However, despite substantial progress in microelectronics and miniaturisation of systems, dolphin tags are imperfectly designed; additional drag from tags increases swim costs, compromises swimming capacity and manoeuvrability, and leads to extra loads on the animal's tissue. We propose a new approach to tag design, elaborating basic principles and incorporating design stages to minimise device effects by using computer-aided design. Initially, the operational conditions of the device are defined by quantifying the shape, hydrodynamics and range of the natural deformation of the dolphin body at the tag attachment site (such as close to the dorsal fin). Then, parametric models of both of the dorsal fin and a tag are created using the derived data. The link between parameters of the fin and a tag model allows redesign of tag models according to expected changes of fin geometry (difference in fin shape related with species, sex, and age peculiarities, simulation of the bend of the fin during manoeuvres). A final virtual modelling stage uses iterative improvement of a tag model in a computer fluid dynamics (CFD) environment to enhance tag performance. This new method is considered as a suitable tool of tag design before creation of the physical model of a tag and testing with conventional wind/water tunnel technique. Ultimately, tag materials are selected to conform to the conditions identified by the modelling process and thus help create a physical model of a tag, which should minimise its impact on the animal carrier and thus increase the reliability and quality of the data obtained.

  18. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    2003-06-01

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective.

  19. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J

    2003-06-19

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20 log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective. PMID:12815429

  20. Instrumenting free-swimming dolphins echolocating in open water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephen W.; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric J.; Moore, Patrick W.; Houser, Dorian S.

    2005-04-01

    Dolphins within the Navy Marine Mammal Program use echolocation to effectively locate underwater mines. They currently outperform manmade systems at similar tasks, particularly in cluttered environments and on buried targets. In hopes of improving manmade mine-hunting sonar systems, two instrumentation packages were developed to monitor free-swimming dolphin motion and echolocation during open-water target detection tasks. The biosonar measurement tool (BMT) is carried by a dolphin and monitors underwater position and attitude while simultaneously recording echolocation clicks and returning echoes through high-gain binaural receivers. The instrumented mine simulator (IMS) is a modified bottom target that monitors echolocation signals arriving at the target during ensonification. Dolphin subjects were trained to carry the BMT in open-bay bottom-object target searches in which the IMS could serve as a bottom object. The instrumentation provides detailed data that reveal hereto-unavailable information on the search strategies of free-swimming dolphins conducting open-water, bottom-object search tasks with echolocation. .

  1. Instrumenting free-swimming dolphins echolocating in open water.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen W; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric J; Moore, Patrick W; Houser, Dorian S

    2005-04-01

    Dolphins within the Navy Marine Mammal Program use echolocation to effectively locate underwater mines. They currently outperform manmade systems at similar tasks, particularly in cluttered environments and on buried targets. In hopes of improving manmade mine-hunting sonar systems, two instrumentation packages were developed to monitor free-swimming dolphin motion and echolocation during open-water target detection tasks. The biosonar measurement tool (BMT) is carried by a dolphin and monitors underwater position and attitude while simultaneously recording echolocation clicks and returning echoes through high-gain binaural receivers. The instrumented mine simulator (IMS) is a modified bottom target that monitors echolocation signals arriving at the target during ensonification. Dolphin subjects were trained to carry the BMT in open-bay bottom-object target searches in which the IMS could serve as a bottom object. The instrumentation provides detailed data that reveal hereto-unavailable information on the search strategies of free-swimming dolphins conducting open-water, bottom-object search tasks with echolocation. PMID:15898670

  2. Patterns of Dolphin Bycatch in a North-Western Australian Trawl Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Simon J.; Tyne, Julian A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel - one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day – the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) - the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  3. Estimates of black hole natal kick velocities from observations of low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Ilya

    2016-02-01

    The birth kicks of black holes, arising from asymmetric mass ejection or neutrino emission during core-collapse supernovae, are of great interest for both observationally constraining supernova models and population-synthesis studies of binary evolution. Recently, several efforts were undertaken to estimate black hole birth kicks from observations of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We follow up on this work, specifically focusing on the highest estimated black hole kick velocities. We find that existing observations do not require black hole birth kicks in excess of approximately 80 km s-1, although higher kicks are not ruled out.

  4. Laminar and cytoarchitectonic features of the cerebral cortex in the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Furutani, Rui

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation carried out Nissl, Klüver-Barrera, and Golgi studies of the cerebral cortex in three distinct genera of oceanic dolphins (Risso's dolphin, striped dolphin and bottlenose dolphin) to identify and classify cortical laminar and cytoarchitectonic structures in four distinct functional areas, including primary motor (M1), primary sensory (S1), primary visual (V1), and primary auditory (A1) cortices. The laminar and cytoarchitectonic organization of each of these cortical areas was similar among the three dolphin species. M1 was visualized as five-layer structure that included the molecular layer (layer I), external granular layer (layer II), external pyramidal layer (layer III), internal pyramidal layer (layer V), and fusiform layer (layer VI). The internal granular layer was absent. The cetacean sensory-related cortical areas S1, V1, and A1 were also found to have a five-layer organization comprising layers I, II, III, V and VI. In particular, A1 was characterized by the broadest layer I, layer II and developed band of pyramidal neurons in layers III (sublayers IIIa, IIIb and IIIc) and V. The patch organization consisting of the layer IIIb-pyramidal neurons was detected in the S1 and V1, but not in A1. The laminar patterns of V1 and S1 were similar, but the cytoarchitectonic structures of the two areas were different. V1 was characterized by a broader layer II than that of S1, and also contained the specialized pyramidal and multipolar stellate neurons in layers III and V. PMID:18625031

  5. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters. PMID:23271218

  6. Full scale Kick Detection System Testing relevant for slim-hole/HPHT drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Steine, O.G.; Rommetveit, R.; Harris, T.W.R.

    1995-12-31

    During June 1994 tests in the project {open_quotes}HPHT Kick Detection System Testing{close_quotes} were performed in Ullrigg well U-2. Experimental parameters such as influx type (liquid/gas), gas concentration, kick injection rate, flow rate, rpm`s, pipe reciprocation, pump speed changes, etc. were varied. Three kick detection systems were operating during the experiments. Two delta flow systems were supplied by Baker Hughes INTEQ (DrillByte {open_quotes}Kick detect{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}KDS{close_quotes}) and one acoustic system was provided by Smedvig (Gas Kick Warner). In addition, the Petreco J-Meter flow out measuring device was also tested. A total number of 14 kicks were performed during these experiments. The majority of kicks were performed at slim hole conditions. Raw data files containing approx. 14 Mbytes of downhole pressure data from bottom P-sensor, and surface data have been gathered for further analysis. The data was of high quality and provide opportunities to improve existing well control procedures and to incorporate this knowledge into future drilling operations. This paper summarizes the experimental conditions during which data were recorded, main results and operational recommendations.

  7. A comparison of pectoral fin contact behaviour for three distinct dolphin populations.

    PubMed

    Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Gregg, Justin D; Paulos, Robin D; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2010-06-01

    Tactile exchanges involving the pectoral fin have been documented in a variety of dolphin species. Several functions (e.g., social, hygienic) have been offered as possible explanations for when and why dolphins exchange pectoral fin contacts. In this study, we compared pectoral fin contact between dolphin dyads from three distinct dolphin populations: two groups of wild dolphins; Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan; and one group of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) residing at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences, Anthony's Key Resort. A number of similarities were observed between the captive and wild groups, including; rates of pectoral fin contact, which dolphin initiated contact, posture preference, and same-sex rubbing partner preference. Unlike their wild counterparts, however, dolphins in the captive study group engaged in petting and rubbing at equal rates, females were more likely to contact males, males assumed the various rubbing roles more frequently than females, and calves and juveniles were more likely to be involved in pectoral fin contact exchanges. These results suggest that some aspects of pectoral fin contact behaviour might be common to many dolphin species, whereas other aspects could be species specific, or could be the result of differing environmental and social conditions. PMID:20176094

  8. Switching strategies: a dolphin's use of passive and active acoustics to imitate motor actions.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Kelly; Guarino, Emily; Rodriguez, Mandy; Hecksher, Jane

    2013-09-01

    Scientists have long debated the extent to which animals can imitate. Observations of bottlenose dolphins suggest a sophisticated capacity for social imitation, but little is known about the nature of these abilities. Here, we explore the behavioral mechanisms underlying a dolphin's ability to copy motor actions while blindfolded (i.e., wearing eyecups). When a dolphin was asked to imitate a dolphin, a human, and then another dolphin blindfolded, his accuracy remained relatively consistent across models. However, his blindfolded echolocation dramatically increased when copying a human as compared to other dolphins, suggesting he actively switched between strategies: recognizing behaviors via characteristic sounds when possible, but via echolocation for the more novel sounding behaviors of the human. Such flexibility in changing perceptual routes demonstrates that the dolphin's imitation was not automatically elicited, but rather results from an intentional, problem-solving approach to imitation. PMID:23389771

  9. How to avoid a swift kick in the chameleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Antonio; Platts, Emma; Stefanyszyn, David; Walters, Anthony; Weltman, Amanda; Wilson, Toby

    2016-03-01

    Recently, it was argued that the conformal coupling of the chameleon to matter fields created an issue for early universe cosmology. As standard model degrees of freedom become non-relativistic in the early universe, the chameleon is attracted towards a ``surfing'' solution, so that it arrives at the potential minimum with too large a velocity. This leads to rapid variations in the chameleon's mass and excitation of high energy modes, casting doubts on the classical treatment at Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Here we present the DBI chameleon, a consistent high energy modification of the chameleon theory that dynamically renders it weakly coupled to matter during the early universe thereby eliminating the adverse effects of the `kicks'. This is done without any fine tuning of the coupling between the chameleon and matter fields, and retains its screening ability in the solar system. We demonstrate this explicitly with a combination of analytic and numerical results.

  10. White dwarf kicks and implications for barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Church, R. P.; Dermine, T.

    The barium stars have caused much grief in the field of binary stellar evolution. They are often eccentric when they should be circular and are not found to have periods longer than 104 days even though wind accretion should still be efficient at such separations. We address both these problems by introducing a kick to white dwarfs when they are born, thus solving the eccentricity problem, and imposing strong orbital angular momentum loss to shrink barium-star binaries down to the observed periods. Whilst our angular momentum prescription is hard to justify for the barium stars it shows that strong angular momentum loss is necessary to reproduce the observed period-eccentricity distribution. We are investigating whether this can be obtained from a circumbinary disc.

  11. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  12. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system

  13. Practical calculator programs. Part 10. Program calculates kick tolerance while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

    1981-11-30

    Also designed for the TI-59 model, this program determines a well's kick tolerance - that is, the safety factor available between the maximum allowable equivalent mud weight (including choke pressure) and the actual mud weight in the hole being drilled. The program also calculates, for an estimated kick size, the maximum allowable choke and formation pressures. Input data include casing-seat depth, leak-off gradient, current depth, mud weight, hole diameter, collar OD, collar length, drill-pipe OD, and estimated kick size. Leak-off is assumed to occur at the casing seat.

  14. Comparison of the Kinematic Patterns of Kick Between Brazilian and Japanese Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Santiago, Paulo Roberto; Palucci Vieira, Luiz Henrique; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Exel Santana, Juliana; de Andrade, Vitor Luiz; de Souza Bedo, Bruno Luiz; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Background Kicking performance is the most studied technical action in soccer and lower limbs kinematics is closely related to success in kicking, mainly because they are essential in imparting high velocity to the ball. Previous studies demonstrated that soccer leagues in different countries exhibit different physical demands and technical requirements during the matches. However, evidencewhether nationality has any influence in the kinematics of soccer-related skills has not yet been reported. The nationality of the players is an aspect that might be also relevant to the performance in kicking. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the lower limbs kinematic patterns during kicking, between Brazilian and Japanese young top soccer players. Patients and Methods Seven Brazilian (GA) and seven Japanese (GB) U-17 players performed 15 side-foot kicks each, with a distance of 20 m away from the goal, aiming a target of 1 × 1 m in upper corner, constrained by a defensive wall (1.8 × 2 m). Four digital video cameras (120 Hz) recorded the performance for further 3D reconstruction of thigh, shank and foot segments of both kicking and support limbs. The selected kicking cycle was characterized by the toe-off of the kicking limb to the end of the kicking foot when it came in contact with the ball. Stereographical projection of each segment was applied to obtain the representative curves of kicking as function of time for each participant in each trial. Cluster analysis was performed to identify the mean GA and GB curves for each segment. Silhouette coefficient (SC) was calculated, in order to determine the degree of separation between the two groups’ curves. Results Comparison between the median confidence intervals of the SC showed no differences between groups as regards lower limb patterns of movements. Task accuracy was determined by the relative frequency that the ball reached the target for all attempts and no differences were found (GA: 10.48 ± 14.33%; GB

  15. Maneuvering hydrodynamics of fish and small underwater vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R

    2002-02-01

    The understanding of fish maneuvering and its application to underwater rigid bodies are considered. The goal is to gain insight into stealth. The recent progress made in NUWC is reviewed. Fish morphology suggests that control fins for maneuverability have unique scalar relationships irrespective of their speed type. Maneuvering experiments are carried out with fish that are fast yet maneuverable. The gap in maneuverability between fish and small underwater vehicles is quantified. The hydrodynamics of a dorsal fin based brisk maneuvering device and a dual flapping foil device, as applied to rigid cylindrical bodies, are described. The role of pectoral wings in maneuvering and station keeping near surface waves is discussed. A pendulum model of dolphin swimming is presented to show that body length and tail flapping frequency are related. For nearly neutrally buoyant bodies, Froude number and maneuverability are related. Analysis of measurements indicates that the Strouhal number of dolphins is a constant. The mechanism of discrete and deterministic vortex shedding from oscillating control surfaces has the property of large amplitude unsteady forcing and an exquisite phase dependence, which makes it inherently amenable to active control for precision maneuvering. Theoretical control studies are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of maneuverability of biologically inspired bodies under surface waves. The application of fish hydrodynamics to the silencing of propulsors is considered. Two strategies for the reduction of radiated noise are developed. The effects of a reduction of rotational rate are modeled. The active cambering of blades made of digitally programmable artificial muscles, and their thrust enhancement, are demonstrated. Next, wake momentum filling is carried out by artificial muscles at the trailing edge of a stator blade of an upstream stator propulsor, and articulating them like a fish tail. A reduction of radiated noise, called blade tonals

  16. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins. PMID:22624561

  17. Learning in human-dolphin interactions at zoological facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Diane L.

    This research aimed to better understand learning in zoological settings, particularly learning about marine mammals, by investigating the research question, what do people learn through interacting with dolphins in zoological facilities? Sociocultural situated learning theory, specifically a Community of Practice (CoP) model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), was the theoretical framework. The CoP model allowed for diversity of knowledge, interest, motivations, and goals that existed among the community of animal enthusiasts at three commercial zoological facilities, and also for peripheral to more central types of participation. I collected data through interviews of spectators, visitors, and trainers (n=51), observations (n=16), and an online questionnaire of past-visitors (n=933). Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed based on the National Science Foundation's (Friedman, 2008) and the National Research Council's (2009) frameworks for informal science education. Five principal findings answered the research question. First, all participants gained new knowledge within three broad categories: (a) dolphin physiology and natural history, (b) care and training of dolphins, and (c) conservation. Second, all participants constructed personal meanings by connecting the activity to experiences, beliefs, and practices outside the interaction context. Almost all participants made associations with conservation. Third, most participants shifted their attitudes and gained a sense of personal agency about beginning or increasing stewardship actions. Fourth, visitors learned interspecies etiquette skills; trainers learned skills in dolphin training and management, people management, and teaching. Fifth, visitors had long-lasting memories of the experience that occurred eight months to 18 years in the past. Popular cultural ideas about dolphins and the ways the dolphins were represented influenced visitors' expectations and the types of learning. Potential physical

  18. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.

  19. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-26

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. PMID:21406855

  20. When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out

    MedlinePlus

    WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

  1. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  2. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  3. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  4. Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Schaefer, Adam; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli D; Rice, Charles D; Fair, Patricia A; Cray, Carolyn; Reif, John S

    2014-02-01

    Sera from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, were tested for antibodies to Chlamydiaceae as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. A suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables was evaluated in Chlamydiaceae-seropositive dolphins (n = 43) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 83). Fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and basophils were significantly higher, and serum bicarbonate, total alpha globulin, and alpha-2 globulin were significantly lower in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae titers compared with seronegative healthy dolphins. Several differences in markers of innate and adaptive immunity were also found. Concanavalin A-induced T lymphocyte proliferation, lipopolysaccharide-induced B lymphocyte proliferation, and granulocytic phagocytosis were significantly lower, and absolute numbers of mature CD 21 B lymphocytes, natural killer cell activity and lysozyme concentration were significantly higher in dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers compared to seronegative healthy dolphins. Additionally, dolphins with positive Chlamydiaceae antibody titers had significant increases in ELISA antibody titers to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. These data suggest that Chlamydiaceae infection may produce subclinical clinicoimmunopathologic perturbations that impact health. Any potential subclinical health impacts are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, as past studies have indicated that both dolphin populations are affected by other complex infectious and neoplastic diseases, often associated with immunologic perturbations and anthropogenic contaminants. PMID:24492056

  5. Neutrino trigger of the magnetorotational mechanism of a natal-pulsar kick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-10-01

    A mechanism generating a natal-neutron-star kick and involving only standard neutrinos is discussed. In this mechanism, the neutrino effect on the plasma of the supernova-core envelope in a magnetorotational explosion accompanied by the generation of a strong toroidal magnetic field leads to a redistribution of the magnetic field B in the "upper" and "lower" hemispheres of the supernova-core envelope. The emerging asymmetry of the magnetic-field pressure may generate a natal-pulsar kick.

  6. Neutrino trigger of the magnetorotational mechanism of a natal-pulsar kick

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. V. Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-10-15

    A mechanism generating a natal-neutron-star kick and involving only standard neutrinos is discussed. In this mechanism, the neutrino effect on the plasma of the supernova-core envelope in a magnetorotational explosion accompanied by the generation of a strong toroidal magnetic field leads to a redistribution of the magnetic field B in the 'upper' and 'lower' hemispheres of the supernova-core envelope. The emerging asymmetry of the magnetic-field pressure may generate a natal-pulsar kick.

  7. Pioneer Black Woman Superintendent: Velma Dolphin Ashley, 1944-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revere, Amie B.

    1989-01-01

    This article profiles Velma Dolphin Ashley, a Black woman educator who served as superintendent of schools in Boley (Oklahoma) from 1944 to 1956. During her superintendency, Ashley was responsible for instructional activities in a correctional institution for delinquent Black youth, as well as for administering the all-Black school district. (AF)

  8. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys > 90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antib...

  9. Assistive Technology and Dolphin Therapy: A Wonderful Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eli; Thomasson, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Madison is a four-year-old child who was born with cerebral palsy and cortical vision impairment. As a result, she has limited use of her extremities and is just starting to walk with assistance. She is predominately non-verbal, with the exception of a few words. This article describes how Island Dolphin Care (IDC), a nonprofit agency in Key…

  10. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.D.; St. Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed.

  11. Underwater observations of dolphin reactions to a distressed conspecific.

    PubMed

    Kuczaj, Stan A; Frick, Erin E; Jones, Brittany L; Lea, James S E; Beecham, Dan; Schnöller, Fabrice

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the epimeletic (or "caregiving") behavior produced by members of a group of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the possible role of the ailing animal's distress call in eliciting such behavior. Epimeletic behavior in cetaceans most typically involves forms of support provided to a distressed, injured, or dying animal (Caldwell & Caldwell, 1966). Analyses of underwater video and corresponding acoustic recordings revealed a distressed dolphin (the DD) that frequently produced what are most likely distress calls, often paired with the emission of long bubble streams. The frequency of her whistle production was positively correlated with the frequency of the supporting behaviors the DD received from other dolphins. These helping behaviors included raft formations, lifts, and stimulating pushes that were predominantly directed toward the upper third of the DD's body, all of which appeared to be directed towards bringing the DD toward the surface so that she could breathe. This is the first documented underwater account of multiple wild bottlenose dolphins providing epimeletic care to a distressed conspecific, and highlights the possible role of distress calls in such scenarios. PMID:25898942

  12. The span of correlations in dolphin whistle sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; McCowan, Brenda

    2012-06-01

    Long-range correlations are found in symbolic sequences from human language, music and DNA. Determining the span of correlations in dolphin whistle sequences is crucial for shedding light on their communicative complexity. Dolphin whistles share various statistical properties with human words, i.e. Zipf's law for word frequencies (namely that the probability of the ith most frequent word of a text is about i-α) and a parallel of the tendency of more frequent words to have more meanings. The finding of Zipf's law for word frequencies in dolphin whistles has been the topic of an intense debate on its implications. One of the major arguments against the relevance of Zipf's law in dolphin whistles is that it is not possible to distinguish the outcome of a die-rolling experiment from that of a linguistic or communicative source producing Zipf's law for word frequencies. Here we show that statistically significant whistle-whistle correlations extend back to the second previous whistle in the sequence, using a global randomization test, and to the fourth previous whistle, using a local randomization test. None of these correlations are expected by a die-rolling experiment and other simple explanations of Zipf's law for word frequencies, such as Simon's model, that produce sequences of unpredictable elements.

  13. Identification and Expression Profiles of microRNA in Dolphin.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takao; Kobayashi, Yuki; Inamoto, Satoko; Suzuki, Miwa; Endoh, Tomoko; Itou, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are focused on the role of biomarker because they are stable in serum and plasma, and some of them express in the specific organs and increase with the organ injury. Thus miRNAs may be very useful as biomarkers for monitoring the health and condition of dolphins and for detecting disorders in aquariums. Here, a small RNA library was made from dolphin lung, liver and spleen, and miRNA expression patterns were then determined for 15 different tissues. We identified 62 conserved miRNA homologs in the dolphin small RNA library and found high expression miRNAs in specific tissues: miR-125b and miR-221 were highly expressed in brain, miR-23b in heart, miR-199a and miR-223 in lung, and miR-122-5p in liver. Some of these tissue-enriched miRNAs may be useful as specific and sensitive diagnostic blood biomarkers for organ injury in dolphins. PMID:26853874

  14. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term social memory is important, because it is an ecologically relevant test of cognitive capacity, it helps us understand which social relationships are remembered and it relates two seemingly disparate disciplines: cognition and sociality. For dolphins, long-term memory for conspecifics could help assess social threats as well as potential social or hunting alliances in a very fluid and complex fission–fusion social system, yet we have no idea how long dolphins can remember each other. Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association. This is, to my knowledge, the first study to show that social recognition can last for at least 20 years in a non-human species and the first large-scale study to address long-term memory in a cetacean. These results, paired with evidence from elephants and humans, provide suggestive evidence that sociality and cognition could be related, as a good memory is necessary in a fluid social system. PMID:23926160

  15. The development of a method for identifying penalty kick strategies in association football.

    PubMed

    Noël, Benjamin; Furley, Philip; van der Kamp, John; Dicks, Matt; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Penalty takers in association football adopt either a keeper-independent or a keeper-dependent strategy, with the benefits of the keeper-independent strategy presumed to be greater. Yet, despite its relevance for research and practitioners, thus far no method for identifying penalty kick strategies has been available. To develop a validated and reliable method, Experiment 1 assessed characteristics that observers should use to distinguish the two strategies. We asked participants to rate 12 characteristics of pre-recorded clips of kicks of penalty takers that used either a keeper-independent or keeper-dependent strategy. A logistic regression model identified three variables (attention to the goalkeeper, run-up fluency and kicking technique) that in combination predicted kick strategy in 92% of the penalties. We used the model in Experiment 2 to analyse prevalence and efficacy of both the strategies for penalty kicks in penalty shoot-outs during FIFA World Cups (1986-2010) and UEFA Football Championships (1984-2012). The keeper-independent strategy was used much more frequently (i.e., 78-86%) than the keeper-dependent strategy, but successes did not differ. Penalty takers should use both the strategies to be less predictable. Goalkeepers can use the developed model to improve their chances to succeed by adjusting their behaviour to penalty takers' preferred penalty kick strategy. PMID:24914924

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NOVEL TAEKWONDO CHEST PROTECTOR TO IMPROVE MOBILITY WHEN PERFORMING AXE KICKS

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J.H.; Ko, J.Y.; Choi, E.Y.; O'Sullivan, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The axe kick, in Olympic style taekwondo, has been identified as the most popular scoring technique aimed to the head during full contact competition. The first purpose of this study was to identify and investigate design issues with the current World Taekwondo Federation approved chest protector. A secondary purpose was to develop a novel chest protector addressing the identified design issues and to conduct a biomechanical analysis. Fifteen male elite Taekwondo players were selected to perform three different styles of the axe kick, i.e., front, in-out, and out-in axe kick five times each for a total of 45 kicks. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences between the novel and existing chest protector conditions for vertical height of the toe, downward kicking foot speed, hip flexion angle and ipsilateral shoulder flexion extension range of motion (ROM) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the control condition (no chest protector) and the novel chest protector condition for these variables (p > 0.05). These results indicate that the novel chest protector interferes less with both the lower and upper limbs during the performance of the axe kick and provides a more natural, free-moving alternative to the current equipment used. PMID:24744466

  17. Kick processes in the merger of two colliding black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damião; Tonini, E. V.

    2010-11-01

    We examine numerically the process of momentum extraction by gravitational waves in the merger of two colliding black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. The initial data have already a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger phase up to the final configuration of the remnant black hole. The analysis of the momentum flux carried out by gravitational waves indicates that two distinct regimes are present in the post-merger phase: (i) an initial accelerated regime, followed by (ii) a deceleration regime in which the deceleration increases rapidly towards a maximum and then decreases to zero, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs conservation law for the total momentum of the system. We obtain the total kick velocity Vk imparted on the merged black hole during the accelerated regime (i) and the total antikick velocity Vak during the decelerated regime (ii), by evaluating the impulse of the gravitational wave flux during both regimes. The distributions of both Vk and Vak as a function of the symmetric mass ratio η satisfy a simple η-scaling law motivated by post-Newtonian analytical estimates. In the η-scaling formula the Newtonian factor is dominant in the decelerated regime, that generates Vak, contrary to the behavior in the initial accelerated regime. For an initial infalling velocity v/c≃0.462 of each individual black hole we obtain a maximum kick Vk≃6.4km/s at η≃0.209, and a maximum antikick Vak≃109km/s at η≃0.205. The net antikick velocity (Vak-Vk) also satisfies a similar η-scaling law with a maximum approximately 102km/s also at η≃0.205, qualitatively consistent with results from numerical relativity simulations, and post-Newtonian evaluations of binary black hole inspirals. For larger values of the initial data parameter v/c substantial larger values of the net antikick velocity are obtained. Based on the several velocity variables obtained, we discuss a

  18. Fetal echocardiographic evaluation of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Renner, Michael; Clough, Patricia; Levine, Gregg; Campbell, Michelle; Stone, Rae; Schmitt, Todd; Chang, Ruey-Kang; Shannon-Rodriguez, Jayne

    2010-03-01

    In humans, fetal echocardiography represents the most important tool for the assessment of the cardiovascular well-being of the fetus. However, because of logistic, anatomic, and behavioral challenges, detailed fetal echocardiographic evaluation of marine mammals has not been previously described. Because the application of fetal echocardiography to cetaceans could have both clinical and academic importance, an approach to evaluating the fetal dolphin's cardiovascular status was developed with conventional, fetal echocardiographic techniques developed in humans. Eight singleton fetal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were evaluated, each between 6 and 11 mo gestation; six fetuses underwent two fetal echocardiographic evaluations each, four at 3-mo intervals, and two at 0.5-mo intervals. Evaluations were performed without sedation, using conventional, portable ultrasound systems. Multiple transducers, probes, and maternal dolphin positions were used to optimize image quality. Fetal echocardiography included two-dimensional imaging and color flow mapping of the heart and great arteries, as well as pulsed Doppler evaluation of the umbilical artery and vein. Thorough evaluations of the fetal dolphins' cardiovascular status were performed, with the greatest resolution between 8 and 9 mo gestation. With the use of published human fetal echocardiographic findings for comparison, fetal echocardiography demonstrated normal structure and function of the heart and great arteries, including the pulmonary veins, inferior vena cava, right and left atria, foramen ovale, tricuspid and mitral valves, right and left ventricles, ventricular septum, pulmonary and aortic valves, main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, and ductus arteriosus. Pulsed Doppler techniques demonstrated normal umbilical arterial and venous waveforms, and color flow mapping demonstrated absence of significant valvar regurgitation. Fetal echocardiography, particularly between 8 and 9 mo gestation, can

  19. Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniceto, Inês; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent and that this large-order behavior is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.

  20. Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger

    2013-12-01

    An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.

  1. Bottlenosed dolphin and human recognition of veridical and degraded video displays of an artificial gestural language.

    PubMed

    Herman, L M; Morrel-Samuels, P; Pack, A A

    1990-06-01

    2 bottlenosed dolphins proficient in interpreting gesture language signs viewed veridical and degraded gestures via TV without explicit training. In Exp. 1, dolphins immediately understood most gestures: Performance was high throughout degradations successively obscuring the head, torso, arms, and fingers, though deficits occurred for gestures degraded to a point-light display (PLD) of the signer's hands. In Exp. 2, humans of varying gestural fluency saw the PLD and veridical gestures from Exp. 1. Again, performance declined in the PLD condition. Though the dolphin recognized gestures as accurately as fluent humans, effects of the gesture's formational properties were not identical for humans and dolphin. Results suggest that the dolphin uses a network of semantic and gestural representations, that bottom-up processing predominates when the dolphin's short-term memory is taxed, and that recognition is affected by variables germane to grammatical category, short-term memory, and visual perception. PMID:2141354

  2. Changes in whistle structure of resident bottlenose dolphins in relation to underwater noise and boat traffic.

    PubMed

    Gospić, Nikolina Rako; Picciulin, Marta

    2016-04-15

    The habitat of the resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago overlaps with routes of intense boat traffic. Within these waters, Sea Ambient Noise (SAN) was sampled across ten acoustic stations between 2007 and 2009. Data on boat presence was concurrently collected and when dolphins were sighted group behaviour was also recorded. Acoustic recordings were analysed for 1/3 octave bands. Samples containing dolphin whistles were analysed and compared with boat presence and SAN levels. Results indicate that dolphins whistle at higher frequencies in conditions of elevated low frequency noise. Conversely, they reduce maximum, delta and start frequencies and frequency modulations when noise levels increase significantly across higher frequencies. The study shows that high levels of SAN causes significant changes in the acoustic structure of dolphin whistles. Additionally, changes in whistle parameters, in the presence of boats, appear to be related to the behavioural state of the dolphin group. PMID:26917094

  3. Quantum signatures of chaos in a kicked top.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, S; Smith, A; Anderson, B E; Ghose, S; Jessen, P S

    2009-10-01

    Chaotic behaviour is ubiquitous and plays an important part in most fields of science. In classical physics, chaos is characterized by hypersensitivity of the time evolution of a system to initial conditions. Quantum mechanics does not permit a similar definition owing in part to the uncertainty principle, and in part to the Schrödinger equation, which preserves the overlap between quantum states. This fundamental disconnect poses a challenge to quantum-classical correspondence, and has motivated a long-standing search for quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we present the experimental realization of a common paradigm for quantum chaos-the quantum kicked top- and the observation directly in quantum phase space of dynamics that have a chaotic classical counterpart. Our system is based on the combined electronic and nuclear spin of a single atom and is therefore deep in the quantum regime; nevertheless, we find good correspondence between the quantum dynamics and classical phase space structures. Because chaos is inherently a dynamical phenomenon, special significance attaches to dynamical signatures such as sensitivity to perturbation or the generation of entropy and entanglement, for which only indirect evidence has been available. We observe clear differences in the sensitivity to perturbation in chaotic versus regular, non-chaotic regimes, and present experimental evidence for dynamical entanglement as a signature of chaos. PMID:19812668

  4. Characterization of pseudosingle bunch kick-and-cancel operational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Robin, D. S.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.

    2015-12-01

    Pseudosingle-bunch kick-and-cancel (PSB-KAC) is a new operational mode at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that provides full timing and repetition rate control for single x-ray pulse users while being fully transparent to other users of synchrotron radiation light. In this operational mode, a single electron bunch is periodically displaced from a main bunch train by a fast kicker magnet with a user-on-demand repetition rate, creating a single x-ray pulse to be matched to a typical laser excitation pulse rate. This operational mode can significantly improve the signal to noise ratio of single x-ray pulse experiments and drastically reduce dose-induced sample damage rate. It greatly expands the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In this paper, we carry out extensive characterizations of this PSB-KAC mode both numerically and experimentally. This includes the working principle of this mode, resonance conditions and beam stability, experimental setups, and diagnostic tools and measurements.

  5. Kick with the finger: symbolic actions shape motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Betti, Sonia; Castiello, Umberto; Sartori, Luisa

    2015-11-01

    A large body of research indicates that observing actions made by others is associated with corresponding motor facilitation of the observer's corticospinal system. However, it is still controversial whether this matching mechanism strictly reflects the kinematics of the observed action or its meaning. To test this issue, motor evoked potentials induced by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand and leg muscles while participants observed a symbolic action carried out with the index finger, but classically performed with the leg (i.e., a soccer penalty kick). A control condition in which participants observed a similar (but not symbolic) hand movement was also included. Results showed that motor facilitation occurs both in the observer's hand (first dorsal interosseous) and leg (quadriceps femoris) muscles. The present study provides evidence that both the kinematics and the symbolic value of an observed action are able to modulate motor cortex excitability. The human motor system is thus not only involved in mirroring observed actions but is also finely tuned to their symbolic value. PMID:26354677

  6. A New Dolphin Species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., Endemic to Southern Australian Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically ‘the southern Australian Tursiops’ was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical ‘southern form of Tursiops’ most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of ‘Burrunan Dolphin’ following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats

  7. Comparison of Nephrolithiasis Prevalence in Two Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cynthia R.; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Wells, Randall S.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Maffeo, Natalie; Balmer, Brian C.; Jensen, Eric D.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2013-01-01

    In humans, ammonium urate (AU) nephrolithiasis is rare in the Western hemisphere and more common in Japan and developing countries. Among a variety of risk factors, insulin resistance has been associated with urate nephrolithiasis in people. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are susceptible to AU nephrolithiasis, and it is believed that some populations are more likely to develop nephrolithiasis compared to others. In an effort to better understand population-based risk factors for AU nephrolithiasis in dolphins and their comparative value to humans, sonographic evaluation was performed on dolphins from a managed collection in San Diego Bay, CA (n = 40) and dolphins from a free-ranging, nearshore population in Sarasota Bay, FL (n = 39) to look for evidence of nephrolithiasis. While 14 (35%) of San Diego Bay dolphins evaluated for the study had sonographic evidence of nephrolithiasis, none of the Sarasota Bay dolphins had evidence of disease. Presence or absence of stones was confirmed by computed tomography in a subset of the San Diego collection (n = 10; four dolphins with stones, six without stones). Age was identified as a risk factor, as dolphins with stones in the San Diego collection were significantly older than dolphins without stones (25.4 vs. 19.1 years, respectively; P = 0.04). Additionally, San Diego dolphins included in the study were significantly older than Sarasota Bay dolphins (21.3 vs. 13.8 years, respectively; P = 0.008). In addition to the previously reported risk factors of hypocitraturia and hyperinsulinemia in bottlenose dolphins, other potential factors include geographic location, managed vs. free-ranging status, prey species, and feeding schedules. PMID:24137158

  8. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal

    DOEpatents

    Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.

    2001-01-01

    A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.

  9. Measurement and Comparison of Taekwondo and Yongmudo Turning Kick Impact Force for Two Target Heights

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, David; Chung, Chulsoo; Lee, Kikwang; Kim, Euihwan; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Taewhan; Shin, Insik

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to compare the impact characteristics of Taekwondo (TKD) and Yongmudo (YMD) player’s turning kick according to the target height. 5 highly skilled YMD and 5 TKD players participated in this study. To measure the impact force, two accelerometers were fixed to a PVC pipe in a sandbag. Each participant performed 10 turning kicks trunk and face height in random order. Only the trial with the most accurate (most central impact) measurement was used in the statistical analysis (p < 0.05).There was a significant difference for impact force according to the target height approximately 6400 ± 898 N, 6393 ± 1382 N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659 N, 5475 ± 1293 N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups, but not between groups. The swing phase for the TKD group was significantly shorter than the YMD group’s. The TKD groups’ recovery phase of the trunk height turning kick was significantly shorter. There was a difference in the players’ center of mass (COM) movement as the TKD players’ moved significantly more forward, suggesting that the TKD players tended to slide towards the target during the execution of the kick. In conclusion, as the turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion, it is evaluated to be a better technique of turning kicking. Key Points This impact force measuring device had a significantly smaller standard deviation then that of impact force measuring devices. There was a significant difference between the impact forces according to the height approximately 6400 ± 898N, 6393 ± 1382N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659N, 5475 ± 1293N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups. The turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion. PMID:24474880

  10. Can bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) cooperate when solving a novel task?

    PubMed

    Kuczaj, Stan A; Winship, Kelley A; Eskelinen, Holli C

    2015-03-01

    Cooperative behavior has been observed in cetacean species in a variety of situations, including foraging, mate acquisition, play, and epimeletic behavior. However, it has proven difficult to demonstrate cooperative behavior among dolphins in more controlled settings. Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in this study were exposed to a task that could most easily be solved if dolphins cooperated. Six dolphins were provided opportunities to solve the task and had to learn to do so without human intervention or training. Two adult males consistently and spontaneously jointly interacted in order to most efficiently open a container that contained fish by pulling on ropes at the ends of the container. Their interaction was viewed as cooperative because each dolphin pulled on their respective ropes in the opposite direction, which resulted in one end of the container opening. The dolphins did not show aggression toward one another while solving the task, and both dolphins consumed the food after the container was opened. They also engaged in synchronous non-aggressive behaviors with the container after the food had been consumed. It is possible that some of the remaining four dolphins would have cooperated, but the two successful dolphins were dominant males and their interest in the apparatus appeared to preclude other animals from participating. PMID:25409921

  11. The Ecological Conditions That Favor Tool Use and Innovation in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Eric M.; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By ‘sponge foraging’ ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  12. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The ‘drive hunting’ of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 ‘bottlenose’ dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  13. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Eric M; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  14. A Mini Review of Dolphin Carbohydrate Metabolism and Suggestions for Future Research Using Exhaled Air

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Sam H.

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold) before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health. PMID:24379802

  15. Humpback Dolphins (Genus Sousa) in India: An Overview of Status and Conservation Issues.

    PubMed

    Sutaria, Dipani; Panicker, Divya; Jog, Ketki; Sule, Mihir; Muralidharan, Rahul; Bopardikar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to collate recent work done by different research teams along the Indian coast and presents research plans for the conservation and management of the genus Sousa in Indian waters. Humpback dolphins are the most common nearshore cetaceans found along the Indian coast. The taxonomy is confused, but two or more species of humpback dolphins may be present in India. Dedicated research on humpback dolphins and other cetaceans has been initiated only in the past few years and vast gaps in the ecology and conservation of the genus from the region remain. Dedicated and opportunistic research indicates that humpback dolphin presence is continuous along the west coast of India, owing to the contiguous favourable habitat of shallow nearshore waters, while along the east coast humpback dolphins are apparently found in pockets. Humpback dolphins are also the most numerous in incidental catch records from the coast, owing to the large overlap in space use with nearshore fisheries like small gillnets, trawls, shore seines and purse seines. Along many coastal sites, humpback dolphins are known to cause damage and depredation of fish catch of certain fishing gears, making them unpopular. At the same time, many fishers along the west coast have developed local dolphin-watching programmes as an alternate source of livelihood, providing positive impetus for conservation. However, research on the long-term effects of dolphin watching and its management is required. Some recommendations for more effective management of this species are made. PMID:26555628

  16. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013.

    PubMed

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C Scott

    2015-05-01

    The 'drive hunting' of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 'bottlenose' dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  17. The myth and reality of Gray's paradox: implication of dolphin drag reduction for technology.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E

    2006-06-01

    The inconsistency for the calculated high drag on an actively swimming dolphin and underestimated muscle power available resulted in what has been termed Gray's paradox. Although Gray's paradox was flawed, it has been the inspiration for a variety of drag reduction mechanisms. This review examines the present state of knowledge of drag reduction specific to dolphins. Streamlining and special behaviors provide the greatest drag reduction for dolphins. Mechanisms to control flow by maintaining a completely laminar boundary layer over the body have not been demonstrated for dolphins. PMID:17671302

  18. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  19. Cognitive enrichment for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evaluation of a novel underwater maze device.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Davies, Samuel L; Madigan, Andrew W; Warner, Abby J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enrichment is gaining popularity as a tool to enhance captive animal well-being, but research on captive cetaceans is lacking. Dolphin cognition has been studied intensively since the 1950s, and several hundred bottlenose dolphins are housed in major zoos and aquaria worldwide, but most dolphin enrichment consists of simple floating objects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel, underwater maze device (UMD) was cognitively enriching for one group of male and one group of female dolphins at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, CA. The dolphin's task was to navigate a rubber ball through a maze of pipes, towards an exit pipe. We also tested a modification where an edible gelatine ball fell into the pool once the UMD was solved. The UMD was provided to each group between 8 and 11 times over a 4-week period. Male dolphins used the UMD without prior training, whereas females did not use the UMD at all. Two male dolphins solved the UMD 17 times, using a variety of problem-solving strategies. The UMD had no significant effect on circular (repetitive) swimming patterns, but males spent significantly more time underwater when the UMD was present. Males used the UMD significantly more when it contained the rubber ball, but the gelatine ball stimulated social play. The UMD is a safe and practical device for captive dolphins. It now requires further testing on other dolphins, particularly females, to in order to examine whether the sex differences we observed are a general phenomenon. PMID:24018985

  20. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (<30m), coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are

  1. Kinematics differences between the flat, kick, and slice serves measured using a markerless motion capture method.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Alison L; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Corazza, Stefano; Safran, Marc R; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    Tennis injuries have been associated with serving mechanics, but quantitative kinematic measurements in realistic environments are limited by current motion capture technologies. This study tested for kinematic differences at the lower back, shoulder, elbow, wrist, and racquet between the flat, kick, and slice serves using a markerless motion capture (MMC) system. Seven male NCAA Division 1 players were tested on an outdoor court in daylight conditions. Peak racquet and joint center speeds occurred sequentially and increased from proximal (back) to distal (racquet). Racquet speeds at ball impact were not significantly different between serve types. However, there were significant differences in the direction of the racquet velocity vector between serves: the kick serve had the largest lateral and smallest forward racquet velocity components, while the flat serve had the smallest vertical component (p < 0.01). The slice serve had lateral velocity, like the kick, and large forward velocity, like the flat. Additionally, the racquet in the kick serve was positioned 8.7 cm more posterior and 21.1 cm more medial than the shoulder compared with the flat, which could suggest an increased risk of shoulder and back injury associated with the kick serve. This study demonstrated the potential for MMC for testing sports performance under natural conditions. PMID:21984513

  2. Lower muscle co-contraction in flutter kicking for competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yuji; Hirano, Masami; Yamada, Yosuke; Ikuta, Yasushi; Nomura, Teruo; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Oda, Shingo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in muscle activation pattern and co-contraction of the rectus and biceps femoris in flutter-kick swimming between competitive and recreational swimmers, to better understand the mechanism of repetitive kicking movements during swimming. Ten competitive and 10 recreational swimmers swam using flutter kicks at three different velocities (100%, 90%, and 80% of their maximal velocity) in a swimming flume. Surface electromyographic signals (EMG) were obtained from the rectus (RF) and biceps femoris (BF), and lower limb kinematic data were obtained at the same time. The beginning and ending of one kick cycle was defined as when the right lateral malleolus reached its highest position in the vertical axis. The offset timing of muscle activation of RF in the recreational swimmers was significantly later at all velocities than in the competitive swimmers (47-48% and 26-33% of kick time of one cycle for recreational and competitive swimmers, respectively), although the kinematic data and other activation timing of RF and BF did not differ between groups. A higher integrated EMG of RF during hip extension and knee extension induced a higher level of muscle co-contraction between RF and BF in the recreational swimmers. These results suggest that long-term competitive swimming training can induce an effective muscle activation pattern in the upper legs. PMID:26590483

  3. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  4. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Next to them on a rock is an osprey eating a fish. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The lagoon also has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America.

  5. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A gray and a white pelican glide down to the water near a dolphin and cormorant in the turn basin to search for a meal in the fish- teeming water. Sea gulls also approach. The turn basin, which is east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  6. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and one of several dolphins looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  7. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  8. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally.

  9. Sound-conducting mechanisms for echolocation hearing of a dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Vyacheslav A.

    2005-09-01

    The morphological study of the lower jaw of a dolphin (Tursiops truncatus p.), and the modeling and calculation of its structures from the acoustic point of view have been conducted. It was determined that the cross-sectional area of the mandibular canal (MC) increases exponentially. The MC represents the acoustical horn. The mental foramens (MFs) is positioned in the horn throat, representing the nonequidistant array of waveguide delay lines (NAWDL). The acoustical horn ensures the traveling wave conditions inside the MC and intensifies sonar echoes up to 1514 times. This ``ideal'' traveling wave antenna is created by nature, representing the combination of the NAWDL and the acoustical horn. The dimensions and sequence of morphological structures of the lower jaw are optimal both for reception and forming the beam pattern, and for the amplification and transmission of sonar echoes up to the bulla tympani. Morphological structures of the lower jaw are considered as components of the peripheral section of the dolphin echolocation hearing.

  10. [Mechanisms of sound reception and conduction in a dolphin].

    PubMed

    Riabov, V A

    2014-01-01

    Morphology of a lower jaw, model and behavioral experiments are discussed with the aim of exploring the mechanisms of sound reception and conduction to the dolphin's lower jaw canals taking into account known concepts of acoustics and a theory of group antennas. It is shown that the left and right row of mental foramens with the respective mandibular canal and tissues of the canals are forming the new outer ear and the new external auditory canal by which the sound (in frequency band of 0.1-160 kHz) is transmitted into the middle ear, in contrast to the dolphin's non-functional outer ear. This new external ear is created by nature as a receiving array of the traveling wave antenna located in the throat of the acoustical horn (a corresponding mandibular canal). The results give reason to assume the presence of similar new outer ear in Odontoceti. PMID:25715603

  11. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  12. Seasonal changes of blood composition in captive bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Fumio; Kitamura, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Asami; Hayama, Shin-ichi

    2002-11-01

    To determine how blood values in bottlenose dolphins changed during the year, 504 blood samples were taken from 9 dolphins from 1991 to 1999 and clinical blood examinations were undertaken monthly including 3 hematological and 19 serum chemistry tests. In creatinine, significant seasonal changes were found among three groups of adult males, adult females and juveniles, and the average values in summer were 15-38% higher than those in winter. In two out of three groups the average total cholesterol value were highest in winter, and the lowest of all groups were in summer. In two other groups the peaks of average FFA value were recorded in summer, and the lows were in winter. PMID:12499700

  13. Monitoring underwater explosions in the habitat of resident bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Manuel E; Couchinho, Miguel N; Rita Luís, Ana; Gonçalves, Emanuel J

    2010-12-01

    Maintenance work on the harbor of Setúbal, in Portugal, required the removal of a 14-m deep rocky outcrop at the ship maneuver area, using about 35 kg of Gelamonite, a nitroglycerin-based high-explosive. This important harbor is located in the Sado estuary, a biologically rich environment and an important feeding area for a resident community of bottlenose dolphins. Using different safe range calculation models, a mitigation and monitoring plan was developed that minimized the risks of these underwater explosions for the dolphins. At our monitoring station, at 2 km from the demolition site, acoustic pressure levels in excess of 170 dB re 1 μPa (root-mean-square) were measured. Samples of dead fish collected at the site were indicative of shock trauma from the blasts. PMID:21218912

  14. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  15. Multiple populations of pantropical spotted dolphins in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Courbis, Sarah; Baird, Robin W; Cipriano, Frank; Duffield, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Understanding gene flow and dispersal patterns is important for predicting effects of natural events and anthropogenic activities on animal populations. In Hawaii, most species of odontocetes are managed as single populations. Recent exceptions include false killer whales, spinner dolphins, and common bottlenose dolphins, for which studies have shown fidelity to individual islands or groups of islands. Our study focused on pantropical spotted dolphins. We analyzed mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci from 101 individuals from 4 areas: Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai/Niihau. We examined F ST, F' ST, R ST, Jost's D, and ΦST and used TESS to estimate number of populations and assignment probabilities. Our results support genetic differentiation among Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, and Oahu and suggest that pantropical spotted dolphins near Kauai/Niihau are likely transient and in low numbers. Between island regions, F ST for microsatellites ranged from 0.016 to 0.045 and for mtDNA, from 0.011 to 0.282. F ' ST, ranged from 0.098 to 0.262 for microsatellites and 0.019 to 0.415 for mtDNA. R ST and ΦST showed similar results to F ST for microsatellites and mtDNA respectively, and Jost's D fell between F ST and F ' ST. TESS supported 3 populations, and greatest mean assignment probability by island region ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. The private alleles method indicated migration rates among regions from 1.49 to 3.45, and effective population size of the island of Hawaii was estimated to be 220. There was no strong evidence to support sex-biased dispersal or group fidelity. Considering this study in the larger context of other odontocete population studies and studies of connectivity, we suggest genetic differentiation may be mediated by behavior adapted to differing habitat types and niches. PMID:25124812

  16. Human infection due to Mycobacterium marinum after a dolphin bite

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, D. J.

    1970-01-01

    A young man employed at the local aquarium was bitten by a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) during a training session, receiving a slight injury which healed rapidly. Some two months later fluctuant swellings appeared in the region of the bite, which developed into indolent ulcers which have not completely healed seven months after the original bite. Cultures taken on two occasions have yielded a pure growth of Mycobacterium marinum. Images PMID:5529254

  17. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fair, P A; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G; Kwok, O C H; McFee, W E; Majumdar, D; Su, C

    2008-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys, >90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the present study, attempts were made to isolate T. gondii from dead T. truncatus. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, serum or blood clot, and tissues (brain, heart, skeletal muscle) of 52 T. truncatus stranded on the coasts of South Carolina were tested for T. gondii. Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) were found in 26 (53%) of 49 dolphins; serum was not available from 3 animals. Tissues (heart, muscle, and sometimes brain) of 32 dolphins (26 seropositive, 3 seronegative, and 3 without accompanying sera) were bioassayed for T. gondii in mice, or cats, or both. Tissues of the recipient mice were examined for T. gondii stages. Feces of recipient cats were examined for shedding of T. gondii oocysts, but none excreted oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from hearts of the 3 dolphins (2 with MAT titers of 1:200, and 1 without accompanied serum) by bioassay in mice. Genotyping of these 3 T. gondii isolates (designated TgDoUs1-3) with the use of 10 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) revealed 2 genotypes. Two of the 3 isolates have Type II alleles at all loci and belong to the clonal Type II lineage. One isolate has a unique genotype. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from T. truncatus. PMID:18576793

  18. Pulmonary ultrasound findings in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus population.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cynthia R; Solano, Mauricio; Lutmerding, Betsy A; Johnson, Shawn P; Meegan, Jennifer M; Le-Bert, Carolina R; Emory-Gomez, Forrest; Cassle, Stephen; Carlin, Kevin; Jensen, Eric D

    2012-11-19

    Lung disease is common among wild and managed populations of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. The purpose of the study was to apply standardized techniques to the ultrasound evaluation of dolphin lungs, and to identify normal and abnormal sonographic findings associated with pleuropulmonary diseases. During a 5 yr period (2005 to 2010), 498 non-cardiac thoracic ultrasound exams were performed on bottlenose dolphins at the Navy Marine Mammal Program in San Diego, California, USA. Exams were conducted as part of routine physical exams, diagnostic workups, and disease monitoring. In the majority of routine exams, no abnormal pleural or pulmonary findings were detected with ultrasound. Abnormal findings were typically detected during non-routine exams to identify and track disease progression or resolution; therefore, abnormal results are overrepresented in the study. In order of decreasing prevalence, abnormal sonographic findings included evidence of alveolar-interstitial syndrome, pleural effusion, pulmonary masses, and pulmonary consolidation. Of these findings, alveolar-interstitial syndrome was generally nonspecific as it represented several possible disease states. Pairing ultrasound findings with clinical signs was critical to determine relevance. Pleural effusion, pulmonary masses, and pulmonary consolidation were relatively straightforward to diagnose and interpret. Further diagnostics were performed to obtain definitive diagnoses when appropriate, specifically ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis, fine needle aspirates, and lung biopsies, as well as radiographs and computed tomography (CT) exams. Occasionally, post mortem gross necropsy and histopathology data were available to provide confirmation of diagnoses. Thoracic ultrasound was determined to be a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting pleural and pulmonary diseases in dolphins. PMID:23324421

  19. Habitat use by a freshwater dolphin in the low-water season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braulik, Gill T.; Reichert, Albert P.; Ehsan, Tahir; Khan, Samiullah; Northridge, Simon P.; Alexander, Jason S.; Garstang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    1. Many river dolphin populations are most vulnerable during the low-water season when habitat is limited. Indus River dolphin habitat selection in the dry season was investigated using Generalized Linear Models of dolphin distribution and abundance in relation to physical features of river geomorphology and channel geometry in cross-section. 2. Dolphins selected locations in the river with significantly greater mean depth, maximum depth, cross-sectional area, and hydraulic radius, and significantly narrower river width and a lower degree of braiding than areas where dolphins were absent. They were also recorded with higher frequency at river constrictions and at confluences. 3. Channel cross-sectional area was the most important factor affecting dolphin presence and abundance, with the area of water below 1 m in depth exerting the greatest influence. Indus dolphins avoided channels with small cross-sectional area (2), presumably owing to the risk of entrapment and reduced foraging opportunities. 4. Channel geometry had a greater ability to explain dolphin distribution than river geomorphology; however, both analyses indicated similar types of habitat selection. The dolphin–habitat relationships identified in the river geomorphology analysis were scale-dependent, indicating that dolphin distribution is driven by the occurrence of discrete small-scale features, such as confluences and constrictions, as well as by broader-scale habitat complexes. 5. There are numerous plans to impound or extract more water from the Indus River system. If low-water season flows are allowed to decrease further, the amount of deeper habitat will decline, there may be insufficient patches of suitable habitat to support the dolphin population through the low-water season, and dolphins may become isolated within deeper river sections, unable or unwilling to traverse through shallows between favourable patches of habitat.

  20. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  1. 78 FR 20604 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes to revise regulations under the Dolphin Protection Consumer... represent the product as dolphin-safe. This proposed rule would modify the requirements for...

  2. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  3. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  4. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  5. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  6. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2015-12-18

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. PMID:26722945

  7. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  8. Bottlenose dolphin iris asymmetries enhance aerial and underwater vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivamonte, Andre

    2009-02-01

    When the iris of the Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) contracts it constrains the path of light that can focus onto the two areas of the retina having a finer retinal mosaic. Under high ambient light conditions the operculum of the iris shields the lens and forms in the process two asymmetrically shaped, sized and positioned slit pupils. Tracing rays of light in the reverse direction through the pupils from the retinal regions associated with higher resolution confirm behaviorally observed preferred aerial and underwater viewing directions. In the forward and downward viewing direction, the larger temporal pupil admits light that is focused by the weakly refractive margin of a bifocal lens onto the temporal area centralis compensating for the addition of the optically strong front surface of the cornea in air. A schematic dolphin eye model incorporating a bifocal lens offers an explanation for a dolphin's comparable visual acuities in air and water for both high and low ambient light conditions. Comparison of methods for curve fitting psychometric ogive functions to behavioral visual acuity and spectral sensitivity data are discussed.

  9. Cognitive adaptation of sonar gain control in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Smith, Adam B; Nachtigall, Paul E; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A; Pacini, Aude F

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control. PMID:25153530

  10. Cognitive Adaptation of Sonar Gain Control in the Bottlenose Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Smith, Adam B.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Buck, John R.; Simmons, James A.; Pacini, Aude F.

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control. PMID:25153530

  11. Discrimination of complex synthetic echoes by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Helweg, David A; Moore, Patrick W; Dankiewicz, Lois A; Zafran, Justine M; Brill, Randall L

    2003-02-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) detect and discriminate underwater objects by interrogating the environment with their native echolocation capabilities. Study of dolphins' ability to detect complex (multihighlight) signals in noise suggest echolocation object detection using an approximate 265-micros energy integration time window sensitive to the echo region of highest energy or containing the highlight with highest energy. Backscatter from many real objects contains multiple highlights, distributed over multiple integration windows and with varying amplitude relationships. This study used synthetic echoes with complex highlight structures to test whether high-amplitude initial highlights would interfere with discrimination of low-amplitude trailing highlights. A dolphin was trained to discriminate two-highlight synthetic echoes using differences in the center frequencies of the second highlights. The energy ratio (delta dB) and the timing relationship (delta T) between the first and second highlights were manipulated. An iso-sensitivity function was derived using a factorial design testing delta dB at -10, -15, -20, and -25 dB and delta T at 10, 20, 40, and 80 micros. The results suggest that the animal processed multiple echo highlights as separable analyzable features in the discrimination task, perhaps perceived through differences in spectral rippling across the duration of the echoes. PMID:12597207

  12. Heart development in the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    PubMed

    Sedmera, David; Misek, Ivan; Klima, Milan; Thompson, Robert P

    2003-08-01

    Marine mammals show many deviations from typical mammalian characteristics due to their high degree of specialization to the aquatic environment. In Cetaceans, some of the features of limbs and dentition resemble very ancestral patterns. In some species, hearts with a clearly bifid apex (a feature normally present during mammalian embryogenesis prior to completion of ventricular septation) have been described. However, there is a scant amount of data regarding heart development in Cetaceans, and it is not clear whether the bifid apex is the rule or the exception. We examined samples from a unique collection of embryonic dolphin specimens macroscopically and histologically to learn more about normal cardiac development in the spotted dolphin. It was found that during the dolphin's 280 days of gestation, the heart completes septation at about 35 days. However, substantial trabecular compaction, which normally occurs in chicks, mice, and humans at around that time period, was delayed until day 60, when coronary circulation became established. At that time, the apex still appeared bifid, similarly to early fetal mouse or rat hearts. By day 80, however, the heart gained a compacted, characteristic shape, with a single apex. It thus appears that the bifid apex in the adult Cetacean heart is probably particular to certain species, and its significance remains unclear. PMID:12845705

  13. Sonar off-axis target classification by an echolocating dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick; Dankiewicz, Lois; Houser, Dorian

    2001-05-01

    Dolphin echolocation has evolved over millions of years under selection pressures imposed by a selective niche. The complexity and effectiveness of dolphin echolocation for detection and classification of objects within that niche has useful application to U. S. Naval objectives. In these environments, Navy dolphins are likely to first encounter targets on the edge of their sonar beam during a search. It is unknown, however, if target classification is possible from the off-axis (OA) information alone, or whether a more centrally focused interrogation is necessary. This talk addresses the initial findings of an animal detecting two different targets (cylinder and sphere) presented OA (left and ). Data collection methods will be presented. Outgoing echolocation clicks and echoes are digitized and stored to a PC for acoustic characterization using a high-speed Integrated Circuits Systems, Ltd. 32 channel A/D card, sampling 24 calibrated monitor hydrophones and analog filter-amplifiers arranged in a hemispherical support web in front of the animal. Emitted signals analyzed for various acoustic characteristics are discussed as well as detection performance. Since this is an on-going study, available results to date will be presented.

  14. Lateralization of visuospatial processing in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Kilian, A; von Fersen, L; Güntürkün, O

    2000-12-01

    Two adult female bottlenose dolphins were tested for cerebral asymmetries in the visuospatial domain. The animals learned under binocular conditions a three-choice spatial discrimination task with three hoops positioned along a line in the middle of the tank. During a correct trial the dolphins had to swim from a starting position at the tanks wall through one of the hoops, come back to the starting position, choose another hoop, swim back to start and finally swim through the third hoop. For such a trial to be correct, the animals had to swim through all three hoops in any sequence without omitting or re-using one of them. After reaching criterion binocularly, monocular trials (one eye covered with an adherent suction cup) were introduced where the dolphins carried out the same task alternatingly under left or right eye seeing conditions. For both animals, the right eye performance was clearly superior to that of the left eye. Binocular and right eye performances were similar. As a result of the complete decussation at the optic nerve, this right eye superiority suggests a left-hemispheric dominance for the processing of visuospatial information. This is a remarkable deviation from the usual right hemisphere advantage for these kind of tasks found in different species of mammals and birds. PMID:11080552

  15. Organochlorine concentrations in franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Azevedo-Silva, Cláudio Eduardo; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Vidal, Lara Gama; Marigo, Juliana; Bertozzi, Carolina; Zanelatto, Regina Célia; Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João Paulo Machado

    2011-08-01

    Blubber samples were collected from ten franciscana dolphins either incidentally captured in fishing operations or stranded on São Paulo (SP) and Paraná (PR) states littoral, Southeastern and Southern Brazilian coast, respectively. Determination of PCB, DDT and HCB concentrations were performed by capillary gas chromatograph coupled to electron capture detector (ECD). ΣDDT, ΣPCB and HCB concentrations ranged from 264 ng g(-1) to 5811 ng g(-1) lipid, from 909 ng g(-1) to 5849 ng g(-1) lipid and from 10 ng g(-1) to 61 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Regarding DDTs, the distribution of the mean percentages decreased in the following order: p,p'-DDE>p,p'-DDD>p,p'-DDT. The ΣDDT/ΣPCB ratio varied between 0.27 and 0.42 in Northern and Central SP coast, while in Southern SP and PR coast the values were 1.6 and 1.9, respectively. Dissimilarities in ΣDDT/ΣPCB ratios point to different sources of organochlorine compounds to franciscana dolphins in the study area. Considering the endocrine disruptive action of organochlorine compounds, the concentrations found in franciscana dolphins from Brazilian waters may represent an additional obstacle to the conservation of this endangered cetacean species. PMID:21726890

  16. Fluctuations in relativistic causal hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Ananta P.

    2014-05-01

    Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations within the framework of the second order hydrodynamics of Müller, Israel and Stewart and its generalization to the third order. We have also calculated the fluctuations for several other causal hydrodynamical equations. We show that the form for the Onsager-coefficients and form of the correlation functions remain the same as those obtained by the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation and do not depend on any specific model of hydrodynamics. Further we numerically investigate evolution of the correlation function using the one dimensional boost-invariant (Bjorken) flow. We compare the correlation functions obtained using the causal hydrodynamics with the correlation function for the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. We find that the qualitative behavior of the correlation functions remains the same for all the models of the causal hydrodynamics.

  17. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  18. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  19. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  20. Optimum projection angle for attaining maximum distance in a soccer punt kick.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Patel, Dipesh S

    2011-01-01

    To produce the greatest horizontal distance in a punt kick the ball must be projected at an appropriate angle. Here, we investigated the optimum projection angle that maximises the distance attained in a punt kick by a soccer goalkeeper. Two male players performed many maximum-effort kicks using projection angles of between 10° and 90°. The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 100 Hz and a 2 D biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of the projection velocity, projection angle, projection height, ball spin rate, and foot velocity at impact. The player's optimum projection angle was calculated by substituting mathematical equations for the relationships between the projection variables into the equations for the aerodynamic flight of a soccer ball. The calculated optimum projection angles were in agreement with the player's preferred projection angles (40° and 44°). In projectile sports even a small dependence of projection velocity on projection angle is sufficient to produce a substantial shift in the optimum projection angle away from 45°. In the punt kicks studied here, the optimum projection angle was close to 45° because the projection velocity of the ball remained almost constant across all projection angles. This result is in contrast to throwing and jumping for maximum distance, where the projection velocity the athlete is able to achieve decreases substantially with increasing projection angle and so the optimum projection angle is well below 45°. Key pointsThe optimum projection angle that maximizes the distance of a punt kick by a soccer goalkeeper is about 45°.The optimum projection angle is close to 45° because the projection velocity of the ball is almost the same at all projection angles.This result is in contrast to throwing and jumping for maximum distance, where the optimum projection angle is well below 45° because the projection velocity the athlete is able to achieve decreases substantially with increasing

  1. Examination of Naturally-Exposed Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giarda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) live-captured in coastal South Carolina and Florida as well as dolphins stranded in coastal South Carolina were examined for the presence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. DNA extracted from feces or rectal swabs was amplified by PCR using para...

  2. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy for Children with Special Needs: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilts, Rachel; Trompisch, Norbert; Bergquist, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Dolphin-assisted therapy (DAT), as a part of animal-assisted therapy and complementary and alternative medicine, yields several positive results. This study intended to add to DAT effectiveness research while using a standardized assessment. In the Ukraine, a DAT program called DolphinSwim agreed to take part in research with 37 voluntary…

  3. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  4. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy as a Verbal Operant Condition for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrasi, Renee Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy (DAT) as a reinforcer for verbal operant production in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Three children who attended a dolphin therapy program participated in this single subject research study. Baseline data was collected for each child via a video tape provided by parents and…

  5. DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PREGNANT RISSO'S DOLPHIN (GRAMPUS GRISEUS) WITH TRANSPLACENTAL FETAL INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...

  6. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus.

    PubMed

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Povinelli, Michele; Terracciano, Giuliana; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Pintore, Antonio; Denurra, Daniele; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During 2011-2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006-2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales. PMID:26812485

  7. Discrimination of mixed-directional whistles by a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2013-09-01

    Dolphins are hypothesized to deduce the swimming direction of group members by attending to the spectral pattern of whistle harmonics. This is known as the direction of movement cue hypothesis and may facilitate coordination of complex group behavior when visibility is poor. The direction of movement cue hypothesis hinges on the assumption that dolphins can discriminate between whistles with different harmonic patterns that are associated with signaler orientation. This assumption was tested with a bottlenose dolphin. Whistles were recorded from a dolphin at different azimuth positions (0° to 180° in 45° increments). Noise-free, synthetic whistles were created to mimic the direction-dependant spectral profiles of the recorded whistles. A dolphin was then tested in its ability to discriminate between the synthetic whistles using fixed level and roving level conditions. The dolphin's discrimination performance in both the fixed and roving level conditions was near 100% for whistles separated by angles greater than 45°, and near chance for 45° separations. Computer simulations of the task, along with the dolphin's performance, suggest that the dolphin's discrimination was level invariant and based on the spectral pattern of the whistles. PMID:23967957

  8. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus

    PubMed Central

    Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Povinelli, Michele; Terracciano, Giuliana; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Pintore, Antonio; Denurra, Daniele; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During 2011–2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006–2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales. PMID:26812485

  9. Echolocation in sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) producing narrow-band high-frequency clicks.

    PubMed

    Kyhn, L A; Jensen, F H; Beedholm, K; Tougaard, J; Hansen, M; Madsen, P T

    2010-06-01

    An increasing number of smaller odontocetes have recently been shown to produce stereotyped narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Click source parameters of NBHF clicks are very similar, and it is unclear whether the sonars of individual NBHF species are adapted to specific habitats or the presence of other NBHF species. Here, we test whether sympatric NBHF species sharing the same habitat show similar adaptations in their echolocation clicks and whether their clicks display signs of character displacement. Wide-band sound recordings were obtained with a six-element hydrophone array from wild Peale's (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) dolphins off the Falkland Islands. The centroid frequency was different between Commerson's (133+/-2 kHz) and Peale's (129+/-3 kHz) dolphins. The r.m.s. bandwidth was 12+/-3 kHz for both species. The source level was higher for Peale's dolphin (185+/-6 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.) than for Commerson's (177+/-5 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.). The mean directivity indexes were 25 dB for both species. The relatively low source levels in combination with the high directivity index may be an adaptation to reduce clutter when foraging in a coastal environment. We conclude that the small species-specific shifts in distribution of centroid frequencies around 130 kHz may reflect character displacement in otherwise-stereotyped NBHF clicks. PMID:20472781

  10. Modeling Kicks from the Merger of Generic Black-hole Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Miller, M. Coleman; vanMeter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent numerical relativistic results demonstrate that the merger of comparable-mass spinning black holes has a maximum "recoil kick" of up to approx. 4000 km/s. However the scaling of these recoil velocities with mass ratio is poorly understood. We present new runs showing that the maximum possible kick parallel to the orbital axis does not scale as approx. eta(sup 2) (where eta is the symmetric mass ratio), as previously proposed, but is more consistent with approx. eta(sup 3). We discuss the effect of this dependence on galactic ejection scenarios and retention of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. S

  11. Effects of periodic kicking on dispersion and wave packet dynamics in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Adhip; Bhattacharya, Utso; Dutta, Amit; Sen, Diptiman

    2016-05-01

    We study the effects of δ -function periodic kicks on the Floquet energy-momentum dispersion in graphene. We find that a rich variety of dispersions can appear depending on the parameters of the kicking: at certain points in the Brillouin zone, the dispersion can become linear but anisotropic, linear in one direction and quadratic in the perpendicular direction, gapped with a quadratic dispersion, or completely flat (called dynamical localization). We show all these results analytically and demonstrate them numerically through the dynamics of wave packets propagating in graphene. We propose experimental methods for producing these effects.

  12. Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.

  13. Discrimination of phase altered targets by an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Stuart D; Muller, Mark W; Au, Whitlow W L; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee

    2013-02-01

    Sensitivity of echolocating dolphins to phase changes within echoes may be a vital piece of information when constructing echolocation models. Previous experiments have yielded ambiguous results leaving it unclear what cues might have been used by passively listening dolphins to discriminate between different phase altered signals. This study used a phantom echo generator to produce computer controlled echoes. The dolphin interacted with the system in a real echolocation task to discriminate between simulated targets that were unaltered and those that had a 180° phase shift. The frequency amplitude spectral content between the two targets was the same. There were no temporal differences between the two targets. The only cue that the dolphin could use to discriminate between them was the 180° phase shift. The dolphin preformed at a success level of 40% in discriminating the two echoes. This indicates that the 180° phase shift was not perceived. PMID:23363129

  14. ‘Eavesdropping’ in wild rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis)?

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Thomas; Verfuß, Ursula Katharina; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Several authors suggest that dolphins use information obtained by eavesdropping on echoes from sonar signals of conspecifics, but there is little evidence that this strategy is used by dolphins in the wild. Travelling rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) either exhibit asynchronous movements or an extremely synchronized swimming behaviour in tight formations, which we expect to facilitate eavesdropping. Therefore, we determined, whether either one or more dolphins were echolocating in subgroups that were travelling with asynchronous and synchronized movements. Since, the number of recording sequences in which more than one animal produced sonar signals was significantly lower during synchronized travel, we conclude that the other members of a subgroup might get information on targets ahead by eavesdropping. Synchronized swimming in tight formations might be an energetic adaptation for travelling in a pelagic dolphin species that facilitates eavesdropping. PMID:17148311

  15. Helicobacter spp. from captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Oxley, Andrew P A; Argo, Jeffrey A; McKay, David B

    2005-11-01

    The gastric fluid of six bottlenose dolphins and the faeces of four polar bears from the same oceanarium were examined for the presence of Helicobacter. As detected by PCR, all dolphins and 8/12 samples collected from polar bears were positive for Helicobacter. Novel sequence types were identified in samples collected from these animals of which several were unique to either the dolphins or the polar bears. At least one sequence type was, however, detected in both animal taxa. In addition, a sequence type from a dolphin shared a 98.2-100% identity to sequences from other Helicobacter species from harp seals, sea otters and sea lions. This study reports on the occurrence of novel Helicobacter sequence types in polar bears and dolphins and demonstrates the broad-host range of some species within these animals. PMID:16266854

  16. Production of monoclonal antibody specific for bottlenose dolphin neutrophils and its application to cell separation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masako; Itou, Takuya; Nagatsuka, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    The authors produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against dolphin neutrophils by fusing mouse myeloma cells with lymph node cells from a Wistar rat immunized with bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This mAb (DN1) was reactive against 77.1 +/- 8.6% of dolphin peripheral blood PMN by flow cytometric analysis; furthermore, there was no cross-reactivity with human or bovine leukocytes. The DN1-positive cells isolated with a sorting cytometer were almost all (99.7%) neutrophils. By using DN1 in conjunction with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), the authors isolated neutrophils and eosinophils from density gradient-fractionated PMN with 100% and 95.6 +/- 4.8% purities, respectively. These results suggest that this mAb specific for bottlenose dolphin neutrophils is useful as a potential reagent to study bottlenose dolphin neutrophils and eosinophils. PMID:18773918

  17. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Bycatch in New Zealand Commercial Trawl Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Finlay N.; Abraham, Edward R.; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002–03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures. PMID:23717614

  18. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons. PMID:26091542

  19. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Finlay N; Abraham, Edward R; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures. PMID:23717614

  20. Blood-Based Indicators of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Smith, Cynthia Rowe; Stevenson, Sacha; Parry, Celeste; Daniels, Risa; Jensen, Eric; Cendejas, Veronica; Balmer, Brian; Janech, Michael; Neely, Benjamin A.; Wells, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Similar to people with metabolic syndrome, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. A panel of potential postprandial blood-based indicators of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were compared among 34 managed collection dolphins in San Diego Bay, CA, USA (Group A) and 16 wild, free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, USA (Group B). Compared to Group B, Group A had higher insulin (2.1 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 13 μIU/ml), glucose (87 ± 19 and 108 ± 12 mg/dl), and triglycerides (75 ± 28 and 128 ± 45 mg/dl) as well as higher cholesterol (total, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), iron, transferrin saturation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine transaminase, and uric acid. Group A had higher percent unmodified adiponectin. While Group A dolphins were older, the same blood-based differences remained when controlling for age. There were no differences in body mass index (BMI) between the groups, and comparisons between Group B and Group A dolphins have consistently demonstrated lower stress hormones levels in Group A. Group A dolphins with high insulin (greater than 14 μIU/ml) had higher glucose, iron, GGT, and BMI compared to Group A dolphins with lower insulin. These findings support that some dolphin groups may be more susceptible to insulin resistance compared to others, and primary risk factors are not likely age, BMI, or stress. Lower high-molecular weight adiponectin has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and may be a target for preventing insulin resistance in dolphins. Future investigations with these two dolphin populations, including dietary and feeding differences, may provide valuable insight for preventing and treating insulin resistance in humans. PMID:24130551

  1. Hydrodynamic modes for granular gases.

    PubMed

    Dufty, James W; Brey, J Javier

    2003-09-01

    The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linearized Boltzmann equation for inelastic hard spheres (d=3) or disks (d=2) corresponding to d+2 hydrodynamic modes are calculated in the long wavelength limit for a granular gas. The transport coefficients are identified and found to agree with those from the Chapman-Enskog solution. The dominance of hydrodynamic modes at long times and long wavelengths is studied via an exactly solvable kinetic model. A collisional continuum is bounded away from the hydrodynamic spectrum, assuring a hydrodynamic description at long times. The bound is closely related to the power law decay of the velocity distribution in the reference homogeneous cooling state. PMID:14524742

  2. Molecular Hydrodynamics from Memory Kernels.

    PubMed

    Lesnicki, Dominika; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as t^{-3/2}. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, which is at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. Lastly, we discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales, and the crossover between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius. PMID:27104730

  3. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  4. Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.

  5. Children, Learning, and Poisons Don't Mix: Kick the Pesticide Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY.

    This brochure examines basic information about pesticides and their use in and around schools, how children are exposed to pesticides and their health effects, and how a school can kick the habit of using pesticides. A special issues section covers the chemicals that should not be part of a school pest control effort, the restricted use of…

  6. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Test Site Kick-off Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Witzberger, Kevin; Hackenberg, Davis L.; Murphy, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This briefing was presented during the Test Site Kick Off Meeting to discuss the contract awards for Task 1 and Task 2. This briefing covered a high level overview for contract deliverables, Task 1 - UAS Traffic Management and Task 2, Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment.

  7. Evidence from a precessing pulsar orbit for a neutron-star birth kick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, V. M.; Bailes, M.; Manchester, R. N.; Stappers, B. W.; Bell, J. F.

    1996-06-01

    BIRTH 'kicks' to neutron stars, resulting from asymmetric supernova explosions, have been proposed to explain the high velocities of pulsars1,2, the existence of companionless, high-velocity massive stars3,4, and a putative Galactic halo of neutron stars5. The kick hypothesis has been controversial, because most of the evidence for kicks is indirect, and a physical mechanism to produce asymmetric explosions is as yet unknown6. Here we report five years of radio observations of the pulsar PSR J0045 - 7319, which is in an eccentric orbit around a B star7. The data show significant deviations from a simple keplerian orbit, which we interpret as arising from advance of the pulsar's periastron and spin-orbiting coupling8. Both effects arise because of the B star's rotationally induced equatorial bulge, however spin-orbit coupling requires the B star's spin axis to be inclined with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector; we find that the inclination angle is between 25 and 41 degrees. In the likely event that the angular momenta were aligned before the supernova explosion, this misalignment provides direct evidence that the neutron star received a kick at birth.

  8. Three-dimensional kinematic correlates of ball velocity during maximal instep soccer kicking in males.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Fewtrell, David; Taylor, Paul John; Bottoms, Lindsay; Atkins, Stephen; Hobbs, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    Achieving a high ball velocity is important during soccer shooting, as it gives the goalkeeper less time to react, thus improving a player's chance of scoring. This study aimed to identify important technical aspects of kicking linked to the generation of ball velocity using regression analyses. Maximal instep kicks were obtained from 22 academy-level soccer players using a 10-camera motion capture system sampling at 500 Hz. Three-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity segments were obtained. Regression analysis was used to identify the kinematic parameters associated with the development of ball velocity. A single biomechanical parameter; knee extension velocity of the kicking limb at ball contact Adjusted R(2) = 0.39, p ≤ 0.01 was obtained as a significant predictor of ball-velocity. This study suggests that sagittal plane knee extension velocity is the strongest contributor to ball velocity and potentially overall kicking performance. It is conceivable therefore that players may benefit from exposure to coaching and strength techniques geared towards the improvement of knee extension angular velocity as highlighted in this study. PMID:24754671

  9. Age and gender differences in kinematics of powerful instep kicks in soccer.

    PubMed

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Lees, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Soccer kicking training should be adjusted to the characteristics of the athletes. Therefore, examination of differences in kicking kinematics of females and pubertal players relative to males is worthwhile. The purpose of the study was to compare kicking kinematics and segmental sequence parameters between male, female, and pubertal players. Ten adult male, ten adult female, and ten male pubertal players participated in the study. Participants performed five consecutive kicking trials of a stationary ball, as powerful as they could. Analysis of variance showed significantly higher ball velocity, higher joint linear velocities for the knee and the hip, and higher angular velocities of the knee and the ankle for males compared to female and pubertal players (p < 0.05). Similarly, the peak joint velocity was achieved significantly closer to ball impact in males compared to other groups (p < 0.05). Males also showed a more plantarflexed ankle immediately before ball impact (p < 0.05). Females and pubertal players may benefit from skill training aiming to increase ankle plantarflexion and hip flexion prior to ball impact, and to adjust thigh and shank motion, such that the shank-foot segment travels through a higher range of motion and with a greater velocity. PMID:26211619

  10. The effect of muscle fatigue on instep kicking kinetics and kinematics in association football.

    PubMed

    Apriantono, Tommy; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo; Sano, Shinya

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of leg muscle fatigue on the kinetics and kinematics of the instep football kick. Fatigue was induced by repeated, loaded knee extension (40% body weight) and flexion (50% body weight) motions on a weight-training machine until exhaustion. The kicking motions of seven male players were captured three-dimensionally at 500 Hz before and immediately after the fatigue protocol. The significantly slower ball velocity observed in the fatigue condition was due to both reduced lower leg swing speed and poorer ball contact. The reduced leg swing speed, represented by a slower toe linear velocity immediately before ball impact and slower peak lower leg angular velocity, was most likely due to a significantly reduced resultant joint moment and motion-dependent interactive moment during kicking. These results suggest that the specific muscle fatigue induced in the present study not only diminished the ability to generate force, but also disturbed the effective action of the interactive moment leading to poorer inter-segmental coordination during kicking. Moreover, fatigue obscured the eccentric action of the knee flexors immediately before ball impact. This might increase the susceptibility to injury. PMID:16882629

  11. Wakefield and RF Kicks Due to Coupler Asymmetry in TESLA-Type Accelerating Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Dohlus, M.; Zagorodnov, I.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; Gjonaj, E.; Weiland, T.; /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch.

    2008-07-07

    In a future linear collider, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), trains of high current, low emittance bunches will be accelerated in a linac before colliding at the interaction point. Asymmetries in the accelerating cavities of the linac will generate fields that will kick the beam transversely and degrade the beam emittance and thus the collider performance. In the main linac of the ILC, which is filled with TESLA-type superconducting cavities, it is the fundamental (FM) and higher mode (HM) couplers that are asymmetric and thus the source of such kicks. The kicks are of two types: one, due to (the asymmetry in) the fundamental RF fields and the other, due to transverse wakefields that are generated by the beam even when it is on axis. In this report we calculate the strength of these kicks and estimate their effect on the ILC beam. The TESLA cavity comprises nine cells, one HM coupler in the upstream end, and one (identical, though rotated) HM coupler and one FM coupler in the downstream end (for their shapes and location see Figs. 1, 2) [1]. The cavity is 1.1 m long, the iris radius 35 mm, and the coupler beam pipe radius 39 mm. Note that the couplers reach closer to the axis than the irises, down to a distance of 30 mm.

  12. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo

    PubMed Central

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual’s best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R2 = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ2 = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ2 = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore, striking

  13. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-03-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual's best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R(2) = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ(2) = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ(2) = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore

  14. Mapping auditory cortex in the La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei).

    PubMed

    Fung, Christian; Schleicher, A; Kowalski, T; Oelschläger, H H A

    2005-09-15

    This study deals with the mapping of the primary and secondary auditory cortex. Due to their important role in echolocation they were the first areas to be examined [P.J. Morgane, M.S. Jacobs, in: R.J. Harrison (Ed.), Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals, Comparative Anatomy of the Cetacean Nervous System, vol. 1, Academic Press, London, 1972, pp. 117-144]. We analysed the brain of a La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei), which had been fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, cut in sections of 20mum thickness and stained with cresyl violet. The experimental approach being impossible, we used cytoarchitectonic variations in the neocortex. Former electrophysiological data [T.F. Ladygina, A.Y. Supin, Localization of the projectional sensory areas in the cortex of the porpoise Tursiops truncates, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 13 (1978) 712-718] [Sokolov, T.F. Ladygina, A.Y. Supin, Location of sensory zones in cerebral cortex of dolphin, Dokl. Biol. Sci., Russian Original 202 (1-6) (1972)] provided the framework for the exact determination of borders between functional cortical areas. We used a stereological observer-independent procedure based on changes in volume density of cell bodies throughout the neocortex [A. Schleicher, et al., Stereological approach to human cortical architecture: Identification and delineation of cortical areas, J. Chem. Neuroanat. 20 (2000) 31-47]. Due to the computer program's high sensitivity to changes in volume density it was possible to analyse the poorly laminated dolphin cortex. The 3D-reconstruction of the auditory cortex was processed using the AMIRA 3.0 Graphics software package comparing the main primary gyri in the histological sections with those in coronal magnetic resonance imaging scans of another intact Pontoporia brain. PMID:16144613

  15. The claustrum of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu 1821)

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Bruno; Roncon, Giulia; Granato, Alberto; Giurisato, Maristella; Castagna, Maura; Peruffo, Antonella; Panin, Mattia; Ballarin, Cristina; Montelli, Stefano; Pirone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian claustrum is involved in processing sensory information from the environment. The claustrum is reciprocally connected to the visual cortex and these projections, at least in carnivores, display a clear retinotopic distribution. The visual cortex of dolphins occupies a position strikingly different from that of land mammals. Whether the reshaping of the functional areas of the cortex of cetaceans involves also modifications of the claustral projections remains hitherto unanswered. The present topographic and immunohistochemical study is based on the brains of eight bottlenose dolphins and a wide array of antisera against: calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and calbindin (CB); somatostatin (SOM); neuropeptide Y (NPY); and the potential claustral marker Gng2. Our observations confirmed the general topography of the mammalian claustrum also in the bottlenose dolphin, although (a) the reduction of the piriform lobe modifies the ventral relationships of the claustrum with the cortex, and (b) the rotation of the telencephalon along the transverse axis, accompanied by the reduction of the antero-posterior length of the brain, apparently moves the claustrum more rostrally. We observed a strong presence of CR-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons and fibers, a diffuse but weak expression of CB-ir elements and virtually no PV immunostaining. This latter finding agrees with studies that report that PV-ir elements are rare in the visual cortex of the same species. NPY- and somatostatin-containing neurons were evident, while the potential claustral markers Gng2 was not identified in the sections, but no explanation for its absence is currently available. Although no data are available on the projections to and from the claustrum in cetaceans, our results suggest that its neurochemical organization is compatible with the presence of noteworthy cortical inputs and outputs and a persistent role in the general processing of the relative

  16. The claustrum of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu 1821).

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Bruno; Roncon, Giulia; Granato, Alberto; Giurisato, Maristella; Castagna, Maura; Peruffo, Antonella; Panin, Mattia; Ballarin, Cristina; Montelli, Stefano; Pirone, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian claustrum is involved in processing sensory information from the environment. The claustrum is reciprocally connected to the visual cortex and these projections, at least in carnivores, display a clear retinotopic distribution. The visual cortex of dolphins occupies a position strikingly different from that of land mammals. Whether the reshaping of the functional areas of the cortex of cetaceans involves also modifications of the claustral projections remains hitherto unanswered. The present topographic and immunohistochemical study is based on the brains of eight bottlenose dolphins and a wide array of antisera against: calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and calbindin (CB); somatostatin (SOM); neuropeptide Y (NPY); and the potential claustral marker Gng2. Our observations confirmed the general topography of the mammalian claustrum also in the bottlenose dolphin, although (a) the reduction of the piriform lobe modifies the ventral relationships of the claustrum with the cortex, and (b) the rotation of the telencephalon along the transverse axis, accompanied by the reduction of the antero-posterior length of the brain, apparently moves the claustrum more rostrally. We observed a strong presence of CR-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons and fibers, a diffuse but weak expression of CB-ir elements and virtually no PV immunostaining. This latter finding agrees with studies that report that PV-ir elements are rare in the visual cortex of the same species. NPY- and somatostatin-containing neurons were evident, while the potential claustral markers Gng2 was not identified in the sections, but no explanation for its absence is currently available. Although no data are available on the projections to and from the claustrum in cetaceans, our results suggest that its neurochemical organization is compatible with the presence of noteworthy cortical inputs and outputs and a persistent role in the general processing of the relative

  17. Interaural intensity and latency difference in the dolphin's auditory system.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin AYa

    1991-12-01

    Binaural hearing mechanisms were measured in dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) by recording the auditory nerve evoked response from the body surface. The azimuthal position of a sound source at 10-15 degrees from the longitudinal axis elicited interaural intensity disparity up to 20 dB and interaural latency difference as large as 250 microseconds. The latter was many times greater than the acoustical interaural time delay. This latency difference seems to be caused by the intensity disparity. The latency difference seems to be an effective way of coding of intensity disparity. PMID:1816509

  18. Leg Strength and Lean Mass Symmetry Influences Kicking Performance in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key Points Strength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes. An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength. Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance. PMID:24570620

  19. Optimum projection angle for attaining maximum distance in a rugby place kick.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Stokes, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of projection angle on the distance attained in a rugby place kick. A male rugby player performed 49 maximum-effort kicks using projection angles of between 20 and 50°. The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 50 Hz and a 2 D biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of the projection velocity and projection angle of the ball. The player's optimum projection angle was calculated by substituting a mathematical expression for the relationship between projection velocity and projection angle into the equations for the aerodynamic flight of a rugby ball. We found that the player's calculated optimum projection angle (30.6°, 95% confidence limits ± 1.9°) was in close agreement with his preferred projection angle (mean value 30.8°, 95% confidence limits ± 2.1°). The player's calculated optimum projection angle was also similar to projection angles previously reported for skilled rugby players. The optimum projection angle in a rugby place kick is considerably less than 45° because the projection velocity that a player can produce decreases substantially as projection angle is increased. Aerodynamic forces and the requirement to clear the crossbar have little effect on the optimum projection angle. Key PointsThe optimum projection angle in a rugby place kick is about 30°.The optimum projection angle is considerably less than 45° because the projection velocity that a player can produce decreases substantially as projection angle is increased.Aerodynamic forces and the requirement to clear the crossbar have little effect on the optimum projection angle. PMID:24570626

  20. Analysis of angular momentum effect on swimming kick-start performance.

    PubMed

    Taladriz, Sonia; de la Fuente-Caynzos, Blanca; Arellano, Raúl

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanics of rotation and the temporal, angular and kinematics variables during the aerial phase for the kick-start with respect to the grab start. Nine elite swimmers (70.0 ± 7.7 kg; 178 ± 9.4 cm; 24.5 ± 5.3 years; 824 ± 119 FINA points scoring) performed the starts on the OMEGA OSB11 starting block followed by 5 m gliding at maximum velocity. Nineteen comparisons of kinematics variables across start technique were performed with critical alpha adjusted using a Holm's correction to maintain an experiment-wise type I error rate of p <0.05. The differences were statistically evaluated by T-test and Wilcoxon test. Significant advantages for the kick-start were observed in all temporal variables (except in the flight time) and in the vertical take-off velocity. Similarities in the centre of mass angular momentum at take-off (120.89 ± 17.66, 126.61 ± 13.51 s(-1).10(-3), p-value <0.294; kick-start and grab start) caused that KS did not increase the temporal advantages obtained on the block at 5 m distance. Two different rotational movements were found for both techniques. A displacement of the rear leg and front leg on the block and during the flight respectively permits a higher lower limbs position relative to the trunk at hands entry for kick-start. However, larger rotational movement of the trunk characterized grab start. It was concluded that shorter block times and rotational displacements of the lower limbs on the block and flight phase are the key of the best performance for kick-start at 5 m distance. PMID:27113536

  1. First record of Pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata in the Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuxing; Wang, Xianyan; Zhang, Qiuxia; Miao, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Qian

    2015-07-01

    On October 1, 2009, sixteen dolphins were obtained from fishermen by incidental catching in the Yellow Sea, China. As the dolphins' skin color was ambiguous, morphological parameters were measured, and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence was studied to identify the species. Morphological characteristics were consistent with Pantropical spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata. Furthermore, a partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence as long as 328-bp was studied by extracting genomic DNA from the skins, and six haplotypes were detected in the sixteen dolphins. By comparing homologous sequences available in GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), all the six haplotypes had maximal genetic similarity with Pantropical spotted dolphin. Eight species of cetacean (whales and dolphins) are now recognised in the Yellow Sea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of Pantropical spotted dolphins from this region. Despite this species being listed as a Grade II National Key Protected Animal since 1988, little is known of its biology in Chinese waters. We recommend remedial research be undertaken to ensure appropriate management.

  2. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    PubMed

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-01

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern. PMID:27503913

  3. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. PMID:26790893

  4. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable. PMID:26790894

  5. What's in a voice? Cues used by dolphins in individual recognition of signature whistles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayigh, Laela S.; Janik, Vincent M.; Wells, Randall S.

    2005-09-01

    Cues that bottlenose dolphins may use for individual recognition of signature whistles are (1) the individually distinctive frequency modulation patterns of whistles; and (2) voice cues caused by the anatomy of the vocal apparatus. Experiments were designed to determine whether dolphins use either or both of these cues in recognizing whistles. Temporarily held wild dolphins listened to whistles of a close relative and of a known conspecific of the same sex and similar age. To test the hypothesis that dolphins recognize the frequency modulation patterns of whistles, signature whistles were synthesized and all general voice features removed. In playbacks to 14 individuals, dolphins turned significantly more often towards the speaker if they heard the synthetic signature whistle of a close relative than that of another individual. To test the hypothesis that dolphins may also be using voice cues to recognize whistles, natural variant (nonsignature) whistles were played back, which are highly variable in contour. Preliminary analysis of seven playbacks showed no difference in responses to variant whistles of kin versus nonkin. Thus, the frequency modulation pattern of signature whistles alone provides information on the identity of the caller, and voice cues are likely not used by dolphins to identify individuals.

  6. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detection of simulated echoes from normal and time-reversed clicks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Wu, Teri; Borror, Nancy; Tormey, Megan; Brewer, Arial; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2013-12-01

    In matched filter processing, a stored template of the emitted sonar pulse is compared to echoes to locate individual replicas of the emitted pulse embedded in the echo stream. A number of experiments with bats have suggested that bats utilize matched filter processing for target ranging, but not for target detection. For dolphins, the few available data suggest that dolphins do not utilize matched filter processing. In this study, the effect of time-reversing a dolphin's emitted click was investigated. If the dolphin relied upon matched filter processing, time-reversal of the click would be expected to reduce the correlation between the (unaltered) click and the echoes and therefore lower detection performance. Two bottlenose dolphins were trained to perform a phantom echo detection task. On a small percentage of trials ("probe trials"), a dolphin's emitted click was time-reversed before interacting with the phantom echo system. Data from the normal and time-reversed trials were then analyzed and compared. There were no significant differences in detection performance or click emissions between the normal and time-reversed conditions for either subject, suggesting that the dolphins did not utilize matched filter processing for this echo detection task. PMID:25669264

  7. A method to enable a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to echolocate while out of water.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Houser, Dorian S; Moore, Patrick W; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Ridgway, Sam H

    2010-09-01

    The study of site-specific brain activity associated with dolphin echolocation has been hampered by the difficulties inherent in administering radiolabels and performing medical imaging while a dolphin echolocates in an aquatic environment. To overcome these limitations, a system has been developed to allow a bottlenose dolphin to echolocate while out of the water. The system relies on a "phantom echo generator" (PEG) consisting of a Texas Instruments C6713 digital signal processor with an analog input/output daughtercard. Echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin are detected with a hydrophone embedded in a suction cup on the melon, then digitized within the PEG. Clicks exceeding a user-defined threshold are convolved with a target impulse response, delayed, and scaled before being converted to analog and transmitted through a sound projector embedded in a suction cup attached to the dolphin's lower jaw. Dolphin in-air echolocation behavior, inter-click intervals, and overall performance were analogous to those observed during comparable underwater testing with physical targets, demonstrating that the dolphin was indeed performing an echolocation task while out of water. PMID:20815483

  8. An atypical genotype of Toxoplasma gondii as a cause of mortality in Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori).

    PubMed

    Roe, W D; Howe, L; Baker, E J; Burrows, L; Hunter, S A

    2013-02-18

    Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are a small endangered coastal species that are endemic to New Zealand. Anthropogenic factors, particularly accidental capture in fishing nets, are believed to be the biggest threat to survival of this species. The role of infectious disease as a cause of mortality has not previously been well investigated. This study investigates Toxoplasma gondii infection in Hector's dolphins, finding that 7 of 28 (25%) dolphins examined died due to disseminated toxoplasmosis, including 2 of 3 Maui's dolphins, a critically endangered sub-species. A further 10 dolphins had one or more tissues that were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA using PCR. Genotyping revealed that 7 of 8 successfully amplified isolates were an atypical Type II genotype. Fatal cases had necrotising and haemorrhagic lesions in the lung (n=7), lymph nodes (n=6), liver (n=4) and adrenals (n=3). Tachyzoites and tissue cysts were present in other organs including the brain (n=5), heart (n=1), stomach (n=1) and uterus (n=1) with minimal associated inflammatory response. One dolphin had a marked suppurative metritis in the presence of numerous intra-epithelial tachyzoites. No dolphins had underlying morbillivirus infection. This study provides the first evidence that infectious agents could be important in the population decline of this species, and highlights the need for further research into the route of entry of T. gondii organisms into the marine environment worldwide. PMID:23207018

  9. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba).

    PubMed

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior-posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals. PMID:26594155

  10. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba)

    PubMed Central

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior–posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals. PMID:26594155

  11. Whistles emitted by Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alexandre F; Flach, L; Bisi, Tatiana L; Andrade, Luciana G; Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, J

    2010-04-01

    The whistles of Atlantic spotted dolphins have been studied in a few localities of the North Atlantic Ocean and those studies revealed that the species emits whistles within a broad frequency range, with a high number of inflection points and presence of harmonics. In the South Atlantic Ocean, there is no information about the sounds produced by Atlantic spotted dolphins. A total of 1092 whistles emitted by free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins in Southeastern Brazilian coastal waters were analyzed. Whistles recorded in this study had a broad frequency range from 1.15 to 23.44 kHz. Whistles without harmonics were frequently emitted (N=701; 64.2%) and those signals with zero up to two inflection points corresponded to 94% of all whistles. Some differences in whistle characteristics (inflection points and duration) were found in relation to areas in North Atlantic Ocean and whistles were shorter and with a smaller number of inflection points in Brazil. Whistles produced by Atlantic spotted dolphins varied between the two behavioral states in which dolphins were engaged. Whistles were more frequently emitted when dolphins presented behaviors that included fast movement at surface, prey pursuit, aerial behavior, and physical contact. In these situations, whistles were on average longer and had higher frequency parameters than those emitted when animals were engaged in slowly and moderate traveling. The findings presented herewith reveal that dolphins modified whistle structures within behavioral states. PMID:20370045

  12. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players were tested the day before, 15 min after and 24 h after the kicking drill session by a blinded tester using a reliable test procedure. The isometric hip-action and leg-order were randomized. For the kicking leg, hip adduction torque increased from 2.45 (2.19-2.65) Nm ∙ kg(-1), median (25th-75th percentiles), at pre-kicking to 2.65 (2.55-2.81) Nm ∙ kg(-1) (P = 0.024) 24 h post-kicking. This may have implications for the soccer player's ability to maximally activate the hip adductors during kicking and acceleration, and thereby improve performance the day after a kicking drill session. PMID:24669834

  13. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Ramu, K; Kajiwara, N; Sinha, R K; Tanabe, S

    2005-10-01

    The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is at risk of extinction throughout its range as a result of incidental catches, habitat degradation, and pollution. Populations of Irrawaddy dolphins are constrained by the species' narrow habitat requirement-lagoons, estuaries, rivers, and lakes-and are therefore particularly vulnerable to the effects of human activities. In this study, for the first time, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues of Irrawaddy dolphins collected from Chilika Lake, India, to understand the status of contamination. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants found in Irrawaddy dolphins; the highest concentration found was 10,000 ng/g lipid weight in blubber. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the second most prevalent contaminants in dolphin tissues. Concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol were in the ranges of few ng/g to few hundreds of ng/g on a lipid-weight basis. In general, concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs in Irrawaddy dolphins were lower than the concentrations reported for coastal and riverine dolphins collected in Asia. PBDEs were detected in the blubber of Irrawaddy dolphins at concentrations ranging from 0.98 to 18 ng/g lipid weight. BDE congener 47 accounted for 60% to 75% of the total PBDE concentrations. Although these results establish the baseline levels of persistent organic pollutants in Irrawaddy dolphins, efforts should be made to decrease the sources of contamination by DDTs and HCHs in Chilika Lake. PMID:16170447

  14. Biosonar, diving and movements of two tagged white-beaked dolphin in Icelandic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, M. H.; Akamatsu, T.; Teilmann, J.; Vikingsson, G.; Miller, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    For the first time bio-logging tags were attached to free-ranging white-beaked dolphins, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. A satellite tag was attached to one animal while an acoustic A-tag, a time-depth recorder and a VHF transmitter complex was attached to a second dolphin with a suction cup. The satellite tag transmitted for 201 day, during which time the dolphin stayed in the coastal waters of western Iceland. The acoustic tag complex was on the second animal for 13 h and 40 min and provided the first insight into the echolocation behaviour of a free-ranging white-beaked dolphin. The tag registered 162 dives. The dolphin dove to a maximum depth of 45 m, which is about the depth of the bay in which the dolphin was swimming. Two basic types of dives were identified; U-shaped and V-shaped dives. The dolphin used more time in U-shaped dives, more clicks and sonar signals with shorter click intervals compared to those it used in V-shaped dives. The dolphin was in acoustic contact with other dolphins about five hours after it was released and stayed with these for the rest of the tagging time. Possible foraging attempts were found based on the reduction of click intervals from about 100 ms to 2-3 ms, which suggests a prey capture attempt. We found 19 punitive prey capture attempts and of these 53% occurred at the maximum dive depth. This suggests that more than half of the possible prey capture events occurred at or near the sea bed.

  15. Mucocutaneous lesions in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2015-08-20

    Mucocutaneous lesions were biopsied from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and estuarine waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, between 2003 and 2013. A total of 78 incisional biopsies from 58 dolphins (n=43 IRL, n=15 CHS) were examined. Thirteen dolphins had 2 lesions biopsied at the same examination, and 6 dolphins were re-examined and re-biopsied at time intervals varying from 1 to 8 yr. Biopsy sites included the skin (n=47), tongue (n=2), and genital mucosa (n=29). Pathologic diagnoses were: orogenital sessile papilloma (39.7%), cutaneous lobomycosis (16.7%), tattoo skin disease (TSD; 15.4%), nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (15.4%), and epidermal hyperplasia (12.8%). Pathologic diagnoses from dolphins with 2 lesions were predominately orogenital sessile papillomas (n=9) with nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (n=4), TSD (n=3), lobomycosis (n=1), and epidermal hyperplasia (n=1). Persistent pathologic diagnoses from the same dolphins re-examined and re-biopsied at different times included genital sessile papillomas (n=3), lobomycosis (n=2), and nonspecific dermatitis (n=2). This is the first study documenting the various types, combined prevalence, and progression of mucocutaneous lesions in dolphins from the southeastern USA. The data support other published findings describing the health patterns in dolphins from these geographic regions. Potential health impacts related to the observed suite of lesions are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, since previous studies have indicated that both populations are affected by complex infectious diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances and anthropogenic contaminants. PMID:26290502

  16. Electrocardiograms of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) out of water: habituated collection versus wild postcapture animals.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jensen, Eric D; Townsend, Forrest I; Hansen, Larry J; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teresa K

    2013-12-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of

  17. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. PMID:27015516

  18. Hydrodynamics, resurgence, and transasymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2015-12-01

    The second order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost-invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 072501 (2015)]. Resurgence clearly identifies the nonhydrodynamic modes that are exponentially suppressed at late times, analogous to the quasinormal modes in gravitational language, organizing these modes in terms of a trans-series expansion. These modes are analogs of instantons in semiclassical expansions, where the damping rate plays the role of the instanton action. We show that this system displays the generic features of resurgence, with explicit quantitative relations between the fluctuations about different orders of these nonhydrodynamic modes. The imaginary part of the trans-series parameter is identified with the Stokes constant, and the real part with the freedom associated with initial conditions.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

  1. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  2. Synchronization and hydrodynamic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas; Qian, Bian; Breuer, Kenneth

    2008-03-01

    Cilia and flagella commonly beat in a coordinated manner. Examples include the flagella that Volvox colonies use to move, the cilia that sweep foreign particles up out of the human airway, and the nodal cilia that set up the flow that determines the left-right axis in developing vertebrate embryos. In this talk we present an experimental study of how hydrodynamic interactions can lead to coordination in a simple idealized system: two nearby paddles driven with fixed torques in a highly viscous fluid. The paddles attain a synchronized state in which they rotate together with a phase difference of 90 degrees. We discuss how synchronization depends on system parameters and present numerical calculations using the method of regularized stokeslets.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Bycatch on Dolphin Populations: The Case of the Common Dolphin in the Eastern North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of −5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  4. Assessing the impact of bycatch on dolphin populations: the case of the common dolphin in the eastern North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of -5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  5. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish

    2016-07-01

    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  6. Auditory Effects of Multiple Impulses from a Seismic Air Gun on Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schlundt, Carolyn E; Finneran, James J; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Bowman, Victoria; Jenkins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Auditory thresholds were measured in three bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to ten impulses from a seismic air gun. Thresholds were measured using behavioral and electrophysiological methods to determine the amount of temporary threshold shift induced. The results suggest that the potential for seismic surveys using air guns to cause auditory effects on dolphins may be lower than previously predicted; however, two of the three dolphins exhibited "anticipatory" behavioral changes at the highest exposure condition that suggested they were attempting to mitigate the effects of the exposures. PMID:26611059

  7. [Formation of probabilistic structure of motor behavior in bottlenose dolphins in captivity].

    PubMed

    Chechina, O N; Kondrat'eva, N L

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic structure of the motor behavior was analyzed in dolphin calves Tursiops truncatus in the prenatal period and adult dolphins in an oceanarium. Ethograms were recorded and subjected to a computer analysis. Ranking probabilities of transitions between behavioral acts revealed a highly determined sequence of operations underlying the newborn dolphins' behavior. The principle of formation of the variation ethologic structures providing a contact between a developing organism and the environment was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the informational brain-environment interaction. PMID:19947534

  8. Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vuković, S; Lucić, H; Zivković, A; Duras Gomercić, M; Gomercić, T; Galov, A

    2010-02-01

    The structure of the adrenal gland was studied in 11 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). These species are legally protected in Croatia. All examined animals died of natural causes and were found stranded along eastern Adriatic coast. In both species the adrenal gland consists of a cortex and a medulla; the cortex is divided into three zones. Whereas in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a zona arcuata which contains columnar cells arranged in the form of arches; in the striped dolphin this zone is replaced by zona glomerulosa containing rounded clusters of polygonal cells. In both species, the zona fasciculata consists of radially oriented cords of polygonal cells, whereas in zona reticularis cells are arranged in branching and anastomosing cords. The adrenal medulla in both species contains dark, epinephrine-secreting cells and light norepinephrine-secreting cells. Epinephrine-secreting cells are localized in the outer part of the medulla, whereas norepinephrine-secreting cells are found in the inner part, arranged in clusters and surrounded by septa of thin connective tissue. The gland is surrounded by a thick connective-tissue capsule, from where thick trabeculae extend towards the interior. In the bottlenose dolphin, group of cells resembling both medullar and cortical cells can be seen within the capsule; whereas only groups of cells resembling cortical cells are found within the capsule of the striped dolphin. In the bottlenose dolphin invagination of the adrenal cortex into the medulla is obvious as well as medullary protrusions extending through cortex to the connective tissue capsule. PMID:19912161

  9. Target effect on the kinematics of Taekwondo Roundhouse Kick - is the presence of a physical target a stimulus, influencing muscle-power generation?

    PubMed

    Wąsik, Jacek; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Taekwondo is famous for its powerful kicking techniques and the roundhouse kick is the most frequently used one. In earlier literature, the influence of a physical target (exiting or not) on kicking power generation has not been given much attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of roundhouse kick execution and its factors related to power generation. 6 ITF taekwondo practitioners voluntarily participated in this study. They were asked to perform kicks with and without a physical target. The first kick aimed at breaking a board while the second one was a kick into the air. A Smart-D motion capture system (BTS S.p.A., Italy) was used to quantitatively determine their kinematic characteristics during each kick. The main findings showed that kicks aiming at a breaking board were significantly slower than kicks without a physical target (maximal kick-foot velocities were 10.61 ± 0.86 m/s and 14.61 ± 0.67 m/s, respectively, p < 0.01), but the kicking time of the former was shorter (0.58 ± 0.01 s and 0.67 ± 0.01, respectively, p < 0.01). The results suggest that a physical target will negatively influence the kick-foot velocity, which is not necessarily a disadvantage for creating a high quality kick. Possible motor control mechanisms are discussed for the phenomenon. The study made it clear: trainings with and without physical targets would develop different motor control patterns. More studies are needed for identifying the effectiveness of different controls and efficiencies of their training. PMID:26898602

  10. Health of common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, following the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Smith, Cynthia R; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Hart, Leslie B; Balmer, Brian C; Collier, Tracy K; De Guise, Sylvain; Fry, Michael M; Guillette, Louis J; Lamb, Stephen V; Lane, Suzanne M; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Tumlin, Mandy C; Ylitalo, Gina M; Zolman, Eric S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    The oil spill resulting from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform initiated immediate concern for marine wildlife, including common bottlenose dolphins in sensitive coastal habitats. To evaluate potential sublethal effects on dolphins, health assessments were conducted in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, an area that received heavy and prolonged oiling, and in a reference site, Sarasota Bay, Florida, where oil was not observed. Dolphins were temporarily captured, received a veterinary examination, and were then released. Dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay showed evidence of hypoadrenocorticism, consistent with adrenal toxicity as previously reported for laboratory mammals exposed to oil. Barataria Bay dolphins were 5 times more likely to have moderate-severe lung disease, generally characterized by significant alveolar interstitial syndrome, lung masses, and pulmonary consolidation. Of 29 dolphins evaluated from Barataria Bay, 48% were given a guarded or worse prognosis, and 17% were considered poor or grave, indicating that they were not expected to survive. Disease conditions in Barataria Bay dolphins were significantly greater in prevalence and severity than those in Sarasota Bay dolphins, as well as those previously reported in other wild dolphin populations. Many disease conditions observed in Barataria Bay dolphins are uncommon but consistent with petroleum hydrocarbon exposure and toxicity. PMID:24350796

  11. Dolphin whistles: a functional misnomer revealed by heliox breathing.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Jensen, F H; Carder, D; Ridgway, S

    2012-04-23

    Delphinids produce tonal whistles shaped by vocal learning for acoustic communication. Unlike terrestrial mammals, delphinid sound production is driven by pressurized air within a complex nasal system. It is unclear how fundamental whistle contours can be maintained across a large range of hydrostatic pressures and air sac volumes. Two opposing hypotheses propose that tonal sounds arise either from tissue vibrations or through actual whistle production from vortices stabilized by resonating nasal air volumes. Here, we use a trained bottlenose dolphin whistling in air and in heliox to test these hypotheses. The fundamental frequency contours of stereotyped whistles were unaffected by the higher sound speed in heliox. Therefore, the term whistle is a functional misnomer as dolphins actually do not whistle, but form the fundamental frequency contour of their tonal calls by pneumatically induced tissue vibrations analogous to the operation of vocal folds in terrestrial mammals and the syrinx in birds. This form of tonal sound production by nasal tissue vibrations has probably evolved in delphinids to enable impedance matching to the water, and to maintain tonal signature contours across changes in hydrostatic pressures, air density and relative nasal air volumes during dives. PMID:21900314

  12. Dental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

    2013-02-01

    (1) Dental wear is a common phenomenon in mammals. Its occurrence is influenced by tooth anatomy, animal physiology, biomechanics and behaviour. So far, investigations of dental wear in cetaceans have been scanty and superficial. We compare the frequencies of occurrence, location and intensity of dental wear in some species of dolphins from southern Brazil, South Atlantic Ocean. (2) Teeth of ten species were evaluated using a stereoscopic microscope to identify wear facets, which were classified according to location, anatomical position and wear intensity. (3) Frequencies of dental wear were high for all species with exception of Delphinus capensis, with less than 50% of teeth worn. Simultaneous wear facets in the apex and lateral of teeth were more common than facets restricted to the apex or lateral faces. Wear on the dental crown was more common, but some species showed less frequent wear down to the cingulum or root level. Superficial wear seems to be the general trend for dolphins, but Stenella coeruleoalba and Pseudorca crassidens showed a higher frequency of severe wear. Only for Tursiops truncatus the frequencies of wear were significantly different between males and females. When considering the ontogeny of dental wear, only for T. truncatus and Stenella frontalis indexes of dental wear were correlated with body length. (4) Whether dental wear has implications or not in fitness and feeding behaviour, severely worn teeth may expose the pulp cavity and increase the susceptibility to local infections. PMID:22939372

  13. Conditioned hearing sensitivity reduction in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Paul E; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2014-08-01

    The conditioned change in hearing sensitivity during a warning sound preceding a loud sound was investigated in the bottlenose dolphin. Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimulus with a frequency of 22.5 or 32 kHz preceded the loud sound with a frequency of 22.5 kHz and a sound pressure level of 165 dB re. 1 μPa rms, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline. The threshold increased up to 15 dB. In order to further investigate whether the observed threshold increase was due to conditioning, the dependence of the effect on warning duration and inter-trial interval was investigated. The duration of the warning substantially influenced the effect. Shorter warnings resulted in deeper suppression of responses and higher threshold increases than longer warnings. In contrast, the effect was nearly independent of the duration of the inter-trial interval, i.e. it was independent of the delay from the loud sound to the test/warning sound in the subsequent trial. These data are considered as evidence that the observed hearing threshold increases were not a result of the unconditioned effect of the loud sound and were instead a manifestation of a conditioned dampening of hearing when the bottlenose dolphin anticipated the quick appearance of a loud sound in the same way as previously demonstrated in the false killer whale. PMID:24855674

  14. Secretory patterns of catecholamines in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa; Nozawa, Aoi; Ueda, Keiichi; Bungo, Takashi; Terao, Hiromi; Asahina, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-15

    Catecholamines (CAs), namely adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA), are secreted by the sympathoadrenal system and participate in a diverse array of functions, e.g., heat production, cardiovascular regulation, stress response and so on. However, little is known regarding peripheral CA fluctuations in cetaceans; nevertheless aquatic animals like them have needed to modify their physiological response especially for thermoregulation in water and oxygen economy during diving. To understand CA dynamism in cetaceans, diurnal changes in serum A, NA, and DA concentrations were measured during the winter and summer solstices in four Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). The average serum NA concentration was much higher than the average A and DA concentrations, and all concentrations were higher than those reported in other cetacean species. No distinct diurnal fluctuations were observed in CA concentrations in either solstice, suggesting inhibition of the decrease in CA concentrations during nocturnal periods by the unique sleep pattern of dolphins. All the serum CA concentrations were negatively correlated with water temperature as body temperatures were, indicating that the sympathoadrenal system might be more active during winter than in summer season, suggesting a role of CA in thermoregulation. PMID:22405705

  15. The dolphin brain--a challenge for synthetic neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2008-03-18

    Toothed whales (odontocetes) are a promising paradigm for neurobiology and evolutionary biology. The ecophysiological implications and structural adaptations of their brain seem to reflect the necessity of effective underwater hearing for echolocation (sonar), navigation, and communication. However, not all components of the auditory system are equally well developed. Other sensory systems are more or less strongly reduced such as the olfactory system and, as an exception among vertebrates, the vestibular system (the semicircular canals and vestibular nuclei). Additional outstanding features are: (1) the hypertrophy of the neocortex, pons, cerebellum (particularly the paraflocculus), the elliptic nucleus, the facial motor nucleus and the medial accessory inferior olive and (2) the reduction of the hippocampus. The screening of brain structures with respect to shared circuitry and shared size correlations resulted in central loops also known from other mammals which overlap in the cerebellum and serve in the integration and processing of sensory input. It is highly probable that for dolphin navigation the ascending auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus and the medial geniculate body, is of utmost importance. The extended auditory neocortical fields project to the midbrain and rhombencephalon and may influence premotor and motor areas in such a way as to allow the smooth regulation of sound-induced and sound-controlled locomotor activity as well as sophisticated phonation. This sonar-guided acousticomotor system for navigation and vocalization in the aquatic environment may have been a major factor if not the key feature in the relative size increase seen in dolphin brains. PMID:18331914

  16. Dolphin echolocation strategies studied with the Biosonar Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian S.; Martin, Steve W.; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric; Moore, Patrick W.

    2003-10-01

    Two free-swimming dolphins (Tt722 and Tt673) were trained to carry the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT) during open water, proud target searches in order to explore echolocation behavior without the constraints of traditional experimental designs. The BMT recorded the angular motion, depth, and velocity of the dolphin as well as echolocation clicks and echoes returning from insonified targets. Mean search time for Tt722 was 24.6+/-7.3 s and 6.5+/-3.0 s for Tt673 on target present trials, the former strategy resulting in the lower false alarm rate. The majority of clicks exceeded 195 dB re: 1 μPa throughout all trials for both animals but each demonstrated preferences for particular frequency bands of echolocation. Considering all trials, only 3.6% of all clicks produced by Tt722 contained peak frequencies greater than 60 kHz whereas Tt673 produced clicks with peak frequencies above 60 kHz 20.4% of the time. Distinctive frequency bands in the distribution of clicks were notable: bands for Tt673 occurred at 38, 54, and 69 kHz with less defined higher order bands; bands for Tt722 occurred at 25, 35, and 40 kHz. Distinctive frequency bands suggest a preferential use or mechanical constraint on harmonically related click frequencies.

  17. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  18. Echolocation parameters of Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the wild.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mafalda; Jensen, Frants H; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Madsen, Peter T

    2015-06-01

    Echolocation is a key sensory modality for toothed whale orientation, navigation, and foraging. However, a more comparative understanding of the biosonar properties of toothed whales is necessary to understand behavioral and evolutionary adaptions. To address this, two free-ranging sympatric delphinid species, Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), were studied. Biosonar clicks from both species were recorded within the same stretch of coastal habitat in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, using a vertical seven element hydrophone array. S. sahulensis used biosonar clicks with a mean source level of 199 ± 3 dB re 1 μPa peak-peak (pp), mean centroid frequency of 106 ± 11 kHz, and emitted at interclick intervals (ICIs) of 79 ± 33 ms. These parameters were similar to click parameters of sympatric T. aduncus, characterized by mean source levels of 204 ± 4 dB re 1 μPa pp, centroid frequency of 112 ± 9 kHz, and ICIs of 73 ± 29 ms. These properties are comparable to those of other similar sized delphinids and suggest that biosonar parameters are independent of sympatric delphinids and possibly driven by body size. The dynamic biosonar behavior of these delphinids may have, consequently, allowed for adaptations to local environments through high levels of control over sonar beam properties. PMID:26093395

  19. Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael

    2009-04-15

    We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.

  20. Helicobacter cetorum infection in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphus) from the southwest coast of England.

    PubMed

    Davison, Nicholas J; Barnett, James E F; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Perkins, Matthew W; Deaville, Robert C; Jepson, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Helicobacter infection in cetaceans was first reported from the US in 2000 when the isolation of a novel Helicobacter species was described from two Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus). Since then, Helicobacter species have been demonstrated in cetaceans and pinnipeds from around the world. Since 1990, the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Polwhele, Truro, has been involved in the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme to establish the cause of death of cetacean species stranded along the coast of Cornwall, England. We describe the isolation of Helicobacter cetorum in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and evidence of H. cetorum infection in cetaceans from European waters. PMID:24807181

  1. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia) , chronic = inflamma...

  2. How dolphins see the world: A comparison with chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Uwano, Yuka; Saito, Toyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins use auditory (or echoic) information to recognise their environments, and many studies have described their echolocation perception abilities. However, relatively few systematic studies have examined their visual perception. We tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, we used multidimensional scaling to analyse perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, we conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates. These results clearly indicate that the visual world is perceived similarly by the three species of mammals, even though each has adapted to a different environment and has differing degrees of dependence on vision. PMID:24435017

  3. How dolphins see the world: a comparison with chimpanzees and humans.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Uwano, Yuka; Saito, Toyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins use auditory (or echoic) information to recognise their environments, and many studies have described their echolocation perception abilities. However, relatively few systematic studies have examined their visual perception. We tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, we used multidimensional scaling to analyse perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, we conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates. These results clearly indicate that the visual world is perceived similarly by the three species of mammals, even though each has adapted to a different environment and has differing degrees of dependence on vision. PMID:24435017

  4. Nanoscale gutter hydrodynamics: asymmetric vanishing lifetime of identical twin nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Dhirendra; Dijkstra, Marcel; Eijkel, Jan; Gardeniers, Han; Mercury, Lionel; Tas, Niels; Vanapalli, Srinivas

    2015-11-01

    We study the capillary behavior of wetting liquids in the context of receding liquid fronts capped with an unsaturated zone (UZ) in a model 2D-porous media and report on the removal of liquid from an array of square nanodroplets inter-connected through nanoscopic-gutters. At the tip of the array a quasi 2D pinch-off generates identical twin nanodroplets marked by the singularity in local liquid pressure. The temporal violation of Lord Kelvin's equation kicks off the hydraulic conduction among nearest-neighbor droplets. A simple exponential decay/growth fluidic model incorporating constant evaporation rate validates the experimentally observed asymmetric vanishing life-time of the identical twin-droplets. Overall, this work illustrates the critical role of capillarity, wetting and geometry in setting up a unique scenario of ubiquitous competition among evaporation vs hydrodynamic conduction at meso-scale. The evaporating array of nanodroplets visualizes the tip of dynamic local vapor pressure gradient and captures the details of transport at an unprecedented size scale. DT acknowledges financial support from ISTO CNRS Orleans France and NWO The Netherlands.

  5. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  6. Spin hydrodynamic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.

  7. The effects of dolphin education programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lance Joseph

    Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these goals. A multi-institutional study was conducted at six different facilities throughout the United States. A repeated measures design was used to examine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of visitors before, immediately after and three months following participation in dolphin shows or interaction programs. Participants of dolphin shows reflected a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. These participants' attitudes and behavioral intentions returned to entry levels three months following the shows. However, knowledge and reported behavior were significantly higher three months following the show compared to entry levels. Participants of interaction programs had a short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions immediately following the program and levels were significantly higher three months following the program when compared to entry levels. Additionally, these participants also reported engaging in more conservation-related behavior than during the entry surveys. Results from the current study suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program within zoological facilities. Understanding the aspects of these types of programs that lead people to conservation action will help zoological facilities in meeting their goals.

  8. Concurrent exposure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to multiple algal toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Twiner, Michael J; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000-2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  9. Behavioural Responses of Dusky Dolphin Groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) to Tour Vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, David; Gemmell, Neil J.; Würsig, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. Conclusions/Significance Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold values from these studies

  10. Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Spontaneously Using Water Flow to Manipulate Objects

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Furuta, Keisuke; Taki, Michihiro; Morisaka, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Several terrestrial animals and delphinids manipulate objects in a tactile manner, using parts of their bodies, such as their mouths or hands. In this paper, we report that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) manipulate objects not by direct bodily contact, but by spontaneous water flow. Three of four dolphins at Suma Aqualife Park performed object manipulation with food. The typical sequence of object manipulation consisted of a three step procedure. First, the dolphins released the object from the sides of their mouths while assuming a head-down posture near the floor. They then manipulated the object around their mouths and caught it. Finally, they ceased to engage in their head-down posture and started to swim. When the dolphins moved the object, they used the water current in the pool or moved their head. These results showed that dolphins manipulate objects using movements that do not directly involve contact between a body part and the object. In the event the dolphins dropped the object on the floor, they lifted it by making water flow in one of three methods: opening and closing their mouths repeatedly, moving their heads lengthwise, or making circular head motions. This result suggests that bottlenose dolphins spontaneously change their environment to manipulate objects. The reason why aquatic animals like dolphins do object manipulation by changing their environment but terrestrial animals do not may be that the viscosity of the aquatic environment is much higher than it is in terrestrial environments. This is the first report thus far of any non-human mammal engaging in object manipulation using several methods to change their environment. PMID:25250625

  11. Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Michael J.; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K.; Wells, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000–2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  12. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other's movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other's movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins' kinematics is sensitive to other's movement features. Movements performed for the "visuomotor priming" condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific's behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  13. In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1)) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1). Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:23722986

  14. Contributions to the Galactic halo from in-situ, kicked-out, and accreted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2016-08-01

    We report chemical abundances for a sample of 66 M giants with high S/N high-resolution spectroscopy in the inner halo of the Milky Way. The program giant stars have radial velocities that vary significantly from those expected for stars moving on uniform circular orbits in the Galactic disk. Thus, based on kinematics, we expect a sample dominated by halo stars. Abundances are derived for α-elements and neutron capture elements. By analyzing the multi-dimensional abundance space, the formation site of the halo giants - in-situ or accreted - can be assessed. Of particular interest are a class of stars that form in-situ, deep in the Milky Way's gravitational potential well, but are ``kicked out'' of the disk into the halo due to a perturbation event. We find: (1) our sample is dominated by accreted stars and (2) tentative evidence of a small kicked-out population in our Milky Way halo sample.

  15. Western blot expression of 5-lipoxygenase in the brain from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with or without encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis of infectious nature.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Falconi, A; Di Francesco, A; Mazzariol, S; Centelleghe, C; Casalone, C; Pautasso, A; Cocumelli, C; Eleni, C; Petrella, A; Di Francesco, C E; Sabatucci, A; Leonardi, L; Serroni, A; Marsili, L; Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2015-01-01

    Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV), Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella ceti are pathogens of major concern for wild cetaceans. Although a more or less severe encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis may occur in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected by the aforementioned agents, almost no information is available on the neuropathogenesis of brain lesions, including the neuronal and non-neuronal cells targeted during infection, along with the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We analyzed 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) expression in the brain of 11 striped dolphins and 5 bottlenose dolphins, affected or not by encephalitic lesions of various degrees associated with DMV, T. gondii and B. ceti. All the 8 striped dolphins with encephalitis showed a more consistent 5-LOX expression than that observed in the 3 striped dolphins showing no morphologic evidence of brain lesions, with the most prominent band intensity being detected in a B. ceti-infected animal. Similar results were not obtained in T. gondii-infected vs T. gondii-uninfected bottlenose dolphins. Overall, the higher 5-LOX expression found in the brain of the 8 striped dolphins with infectious neuroinflammation is of interest, given that 5-LOX is a putative marker for neurodegeneration in human patients and in experimental animal models. Therefore, further investigation on this challenging issue is also needed in stranded cetaceans affected by central neuropathies. PMID:25864766

  16. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion

    PubMed Central

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane) of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot), and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years) participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane) than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values), with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01). Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01). It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern. PMID:26557189

  17. Relativistic hydrodynamics on graphic cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Jochen; Lindenstruth, Volker; Bleicher, Marcus

    2013-02-01

    We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  18. Reciprocal relations in dissipationless hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikovsky, L. A.

    2014-12-15

    Hidden symmetry in dissipationless terms of arbitrary hydrodynamics equations is recognized. We demonstrate that all fluxes are generated by a single function and derive conventional Euler equations using the proposed formalism.

  19. Use HMXB offsets to constrain the natal kicks and common envelope efficinecy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhaoyu

    2015-08-01

    Using an up-to-date evolutionary population synthesis code, we have calculated the spatial offsets of high mass X-ray binaries and their correlation to the luminosities. Parameters affecting the orbit and system velocity of a binary are examined systematically. From the calculated results we find that the common envelope efficiency is possibly around ~0.8-1.0 and make several constraints on the natal kicks.

  20. Theoretical evidence for the kick-out mechanism for B diffusion in SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rurali, R.; Godignon, P.; Rebollo, J.; Ordejón, P.; Hernández, E.

    2002-10-01

    In this letter, we analyze by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations the diffusion of B impurities in 3C-SiC. We find, through molecular dynamics, that substitutional B at a Si lattice site is readily displaced by a nearby Si interstitial by the process known as a kick-out mechanism, in agreement with recent experimental results. This is in contrast to the situation in Si, where B has recently been shown to diffuse via an interstitialcy mechanism.

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of a lofted instep kick by male and female footballers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tina; Gilleard, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data describing the lofted instep kick and little information on the kinematic differences between male and female footballers. This study provides a preliminary investigation into the differences in motion patterns between the sexes. A four-camera motion analysis system videoed 13 amateur footballers (7 female and 6 male) attempting a standardised task that represented a lofted instep kick of approximately 35 m. Footballers performed 20 kicks, with the three trials categorised closest to the standardised distance retained for statistical analysis. Three-dimensional motion patterns for kicks of 35 m illustrated that female footballers produced greater fluctuation in movement patterns for pelvic, hip joint and thoracolumbar spine motion in the frontal plane; thorax and hip joint transverse rotation; and ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion motion. Peak hip extension (P = 0.018), impact hip abduction (P = 0.032), impact ankle plantar flexion (P = 0.030) and resultant ball velocity (P = 0.004) differed significantly between sexes. Principle component analysis highlighted associations between kinematic variables related to ball velocity and sex including a reduced hip abduction and increased internal rotation approaching impact, and greater peak knee flexion, respectively. In summary, increased variation in direction of segment motion, increased backswing and formation of a tension arc by females compared to males, may be related to anthropometric, strength and muscle activation differences. Specifically, this exploratory study indicates future research would benefit from exploring trunk, pelvis and hip kinematics and kinetics, and whether training the trunk, pelvis and hip musculature assists female footballers. PMID:25562661

  2. Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasnoot, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) is an international theoretical physics competition for bachelor and master students. The intention of PLANCKS is to increase international collaboration and stimulate the personal development of individual contestants. This is done by organizing a three-day-event which take place every year and is hosted by different countries. Besides the contest, social and scientific activities will be organised, including an opening symposium where leading physicists give lectures to inspire the participants.

  3. Clicks, whistles and pulses: Passive and active signal use in dolphin communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzing, Denise L.

    2014-12-01

    The search for signals out of noise is a problem not only with radio signals from the sky but in the study of animal communication. Dolphins use multiple modalities to communicate including body postures, touch, vision, and most elaborately sound. Like SETI radio signal searches, dolphin sound analysis includes the detection, recognition, analysis, and interpretation of signals. Dolphins use both passive listening and active production to communicate. Dolphins use three main types of acoustic signals: frequency modulated whistles (narrowband with harmonics), echolocation (broadband clicks) and burst pulsed sounds (packets of closely spaced broadband clicks). Dolphin sound analysis has focused on frequency-modulated whistles, yet the most commonly used signals are burst-pulsed sounds which, due to their graded and overlapping nature and bimodal inter-click interval (ICI) rates are hard to categorize. We will look at: 1) the mechanism of sound production and categories of sound types, 2) sound analysis techniques and information content, and 3) examples of lessons learned in the study of dolphin acoustics. The goal of this paper is to provide perspective on how animal communication studies might provide insight to both passive and active SETI in the larger context of searching for life signatures.

  4. Nearfield and farfield measurements of dolphin echolocation beam patterns: No evidence of focusing.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Branstetter, Brian; Moore, Patrick; Houser, Dorian S

    2016-08-01

    The potential for bottlenose dolphins to actively focus their biosonar transmissions was examined by measuring emitted clicks in four dolphins using horizontal, planar hydrophone arrays. Two hydrophone configurations were used: a rectangular array with hydrophones 0.2 to 2 m from the dolphins and a polar array with hydrophones 0.5 to 5 m from the dolphins. The biosonar task was a target change detection utilizing physical targets at ranges from 1.3 to 6.3 m with all subjects and "phantom" targets at simulated ranges from 2.5 to 20 m with two subjects. To provide a basis for evaluating the experimental data, sound fields radiated from flat and focused circular pistons were mathematically simulated using transient excitation functions similar to dolphin clicks. The array measurements showed no evidence that the dolphins adaptively focused their click emissions; axial amplitudes and iso-amplitude contours matched the pattern of the simulation results for flat transducers and showed a single region of maximum amplitude, beyond which spherical spreading loss was approximated. PMID:27586761

  5. A combined stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video system to study group composition of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräger, S.; Chong, A.; Dawson, S.; Slooten, E.; Würsig, B.

    1999-11-01

    One reason for the paucity of knowledge of dolphin social structure is the difficulty of measuring individual dolphins. In Hector's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus hectori, total body length is a function of age, and sex can be determined by individual colouration pattern. We developed a novel system combining stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video to record dolphin group composition. The system consists of two downward-looking single-lens-reflex (SLR) cameras and a Hi8 video camera in an underwater housing mounted on a small boat. Bow-riding Hector's dolphins were photographed and video-taped at close range in coastal waters around the South Island of New Zealand. Three-dimensional, stereoscopic measurements of the distance between the blowhole and the anterior margin of the dorsal fin (BH-DF) were calibrated by a suspended frame with reference points. Growth functions derived from measurements of 53 dead Hector's dolphins (29 female : 24 male) provided the necessary reference data. For the analysis, the measurements were synchronised with corresponding underwater-video of the genital area. A total of 27 successful measurements (8 with corresponding sex) were obtained, showing how this new system promises to be potentially useful for cetacean studies.

  6. Differences in acoustic features of vocalizations produced by killer whales cross-socialized with bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Musser, Whitney B; Bowles, Ann E; Grebner, Dawn M; Crance, Jessica L

    2014-10-01

    Limited previous evidence suggests that killer whales (Orcinus orca) are capable of vocal production learning. However, vocal contextual learning has not been studied, nor the factors promoting learning. Vocalizations were collected from three killer whales with a history of exposure to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and compared with data from seven killer whales held with conspecifics and nine bottlenose dolphins. The three whales' repertoires were distinguishable by a higher proportion of click trains and whistles. Time-domain features of click trains were intermediate between those of whales held with conspecifics and dolphins. These differences provided evidence for contextual learning. One killer whale spontaneously learned to produce artificial chirps taught to dolphins; acoustic features fell within the range of inter-individual differences among the dolphins. This whale also produced whistles similar to a stereotyped whistle produced by one dolphin. Thus, results provide further support for vocal production learning and show that killer whales are capable of contextual learning. That killer whales produce similar repertoires when associated with another species suggests substantial vocal plasticity and motivation for vocal conformity with social associates. PMID:25324098

  7. Identification of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic features from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505

  8. Signature-whistle production in undisturbed free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mandy L. H.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Blum, James E.; Wells, Randall S.

    2004-01-01

    Data from behavioural observations and acoustic recordings of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were analysed to determine whether signature whistles are produced by wild undisturbed dolphins, and how whistle production varies with activity and group size. The study animals were part of a resident community of bottlenose dolphins near Sarasota, Florida, USA. This community of dolphins provides a unique opportunity for the study of signature-whistle production, since most animals have been recorded during capture-release events since 1975. Three mother-calf pairs and their associates were recorded for a total of 141.25 h between May and August of 1994 and 1995. Whistles of undisturbed dolphins were compared with those recorded from the same individuals during capture-release events. Whistles were conservatively classified into one of four categories: signature, probable signature, upsweep or other. For statistical analyses, signature and probable signature whistles were combined into a 'signature' category; upsweep and other whistles were combined into a 'non-signature' category. Both 'signature' and 'non-signature' whistle frequencies significantly increased as group size increased. There were significant differences in whistle frequencies across activity types: both 'signature' and 'non-signature' whistles were most likely to occur during socializing and least likely to occur during travelling. There were no significant interactions between group size and activity type. Signature and probable signature whistles made up ca. 52% of all whistles produced by these free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. PMID:15293858

  9. Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Friedl, W A; Fong, M L; Yamada, R M; Sedivy, P; Haun, J E

    1992-02-27

    Over the past 50 years there has been much speculation about the energetic cost of swimming and wave-riding by dolphins. When aligned properly in front of the bow of moving ships in the stern wake of small boats, on wind waves, and even in the wake of larger cetaceans, the animals appear to move effortlessly through the water without the benefit of propulsive strokes by the flukes. Theoretically, body streamlining as well as other anatomical and behavioural adaptations contribute to low transport costs in these animals. The economy of movement permitted by wave-riding has been perceived as an energetic advantage for the swimming dolphin, but has been hard to prove in the absence of physiological data for exercising cetaceans. Here we determine the aerobic and anaerobic costs of swimming and wave-riding in bottlenose dolphins and find that the minimum cost of transport for swimming dolphins is 1.29 +/- 0.05 J kg-1 m-1 at a cruising speed of 2.1 m s-1. Aerobic costs are nearly twice as high for swimming seals and sea lions, and 8-12 times higher for human swimmers. Wave-riding by dolphins provides additional benefits in terms of speed. The results indicate that behavioural, physiological and morphological factors make swimming an economical form of high-speed travel for dolphins. PMID:1538760

  10. Whistle repertoire of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Erica N.; Kuczaj, Stan; Solangi, Moby

    2005-09-01

    The whistle repertoire of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound, part of the northern Gulf of Mexico, was investigated. There is a large population of dolphins in this area, and many dolphins that are now housed in zoos and aquariums were captured in the Mississippi Sound. This paper reports the types of whistles that are predominant in this area, and how these whistles are used in the context of concurrent surface behavior. Over the course of 1 year (April 2004-March 2005), dolphin whistles were recorded as part of an ongoing study of the effects of human activity on wild bottlenose dolphins. The surface behavior of the focal group was categorized at 1-min intervals as follows: mill, travel, mill/travel, feed, social, with boat, or with shrimp boat. Whistles were then categorized as one of the following: upsweep, downsweep, convex, concave, sine, or constant frequency. Preliminary analysis of the data suggests that both the rate of whistling and the types of whistles produced vary as a function of dolphin behavior. Further analysis of the data will reveal if different types of whistles are associated with specific surface behavior categories. [Research supported by Department of Commerce.

  11. The central vestibular complex in dolphins and humans: functional implications of Deiters' nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kern, A; Seidel, K; Oelschläger, H H A

    2009-01-01

    Toothed whales (Odontocetes; e.g., dolphins) are well-known for efficient underwater locomotion and for their acrobatic capabilities. Nevertheless, in relation to other mammals including the human and with respect to body size, their vestibular apparatus is reduced, particularly the semicircular canals. Concomitantly, the vestibular nerve and most of the vestibular nuclei are thin and small, respectively, in comparison with those in terrestrial mammals. In contrast, the lateral (Deiters') vestibular nucleus is comparatively well developed in both coastal and pelagic dolphins. In the La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) and the Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), all of the vestibular nuclei are present and their topographic relations are similar to those in humans. Quantitative analysis, however, revealed that in the dolphin most of the nuclei (superior, medial, descending nucleus) are minute both in absolute and relative terms. Here, the only exception is the lateral vestibular nucleus, which is of comparable size in humans and Pontoporia and decidedly more voluminous in Delphinus. While the small size of the majority of the dolphin's vestibular nuclei correlates well with miniaturization of the semicircular canals, the size of Deiters' nucleus seems to support its relative independence from the vestibular system and a close functional relationship with the cerebellum. In comparison with findings in humans and other terrestrial mammals, both of these aspects seem to be related to the physical conditions of aquatic life and locomotion in three dimensions. PMID:19390175

  12. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Proietto, U; Di Francesco, C E; Marsilio, F; Zaccaroni, A; Scaravelli, D; Mignone, W; Garibaldi, F; Kennedy, S; Forster, F; Iulini, B; Bozzetta, E; Casalone, C

    2010-03-01

    This article reports the results of necropsy, parasitologic, microbiologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, indirect immunofluorescence, biomolecular, and serologic investigations on 8 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found stranded from August to December 2007 on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy. Severe, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was found in 4 animals, as characterized by prominent perivascular mononuclear cell cuffing and macrophage accumulations in neuropil. These lesions were associated with mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltration of choroid plexuses in 1 dolphin. Toxoplasma gondii cysts and zoites, confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling, were scattered throughout the brain parenchyma of 2 of the 4 dolphins. No viral inclusions were seen in the brain of any animal. Other findings included severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia and pulmonary atelectasis, consolidation, and emphysema. Parasites were identified in a variety of organs, including lung (Halocerchus lagenorhynchi). Microbiologic and serologic examinations for Brucella spp were negative on all 8 dolphins. The 4 animals with meningoencephalitis had serum antibodies against T gondii (titers ranging from 1:80 to 1:320) but not against morbillivirus. In contrast, the other 4 dolphins were seropositive for morbillivirus (with titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:40) but seronegative for T gondii. No morbillivirus antigen or nucleic acid was detected in the tissues of any dolphin. It is concluded that the severe lung and brain lesions were the cause of death and that T gondii was the likely etiologic agent of the cerebral lesions. Morbillivirus infection was not considered to have contributed to death of these animals. PMID:20118319

  13. Importance of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to marine toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Camacho-Magaña, Claudia; Gómez-Meda, Belinda; Ramos-Ibarra, María; Batista-González, Cecilia; Zúñiga-González, G

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the presence of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNES) from peripheral blood of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the possibility to use this species as potential bioindicator of genotoxic compounds. Forty-eight blood samples from 12 bottlenose dolphins were obtain from three Mexican dolphinariums, and from 10 dolphins was possible to obtain more than one sample at different sampling times. Smears were processed and observed with an epifluorescence microscope. The average of MNES and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) from the 48 samples was 24.3 +/- 6.1 MNES/10,000 total erythrocytes (TE), and 9.1 +/- 5.5 PCE/1,000 TE. MNES and PCE number did not show differences between gender and age. No variations in the MNES values of the bottlenose dolphins that were sampled more than one occasion were found. Comparisons among dolphinariums revealed differences in MNES frequency, with the highest significant frequency observed in dolphins from dolphinarium "A" (26.0 +/- 5.9 MNES/10,000 TE) than dolphinarium "B" (19.5 +/- 3.1 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.05) and dolphinarium "C" (18.6 +/- 3.5 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.007). The presence of MNES and PCE in the bottlenose dolphin may provide a useful marine mammal model to detect DNA damage by means of micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes to evaluate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity expositions. PMID:17278706

  14. Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamic fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Colangeli, Matteo; Kröger, Martin; Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2009-11-01

    We apply the method of invariant manifolds to derive equations of generalized hydrodynamics from the linearized Boltzmann equation and determine exact transport coefficients, obeying Green-Kubo formulas. Numerical calculations are performed in the special case of Maxwell molecules. We investigate, through the comparison with experimental data and former approaches, the spectrum of density fluctuations and address the regime of finite Knudsen numbers and finite frequencies hydrodynamics. PMID:20364972

  15. Eightfold Classification of Hydrodynamic Dissipation.

    PubMed

    Haehl, Felix M; Loganayagam, R; Rangamani, Mukund

    2015-05-22

    We provide a complete characterization of hydrodynamic transport consistent with the second law of thermodynamics at arbitrary orders in the gradient expansion. A key ingredient in facilitating this analysis is the notion of adiabatic hydrodynamics, which enables isolation of the genuinely dissipative parts of transport. We demonstrate that most transport is adiabatic. Furthermore, in the dissipative part, only terms at the leading order in gradient expansion are constrained to be sign definite by the second law (as has been derived before). PMID:26047219

  16. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.

  17. The Contribution of Trunk Axial Kinematics to Poststrike Ball Velocity During Maximal Instep Soccer Kicking.

    PubMed

    Fullenkamp, Adam M; Campbell, Brian M; Laurent, C Matthew; Lane, Amanda Paige

    2015-10-01

    To date, biomechanical analyses of soccer kicking have focused predominantly on lower-extremity motions, with little emphasis on the trunk and upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in trunk axial kinematics between novice (n = 10) and skilled (n = 10) participants, as well as to establish the relationship of trunk axial motion and sagittal plane thigh rotation to poststrike ball velocity. Three-dimensional body segmental motion data were captured using high-resolution motion analysis (120 Hz) while each participant completed 5 maximal instep soccer-style kicks. The results demonstrate that skilled participants use 53% greater axial trunk range of motion compared with novice participants (P < .01), as well as 62% greater peak trunk rotation velocity (P < .01). The results also show a moderate, positive correlation of peak trunk rotation velocity with poststrike ball velocity (r = .57; P < .01), and peak hip flexion velocity with poststrike ball velocity (r = .63; P < .01). The current study highlights the potential for trunk rotation-specific training to improve maximum instep kick velocity in developing soccer athletes. PMID:26099160

  18. Exponential quantum spreading in a class of kicked rotor systems near high-order resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Gong, Jiangbin

    2013-11-01

    Long-lasting exponential quantum spreading was recently found in a simple but very rich dynamical model, namely, an on-resonance double-kicked rotor model [J. Wang, I. Guarneri, G. Casati, and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.234104 107, 234104 (2011)]. The underlying mechanism, unrelated to the chaotic motion in the classical limit but resting on quasi-integrable motion in a pseudoclassical limit, is identified for one special case. By presenting a detailed study of the same model, this work offers a framework to explain long-lasting exponential quantum spreading under much more general conditions. In particular, we adopt the so-called “spinor” representation to treat the kicked-rotor dynamics under high-order resonance conditions and then exploit the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to understand the dynamical evolution. It is found that the existence of a flat band (or an effectively flat band) is one important feature behind why and how the exponential dynamics emerges. It is also found that a quantitative prediction of the exponential spreading rate based on an interesting and simple pseudoclassical map may be inaccurate. In addition to general interests regarding the question of how exponential behavior in quantum systems may persist for a long time scale, our results should motivate further studies toward a better understanding of high-order resonance behavior in δ-kicked quantum systems.

  19. Semiclassical catastrophes and cumulative angular squeezing of a kicked quantum rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Leibscher, M.; Averbukh, I.Sh.; Rozmej, P.; Arvieu, R.

    2004-03-01

    We present a detailed theory of spectacular semiclassical catastrophes happening during the time evolution of a kicked quantum rotor [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 163601 (2001)]. Both two- and three-dimensional rotational systems are analyzed. It is shown that the wave function of the rotor develops a cusp at certain delay after a kick, which results in a sharply focused rotational wave packet. The cusp is followed by a fold-type catastrophe manifested in the rainbow-type moving singularities. In the three-dimensional case, the rainbows are accompanied by additional singular features similar to the glory structures known in the wave optics. These catastrophes in the time-dependent angular wave function are well described by the appropriate tools of the quasiclassical wave mechanics, i.e., by Airy and Bessel approximations and Pearcey's functions. A scenario of 'cumulative squeezing' is also presented in which a specially designed train of short kicks produces an unlimited narrowing of the rotor angular distribution. This scenario is relevant to the molecular alignment by short laser pulses, and also to the atom lithography schemes in which cold atoms are focused by an optical standing wave.

  20. Hemodynamics of a hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Kanefuji, Tsutomu; Yokoo, Takeshi; Suda, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Kenya; Liu, Dexi

    2014-01-01

    The hemodynamics during a hydrodynamic injection were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fluoroscopic imaging. The impacts of hydrodynamic (5 seconds) and slow (60 seconds) injections into the tail veins of mice were compared using 9% body weight of a phase-contrast medium. Hydrodynamically injected solution traveled to the heart and drew back to the hepatic veins (HV), which led to liver expansion and a trace amount of spillover into the portal vein (PV). The liver volumes peaked at 165.6 ± 13.3% and 165.5 ± 11.9% of the original liver volumes in the hydrodynamic and slow injections, respectively. Judging by the intensity of the CBCT images at the PV, HV, right atrium, liver parenchyma (LP), and the inferior vena cava (IVC) distal to the HV conjunction, the slow injection resulted in the higher intensity at PV than at LP. In contrast, a significantly higher intensity was observed in LP after hydrodynamic injection in comparison with that of PV, suggesting that the liver took up the iodine from the blood flow. These results suggest that the enlargement speed of the liver, rather than the expanded volume, primarily determines the efficiency of hydrodynamic delivery to the liver. PMID:26015971

  1. A dolphin peripheral blood leukocyte cDNA microarray for studies of immune function and stress reactions.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Lundqvist, Mats L; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Fair, Patricia A; Kindy, Mark S; Ellis, Blake C; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; McKillen, David J; Trent, Harold F; Chen, Yian Ann; Almeida, Jonas S; Gross, Paul S; Chapman, Robert W; Warr, Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    A microarray focused on stress response and immune function genes of the bottlenosed dolphin has been developed. Random expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced from two dolphin peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) cDNA libraries biased towards T- and B-cell gene expression by stimulation with IL-2 and LPS, respectively. A total of 2784 clones were sequenced and contig analysis yielded 1343 unigenes (archived and annotated at ). In addition, 52 dolphin genes known to be important in innate and adaptive immune function and stress responses of terrestrial mammals were specifically targeted, cloned and added to the unigene collection. The set of dolphin sequences printed on a cDNA microarray comprised the 1343 unigenes, the 52 targeted genes and 2305 randomly selected (but unsequenced) EST clones. This set was printed in duplicate spots, side by side, and in two replicates per slide, such that the total number of features per microarray slide was 19,200, including controls. The dolphin arrays were validated and transcriptomic profiles were generated using PBL from a wild dolphin, a captive dolphin and dolphin skin cells. The results demonstrate that the array is a reproducible and informative tool for assessing differential gene expression in dolphin PBL and in other tissues. PMID:17084893

  2. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  3. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  4. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hundreds of birds, especially gray and white pelicans and cormorants, cover the water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. The basin is teeming with fish, attracting the crowd for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  5. Inbreeding tolerance and fitness costs in wild bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Céline H.; Krützen, Michael; Kopps, Anna M.; Ward, Patrick; Mann, Janet; Sherwin, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In wild populations, inbreeding tolerance is expected to evolve where the cost of avoidance exceeds that of tolerance. We show that in a wild population of bottlenose dolphins found in East Shark Bay, Western Australia, levels of inbreeding are higher than expected by chance alone, and demonstrate that inbreeding is deleterious to female fitness in two independent ways. We found that inbred females, and females with inbred calves, have reduced fitness (lower calving success). We further show that one of the costs of inbreeding is extended weaning age, and that females' earlier calves are more likely to be inbred. While the exact causes of inbreeding remain obscure, our results indicate that one factor is female age, and thus experience. Any inbreeding avoidance mechanisms such as female evasion of kin, or male dispersal, do not seem to be completely effective in this population, which supports the view that inbreeding avoidance does not always evolve wherever inbreeding incurs a cost. PMID:20392729

  6. Examining participation in a Dolphin Observation Citizen Science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdziarz, Susan F.

    This research project examined how people utilized the Dolphin Observation Citizen Science Kit at the Crystal Cove Beach Cottages. This study explored whether this citizen science program successfully engaged people in a recreational setting that is not normally associated with science learning opportunities. Most research on citizen science programs has focused on projects that attract people who already have an interest in science. This study took place in a location that attracts people who may have weak science identities, which made it possible to learn more about how this audience engages in citizen science programs. The data showed that people in this setting participated in this citizen science program. People with weak and strong science identities used the kit. This indicates that this type of recreational setting could be further explored as a place to engage people with weak science identities in science education activities.

  7. Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Krützen, Michael; Mann, Janet; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Bejder, Lars; Sherwin, William B

    2005-06-21

    In Shark Bay, wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) apparently use marine sponges as foraging tools. We demonstrate that genetic and ecological explanations for this behavior are inadequate; thus, "sponging" classifies as the first case of an existing material culture in a marine mammal species. Using mitochondrial DNA analyses, we show that sponging shows an almost exclusive vertical social transmission within a single matriline from mother to female offspring. Moreover, significant genetic relatedness among all adult spongers at the nuclear level indicates very recent coancestry, suggesting that all spongers are descendents of one recent "Sponging Eve." Unlike in apes, tool use in this population is almost exclusively limited to a single matriline that is part of a large albeit open social network of frequently interacting individuals, adding a new dimension to charting cultural phenomena among animals. PMID:15947077

  8. Mercury and selenium in subantarctic Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii).

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Saez, Iris; Dellabianca, Natalia A; Goodall, R Natalie P; Cappozzo, H Luis; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

    2013-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in hepatic, renal, and muscle tissues of seven specimens of Commerson's dolphins incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Liver yielded the mean highest concentration of THg 9.40 (9.92) μg g(-1) dry weight (DW) (standard deviation of the average in parenthesis); kidney and muscle showed similar values, ranging from 2.34 to 3.63 μg g(-1) DW. Selenium concentrations were similar in hepatic and renal tissues, with values from 13.62 to 14.56 μg g(-1) DW; the lowest concentration was observed in muscle, 4.13 (2.05) μg g(-1) DW. Among the specimens analyzed, the maximum concentrations of THg and Se were observed in the single adult female studied. An increasing age trend is observed for THg concentrations in tissues analyzed. The molar ratio of Se/Hg in the hepatic, renal, and muscle tissues were 8.7 (9.6), 13.2 (9.5), and 9.0 (11.4), respectively, suggesting Se protection against Hg toxicity. Silver concentrations in the three tissues were included, and the Se/(Hg + 0.5×Ag) molar ratio showed values closer to 1. Both Hg and Se concentrations in liver and kidney were comparable to those found in other small odontocetes from Argentine and Brazilian waters. This study constitutes the first joint description reported of Hg and Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and muscle of the Commerson's dolphin species. PMID:23225076

  9. Inter-Rater Reliability and Validity of the Australian Football League's Kicking and Handball Tests.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Ashley J; Hopper, Luke S; Joyce, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Talent identification tests used at the Australian Football League's National Draft Combine assess the capacities of athletes to compete at a professional level. Tests created for the National Draft Combine are also commonly used for talent identification and athlete development in development pathways. The skills tests created by the Australian Football League required players to either handball (striking the ball with the hand) or kick to a series of 6 randomly generated targets. Assessors subjectively rate each skill execution giving a 0-5 score for each disposal. This study aimed to investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the skills tests at an adolescent sub-elite level. Male Australian footballers were recruited from sub-elite adolescent teams (n = 121, age = 15.7 ± 0.3 years, height = 1.77 ± 0.07 m, mass = 69.17 ± 8.08 kg). The coaches (n = 7) of each team were also recruited. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Inter-class correlations (ICC) and Limits of Agreement statistics. Both the kicking (ICC = 0.96, p < .01) and handball tests (ICC = 0.89, p < .01) demonstrated strong reliability and acceptable levels of absolute agreement. Content validity was determined by examining the test scores sensitivity to laterality and distance. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing coaches' perceptions of skill to actual test outcomes. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) examined the main effect of laterality, with scores on the dominant hand (p = .04) and foot (p < .01) significantly higher compared to the non-dominant side. Follow-up univariate analysis reported significant differences at every distance in the kicking test. A poor correlation was found between coaches' perceptions of skill and testing outcomes. The results of this study demonstrate both skill tests demonstrate acceptable inter-rater reliable. Partial content validity was confirmed for the kicking test, however further research is required to confirm validity of

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic instabilities in stellar core collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Lian, Biao

    2012-03-01

    A spherically symmetric hydrodynamic stellar core collapse process under gravity is time-dependent and may become unstable once disturbed. Subsequent non-linear evolutions of such growth of hydrodynamic instabilities may lead to various physical consequences. Specifically for a homologous collapse of a stellar core characterized by a polytropic exponent Γ= 4/3, we examine oscillations and/or instabilities of three-dimensional (3D) general polytropic perturbations. Being incompressible, the radial component of vorticity perturbation always grows unstably during the same homologous core collapse. For compressible 3D perturbations, the polytropic index γ of perturbations can differ from Γ= 4/3 of the general polytropic hydrodynamic background flow, where the background specific entropy is conserved along streamlines and can vary in radius and time. Our model formulation here is more general than previous ones. The Brunt-Väisälä buoyancy frequency ? does not vanish, allowing for the existence of internal gravity g- modes and/or g+ modes, depending on the sign of ? respectively. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of various oscillatory and unstable perturbation modes are computed, given asymptotic boundary conditions. As studied in several specialized cases of Goldreich & Weber and of Lou & Cao and Cao & Lou, we further confirm that acoustic p modes and surface f modes remain stable in the current more general situations. In comparison, g- modes and sufficiently high radial order g+ modes are unstable, leading to inevitable convective motions within the collapsing stellar interior; meanwhile, sufficiently low radial order g+ modes remain stably trapped in the collapsing core. Unstable growths of 3D g-mode disturbances are governed dominantly by the angular momentum conservation and modified by the gas pressure restoring force. We note in particular that unstable temporal growths of 3D vortical perturbations exist even when the specific entropy distribution becomes

  11. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters. PMID:21613298

  12. Herpesvirus in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): cultivation, epidemiology, and associated pathology.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Cornelis E; van de Bildt, Marco W G; de Jong, Antonius A W; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2009-10-01

    We studied the pathology, epidemiology, and clinical significance of genital herpesvirus infection in a zoo collection of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Samples from the genital mucosa of male (n=21) and female (n=15) dolphins were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the DNA polymerase of herpesvirus. Herpesvirus infection was significantly associated with the occurrence of mucosal plaques on penis (n=3) or vulva (n=4). Biopsies from a penile plaque showed epithelial hyperplasia by histology, contained herpesvirus-like particles by electron microscopy, and tested positive for herpesvirus by PCR. Herpesvirus was successfully cultivated from penile plaque samples and identified as a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We used the newly cultivated bottlenose dolphin herpesvirus (TTHV) to develop a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-TTHV antibodies in banked sera of these dolphins. The percentage of positive samples was higher in adults (20/21, 95%) than in juveniles (7/15, 47%). Seroconversion occurred around the age of onset of sexual behavior. Although herpesvirus infection has been associated with abortion, perinatal mortality, and urogenital neoplasia in other species, we found no evidence of herpesvirus infection by PCR in tissues from six cases of abortion and perinatal mortality, and no diagnoses of urogenital tumors in 24 bottlenose dolphins from this zoo collection that died since 1990. Together, we here report the first successful cultivation from bottlenose dolphins of a herpesvirus that probably causes benign genital plaques, is endemic in this group of dolphins, and is likely transmitted by sexual contact. PMID:19901366

  13. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, Lori H.; Zolman, Eric S.; Balmer, Brian C.; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R. Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A.; Kucklick, John R.; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A.; McFee, Wayne E.; Place, Ned J.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Wells, Randall S.; Rowles, Teresa K.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters. PMID:21613298

  14. Seven new dolphin mitochondrial genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny of whales

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Brandley, Matthew C; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2009-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of Cetacea (whales) is not fully resolved with substantial support. The ambiguous and conflicting results of multiple phylogenetic studies may be the result of the use of too little data, phylogenetic methods that do not adequately capture the complex nature of DNA evolution, or both. In addition, there is also evidence that the generic taxonomy of Delphinidae (dolphins) underestimates its diversity. To remedy these problems, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven dolphins and analyzed these data with partitioned Bayesian analyses. Moreover, we incorporate a newly-developed "relaxed" molecular clock to model heterogenous rates of evolution among cetacean lineages. Results The "deep" phylogenetic relationships are well supported including the monophyly of Cetacea and Odontoceti. However, there is ambiguity in the phylogenetic affinities of two of the river dolphin clades Platanistidae (Indian River dolphins) and Lipotidae (Yangtze River dolphins). The phylogenetic analyses support a sister relationship between Delphinidae and Monodontidae + Phocoenidae. Additionally, there is statistically significant support for the paraphyly of Tursiops (bottlenose dolphins) and Stenella (spotted dolphins). Conclusion Our phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes using recently developed models of rate autocorrelation resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the major Cetacean lineages with a high degree of confidence. Our results indicate that a rapid radiation of lineages explains the lack of support the placement of Platanistidae and Lipotidae. Moreover, our estimation of molecular divergence dates indicates that these radiations occurred in the Middle to Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene, respectively. Furthermore, by collecting and analyzing seven new mitochondrial genomes, we provide strong evidence that the delphinid genera Tursiops and Stenella are not monophyletic, and the current taxonomy masks potentially

  15. Comparison of directional selectivity of hearing in a beluga whale and a bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2009-09-01

    Hearing thresholds as a function of sound-source azimuth were measured in a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas and a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in identical conditions using the auditory evoked-potential method. In both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin, the receiving beam width narrowed with frequency increase. At all frequencies, the receiving beam was markedly wider in the beluga whale than in the bottlenose dolphin. In particular, the 3-dB beam width in the beluga whale narrowed from +/-33.5 degrees at 8 kHz frequency to +/-14.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width narrowed from +/-56.9 degrees to +/-18.9 degrees , respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the 3-dB beam width decreased from +/-19.9 degrees at 8 kHz to +/-6.3 degrees at 128 kHz; the 6-dB beam width decreased from +/-33.1 degrees to +/-8.4 degrees, respectively. In the bottlenose dolphin, the axis of the low-frequency receiving beam deviated from the midline up to 15 degrees; in the beluga whale, this effect was not detected. The audiograms of both the beluga whale and bottlenose dolphin were azimuth-dependent: from an audiogram featuring the best sensitivity at intermediate frequencies at 0 degrees to that featuring monotonous threshold increase with frequency increase at 90 degrees. In the beluga whale, this dependence was less prominent than in the bottlenose dolphin. PMID:19739771

  16. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the “visuomotor priming” condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  17. The Marine Mammal Brain Game: Students Compare the Brains and Behaviors of Dolphins, Sea Lions, and Manatees in This Unique Standards-Based Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Morris, Lee G.; Fobbs, Archibald J., Jr.; Johnson, John I.

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. Dolphins belong to the taxonomic order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Manatees (sea cows),…

  18. 76 FR 77996 - Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permits for Eni US Operating Co., Inc. and Port Dolphin Energy, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... AGENCY Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permits for Eni US Operating Co., Inc. and Port Dolphin Energy..., the EPA issued a final Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) air permit for Port Dolphin Energy, LLC (Port Dolphin), which was issued and became effective on December 1, 2011. The Eni...

  19. Organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and cerebellum gray matter in short-beaked common dolphins and Atlantic white-sided dolphins from the western North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Montie, Eric W; Reddy, Christopher M; Gebbink, Wouter A; Touhey, Katie E; Hahn, Mark E; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of several congeners and classes of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and/or their metabolites, namely organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated-PCBs (OH-PCBs), methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, and OH-PBDEs, were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of short-beaked common dolphins (n = 2), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (n = 8), and gray seal (n = 1) from the western North Atlantic. In three Atlantic white-sided dolphins, cerebellum gray matter (GM) was also analyzed. The levels of OCs, PCBs, MeSO(2)-PCBs, PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs in cerebellum GM were higher than the concentrations in CSF. 4-OH-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) was the only detectable OH-PCB congener present in CSF. The sum (Sigma) OH-PCBs/Sigma PCB concentration ratio in CSF was approximately two to three orders of magnitude greater than the ratio in cerebellum GM for dolphins. PMID:19375836

  20. COPLANAR PCB AND METAL RESIDUES IN DOLPHINS FROM THE U.S. ATLANTIC COAST INCLUDING THE BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN OBTAINED DURING THE 1987/88 MASS MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for coplanar PCBs #77, 105, 126 and 169 in blubber, and for the metals Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn, and Cr, and the non-metallic element ...

  1. Three-dimensional kinematic differences between the preferred and non-preferred limbs during maximal instep soccer kicking.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Fewtrell, D; Taylor, P J; Atkins, S; Bottoms, L; Hobbs, S J

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The current investigation aimed to determine whether there are differences in ball velocity and 3D kinematics when performing maximal kicks with the dominant and non-dominant limbs. Seventeen male academy soccer players performed maximal speed place kicks with their dominant and the non-dominant limbs. The 3D kinematics of the lower extremities were obtained using a 10-camera motion capture system operating at 500 Hz. Hip, knee and ankle joint kinematics were quantified in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes and then contrasted using paired t-tests. Significantly higher ball velocities were obtained with the dominant limb. Foot linear velocity and knee extension velocity at ball contact were also found to be significantly greater in the dominant limb. That reduced ball velocities were observed between kicking limbs highlights the potential performance detriments that may occur when kicking with the non-dominant limb; thus, it is recommended that additional bilateral training be undertaken in order to attenuate this and improve overall kicking performance. PMID:25333601

  2. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    Sound is the primary sensory modality for dolphins, yet policies mitigating anthropogenic sound exposure are limited in wild populations and even fewer noise policies or guidelines have been developed for governing dolphin welfare under human care. Concerns have been raised that dolphins under human care live in facilities that are too noisy, or are too acoustically sterile. However, these claims have not been evaluated to characterize facility soundscapes, and further, how they compare to wild soundscapes. The soundscape of a wild dolphin habitat off the coast of Quintana, Roo, Mexico was characterized based on Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) recordings over one year. Snapping shrimp were persistent and broadband, following a diel pattern. Fish sound production was pulsed and prominent in low frequencies (100 -- 1000 Hz), and abiotic surface wave action contributed to noise in higher frequencies (15 -- 28 kHz). Boat motors were the main anthropogenic sound source. While sporadic, boat motors were responsible for large spikes in the noise, sometimes exceeding the ambient noise (in the absence of a boat) by 20 dB root-mean-squared sound pressure level, and potentially higher at closer distances. Boat motor sounds can potentially mask cues and communication sounds of dolphins. The soundscapes of four acoustically distinct outdoor dolphin facilities in Quintana Roo, Mexico were also characterized based on PAM, and findings compared with one another and with the measurements from the wild dolphin habitat. Recordings were made for at least 24 hours to encompass the range of daily activities. The four facilities differed in non-dolphin species present (biological sounds), bathymetry complexity, and method of water circulation. It was hypothesized that the greater the biological and physical differences of a pool from the ocean habitat, the greater the acoustic differences would be from the natural environment. Spectral analysis and audio playback revealed that the site

  3. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    Sound is the primary sensory modality for dolphins, yet policies mitigating anthropogenic sound exposure are limited in wild populations and even fewer noise policies or guidelines have been developed for governing dolphin welfare under human care. Concerns have been raised that dolphins under human care live in facilities that are too noisy, or are too acoustically sterile. However, these claims have not been evaluated to characterize facility soundscapes, and further, how they compare to wild soundscapes. The soundscape of a wild dolphin habitat off the coast of Quintana, Roo, Mexico was characterized based on Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) recordings over one year. Snapping shrimp were persistent and broadband, following a diel pattern. Fish sound production was pulsed and prominent in low frequencies (100 -- 1000 Hz), and abiotic surface wave action contributed to noise in higher frequencies (15 -- 28 kHz). Boat motors were the main anthropogenic sound source. While sporadic, boat motors were responsible for large spikes in the noise, sometimes exceeding the ambient noise (in the absence of a boat) by 20 dB root-mean-squared sound pressure level, and potentially higher at closer distances. Boat motor sounds can potentially mask cues and communication sounds of dolphins. The soundscapes of four acoustically distinct outdoor dolphin facilities in Quintana Roo, Mexico were also characterized based on PAM, and findings compared with one another and with the measurements from the wild dolphin habitat. Recordings were made for at least 24 hours to encompass the range of daily activities. The four facilities differed in non-dolphin species present (biological sounds), bathymetry complexity, and method of water circulation. It was hypothesized that the greater the biological and physical differences of a pool from the ocean habitat, the greater the acoustic differences would be from the natural environment. Spectral analysis and audio playback revealed that the site

  4. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  5. Hydrodynamic interactions in protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek; Niewieczerzał, Szymon

    2009-03-01

    We incorporate hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) in a coarse-grained and structure-based model of proteins by employing the Rotne-Prager hydrodynamic tensor. We study several small proteins and demonstrate that HIs facilitate folding. We also study HIV-1 protease and show that HIs make the flap closing dynamics faster. The HIs are found to affect time correlation functions in the vicinity of the native state even though they have no impact on same time characteristics of the structure fluctuations around the native state.

  6. Hydrodynamic interactions in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Cieplak, Marek; Niewieczerzał, Szymon

    2009-03-28

    We incorporate hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) in a coarse-grained and structure-based model of proteins by employing the Rotne-Prager hydrodynamic tensor. We study several small proteins and demonstrate that HIs facilitate folding. We also study HIV-1 protease and show that HIs make the flap closing dynamics faster. The HIs are found to affect time correlation functions in the vicinity of the native state even though they have no impact on same time characteristics of the structure fluctuations around the native state. PMID:19334888

  7. Isogeometric analysis of Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevs, Y.; Akkerman, I.; Benson, D. J.; Scovazzi, G.; Shashkov, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Isogeometric analysis of Lagrangian shock hydrodynamics is proposed. The Euler equations of compressible hydrodynamics in the weak form are discretized using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) in space. The discretization has all the advantages of a higher-order method, with the additional benefits of exact symmetry preservation and better per-degree-of-freedom accuracy. An explicit, second-order accurate time integration procedure, which conserves total energy, is developed and employed to advance the equations in time. The performance of the method is examined on a set of standard 2D and 3D benchmark examples, where good quality of the computational results is attained.

  8. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  9. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  10. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  11. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  14. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  15. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin...

  16. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lane, Suzanne M; Smith, Cynthia R; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C; Barry, Kevin P; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S; Rosel, Patricia E; Rowles, Teresa K; Speakman, Todd R; Townsend, Forrest I; Tumlin, Mandy C; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-11-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50-55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate-severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0-92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. PMID:26538595

  17. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Roberto I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A.; Real-Valle, Roberto A.; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  18. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Suzanne M.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C.; Barry, Kevin P.; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S.; Rosel, Patricia E.; Rowles, Teresa K.; Speakman, Todd R.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Tumlin, Mandy C.; Wells, Randall S.; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50–55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate–severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0–92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. PMID:26538595

  19. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2015-01-01

    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371-1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km(2), respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters. PMID:25634769

  20. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinrong; Song, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Kaiya

    2015-01-01

    Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. This study examined the population of Chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of Zhanjiang in the northern South China Sea. A total of 492 Chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. The Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the Guangdong coast. It is composed of approximately 1485 individuals (95% CI = 1371–1629; SE = 63.8), with estimates of mean representative range and core area of 168.51 and 44.26 km2, respectively. The high site fidelity and long-term residence of Chinese white dolphins in the study area are well established. A review of all available data indicates that based on what is currently known, the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population is the second largest of the species and genus in the world. However, the recent industrial boom along the Zhanjiang coast has increased concerns regarding the conservation of the Zhanjiang Chinese white dolphin population. We recommend the designation of a national nature reserve as a most urgent measure for protecting Chinese white dolphins in Zhanjiang waters. PMID:25634769

  1. Monitoring Dolphins in an Urban Marine System: Total and Effective Population Size Estimates of Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ansmann, Ina C.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Seddon, Jennifer M.; Parra, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008–2010. Abundance (N) was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne) was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Nec). A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554±22.2 (SE) (95% CI: 510–598) was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193±6.4 (SE) (95% CI: 181–207), while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446±56 (SE) (95% CI: 336–556) individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Nec = 56, 95% CI: 33–128) raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5%) declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys) at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  2. Genomewide investigation of adaptation to harmful algal blooms in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Cammen, Kristina M; Schultz, Thomas F; Rosel, Patricia E; Wells, Randall S; Read, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can be lethal in marine species and cause illness in humans, are increasing worldwide. In the Gulf of Mexico, HABs of Karenia brevis produce neurotoxic brevetoxins that cause large-scale marine mortality events. The long history of such blooms, combined with the potentially severe effects of exposure, may have produced a strong selective pressure for evolved resistance. Advances in next-generation sequencing, in particular genotyping-by-sequencing, greatly enable the genomic study of such adaptation in natural populations. We used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to investigate brevetoxicosis resistance in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). To improve our understanding of the epidemiology and aetiology of brevetoxicosis and the potential for evolved resistance in an upper trophic level predator, we sequenced pools of genomic DNA from dolphins sampled from both coastal and estuarine populations in Florida and during multiple HAB-associated mortality events. We sequenced 129 594 RAD loci and analysed 7431 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The allele frequencies of many of these polymorphic loci differed significantly between live and dead dolphins. Some loci associated with survival showed patterns suggesting a common genetic-based mechanism of resistance to brevetoxins in bottlenose dolphins along the Gulf coast of Florida, but others suggested regionally specific mechanisms of resistance or reflected differences among HABs. We identified candidate genes that may be the evolutionary target for brevetoxin resistance by searching the dolphin genome for genes adjacent to survival-associated SNPs. PMID:26290192

  3. Spatial and Social Sexual Segregation Patterns in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)

    PubMed Central

    Fury, Christine Ann; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual segregation seems to be common in bottlenose dolphins, whereby males and females live in different pods that mix mainly for mating. Male dolphins often use aggressive behaviour to mate with females, while females with calves may have different activity and dietary requirements to males and different susceptibility to predation. We investigated the degree of spatial and social sexual segregation in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in a subtropical estuary in Australia. Based on surveys completed over three years, dolphin groups were mostly mixed-sex or female. Mixed-sex groups were found in larger groups in mostly deeper water, whereas, female groups were foraging across all water depths in smaller groups. Aggressive coercive behaviour by males towards females was high, occurring mainly in deeper water, at higher tides, and outside the breeding season. Habitat use by female dolphin groups suggests that shallow tributaries may provide a sanctuary from aggressive males, access to suitable prey items and density for mothers and their calves, or a combination of these factors. PMID:23326370

  4. Heterologous murine and bovine IVF using bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calabuig, M J; de la Fuente, J; Laguna-Barraza, R; Beltrán-Breña, P; Martínez-Nevado, E; Johnston, S D; Rizos, D; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F

    2015-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies are of great importance for increasing the genetic diversity in captive animals. The use of bovine or murine oocytes in heterologous IVF provides advantages compared to homologous IVF in nondomestic animals, such as the accessibility to oocytes and the availability of well-developed in vitro maturation systems. The aim of this study was to determine the heterologous IVF parameters using cryopreserved dolphin spermatozoa and zona-intact bovine or murine oocytes and to examine the nuclear chromatin status of the dolphin spermatozoa. All the processes involved in the fertilization including embryo cleavage were observed by confocal microscopy and hybrid embryo formation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Heterologous bovine IVF showed no polyspermy, lower percentages of pronuclear formation, and a lower cleavage rate compared to homologous IVF group (34.8% vs. 89.3%). Heterologous murine IVF showed a lower cleavage rate than homologous IVF (9.6% vs. 77.1%). With respect to dolphin sperm chromatin, it was more stable, i.e. more resistant to EDTA-SDS decondensation than the bovine sperm chromatin. This study revealed the stability of the dolphin sperm chromatin and the ability of the dolphin spermatozoa to penetrate zona-intact bovine and murine oocytes, leading to hybrid embryo formation. PMID:26149074

  5. Postnatal development of echolocation abilities in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): temporal organization.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gnone, Guido; Pessani, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In spite of all the information available on adult bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) biosonar, the ontogeny of its echolocation abilities has been investigated very little. Earlier studies have reported that neonatal dolphins can produce both whistles and burst-pulsed sounds just after birth and that early-pulsed sounds are probably a precursor of echolocation click trains. The aim of this research is to investigate the development of echolocation signals in a captive calf, born in the facilities of the Acquario di Genova. A set of 81 impulsive sounds were collected from birth to the seventh postnatal week and six additional echolocation click trains were recorded when the dolphin was 1 year old. Moreover, behavioral observations, concurring with sound production, were carried out by means of a video camera. For each sound we measured five acoustic parameters: click train duration (CTD), number of clicks per train, minimum, maximum, and mean click repetition rate (CRR). CTD and number of clicks per train were found to increase with age. Maximum and mean CRR followed a decreasing trend with dolphin growth starting from the second postnatal week. The calf's first head scanning movement was recorded 21 days after birth. Our data suggest that in the bottlenose dolphin the early postnatal weeks are essential for the development of echolocation abilities and that the temporal features of the echolocation click trains remain relatively stable from the seventh postnatal week up to the first year of life. PMID:23362088

  6. Dolphin biosonar target detection in noise: wrap up of a past experiment.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L

    2014-07-01

    The target detection capability of bottlenose dolphins in the presence of artificial masking noise was first studied by Au and Penner [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 687-693 (1981)] in which the dolphins' target detection threshold was determined as a function of the ratio of the echo energy flux density and the estimated received noise spectral density. Such a metric was commonly used in human psychoacoustics despite the fact that the echo energy flux density is not compatible with noise spectral density which is averaged intensity per Hz. Since the earlier detection in noise studies, two important parameters, the dolphin integration time applicable to broadband clicks and the dolphin's auditory filter shape, were determined. The inclusion of these two parameters allows for the estimation of the received energy flux density of the masking noise so that the dolphin target detection can now be determined as a function of the ratio of the received energy of the echo over the received noise energy. Using an integration time of 264 μs and an auditory bandwidth of 16.7 kHz, the ratio of the echo energy to noise energy at the target detection threshold is approximately 1 dB. PMID:24993190

  7. Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: a window into phylogeny and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Rauschmann, Michael A; Huggenberger, Stefan; Kossatz, Lars S; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2006-11-01

    In this paper on the ontogenesis and evolutionary biology of odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales), we investigate the head morphology of three perinatal pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) with the following methods: computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, conventional X-ray imaging, cryo-sectioning as well as gross dissection. Comparison of these anatomical methods reveals that for a complete structural analysis, a combination of modern imaging techniques and conventional morphological methods is needed. In addition to the perinatal dolphins, we include series of microslides of fetal odontocetes (S. attenuata, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, narwhal Monodon monoceros). In contrast to other mammals, newborn cetaceans represent an extremely precocial state of development correlated to the fact that they have to swim and surface immediately after birth. Accordingly, the morphology of the perinatal dolphin head is very similar to that of the adult. Comparison with early fetal stages of dolphins shows that the ontogenetic change from the general mammalian bauplan to cetacean organization was characterized by profound morphological transformations of the relevant organ systems and roughly seems to parallel the phylogenetic transition from terrestrial ancestors to modern odontocetes. PMID:17051542

  8. Role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Simpkin, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating the effect of parasites on population size is essential for designing management and conservation plans of wild animal populations. Although knowledge in this area is scarce in cetaceans, current evidence suggests that species of the nematode genus Crassicauda may play an important regulatory role in some populations. In the present study, a semiparametric regression technique was applied to a previously published dataset to re-examine the role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata. The resulting model indicated parasite-induced mortality at ages between 6.5 and 9 yr and at roughly 12 yr. The maximum mortality estimates obtained could represent 2 to 4% of natural mortality in dolphins 6 to 8 yr old. This estimate is substantially smaller than previously published values, but in contrast with previous research, our model provides clear statistical evidence for parasite-induced mortality because the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the estimated mortality rates excluded the 0 value. We also evaluated, through simulations, how potential sampling biases of infected dolphins could overestimate parasite-induced mortality. Small differences in sampling selectivity between infected and uninfected animals could substantially reduce the mortality estimates. However, the simulated models also supported the notion of statistically significant mortality in juvenile dolphins. Given that dolphins older than 16 yr were poorly represented in the dataset, further research is needed to establish whether Crassicauda sp. causes meaningful mortality for population dynamics among adult individuals. PMID:24492057

  9. Novel diversity of bacterial communities associated with bottlenose dolphin upper respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley R; Torralba, Manolito; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D; Nelson, Karen E; Morris, Pamela J

    2009-12-01

    Respiratory illness is thought to be most the common cause of death in both wild and captive populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The suspected pathogens that have been isolated from diseased animals have also been isolated from healthy individuals, suggesting they may be part of the normal flora. Our current understanding of the bacteria associated with the upper respiratory tract (URT) of bottlenose dolphins is based exclusively upon culture-based isolation and identification. Because < 1% of naturally occurring bacteria are culturable, a substantial fraction of the bacterial community associated with the dolphin URT remains to be described. The dolphin URT microbiota revealed by sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA exhibits almost no overlap with the taxa indicated in culture-based studies. The most abundant sequences in our libraries were similar among all of our study animals and shared the greatest homology to sequences of bacteria belonging to the genera Cardiobacterium, Suttonella, Psychrobacter, Tenacibaculum, Fluviicola and Flavobacterium; however, they were sufficiently different from database sequences from both cultured and uncultured organisms to suggest they represent novel genera and species. Our findings also demonstrate the dominance of three of the four bacterial phyla that dominate other mammalian microbiomes, including those of humans, and show tremendous diversity at the species/strain level, suggesting tight coevolution of the dolphin host and its URT bacterial community. PMID:23765934

  10. Dolphin genome provides evidence for adaptive evolution of nervous system genes and a molecular rate slowdown

    PubMed Central

    McGowen, Michael R.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans (dolphins and whales) have undergone a radical transformation from the original mammalian bodyplan. In addition, some cetaceans have evolved large brains and complex cognitive capacities. We compared approximately 10 000 protein-coding genes culled from the bottlenose dolphin genome with nine other genomes to reveal molecular correlates of the remarkable phenotypic features of these aquatic mammals. Evolutionary analyses demonstrated that the overall synonymous substitution rate in dolphins has slowed compared with other studied mammals, and is within the range of primates and elephants. We also discovered 228 genes potentially under positive selection (dN/dS > 1) in the dolphin lineage. Twenty-seven of these genes are associated with the nervous system, including those related to human intellectual disabilities, synaptic plasticity and sleep. In addition, genes expressed in the mitochondrion have a significantly higher mean dN/dS ratio in the dolphin lineage than others examined, indicating evolution in energy metabolism. We encountered selection in other genes potentially related to cetacean adaptations such as glucose and lipid metabolism, dermal and lung development, and the cardiovascular system. This study underlines the parallel molecular trajectory of cetaceans with other mammalian groups possessing large brains. PMID:22740643

  11. The acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazua-Duran, Carmen

    2005-04-01

    Bottlenose dolphins live in a variety of habitats of the world's oceans using their acoustic repertoire to communicate and inspect their environment. This work investigates the acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins that inhabit a coastal lagoon of the southern Gulf of Mexico, the Laguna de Terminos and how it may relate to the dolphins' general behavioral state and herd size, and to the general characteristics of the habitat, such as visibility, depth, and sea state. Preliminary results show that bottlenose dolphins produce by far more clicks than whistles in all behavioral states (feeding, resting, social, and travel) and herd sizes, which may correlate with the decreased visibility and shallow depth of the Laguna de Terminos. Additionally, silence was found during all behavioral states, but very seldom in herds of large size. These preliminary results suggest that bottlenose dolphins are choosing when and where to produce their phonations. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to understand how these animals are using their acoustic sense to communicate and inspect their environment. [Work supported by CONACyT-Gobierno Edo. de Campeche and PAPIIT, UNAM.

  12. Localization of dolphin whistles through frequency domain beamforming using a narrow aperture audio/video array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Keenan R.; Buck, John R.

    2003-04-01

    Correlating the acoustic and physical behavior of marine mammals is an ongoing challenge for scientists studying the links between acoustic communication and social behavior of these animals. This talk describes a system to record and correlate the physical and acoustical behavior of dolphins. A sparse, short baseline audio/video array consisting of 16 hydrophones and an underwater camera was constructed in a cross configuration to measure the acoustic signals of vocalizing dolphins. The bearings of vocalizing dolphins were estimated using the broadband frequency domain beamforming algorithm for sparse arrays to suppress grating lobes of Thode et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107 (2000)]. The estimated bearings from the acoustic signals were then converted to video image coordinates and a marker was placed on the video image. The system was calibrated both at an indoor tank and from an outdoor dock at UMass Dartmouth prior to field tests in a natural lagoon at the Dolphin Connection on Duck Key, FL. These tests confirmed that the system worked well within the limits of underwater visibility by consistently placing the marker on or near the whistling or echolocating dolphin. [Work supported by NSF Ocean Sciences.

  13. Echolocation characteristics of free-swimming bottlenose dolphins during object detection and identification.

    PubMed

    Houser, Dorian; Martin, Stephen W; Bauer, Eric J; Phillips, Michael; Herrin, Tim; Cross, Matt; Vidal, Andrea; Moore, Patrick W

    2005-04-01

    A biosonar measurement tool (BMT) was created to investigate dolphin echolocation search strategies by recording echolocation clicks, returning echoes, and three-dimensional angular motion, velocity, and depth of free-swimming dolphins performing open-water target detections. Trial start and stop times, locations determined from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), and BMT motion and acoustic data were used to produce spatial and acoustic representations of the searches. Two dolphins (LUT, FLP) searched for targets lying on the seafloor of a bay environment while carrying the BMT. LUT searched rapidly (< 10 s), produced few clicks, and varied click-peak frequency (20-120 kHz); FLP searched relatively slowly (tens of seconds) and produced many hundreds of clicks with stereotypical frequency-dependent energy distributions dominating from 30-60 kHz. Dolphins amplified target echo returns by either increasing the click source level or reducing distance to the target but without reducing source level. The distribution of echolocation click-peak frequencies suggested a bias in the dominant frequency components of clicks, possibly due to mechanical constraints of the click generator. Prior training and hearing loss accommodation potentially explain differences in the search strategies of the two dolphins. PMID:15898671

  14. A community split among dolphins: the effect of social relationships on the membership of new communities

    PubMed Central

    Nishita, Miki; Shirakihara, Miki; Amano, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about community splitting among dolphins because such events are rare in dolphin populations. A case of a community split was confirmed in a population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Japan, where a group of approximately 30 dolphins moved to a new habitat some 60 km from the original habitat. We examined the associations among the dolphins before the community split to determine whether the new community members were already socially different before the split, using 7-year identification data. Before the split, the males in the same community after the split more often associated with each other than they did with those in different community. In contrast, the association patterns among females and between sexes showed no relationships with their post-split community membership. These results indicate that the males of new community were socially different from the other males for a long time before the split, but the females might not have been different. Our findings suggest that at time of the community split, the factors determining the memberships of the subsequent communities are sex-linked. The long-term social relationships among males could be maintained in the subsequent communities. PMID:26608473

  15. Functional brain imaging and bioacoustics in the Bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Sam; Finneran, James; Carder, Donald; van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Houser, Dorian; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

    2003-10-01

    The dolphin brain is the central processing computer for a complex and effective underwater echolocation and communication system. Until now, it has not been possible to study or diagnose disorders of the dolphin brain employing modern functional imaging methods like those used in human medicine. Our most recent studies employ established methods such as behavioral tasks, physiological observations, and computed tomography (CT) and, for the first time, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Trained dolphins slide out of their enclosure on to a mat and are transported by trainers and veterinarians to the laboratory for injection of a ligand. Following ligand injection, brief experiments include trained vocal responses to acoustic, visual, or tactile stimuli. We have used the ligand technetium (Tc-99m) biscisate (Neurolite) to image circulatory flow by SPECT. Fluro-deoxy-d-glucose (18-F-FDG) has been employed to image brain metabolism with PET. Veterinarians carefully monitored dolphins during and after the procedure. Through these methods, we have demonstrated that functional imaging can be employed safely and productively with dolphins to obtain valuable information on brain structure and function for medical and research purposes. Hemispheric differences and variations in flow and metabolism in different brain areas will be shown.

  16. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements in stranded rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Mandy L. H.; Manire, Charles A.; Mann, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Thirty-six rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) live-stranded on Hutchinson Island, FL on August 6, 2004. Seven animals were transported to Mote Marine Laboratory for rehabilitation. Two auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements were performed on each of five of these dolphins in air using a jawphone to present acoustic stimuli. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) were measured to establish how well the auditory system follows the temporal envelope of acoustic stimuli. A 40 kHz stimulus carrier was amplitude modulated (AM) with varying rates ranging from 200 Hz to 1800 Hz, in 200 Hz steps. The best AM-rate from the first dolphin tested was 1500 Hz. This AM rate was used in subsequent AEP measurements to determine evoked-potential hearing thresholds between 5000 and 80000 Hz. These findings show that rough-toothed dolphins can detect sounds between 5 and 80 kHz, and are most likely capable of detecting frequencies much higher than 80 kHz. MRTF data suggest that rough-toothed dolphins have a high temporal resolution, similar to that of other cetaceans.

  17. A comparison of pectoral fin contact between two different wild dolphin populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudzinski, K.M.; Gregg, J.D.; Ribic, C.A.; Kuczaj, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact behaviour involving the pectoral fin has been documented in a number of dolphin species, and various explanations about its function have been offered. Pectoral fin contact can take a variety of forms, and involves a number of body parts and movements, likely differing depending upon social or ecological context. For this study, we compare the pectoral fin contact behaviour of two species of wild dolphins: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan, and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas. The two study populations exhibit surprising similarity in the ways in which pectoral fin contacts are used, despite differences in species and environmental conditions at the two sites. Differences in contact rates for calves between the two sites suggest that calf-focused aggression from adult dolphins is more prevalent at Mikura than in The Bahamas. Our results suggest that pectoral fin contact behaviour seems to be driven primarily by social pressures, and may be similar in function to allogrooming described in primates. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina. PMID:21616509

  19. Maternal signature whistle use aids mother-calf reunions in a bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie L; Guarino, Emily; Keaton, Loriel; Erb, Linda; Jaakkola, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    Individual vocal signatures play an important role in parent-offspring recognition in many animals. One species that uses signature calls to accurately facilitate individual recognition is the bottlenose dolphin. Female dolphins and their calves will use their highly individualised signature whistles to identify and maintain contact with one another. Previous studies have shown high signature whistle rates of both mothers and calves during forced separations. In more natural settings, it appears that the calf vocalises more frequently to initiate reunions with its mother. However, little is known about the mechanisms a female dolphin may employ when there is strong motivation for her to reunite with her calf. In this study, we conducted a series of experimental trials in which we asked a female dolphin to retrieve either her wandering calf or a series of inanimate objects (control). Our results show that she used her vocal signature to actively recruit her calf, and produced no such signal when asked to retrieve the objects. This is the first study to clearly manipulate a dolphin's motivation to retrieve her calf with experimental controls. The results highlight that signature whistles are not only used in broadcasting individual identity, but that maternal signature whistle use is important in facilitating mother-calf reunions. PMID:26992371

  20. Echolocation characteristics of free-swimming bottlenose dolphins during object detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian; Martin, Stephen W.; Bauer, Eric J.; Phillips, Michael; Herrin, Tim; Cross, Matt; Vidal, Andrea; Moore, Patrick W.

    2005-04-01

    A biosonar measurement tool (BMT) was created to investigate dolphin echolocation search strategies by recording echolocation clicks, returning echoes, and three-dimensional angular motion, velocity, and depth of free-swimming dolphins performing open-water target detections. Trial start and stop times, locations determined from a differential global positioning system (DGPS), and BMT motion and acoustic data were used to produce spatial and acoustic representations of the searches. Two dolphins (LUT, FLP) searched for targets lying on the seafloor of a bay environment while carrying the BMT. LUT searched rapidly (<10 s), produced few clicks, and varied click-peak frequency (20-120 kHz); FLP searched relatively slowly (tens of seconds) and produced many hundreds of clicks with stereotypical frequency-dependent energy distributions dominating from 30-60 kHz. Dolphins amplified target echo returns by either increasing the click source level or reducing distance to the target but without reducing source level. The distribution of echolocation click-peak frequencies suggested a bias in the dominant frequency components of clicks, possibly due to mechanical constraints of the click generator. Prior training and hearing loss accommodation potentially explain differences in the search strategies of the two dolphins. .

  1. Adipose-derived stem cell collection and characterization in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shawn P; Catania, Jeffrey M; Harman, Robert J; Jensen, Eric D

    2012-11-01

    To assess the regenerative properties and potential therapeutic value of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a need to determine whether an adequate adipose depot exists, in addition to the development of a standardized technique for minimally invasive adipose collection. In this study, an ultrasound-guided liposuction technique for adipose collection was assessed for its safety and efficacy. The ultrasound was utilized to identify and measure the postnuchal adipose depot and aid in the guidance of the liposuction cannula during aspiration. Liposuction procedures from 6 dolphins yielded 0.9-12.7 g of adipose. All samples yielded sufficient nucleated cells to initiate primary cell cultures, and at passage 2, were successfully differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, and osteogenic cell lineages. The cultured dolphin cells expressed known stem-cell-associated CD markers, CD44 and CD90. Ultrasound-guided liposuction proved to be a safe and minimally invasive procedure that resulted in the successful isolation of ASCs in bottlenose dolphins. This is the first article that conclusively establishes the presence of stem cells in the dolphin. PMID:22530932

  2. Morphological analysis of the flippers in the Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, applying X-ray technique.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Daniela Laura; Panebianco, María Victoria; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2014-07-01

    Pectoral flippers of cetaceans function to provide stability and maneuverability during locomotion. Directional asymmetry (DA) is a common feature among odontocete cetaceans, as well as sexual dimorphism (SD). For the first time DA, allometry, physical maturity, and SD of the flipper skeleton--by X-ray technique--of Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The number of carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and morphometric characters from the humerus, radius, ulna, and digit two were studied in franciscana dolphins from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The number of visible epiphyses and their degree of fusion at the proximal and distal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna were also analyzed. The flipper skeleton was symmetrical, showing a negative allometric trend, with similar growth patterns in both sexes with the exception of the width of the radius (P ≤ 0.01). SD was found on the number of phalanges of digit two (P ≤ 0.01), ulna and digit two lengths. Females showed a higher relative ulna length and shorter relative digit two length, and the opposite occurred in males (P ≤ 0.01). Epiphyseal fusion pattern proved to be a tool to determine dolphin's age; franciscana dolphins with a mature flipper were, at least, four years old. This study indicates that the flippers of franciscana dolphins are symmetrical; both sexes show a negative allometric trend; SD is observed in radius, ulna, and digit two; and flipper skeleton allows determine the age class of the dolphins. PMID:24700648

  3. Implicit Goalkeeper Influences on Goal Side Selection in Representative Penalty Kicking Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Noël, Benjamin; van der Kamp, John; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In well-controlled lab situations, marginal displacements of the goalkeeper on the goal line affect goal side selection of penalty takers implicitly, that is, without the penalty takers being consciously aware of the displacement. Whether this effect is retained in more representative real-life situations with competing goalkeepers and penalty takers has not been verified. In the current study, penalty takers were instructed to position the goalkeepers at the centre of the goal. They then performed penalty kicks adopting either a keeper independent or a keeper dependent strategy, while goalkeepers actually attempted to save the ball by strategically diving early or late. Analyses of trials in which penalty takers failed to place the goalkeeper in the centre of the goal (although they incorrectly believed they placed the goalkeeper at the centre of the goal) showed that implicit influences of the goalkeeper’s position on goal side selection were overridden by the (conscious) perception of the direction of the goalkeeper’s dive, but only if the penalty takers deliberately monitored the goalkeeper’s action and the goalkeeper committed early enough for penalty takers to respond. In all other combinations of penalty kick and goalkeeper strategies more than 60% of the kicks were directed to the side of the goal with more space. Most importantly, however, the current study shows that influences of implicit perception on the penalty takers’ decision making are rather pervasive considering that many supraliminal sources of information were available. That is, the current study demonstrates that implicit perception retains its influence on decision-making even if other (stronger) stimuli are also present. PMID:26267378

  4. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  5. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  6. Mass stranding of striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, at Augusta, Western Australia: notes on clinical pathology and general observations.

    PubMed

    Gales, N J

    1992-10-01

    Seventeen striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found stranded on a West Australian beach. Three animals died before a rescue attempt was made and a further three died during the rescue. The remaining dolphins were released 24 km offshore and were not seen again. One dolphin was noted to have a broken mandible. Evidence of physical trauma to the other dolphins was minimal; one adult female was observed with some peeling skin. Blood was collected for analysis. All dolphins were slightly dehydrated and had a leukogram typical of a stressed animal. Plasma biochemistry reflected primary muscle trauma. There were no clues to the cause of the stranding; observed pathology reflected damage that occurred as a direct consequence of stranding. PMID:1474667

  7. Ecological variables influencing trace element concentrations in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu 1821) stranded in continental Portugal.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Sílvia S; Torres, Jordi; Ferreira, Marisa; Marçalo, Ana; Nicolau, Lídia; Vingada, José V; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    Both the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (Habitats Directive 92/43/CEE, Annex II) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive demand for data on their ecology and anthropogenic threats. To evaluate the bottlenose dolphin's toxicological status in continental Portugal, several trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were determined in 25 stranded individuals. The potential effect of sex, body length and stranding location on trace element concentrations was analysed. In the present study, bottlenose dolphins presented high mercury levels, only exceeded by animals from the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas. Only essential elements were influenced by dolphin sex, whereas Cd, Hg and Pb bioaccumulated in larger dolphins, and hepatic Hg and Cd concentrations were higher in the northwest coast of continental Portugal. The location effect may relate to variations in bottlenose diet and trace element availability, according to the proximity to anthropogenic sources in the Atlantic Iberian coast. PMID:26706756

  8. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. A Discrete SIRS Model with Kicked Loss of Immunity and Infection Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, F.; Renna, I.; Renna, L.

    2011-03-01

    A discrete-time deterministic epidemic model is proposed with the aim of reproducing the behaviour observed in the incidence of real infectious diseases, such as oscillations and irregularities. For this purpose we introduce, in a naïve discrete-time SIRS model, seasonal variability in the loss of immunity and in the infection probability, modelled by sequences of kicks. Restrictive assumptions are made on the parameters of the models, in order to guarantee that the transitions are determined by true probabilities, so that comparisons with stochastic discrete-time previsions can be also provided. Numerical simulations show that the characteristics of real infectious diseases can be adequately modeled.

  9. Barrier-induced chaos in a kicked rotor: Classical subdiffusion and quantum localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanku; Pal, Harinder; Santhanam, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between classically chaotic dynamics and quantum localization is studied in a system that violates the assumptions of the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem, namely, the kicked rotor in a discontinuous potential barrier. We show that the discontinuous barrier induces chaos and more than two distinct subdiffusive energy growth regimes, the latter being an unusual feature for Hamiltonian chaos. We show that the dynamical localization in the quantized version of this system carries the imprint of non-KAM classical dynamics through the dependence of quantum break time on subdiffusion exponents. We briefly comment on the experimental feasibility of this system.

  10. Experimental Observation of Two-Dimensional Anderson Localization with the Atomic Kicked Rotor.

    PubMed

    Manai, Isam; Clément, Jean-François; Chicireanu, Radu; Hainaut, Clément; Garreau, Jean Claude; Szriftgiser, Pascal; Delande, Dominique

    2015-12-11

    Dimension 2 is expected to be the lower critical dimension for Anderson localization in a time-reversal-invariant disordered quantum system. Using an atomic quasiperiodic kicked rotor-equivalent to a two-dimensional Anderson-like model-we experimentally study Anderson localization in dimension 2 and we observe localized wave function dynamics. We also show that the localization length depends exponentially on the disorder strength and anisotropy and is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the self-consistent theory for the 2D Anderson localization. PMID:26705619

  11. Hydrodynamic slip in silicon nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-03-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to better understand the hydrodynamic behavior of water flowing through silicon nanochannels. The water-silicon interaction potential was calibrated by means of size-independent molecular dynamics simulations of silicon wettability. The wettability of silicon was found to be dependent on the strength of the water-silicon interaction and the structure of the underlying surface. As a result, the anisotropy was found to be an important factor in the wettability of these types of crystalline solids. Using this premise as a fundamental starting point, the hydrodynamic slip in nanoconfined water was characterized using both equilibrium and nonequilibrium calculations of the slip length under low shear rate operating conditions. As was the case for the wettability analysis, the hydrodynamic slip was found to be dependent on the wetted solid surface atomic structure. Additionally, the interfacial water liquid structure was the most significant parameter to describe the hydrodynamic boundary condition. The calibration of the water-silicon interaction potential performed by matching the experimental contact angle of silicon led to the verification of the no-slip condition, experimentally reported for silicon nanochannels at low shear rates.

  12. Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...

  13. Hydrodynamic analysis of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, N.; Vamos, C.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.

    2003-04-01

    It was proved that balance equations for systems with corpuscular structure can be derived if a kinematic description by piece-wise analytic functions is available [1]. For example, the hydrodynamic equations for one-dimensional systems of inelastic particles, derived in [2], were used to prove the inconsistency of the Fourier law of heat with the microscopic structure of the system. The hydrodynamic description is also possible for single particle systems. In this case, averages of physical quantities associated with the particle, over a space-time window, generalizing the usual ``moving averages'' which are performed on time intervals only, were shown to be almost everywhere continuous space-time functions. Moreover, they obey balance partial differential equations (continuity equation for the 'concentration', Navier-Stokes equation, a. s. o.) [3]. Time series can be interpreted as trajectories in the space of the recorded parameter. Their hydrodynamic interpretation is expected to enable deterministic predictions, when closure relations can be obtained for the balance equations. For the time being, a first result is the estimation of the probability density for the occurrence of a given parameter value, by the normalized concentration field from the hydrodynamic description. The method is illustrated by hydrodynamic analysis of three types of time series: white noise, stock prices from financial markets and groundwater levels recorded at Krauthausen experimental field of Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany). [1] C. Vamoş, A. Georgescu, N. Suciu, I. Turcu, Physica A 227, 81-92, 1996. [2] C. Vamoş, N. Suciu, A. Georgescu, Phys. Rev E 55, 5, 6277-6280, 1997. [3] C. Vamoş, N. Suciu, W. Blaj, Physica A, 287, 461-467, 2000.

  14. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  15. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation.

  16. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-09-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation.

  17. Which person is my trainer? Spontaneous visual discrimination of human individuals by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Uwano, Yuka; Ogura, Sato; Chin, Hyangsun; Dozaki, Masahiro; Saito, Toyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are known to use signature whistles to identify conspecifics auditorily. However, the way in which they recognize individuals visually is less well known. We investigated their visual recognition of familiar human individuals under the spontaneous discrimination task. In each trial, the main trainer appeared from behind a panel. In test trials, two persons (one was the main trainer) appeared from the left and right sides of the panel and moved along the poolside in opposite directions. Three of the four dolphins spontaneously followed their main trainers significantly above the level of chance. Subsequent tests, however, revealed that when the two persons wore identical clothing, the following response deteriorated. This suggests that dolphins can spontaneously discriminate human individuals using visual cues, but they do not utilize facial cues, but body area for this discrimination. PMID:26191479

  18. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation. PMID:25267469

  19. [Sighting of Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin, in Culebra Bay, Costa Rica, 1999-2000].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Sáenz, Karina; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Parallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000) observations were made (from an inflatable boat), on the presence of dolphins along a transect (-8 km long) on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km2), Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids), as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:17465137