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Sample records for domestic waste water

  1. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  2. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawczyk, C.

    1973-01-01

    The work is described accomplished in compiling information needed to establish the current water supply and waste water processing requirements for dwellings, and for developing a preliminary design for a waste water to potable water management system. Data generated was used in formulation of design criteria for the preliminary design of the waste water to potable water recycling system. The system as defined was sized for a group of 500 dwelling units. Study tasks summarized include: water consumption, nature of domestic water, consumer appliances for low water consumption, water quality monitoring, baseline concept, and current and projected costs.

  3. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  4. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  5. Use of tracers and isotopes to evaluate vulnerability of water in domestic wells to septic waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Fetterman, G.S.; Meyer, M.J.; Bullen, T.; Sebree, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    In Nebraska, a large number (>200) of shallow sand-point and cased wells completed in coarse alluvial sediments along rivers and lakes still are used to obtain drinking water for human consumption, even though construction of sand-point wells for consumptive uses has been banned since 1987. The quality of water from shallow domestic wells potentially vulnerable to seepage from septic systems was evaluated by analyzing for the presence of tracers and multiple isotopes. Samples were collected from 26 sand-point and perforated, cased domestic wells and were analyzed for bacteria, coliphages, nitrogen species, nitrogen and boron isotopes, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), prescription and nonprescription drugs, or organic waste water contaminants. At least 13 of the 26 domestic well samples showed some evidence of septic system effects based on the results of several tracers including DOC, coliphages, NH4+, NO3-, N2, ?? 15N[NO3-] and boron isotopes, and antibiotics and other drugs. Sand-point wells within 30 m of a septic system and <14 m deep in a shallow, thin aquifer had the most tracers detected and the highest values, indicating the greatest vulnerability to contamination from septic waste. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reil, J.; Kaster, B.; Wegner, M.

    1982-09-01

    Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because with normal domestic refrigerators the amount of waste heat is too small. The economy of the unit could be considerably increased by the development of a mass produced motor compressor with a sufficiently large oil cooler to accomplish an optimum thermal insulation of the motor compressor surface area.

  7. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  8. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Water and sewage treatment systems are presented with concentration on the filtration of water. Equipment is described for organic removal, solids removal, nutrient removal, inorganic removal, and disinfection of the water. Such things as aseline hardware, additional piping connections, waste disposal, and costs involved are also reported.

  9. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced. PMID:18469391

  10. Domestic water conservation potential in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrazzak, Mohammed J.; Khan, Muhammad Z. A.

    1990-03-01

    Domestic water conservation in arid climates can result in efficient utilization of existing water supplies. The impacts of conservation measures such as the installation of water-saving devices, water metering and pricing schemes, water rationing and public awareness programs, strict plumbing codes, penalties for wasting water, programs designed to reduce leakage from public water lines and within the home, water-efficient landscaping, economic and ethical incentives are addressed in detail. Cost savings in arid climates, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia, in relation to some conservation techniques, are presented. Water conservation technology and tentative demonstration and implementation of water conservation programs are discussed.

  11. Resource recovery from source separated domestic waste(water) streams; full scale results.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    A major fraction of nutrients emitted from households are originally present in only 1% of total wastewater volume. New sanitation concepts enable the recovery and reuse of these nutrients from feces and urine. Two possible sanitation concepts are presented, with varying degree of source separation leading to various recovery products. Separate vacuum collection and transport followed by anaerobic treatment of concentrated black water (BW) demonstrated on a scale of 32 houses preserve 7.6 g/N/p/d and 0.63 gP/p/d amounting to respectively 69 and 48% of the theoretically produced N and P in the household, and 95% of the retained P was shown to be recoverable via struvite precipitation. Reuse of the anaerobic sludge in agriculture can substantially increase the P recovery. Energy recovery in the form of biogas from anaerobic digestion of concentrated BW, fits well in new concepts of sustainable, zero energy buildings. Nutrient recovery from separately collected urine lowers the percentage of nutrient recovery in comparison with BW but can, on the other hand, often be implemented in existing sanitation concepts. Theoretically 11gN/p/d and 1.0 g P/p/d are produced with urine, of which 38-63 and 34-61% were recovered in practice on a scale of 8-160 inhabitants in Sweden. New sanitation concepts with resource recovery and reuse are being demonstrated worldwide and more and more experience is being gained. PMID:22105119

  12. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The manner in which current and advanced technology can be applied to develop practical solutions to existing and emerging water supply and waste disposal problems is evaluated. An overview of water resource factors as they affect new community planning, and requirements imposed on residential waste treatment systems are presented. The results of equipment surveys contain information describing: commercially available devices and appliances designed to conserve water; devices and techniques for monitoring water quality and controlling back contamination; and advanced water and waste processing equipment. System concepts are developed and compared on the basis of current and projected costs. Economic evaluations are based on community populations of from 2,000 to 250,000. The most promising system concept is defined in sufficient depth to initiate detailed design.

  13. Plant for collecting and briquetting domestic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, A.M.; Alexeev, G.M.; Bairon, G.V.; Matveev, V.M.; Minin, O.D.; Provalsky, G.B.; Slavinsky, V.N.; Tsimbler, J.A.; Vasiliev, V.A.

    1980-10-28

    In the plant for collecting and briquetting domestic waste the housing has loading and discharge openings and coaxially accommodates therein a chamber for forming domestic waste into briquettes and a conveyer screw for compacting the domestic waste , operatively connected to a reversible drive. The chamber adjoins the screw and has mounted therein an abutment spanning the cross-sectional area of the chamber. The abutment is mounted in the chamber for motion therein under the action of the domestic waste being formed into a briquette and being advanced by the effort of the rotating conveyer screw. The chamber is operatively connected with a drive for being moved axially to release a briquette that has been formed and for being returned into the initial position.

  14. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    This study of water reclamation and waste disposal is directed toward a more efficient utilization of natural resources. From an ecological standpoint improved methods of land use, water processing equipment, and ideal population profiles are investigated. Methods are described whereby significant reduction in water usage can be achieved by the adoption of presently available and practically applied technological concepts. Allowances are made for social, natural, and economic contingencies which are likely to occur up to the year 2000.

  15. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  16. Codisposal of oil wastes with Domestic solid wastes in landfills: leaching and persistence of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, C.; Bull, S.C.; Johnson, R.G.; Maris, P.J.

    1983-03-01

    Controlled landfill offers a possible alternative for the disposal of oily wastes, and research has been carried out to assess the impact of these practices using laboratory simulations and a site study. These studies showed that oil emulsions were rapidly broken down to free oil and an associated aqueous phase in the landfill. The oil was readily sorbed by domestic waste solids, whereas the aqueous phase was flushed out with leachate. Concentrations of oil in leachate were, in most cases, similar to those found in leachate from domestic wastes only. It was probable that under anaerobic conditions in the fill, oil was not significantly degraded by microorganisms, small losses of oil being mainly due to leaching. It is concluded that water pollution (surface or groundwater) from the disposal of small volumes of oily wastes with domestic wastes will not be significantly greater than pollution by leachates from domestic wastes only.

  17. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

    2010-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  18. Quantifying Urban Water Subsidies with Hydrological Tracers of Domestic Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Sikora, M. T.; Wozniak, E.; Fisher, K. R.; Carr, J.; Elliott, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    Connections between urban hydrological systems and human water infrastructure are well established. Interactions between these systems occur at a wide range of scales, from large inter-basin transfers to individual leaking pipes. However, much of the interest in these connections arises from practical considerations, for example, substantially altered in-stream flow or the presence/absence of sewage in surface water systems. Less recognized is that in smaller urban catchments, daily water flux through human water distribution systems is often much larger than low flow surface water flux from the catchment. As infrastructure ages and cross-connections grow, transfers from the substantial human fluxes to the catchment will increasingly subsidize urban water budgets. Tools for quantifying the contribution of this subsidy to urban hydrological systems can clarify both practical questions for urban managers and our understanding of flow generation in catchments. Stream water chemistry from a multi-year sampling campaign in Nine Mile Run (Pittsburgh, PA) is used to examine potential hydrological tracers of human domestic water. In particular, we examine the use of fluoride added in precise quantities as a dental health supplement as a tracer of human domestic water (e.g., drinking and waste water). While fluoride is not necessarily a conservative tracer, equilibrium reactions governing fluoride solubility generally require substantially higher cationic concentrations than those observed in surface water chemistry. Further, during periods where human subsidies dominate (e.g., water line breaks or hydrant flushes discharging to the stream) fluoride concentrations generally approach the concentration added to domestic water. We use multiple modeling approaches to demonstrate the appropriateness of fluoride as a tracer, infer contributions of human domestic water to the hydrologic budget, and explore fluoride dynamics in the Nine Mile Run basin. A fluoride tracer is

  19. Decreased Phototoxic Effects of TiO₂ Nanoparticles in Consortium of Bacterial Isolates from Domestic Waste Water.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Ankita; Kumari, Jyoti; Parashar, Abhinav; T, Lavanya; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed to explore the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles at low concentrations (0.25, 0.50 & 1.00 μg/ml); on five bacterial isolates and their consortium in waste water medium both in dark and UVA conditions. To critically examine the toxic effects of nanoparticles and the response mechanism(s) offered by microbes, several aspects were monitored viz. cell viability, ROS generation, SOD activity, membrane permeability, EPS release and biofilm formation. A dose and time dependent loss in viability was observed for treated isolates and the consortium. At the highest dose, after 24h, oxidative stress was examined which conclusively showed more ROS generation & cell permeability and less SOD activity in single isolates as compared to the consortium. As a defense mechanism, EPS release was enhanced in case of the consortium against the single isolates, and was observed to be dose dependent. Similar results were noticed for biofilm formation, which substantially increased at highest dose of nanoparticle exposure. Concluding, the consortium showed more resistance against the toxic effects of the TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the individual isolates. PMID:26496250

  20. Decreased Phototoxic Effects of TiO₂ Nanoparticles in Consortium of Bacterial Isolates from Domestic Waste Water

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ankita; Kumari, Jyoti; Parashar, Abhinav; T., Lavanya; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed to explore the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles at low concentrations (0.25, 0.50 & 1.00 μg/ml); on five bacterial isolates and their consortium in waste water medium both in dark and UVA conditions. To critically examine the toxic effects of nanoparticles and the response mechanism(s) offered by microbes, several aspects were monitored viz. cell viability, ROS generation, SOD activity, membrane permeability, EPS release and biofilm formation. A dose and time dependent loss in viability was observed for treated isolates and the consortium. At the highest dose, after 24h, oxidative stress was examined which conclusively showed more ROS generation & cell permeability and less SOD activity in single isolates as compared to the consortium. As a defense mechanism, EPS release was enhanced in case of the consortium against the single isolates, and was observed to be dose dependent. Similar results were noticed for biofilm formation, which substantially increased at highest dose of nanoparticle exposure. Concluding, the consortium showed more resistance against the toxic effects of the TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the individual isolates. PMID:26496250

  1. EMISSIONS OF PCDD/F FROM UNCONTROLLED, DOMESTIC WASTE BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated bibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) result from inefficiencies of combustion processes, most typically waste combustion. Uncontrolled combustion, such as occurs during so-called "backyard burning" of domestic waste, may therefore produce optimal ...

  2. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  3. Occurrence and removal of butyltin compounds in a waste stabilisation pond of a domestic waste water treatment plant of a rural French town.

    PubMed

    Sabah, A; Bancon-Montigny, C; Rodier, C; Marchand, P; Delpoux, S; Ijjaali, M; Tournoud, M-G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate and behaviour of butyltin pollutants, including monobutyltin (MBT), dibutylin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT), in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The study was conducted as part of a baseline survey and included five sampling campaigns comprising bottom sludge and the water column from each pond from a typical WSP in France. Butyltins were detected in all raw wastewater and effluents, reflecting their widespread use. Our results revealed high affinity between butyltins and particulate matter and high accumulation of butyltins in the sludge taken from anaerobic ponds. The dissolved butyltins in the influent ranged from 21.5 to 28.1 ng(Sn).L(-1) and in the effluent, from 8.8 to 29.3 ng(Sn).L(-1). The butyltin concentrations in the sludge ranged from 45.1 to 164 and 3.6-8.1 ng(Sn).g(-1) respectively in the first and last ponds. Our results showed an average treatment efficiency of 71% for MBT, 47% for DBT, 55% for TBT. Laboratory sorption experiments enabled the calculation of a distribution coefficient (Kd = 75,000 L.kg-1) between TBT and particulate matter from the WSPs. The Kd explained the accumulation and persistence of the TBT in the sludge after settling of particulate matter. The continuous supply of contaminated raw wastewater and the sorption-desorption processes in the ponds led to incomplete bio- and photolytic degradation and to the persistence of butyltins in dissolved and particulate matrices throughout the survey period. It is thus recommended to use shallow ponds and to pay particular attention when sludge is used for soil amendment. PMID:26624956

  4. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  5. Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178 g d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107 kg m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008 kJ kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800 m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5 hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

  6. Effect of sanitation facilities, domestic solid waste disposal and hygiene practices on water quality in Malawi’s urban poor areas: a case study of South Lunzu Township in the city of Blantyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    Household water supply problems remain one of the major challenges facing developing countries. In Malawi, there is lack of documentation on the levels and causes of water pollution particularly in peri-urban areas so that meaningful interventions can be adopted. Therefore, a study was carried out in South Lunzu Township a peri-urban area in the city of Blantyre. The study revealed that the major form of sewerage disposal is the on-site sanitation system where about 58.8% of the respondents use traditional pit latrine while in terms of solid waste disposal, the Blantyre City Assembly which is responsible for solid waste collection, has only two collection vans to cater for more than half a million residents (Blantyre City Assembly, 1999. Urban Structure Plan, Draft Background Report, Blantyre.) hence indiscriminate disposal rampant in the area. Water samples collected from the major sources of domestic water supply showed that there are variations in the levels of water pollution between the ground water and surface water sources and between the wet and dry season. For instance, physically, the ground water turbidity levels were in the range of 2-12 mg/l during the dry season but increased to a maximum of 114 mg/l during the wet season while for surface water the turbidity increased from 4 to 408 mg/l over the seasons compared to the WHO standard set at 5 mg/l and the Water Department standard set at 25 mg/l. Chemical pollution for surface water sources show seasonal variations with an increase in the concentration during the wet season, for instance, iron levels ranged from 2.3 to 4.03 mg/l. This is above the WHO and Water Department drinking standards which are 1 and 3 mg/l, respectively. However, bacteriologically both the ground water and the surface water sources are grossly polluted. Ground water spring coliform count ranged from 190/100 ml to 9500/100 ml, and the well 3500/100 ml to 11,000/100 ml having the maximum during the wet season. Surface water

  7. The aerosol radiative effects of uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodros, John K.; Cucinotta, Rachel; Ridley, David A.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Open, uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste is a potentially significant source of aerosol; however, this aerosol source is not generally included in many global emissions inventories. To provide a first estimate of the aerosol radiative impacts from domestic-waste combustion, we incorporate the Wiedinmyer et al. (2014) emissions inventory into GEOS-Chem-TOMAS, a global chemical-transport model with online aerosol microphysics. We find domestic-waste combustion increases global-mean black carbon and organic aerosol concentrations by 8 and 6 %, respectively, and by greater than 40 % in some regions. Due to uncertainties regarding aerosol optical properties, we estimate the globally averaged aerosol direct radiative effect to range from -5 to -20 mW m-2; however, this range increases from -40 to +4 mW m-2 when we consider uncertainties in emission mass and size distribution. In some regions with significant waste combustion, such as India and China, the aerosol direct radiative effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2. Similarly, we estimate a cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of -13 mW m-2, with a range of -4 to -49 mW m-2 due to emission uncertainties. In the regions with significant waste combustion, the cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect may exceed -0.4 W m-2.

  8. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  9. Domestic wash-water reclamation using an aerospace-developed water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A prototype aerospace distillation water recovery subsystem was tested to determine its capability to recover potable water from domestic wash water. A total of 0.0994 cu m (26.25 gallons) of domestic wash water was processed over a 7-day period at an average process rate of 0.0146 cu m per day (3.85 gallons per day). The subsystem produced water that met all United States Public Health Standards for drinking water with the exception of two standards which could not be analyzed at the required sensitivity levels. Average energy consumption for this evaluation to maintain both the recovery process and microbial control in the recovered water was approximately 3366 kilowatt-hours per cubic meter (12.74 kilowatt-hours per gallon) of water recovered. This condition represents a worst case energy consumption since no attempt was made to recover heat energy in the subsystem. An ultraviolet radiation cell installed in the effluent line of the subsystem was effective in controlling coliform micro-organisms within acceptable levels for drinking water. The subsystem recovered virtually 100 percent of the available water in the waste-water process. In addition, the subsystem removed 99.6 percent and 98.3 percent of the surfactants and phosphate, respectively, from the wash water.

  10. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  11. A novel approach for examining future US domestic water demand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching policy makers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistic...

  12. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  13. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Masaki, Y.; Odawara, Y.; Shimizu, N.

    1982-10-26

    The invention relates to an improvement of the floc-formation property of activated sludge contained in waste water. A waste water treatment process comprises steps culturing a novel strain-alcaligenes faecalis hrl-1-and adding the cultured cells to to-be-treated waste water.

  14. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  15. Bonding material containing ashes after domestic waste incineration for cementation of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Varlakov, A.P.; Gorbunova, O.A.; Arustamov, A.E.; Barinov, A.S.

    2007-07-01

    It is known that cement minerals hydration is accompanied with heat emission. Heat of hardening influences formation of a cement compound structure and its properties. It is important to reduce the heat quantity at continuous cementation of waste and filling of compartments of a repository or containers by a cement grout. For reduction of heating, it is necessary to use cement of mineral additives (fuel ashes, slag and hydraulic silica). Properties of ashes after domestic waste incineration can be similar to ones of fly fuel ashes. However, ash after domestic waste incineration is toxic industrial waste as it contains toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn). Utilization of secondary waste (slag and ash) of combustion plants is an important environmental approach to solving cities' issues. Results of the research have shown that ashes of combustion plants can be used for radioactive waste conditioning. Co-processing of toxic and radioactive waste is ecologically and economically effective. At SIA 'Radon', experimental batches of cement compositions are used for cementation of oil containing waste. (authors)

  16. Waste water filtration enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

  17. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  18. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

  19. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). PMID:21689921

  20. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  1. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  2. Anaerobic digestion technologies for closing the domestic water, carbon and nutrient cycles.

    PubMed

    Hammes, F; Kalogo, Y; Verstraete, W

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable wastewater treatment requires that household wastewater is collected and treated separately from industrial wastewater and rainwater run-offs. This separate treatment is, however, still inadequate, as more than 70% of the nutrients and much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and potential pathogens of a domestic sewage system are confined to the few litres of black water (faeces, urine and toilet water). Whilst grey water can easily be filter treated and re-used for secondary household purposes, black water requires more intensive treatment due to its high COD and microbial (pathogens) content. Recently developed vacuum/dry toilets produce a nutrient rich semi-solid waste stream, which, with proper treatment, offers the possibility of nutrient, carbon, water and energy recovery. This study investigates the terrestrial applicability of Life Support System (LSS) concepts as a framework for future domestic waste management. The possibilities of treating black water together with other types of human-generated solid waste (biowastes/mixed wastes) in an anaerobic reactor system at thermophilic conditions, as well as some post treatment alternatives for product recovery and re-use, are considered. Energy can partially be recovered in the form of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion. The system is investigated in the form of theoretical mass balances, together with an assessment of the current feasibility of this technology and other post-treatment alternatives. PMID:11381993

  3. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  5. Quality of ground water from private domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights major findings from two USGS reports: DeSimone (2009) and DeSimone and others (2009). These reports can be accessed at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa. This article is followed by a summary of treatment considerations and options for owners of private domestic wells, written by Cliff Treyens of the National Ground Water Association.

  6. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  7. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. PMID:23985530

  8. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  9. Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, M. Teresa; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Triassi, Maria; Neglia, Rachele; Marchesi, Isabella; Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Laurenti, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica; De Luca, Giovanna; Ossi, Cristina; Moro, Matteo; D’Alcalà, Gabriella Ribera

    2004-01-01

    We investigated Legionella and Pseudomonas contamination of hot water in a cross-sectional multicentric survey in Italy. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine, and trace elements) were determined. Legionella spp. were detected in 33 (22.6%) and Pseudomonas spp. in 56 (38.4%) of 146 samples. Some factors associated with Legionella contamination were heater type, tank distance and capacity, water plant age, and mineral content. Pseudomonas presence was influenced by water source, hardness, free chlorine, and temperature. Legionella contamination was associated with a centralized heater, distance from the heater point >10 m, and a water plant >10 years old. Furthermore, zinc levels of <20 μg/L and copper levels of >50 μg/L appeared to be protective against Legionella colonization. Legionella species and serogroups were differently distributed according to heater type, water temperature, and free chlorine, suggesting that Legionella strains may have a different sensibility and resistance to environmental factors and different ecologic niches. PMID:15109413

  10. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Helke, R.C.

    1980-12-02

    A method useful for treating waste water is disclosed wherein waste water is collected in a first vessel and a portion of the large solid particles are filtered from said waste waters. The liquid waste including suspended solid particles is combined with a solids coagulant, effective in coagulating solid particles, and the waste is disinfected. In one embodiment, coagulation and disinfection occurs simultaneously in a single treatment vessel. In the treatment vessel, the disinfectant and the coagulant are reacted with the waste waters to form gas bubbles and coagulated solid particles. The reaction of the disinfectant causes a substantial portion of the coagulated solids contained in the treatment vessel to float to the upper portion of the treatment vessel as a result of being carried to the surface by the gas bubbles. The clarified waste water is then removed from an outer chamber in the treatment vessel. In another embodiment, waste water is disinfected by radiation so that gas bubbles are not formed by the disinfection reaction. In this embodiment the coagulated solids are floated to the surface of the treatment vessel by providing small gas, i.e., air, bubbles in the treatment vessel generated from an extraneous source.

  11. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  12. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  13. NORTH PORTAL - DOMESTIC COLD WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY #5008

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for domestic cold water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2).

  14. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  15. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  16. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  17. Green recovery of mercury from domestic and industrial waste.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Roselaine C; Patrício, Pamela R; Vargas, Silvia J Rodriguez; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; da Silva, Maria C Hespanhol

    2016-03-01

    Recovery of mercury from effluents is fundamental for environmental preservation. A new, green method was developed for separation of mercury from effluent containing different metals. The extraction/separation of Hg(II) was studied using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) comprising by polyethylene oxide (PEO1500) or triblock copolymers (L64 or L35), electrolyte (sodium citrate or sodium sulfate) and water in the presence or absence of chloride ions. The extraction behavior of the Hg(II) for the macromolecule-rich phase is affected by the following parameters: amount of added extractant, pH, and the nature of the electrolyte and macromolecule of the ATPS. The APTS of PEO1500+sodium citrate+H2O (pH 1.00 and 0.225 mol kg(-1) KCl) produced the highest Hg(II) %E=(92.3 ± 5.2)%. Under the same conditions, excellent separation factors (1.54×10(2)-3.21×10(10)) for recovery of mercury in the presence of co-existing metals were obtained. Efficient and selective extraction of Hg(II) from domestic and industrial synthetic effluents was achieved using this ATPS. PMID:26599661

  18. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  19. 1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Progress for the treatment of the combustible portion of domestic waste for briquetting and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, H.H.; Sonneschein, H.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for the treatment of the combustible portion of crushed domestic waste is disclosed. The waste is pre-dried and separated from dense-medium material such as metal and glass prior to processing. A dried waste moisture level of about 8-10% is maintained throughout the process. High heat value briquets are produced without the addition of a bonding agent by sifting out fine inert material and plastic material prior to briquetting.

  1. Estimated Domestic, Irrigation, and Industrial Water Use in Washington, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey has published a series of Circulars and other reports on the estimated use of water in the United States at 5-year intervals. This report presents State, regional, and county estimates of the amount of water used for domestic, irrigation, and industrial purposes in the State of Washington during the year 2000. Domestic water use was estimated to be 674 million gallons per day and the per-capita rate, 114 gallons per day. Crop-irrigation water use was estimated to be 3,005 million gallons per day and the application rate, 2.2 acre-feet per acre per year, or feet per year. Golf-course irrigation water use was estimated to be 23.6 million gallons per day and the application rate, 1.4 feet per year. Industrial water use was estimated to be 681 million gallons per day. Historically, these core categories account for about 92 percent of the estimated offstream water used in Washington.

  2. Appraisal of domestic solid waste generation, components, and the feasibility of recycling in Erbil, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Shuokr Qarani Aziz; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Mohammed Jk Bashir; Mohd Suffian Yusoff

    2011-08-01

    Solid waste collection and disposal are among the most vital services provided to about 700 770 residents of the city of Erbil in northern Iraq. As such, proper waste management systems that consider both the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste are strongly required to address the increasing amount of solid waste. Unfortunately, these essential data are not easily available. The present study sought to gather data on the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste collected from different quarters in Erbil, and the feasibility of recycling these wastes. The solid waste generation rate (GR), uncompacted density, and weight percentages of combustible and incombustible materials were determined based on the collected materials (i.e., food, plastic, paper, metal, glass and cloth). The results show that the average GR and uncompacted density were 0.654 kg capita(-1) day(-1) and 175.72 kg m(-3), respectively. The weight percentages of food, plastic, paper, metal, glass, and cloth as components of domestic solid waste were 79.34, 6.28, 5.9, 3.6, 3.42 and 1.45%, respectively. PMID:21242179

  3. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  4. Domestic water conservation practices in Tlemcen City (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habi, Mohammed; Harrouz, Omar

    2015-06-01

    During the last three decades, citizens of an Algerian city are concerned with the problem of drinking water supply. Time discontinuation service became the rule. The central idea of the analysis based on interviews is to assess the role of water in the organization of the relationship between habitat and users. The fundamental question is how users, in particular women, incorporate water in their daily lives due to rationing. Having to deal with the discontinuous and frequent weak water supply, the inhabitants of the city of Tlemcen who are connected to the water supply system, as well as those connected to the water system of all Algerian towns, have developed an internal water storage system to sort out this problem. The imposed rationing has proved to be expensive for consumers. The water shortage pushed the consumers to invest in relatively expensive storage and pumping facilities to satisfy their domestic needs. As the frequency of the water supply is on a two times per week basis, the survey reveals a discrepancy in terms of volumes consumed and stored by each household. The use of water depends on the individual storage facility and the frequency of the supply. The life of the households, particularly that of the housewives, depends on the availability of water and thus on the schedules of the Company of Production of Water "Algerian Des Eaux'' (ADE). This is particularly the case when they are supplied during the night.

  5. FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of the high level of interest in innovative hazardous waste control technologies, U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) and Risk Reduction Engineering Lab (RREL) jointly conducted this conference. he conference consisted of presentations of t...

  6. Molecular markers for identifying municipal, domestic and agricultural sources of organic matter in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Harwood, John J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular markers can be used to determine the sources of organic pollution in water. This review summarizes progress made during the last two decades in identifying reliable molecular markers to distinguish pollution from sewage, animal production, and other sources. Two artificial sweeteners, sucralose and acesulfame-K, are sufficiently stable to be molecular markers and easily associated with domestic wastewater. Waste from different animal species may be distinguished by profiling fecal sterols and bile acids. Other markers which have been evaluated, including caffeine, detergent components, and compounds commonly leached from landfills are discussed. PMID:24200048

  7. High Strength Lightweight Nanocomposite from Domestic Solid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi, Swardhani, Anggi Puspita; Sustini, Euis; Bukit, Minsyahril; Mora, Khairurrijal, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2010-10-01

    The issue of waste problems needs innovative efforts to solve. One of them is solid waste utilization as nanocomposite using polyurethane (PU) polymer as matrix. Beside using solid waste as filler, nanosilica is also added to improve the material strength of composite-produced. These materials were mixed by simple mixing with variative compositions, and then hot-pressed at 30 MPa and 100° C for 30 minutes. From compressive strength test, it was found that composite with composition 2:8 of PU and solid waste has optimum compressive strength, i.e. 160 MPa. Into this optimum composition, nanosilica then is added to improve the compressive strength and found that at composition 1:40:160 of nanosilica, PU and solid waste, the composite has optimum compressive strength 200 MPa, or increases 25% of that without nanosilica. The composite-produced is also lightweight material with the density is 0.69 g/cm.

  8. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  9. Treatment of industrial waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D. R.

    1980-02-12

    A method is disclosed for processing industrial waste waters and , in particular, blow down water from thermal electric plants. The water is processed to concentrate the salts contained therein and to obtain a concentrated brine which can then be passed to a thermal evaporator and/or solar evaporation ponds. The water is processed by the addition of magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in amounts sufficient to precipitate the calcium as calcium carbonate, thereby obtaining a water reduced in calcium content and increased in magnesium content from the industrial waste water. The treated water is processed to recover a purified water from a brine, preferably by reverse osmosis. Calcium hydroxide is added to the brine generated by the reverse osmosis process in an amount sufficient to precipitate magnesium hydroxide therefrom which can be recycled to supply the magnesium hydroxide used in pre-treatment of the water prior to the reverse osmosis process. A clarified brine is recovered from the magnesium hydroxide precipitation step and may then be naturally or thermally evaporated to produce a saturated slurry of salt solids. This slurry can then be further reduced to dryness by solar evaporation.

  10. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-04-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future. PMID:26507489

  11. Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

  12. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

  13. Endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba Isolated from Domestic Tap Water in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Ahn, Soon Cheol; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Dong-Hee; Xuan, Ying-Hua; Hong, Yeon Chul; Kong, Hyun Hee; Chung, Dong Il

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported our discovery of Acanthamoeba contamination in domestic tap water; in that study, we determined that some Acanthamoeba strains harbor endosymbiotic bacteria, via our molecular characterization by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (Mt DNA RFLP). Five (29.4%) among 17 Acanthamoeba isolates contained endosymbionts in their cytoplasm, as demonstrated via orcein staining. In order to estimate their pathogenicity, we conducted a genetic characterization of the endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolated from domestic tap water via 16S rDNA sequencing. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP3 and KA/WP4 evidenced the highest level of similarity, at 97% of the recently published 16S rDNA sequence of the bacterium, Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP8 and KA/WP12 shared a 97% sequence similarity with each other, and were also highly similar to Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis, a member of the α-proteobacteria. The endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP9 exhibits a high degree of similarity (85-95%) with genus Methylophilus, which is not yet known to harbor any endosymbionts. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, to show that Methylophilus spp. can live in the cytoplasm of Acanthamoeba. PMID:19967080

  14. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, David J.; Bartram, Jamie K.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

  15. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, David J; Bartram, Jamie K

    2013-11-13

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

  16. Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I.

    1998-09-01

    To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

  17. Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, W M

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed. PMID:738239

  18. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  19. Maximum use of resources present in domestic "used water".

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Willy; Van de Caveye, Pieter; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2009-12-01

    Environmental protection and the sustainable management of natural resources stand at the foreground of economic and technological activities worldwide. Current sewage technologies, however, deal with diluted wastes and do not focus on recovery and are therefore not sustainable. Here, the most promising methods available for the recovery of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus), organic material and energy from "used waters" are examined both at the decentralised and centralised level. Novel approaches for water processing, not implementing aerobic biological treatment as a core technology, are conceived and critically evaluated regarding efficiency, diffuse emissions and requisite costs. By implementing up-concentration of dilute wastewaters, the concentrated stream becomes suitable for the waste-to-energy strategy. The approach of up-concentration of municipal effluent at arrival at the water treatment plant followed by anaerobic digestion of organics and maximal reuse of the mineral nutrients and water is estimated to have a total cost of the order 0.9 euros/m(3); the latter is comparable to that of conventional aerobic treatment technologies which has little or no reuse. It is argued that in view of the fact that recovered nutrients will become of increasing economic and ecological value, this new conceptual design for the treatment of "used water" will become feasible in the next decade. PMID:19577923

  20. Waste management in Guangdong cities: the waste management literacy and waste reduction preferences of domestic waste generators.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shan-Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2004-05-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2002 on 1365 households in two prefectural-level cities in the Pearl River Delta, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. Three groups of issues are covered in this paper: 1) waste management literacy, concerns, and public participation; 2) waste recycling practices and the potential for waste avoidance; and 3) public environmental literacy. This study confirms findings from previous surveys and provides new information on important issues such as imposing monetary charges on waste and environmental activities, littering, source separation programs (SSPs), and public participation and expectations in local waste management. Saving up recyclable materials for redemption in waste depots is commonly practiced in mainland China regardless of the level of development of a city, although at the household level, high-income families tend to place less value on the revenues to be gained from redemption than lower income groups do. Data from the previous and the present studies indicate that such voluntary but largely economically driven waste recovery behavior diverts at least 10% of the household waste from the waste stream. Although uncompensated SSP is less appealing in the two cities than compensated SSP, it was found that when the median per capita income of a city reaches RMB2000 per month, a high participation rate for uncompensated waste recovery is more likely to occur. Education and income levels are the chief factors affecting littering behavior and the potential for waste avoidance. Contrary to general belief, the local Chinese community is active in microwaste management. The concern, however, is over the inability of the grassroots bureaucracy to deal with rising expectations for waste collection services and neighborhood cleanliness. PMID:15503387

  1. Reliability assessment of solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. Y.; Wolosewicz, R. M.

    This paper presents reliability and mean-time-between-failure studies of six generic solar domestic hot water systems. Failure rate data for system components were obtained from product literature or from consumer product industries. Reliability block diagrams are employed for the analyses, and exponential distribution functions are assumed for individual components. Since some components do not operate continuously, a duty-cycle factor is developed and defined as the ratio of operating time to total mission time. To accommodate systems experiencing different duty cycles, an averaged duty cycle is introduced to estimate mean lives. Large variations in system reliability and mean life were found and result from wide failure-rate bands for some of the components.

  2. Caffeine and pharmaceuticals as indicators of waste water contamination in wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Zaugg, S.D.; Thomas, J.M.; Howcroft, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of caffeine or human pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations can provide a clear, unambiguous indication that domestic waste water is a source of some of the nitrate. Water from domestic, public supply, and monitoring wells in three communities near Reno, Nevada, was sampled to test if caffeine or pharmaceuticals are common, persistent, and mobile enough in the environment that they can be detected in nitrate-contaminated ground water and, thus, can be useful indicators of recharge from domestic waste water. Results of this study indicate that these compounds can be used as indicators of recharge from domestic waste water, although their usefulness is limited because caffeine is apparently nonconservative and the presence of prescription pharmaceuticals is unpredictable. The absence of caffeine or pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations does not demonstrate that the aquifer is free of waste water contamination. Caffeine was detected in ground water samples at concentrations up to 0.23 ??g/L. The human pharmaceuticals chlorpropamide, phensuximide, and carbamazepine also were detected in some samples.

  3. The efficient role of aquatic plant (water hyacinth) in treating domestic wastewater in continuous system.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Singh, Lakhweer; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-07-01

    In this study, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was used to treat domestic wastewater. Ten organic and inorganic parameters were monitored in three weeks for water purification. The six chemical, biological and physical parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH were compared with the Interim National Water Quality Standards, Malaysia River classification (INWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Between 38% to 96% of reduction was observed and water quality has been improved from class III and IV to class II. Analyses for Electricity Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Ammonium (NH4) were also investigated. In all parameters, removal efficiency was in range of 13-17th day (optimum 14th day) which was higher than 3 weeks except DO. It reveals the optimum growth rate of water hyacinth has great effect on waste water purification efficiency in continuous system and nutrient removal was successfully achieved. PMID:26684985

  4. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

  5. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  6. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  7. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

  8. Domestic waste recycling, collective action and economic incentive: the case in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yung

    2010-12-01

    Efficacy of waste recycling is one of the key determinants of environmental sustainability of a city. Like other pro-environmental activities, waste recycling cannot be successfully accomplished by just one or two people, but only by a concerted effort of the community. The collective-action dilemma creates a common underlying difficulty in formulating workable solutions to many environmental problems. With a view to the non-excludability of the outcome, rationality drives people to free-ride efforts of others in waste recycling. To solve this free-rider problem, some scholars suggest the use of economic incentive. This article attempts to study the impacts of reward schemes on waste recycling behaviour of residents in 122 private housing estates in Hong Kong. The study is differentiable from the others as the latter mainly focus on domestic waste recycling in low-rise low-density housing while this one looks into the same in a high-rise high-density residential setting. According to the results of analyses on a set of aggregate data, reward schemes are found to have a significant positive relationship with the per-household weight of recyclables collected, keeping other things constant. The research findings suggest that economic incentives do work in promoting waste recycling in Hong Kong. Practical and policy implications follow. PMID:20619628

  9. Amplification of thermostable lipase genes fragment from thermogenic phase of domestic waste composting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, Nurbaiti, Santi; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2015-09-01

    Lipases are lipolytic enzymes, catalyze the hydrolysis of fatty acid ester bonds of triglycerides to produce free fatty acids and glycerol. The enzyme is widely used in various fields of biotechnological industry. Hence, lipases with unique properties (e.g.thermostable lipase) are still being explored by variation methods. One of the strategy is by using metagenomic approach to amplify the gene directly from environmental sample. This research was focused on amplification of lipase gene fragment directly from the thermogenic phase of domestic waste composting in aerated trenches. We used domestic waste compost from waste treatment at SABUGA, ITB for the sample. Total chromosomal DNA were directly extracted from several stages at thermogenic phase of compost. The DNA was then directly used as a template for amplification of thermostable lipase gene fragments using a set of internal primers namely Flip-1a and Rlip-1a that has been affixed with a GC clamp in reverse primer. The results showed that the primers amplified the gene from four stages of thermogenic phase with the size of lipase gene fragment of approximately 570 base pairs (bp). These results were further used for Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis to determine diversity of thermostable lipase gene fragments.

  10. Domestic wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds for irrigation in Mendoza, Argentina: policies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vélez, O R; Fasciolo, G E; Bertrano, A V

    2002-01-01

    Arid areas call for imaginative water management solutions to avoid the dangers of water shortages. Growing demands of water for domestic and industrial uses decrease the availability of water for agriculture. It therefore becomes necessary to set up a policy for the use of domestic effluents. For the province of Mendoza, Argentina, with 1,500,000 inhabitants, a master plan was designed as of 1991 for the treatment of domestic effluents and subsequent disposal for irrigation. The guidelines set up by WHO for the use of wastewater in agricultural applications were taken into consideration. At present, the Province of Mendoza has available projects which are either complete, in execution or in the bidding process, entailing secondary treatment capacity with reuse of 320,000 cubic metres/day and an estimated possible irrigation area of 10,000 hectares. With this infrastructure, some strategic lines of action are recommended to establish a policy for the agricultural use of wastewater: (a) to program the use of treated wastewater to avoid discharges to irrigation flows; (b) to develop an institutional scheme for the efficient and safe use of these waters; and (c) develop scientific and technologic know-how to accompany the updated policies. PMID:11833726

  11. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  12. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  13. Concentrating industrial waste waters by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnova, T.A.; Saldadze, K.M.; Kutergin, V.R.; Valov, V.G.; Fedoseeva, N.M.

    1984-02-01

    A promising method for reprocessing waste water and process solutions is electrodialysis in which demineralized water and concentrated solutions of valuable components are obtained at the same time. Electrodialysis is characterized by simple equipment, ease of automation, low capital and energy costs. The results of tests aimed at developing the technology for extracting and concentrating the mineral impurities found in waste water from production of ammonium nitrate are presented.

  14. Integrated waste and water management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  15. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research that is improving domestic hot water modeling capabilities to more effectively address one of the largest energy uses in residential buildings.

  16. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    SciTech Connect

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system.

  17. Estimate of self-supplied domestic water use in Oklahoma during 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Reported or measured water-use data for the domestic self-supplied user were not available for Oklahoma; therefore estimates of water use within this classification were derived. The total self-supplied population in Oklahoma during 1980 was estimated to be 343,615, which was 11.4 percent of the total 1980 State population. The rate of water use by this group was estimated to be 56 gallons per capita per day. The estimated annual domestic self-supplied water use by county ranged from 10 to 1,180 acre-feet, with a total statewide use of 21,610 acre-feet.

  18. Perfluorooctane surfactants in waste waters, the major source of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Becker, Anna Maria; Gerstmann, Silke; Frank, Hartmut

    2008-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent and widely distributed in the environment. Recently, the discharge of municipal waste water has been shown to be an important route of such perfluoroalkyl surfactants into the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to assess the mass flow of PFOA and PFOS from typical waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) into surface waters. Samples were collected at different stages of treatment of four WWTPs in Northern Bavaria, Germany, and from the rivers receiving the treated waste waters (WW). The outflow of PFOA from the WWTPs to the rivers was 20-fold higher than the inflow to the plants; about a tenth was removed with the sludge. For PFOS, the increase from inlet to outlet was about 3-fold; almost half of it was retained in the sludge. Both surfactants were released into river water from the WWTP of a medium-sized city with domestic, industrial and commercial waste waters; in domestic waste waters the surfactants were found at much lower levels. PMID:18291438

  19. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  20. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  1. Development of Standardized Domestic Hot Water Event Schedules for Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Burch, J.

    2008-08-01

    The Building America Research Benchmark is a standard house definition created as a point of reference for tracking progress toward multi-year energy savings targets. As part of its development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has established a set of domestic hot water events to be used in conjunction with sub-hourly analysis of advanced hot water systems.

  2. Water quality effects of herded stream crossings by domestic sheep bands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On rangelands, free-ranging or loosely-herded domestic sheep tend not to linger in shrub-dominated riparian areas thus limiting their impacts on stream water quality. The water quality effects when sheep are tightly-herded during stream crossings, however, are largely unknown. In this study, downs...

  3. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  4. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh; Wade, Jeremy

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  5. Process and system for treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  6. Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

  7. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  8. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    DOEpatents

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  9. An evaluation of rural communities’ water use patterns and preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machingambi, Memory; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    This paper makes an evaluation of rural communities’ preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe, as a way of assessing rural people’s willingness to contribute in cash and kind to safe and clean domestic water. A questionnaire was administered to respondents in two areas that have different rainfall regimes, as water availability was hypothesised to affect its management. This was complemented by interviews with personnel from government and semi-government institutions involved in provision of domestic water in rural areas. Information gathered included respondents’ awareness of the water resource ownership and supply structure at the community and national level, roles played by various institutions in domestic water provision, water sources ownership, number and distribution of water points, water use patterns, water based socio-economic activities and respondents’ willingness to contribute towards establishment, operation and maintenance of water points. Respondents attributed water ownership to God, the government, the community, ancestors, chiefs, ZINWA, RDCS and no one. Boreholes, shallow and deep wells, rivers, dams, canals and taps were mainly used for primary water uses like drinking, cooking, bathing, livestock watering, gardening and laundry. Brick making, gardening and irrigating plots were classified as commercial water uses because they were used to generate income. Views on water ownership affected perceptions towards establishment, maintenance and management of water points. There was a higher preference for community than individual participation except for canals and taps. The responsibility for water point establishment and repairs were regarded as the responsibility of the government, community and donors. Respondents without piped water had higher WTP amounts for the repair and desiltation of water points than those with piped water. This showed a willingness to ensure that the working order of water points was assured

  10. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  11. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This Document is the Final Technical Report of the Solar Energy System located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. The building was air conditioned with an electric drive 300-ton chilled water central system in 1973. The building contains 126,000 square feet and the solar energy system will preheat 100 percent of domestic hot water and supply 47.5 percent of annual building heating requirements. During the building cooling seasons, the solar energy system will supply 100 percent of domestic hot water. The solar energy system consists of 4800 square feet (320 panels) Lennox/Honeywell flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 10,000 gallon steel tank storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 686.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/year (specified) building heating and domestic hot water heating. The start up date is December 4, 1979. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  12. The relative merits of monitoring and domestic wells for ground water quality investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.L.; Roberts, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of two studies of the effect of agricultural land use on shallow ground water quality indicate that monitoring wells may be a better choice than domestic wells for studies of pesticide occurrence or transport, or for use as early-warning indicators of potential drinking water contamination. Because domestic wells represent the used resource, and because domestic well water may be affected by historical rather than current pesticide and land- use practices, domestic wells would be the best choice for an investigation of drinking water quality. The key difference between the domestic and monitoring wells appears to be that the monitoring wells in this study were installed exclusively to sample the shallowest possible ground water. For these studies, 48 shallow domestic wells and 41 monitoring wells were located randomly within two land-use settings (row crops and orchards) in an irrigated agricultural region of eastern Washington and sampled for 145 pesticides (including nine pesticide degradates) and common water quality indicators. Constructing and sampling monitoring wells required approximately four times the resources (including manpower and materials) as locating and sampling domestic wells. Sample collection and quality assurance procedures and analytical techniques were identical except that a portable submersible pump was required for monitoring wells. In both land-use settings, no significant difference in nitrate concentration was found between well types; however, the average number of pesticides detected per well was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the monitoring wells. A greater variety of pesticides was detected in monitoring wells; many were detected only in monitoring wells. More than 60% of detections of pesticides that were found only in domestic wells were of compounds that are no longer in use. These differences in ground water quality found in this study relate to the depth of the well and are apparently related to the age of ground

  13. Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

  14. Comparison of six generic solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Murphy, L.M.; Noreen, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    The cost effectiveness of residential solar water heating is explored by analyzing six different system types. A figure of merit (that considers both performance and cost) is calculated for each system, providing information for both researchers and industry. Thermosyphon water heaters are determined to be the most cost effective option, and their wider application is recommended once a reliable draindown technique is developed.

  15. Electrooxidation of organics in waste water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

  16. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  17. Estimate of self-supplied domestic water use in Nebraska during 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    No data base of actual measurements exists for self-supplied, domestic water use in Nebraska, because Nebraska laws do not require drilling permits, well registration, or reporting of volumes withdrawn from domestic wells. Self-supplied, domestic water use of 31,280 acre-ft in Nebraska during 1980 was computed from estimates of gal/day/capita use for each county. This represents an average of 95 gal/day/capita. During 1980, county use volumes ranged from 30 acre-ft in Hooker and Pawnee Counties to 1,380 acre-ft in Douglas County, and Hydrologic Unit use volumes ranged from < 5 acre-ft to 2,270 acre-ft. Natural Resources Districts ' (NRD) use volumes ranged from 360 acre-ft in Middle Niobrara NRD to 3,530 acre-feet in the Lower Elkhorn NRD for the same period. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

  19. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  20. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  1. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  2. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  3. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  4. Domestic hot water consumption of the developed and developing communities in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Domestic hot water consumption for five different types of dwellings in the developed and developing communities of the Johannesburg Metropolitan Area, South Africa, are determined with measurements over a period of one year (1996) in more than 770 dwellings. The hot water consumption was taken monthly with the exception of 310 dwellings where the measurements were logged, resulting in hourly hot water consumptions. The results of the two types of measurements are presented: first, hot water consumption per person per day for the different months of a year; second, hourly hot water consumption per person per day as a function of winter weekdays.

  5. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. Water Balance Covers For Waste Containment: Principles and Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Balance Covers for Waste Containment: Principles and Practices introduces water balance covers and compares them with conventional approaches to waste containment. The authors provided detailed analysis of the fundamentals of soil physics and design issues, introduce appl...

  7. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  9. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls from uncontrolled burning of garden and domestic waste (backyard burning).

    PubMed

    Hedman, Björn; Näslund, Morgan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-11-15

    To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC and electronic scrap emitted several orders of magnitude more dioxins than the other waste fuels. Emissions from the other fuels had considerable variations, but the levels were difficult to relate to waste composition. Emission factors of PCDD/F and PCB from the backyard burning ranged from 2.2 to 13 000 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg. The levels found in ash usually were less than 5% of the total. For assessment of total emissions of dioxins and PCB from backyard burning of low and moderately contaminated wastes, an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested. These figures implythat combusting waste in the backyard could contribute substantially to total emissions, even if the amounts of fuel involved are equivalent to just a few tenths of a percent of the amounts combusted in municipal waste incinerators. PMID:16323778

  10. Environmental assessment for the domestic water supply upgrades and consolidation on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The domestic water systems on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are currently in need of upgrading to ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Drinking Water Regulations. The SRS has 28 separate goundwater-based drinking water systems in use across the site. These aging systems were designed and constructed in the 1950s and are now facing increasing difficulties in meeting cur-rent regulations. Audits of the systems conducted by SCDHEC in 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1993 identified shortfalls in meeting the requirements for secondary maximum containment levels (MCLS) and SCDHEC design standards. Secondary MCLs are those items, such as odor or appearance, that do not pose a direct health impact. SRS has committed to SCDHEC to correct the drinking water discrepancies and construct two new consolidated inter-area drinking water systems. Upgrading the SRS drinking water systems would be necessary to support site activities regardless of the makeup or the mission at SRS. As such, the proposed upgrade and consolidation of SRS domestic water systems is treated as part of the ``No Action`` alternative for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Reconfiguration of the Nuclear Weapons Complex .

  11. Integrating the simulation of domestic water demand behaviour to an urban water model using agent based modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutiva, Ifigeneia; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The urban water system's sustainable evolution requires tools that can analyse and simulate the complete cycle including both physical and cultural environments. One of the main challenges, in this regard, is the design and development of tools that are able to simulate the society's water demand behaviour and the way policy measures affect it. The effects of these policy measures are a function of personal opinions that subsequently lead to the formation of people's attitudes. These attitudes will eventually form behaviours. This work presents the design of an ABM tool for addressing the social dimension of the urban water system. The created tool, called Urban Water Agents' Behaviour (UWAB) model, was implemented, using the NetLogo agent programming language. The main aim of the UWAB model is to capture the effects of policies and environmental pressures to water conservation behaviour of urban households. The model consists of agents representing urban households that are linked to each other creating a social network that influences the water conservation behaviour of its members. Household agents are influenced as well by policies and environmental pressures, such as drought. The UWAB model simulates behaviour resulting in the evolution of water conservation within an urban population. The final outcome of the model is the evolution of the distribution of different conservation levels (no, low, high) to the selected urban population. In addition, UWAB is implemented in combination with an existing urban water management simulation tool, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) in order to create a modelling platform aiming to facilitate an adaptive approach of water resources management. For the purposes of this proposed modelling platform, UWOT is used in a twofold manner: (1) to simulate domestic water demand evolution and (2) to simulate the response of the water system to the domestic water demand evolution. The main advantage of the UWAB - UWOT model

  12. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process. PMID:24663224

  13. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  14. Influence of composition variations on the initial alteration rate of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash.

    PubMed

    Frugier, P; Godon, N; Vernaz, E; Larché, F

    2002-01-01

    Vitrification as a waste stabilization technology has often been considered applicable only to high-level radioactive waste for which, with the use of suitable additives, it yields a vitreous material with excellent chemical durability. It has become apparent in recent years that some waste forms-notably domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues--contain most of the ingredients of a vitrified material, although their composition variations are difficult to control. It is thus important to ensure not only that the materials are suitable for vitrification, but also that the resulting product exhibits acceptable long-term behavior under all circumstances. An initial study showed that, allowing for the compensation changes inherent in the melting process builtby EDF**, the residue collected by a single fly-ash dust separation defines a composition range within which the suitability of the vitrified material can be verified. "Vitrified material" refers to a melted material that contains no unmelted inclusions after cooling, but that may contain a variable fraction of crystallized phases. Five composition parameters were identified for the long-term behavior assessment: the concentrations of the three major elements (silicon, aluminum and calcium), the total alkali metal (sodium and potassium) concentration, and the sum of the concentrations of two toxic elements (zinc and lead). The other elements were assumed constant at molar ratios representative of industrial wastes. The experimentation plan methodology applied to the composition range identified fourteen materials suilable for developing and validating first-order models of the material components. The fly-ash composition had a very significant effect on the degree and kinetics and crystallization in the vitrified material within the experimental composition range; the cooling rate was the determining factor for some of the fourteen materials studied. Two crystailine phases predominated: spinels

  15. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  16. Quality of Water from Domestic Wells in Principal Aquifers of the United States, 1991-2004: Overview of Major Findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 43 million people - about 15 percent of the U.S. population - rely on domestic wells as their source of drinking water (Hutson and others, 2004). The quality and safety of water from domestic wells, also known as private wells, are not regulated by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act or, in most cases, by state laws. Rather, individual homeowners are responsible for maintaining their domestic well systems and for monitoring water quality. The lack of regular monitoring of domestic wells makes periodic assessments at national, regional, and local scales important sources for providing information about this key source of drinking water. This study from the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses water-quality conditions for about 2,100 domestic wells. The sampled wells are located in 48 states and in parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for water supply in the United States. As many as 219 properties and contaminants, including pH, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were measured. Fecal indicator bacteria and additional radionuclides were analyzed for a smaller number of wells. The large number of contaminants assessed and the broad geographic coverage of the present study provides a foundation for an improved understanding of the quality of water from the major aquifers tapped by domestic supply wells in the United States.

  17. Control of organic substances in water and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.B.

    1983-04-01

    The presence of organic substances of industrial origin in waste waters, storm runoff, and in surface and groundwaters may not always be an unmitigated evil--but, it is safe to say, it never is good. In 1976, EPA was required to give special emphasis to 129 priority pollutants that present probable hazard in the water resource. Of these 129 priority pollutants, 114 are organic. This document is comprised of 14 chapters, each prepared by a specialist. Chapter 1, Fundamental Considerations in the Removal of Organic Substances in Water is, in essence, an examination of a wide spectrum of physical-chemical principles that are being used, are under study, or may in the future be adapted for use in the separation of organic pollutants in waters.

  18. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  19. Solar domestic hot water system manual for Day's Inn, Garland, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The solar domestic hot water system installed at Day's Inn, I-30 and 6222 Beltline, Garland, Texas is described. The system is a solar collector array used to provide from 39.9% in December, to 84.7% in August, of the domestic hot water usage of the Day's Inn in Garland, Texas. The system is an automatic draindown design employing an atmospheric vented storage tank for storing the hot water collected by the 998 sq. ft. collector array. The system's major components and features are: 44 Daystar 1400 collectors, gross square footage of 998 sq. ft.; 1000 gallon vented storage tank; 3 B and G pumps: one for the collection loop, one for transfer of energy from the thermal storage tank to the shell side of the B and G heat exchanger; the third to circulate water from the three existing DHW tanks through the tube side of the heat exchanger; 3 one-inch Taco automatic valves to control the heating of water through existing DHW tanks; vacuum breakers to ensure draindown when main circulator pump stops running; pressure gauges installed across each pump so that system flow rates can be set and read periodically as a preventive maintenance check; collector angle of 30/sup 0/.

  20. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  1. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  2. Patterns of domestic water use in rural areas of Zimbabwe, gender roles and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry

    This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the

  3. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  4. Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, J. D.; Nyaphisi, M.; Mandel, R.; Petersen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of total coliforms, which is a nonspecific bacterial indicator of water quality, all unimproved and semi-improved water sources would be considered as not potable. Escherichia coli, a more precise indicator of faecal pollution, was absent (P < 0.001) in most of the improved water sources. Among 588 queried households, only 38% had access to an "improved" water supply. Sanitation was a serious problem, e.g. fewer than 5% of villagers used latrines and 18% of under-5-year-olds had suffered a recent diarrhoeal illness. The study demonstrates that protection of water sources can improve the hygienic quality of rural water supplies, where disinfection is not feasible. Our findings support the WHO recommendation that E. coli should be the principal microbial indicator for portability of untreated water. Strategies for developing safe water and sanitation systems must include public health education in hygiene and water source protection, practical methods and standards for water quality monitoring, and a resource centre for project information to facilitate programme evaluation and planning. PMID:10593031

  5. Assessing domestic water use habits for more effective water awareness campaigns during drought periods: a case study in Alicante, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, H.; Hernández, M.; Saurí, D.

    2014-11-01

    The design of water awareness campaigns could benefit from knowledge on the specific characteristics of domestic water use and of the factors that may influence certain water consumption habits. This paper investigates water use in 450 households of 10 municipalities of drought prone Alicante (Spain) with the objective of increasing knowledge about existing domestic water behavior and therefore help to improve the design and implementation of future water awareness campaigns. The survey results indicate that users already follow many of the conservation practices mentioned in messages. Moreover, campaigns need to take into account the differences in water use and habits derived from differences in urban models (concentrated or disperse).

  6. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  7. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Kjaer; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; van der Hoek, Wim; Cairncross, Sandy; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2002-07-01

    Even if drinking water of poor rural communities is obtained from a 'safe' source, it can become contaminated during storage in the house. To investigate the relative importance of this domestic domain contamination, a 5-week intervention study was conducted. Sixty-seven households in Punjab, Pakistan, were provided with new water storage containers (pitchers): 33 received a traditional wide-necked pitcher normally used in the area and the remaining 34 households received a narrow-necked water storage pitcher, preventing direct hand contact with the water. Results showed that the domestic domain contamination with indicator bacteria is important only when the water source is relatively clean, i.e. contains less than 100 Escherichia coli per 100 ml of water. When the number of E. coli in the water source is above this value, interventions to prevent the domestic contamination would have a minor impact on water quality compared with public domain interventions. Although the bacteriological water quality improved, elimination of direct hand contact with the stored water inside the household could not prevent the occasional occurrence of extreme pollution of the drinking water at its source. This shows that extreme contamination values that are often thought to originate within the domestic domain have to be attributed to the public domain transmission, i.e. filling and washing of the water pitchers. This finding has implications for interventions that aim at the elimination of these extreme contaminations. PMID:12100444

  8. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  9. Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

  10. U.S. Biofuel Policies and Domestic Shifts in Agricultural Land Use and Water Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Policies promoting domestic biofuels production could lead to significant changes in cropping patterns. Types of direct and indirect land use change include: switching among crops (displacement), expanding cropped area (extensification), and altering water/soil management practices (e.g. irrigation, tillage) (intensification). Most studies of biofuels water use impacts calculate the water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/total evapotranspired water per unit energy of biofuels. But estimates based on this approach are sensitive to assumptions (e.g. co-product allocation, system boundaries), and do not convey policy-relevant information, as highlighted by the issue of land use change. We address these shortcomings by adopting a scenario-based approach that combines economic modeling with crop-water modeling of major crops and biofuel feedstocks. This allows us to holistically compare differences in water balances across policy scenarios in an integrated economic/agricultural system. We compare high spatial resolution water balance estimates under three hypothetical policy scenarios: 1) a counterfactual no-policy scenario, 2) modified Renewable Fuels Standard mandates (M-RFS2), & 3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard plus a modified RFS2 scenario (LCFS+RFS2). Differences between scenarios in crop water balances (i.e. transpiration, evaporation, runoff, groundwater infiltration, & irrigation) are regional and are a function of changes in land use patterns (i.e. displacement, intensification, & extensification), plus variation in crop water-use characteristics. Cropped land area increases 6.2% and 1.6% under M-RFS2 and LCFS+RFS2 scenarios, respectively, by 2030. Both policy scenarios lead to reductions in net irrigation volumes nationally compared to the no-policy scenario, though more irrigation occurs in regions of the Midwest and West. The LCFS+RFS2 reduces net irrigation water use by 3.5 times more than M-RFS2. However, both policies drive

  11. Basic environmental technology: Water supply, waste disposal, pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes hydrology, hydraulics, water management and water quality. It also discusses solid and hazardous waste, and air and noise pollution. Fundamental scientific concepts are introduced as needed - the text does not assume extensive knowledge of chemistry or biology.

  12. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

  13. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register on March 9, 2012 at 77 FR 14307 and invited interested parties... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides...

  14. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  15. Determining the optimum solar water pumping system for domestic use, livestock water, or irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years we have field tested many different types of solar powered water pumping systems. In this paper, several steps are given to select a solar-PV water pumping system. The steps for selection of stand-alone water pumping system were: deciding whether a wind or solar water pumping sys...

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Miles E.; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A.; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R.; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Miles E; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  18. Immobilized microbe bioreactors for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Portier, R J; Miller, G P

    1991-10-01

    The application of adapted microbial populations immobilized on a porous diatomaceous earth carrier to pre-treat and reduce toxic concentration of volatile organics, pesticides, petroleum aliphatics and aromatics has been demonstrated for several industrial sites. In the pre-treatment of industrial effluents and contaminated groundwaters, these bioreactors have been used to optimize and reduce the cost of conventional treatment systems, i.e. steam stripping, carbon adsorption and traditional biotreatment. Additionally, these systems have been employed as seeding devices for larger biotreatment systems. The cost effective utilization of an immobilized microbe reactor system for water supply regeneration in a microgravity environment is presented. The feasibility of using immobilized biomass reactors as an effluent treatment technology for the biotransformation and biodegradation of phenols, chlorinated halocarbons, residual oils and lubricants was evaluated. Primary biotransformation tests of two benchmark toxicants, phenol and ethylene dichloride at concentrations expected in life support effluents were conducted. Biocatalyst supports were evaluated for colonization potential, surface and structural integrity, and performance in continuous flow bioreactors. The implementation of such approaches in space will be outlined and specific areas for interfacing with other non-biological treatment approaches will be considered for advanced life support, tertiary waste water biotreatment. PMID:11537697

  19. Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

    2011-08-01

    Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

  20. Retrieval of Hanford Single Shell Nuclear Waste Tanks using Technologies Foreign and Domestic

    SciTech Connect

    EACKER, J.A.; GIBBONS, P.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Hanford Site is accelerating its SST retrieval mission. One aspect of this acceleration is the identification of new baseline retrieval technologies that can be applied to all tank conditions for salt & sludge wastes in both sound & leaking tanks.

  1. Factors Affecting Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Households upon Access to Improved Water Supply: Insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

  2. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

  3. Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

  4. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  5. Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils ...

  6. Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply

  7. The chemical quality of self-supplied domestic well water in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, M.J.; Tipton, D.; Dunkle, Shapiro S.; Geiger, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Existing water quality data collected from domestic wells were summarized to develop the first national-scale retrospective of self-supplied drinking water sources. The contaminants evaluated represent a range of inorganic and organic compounds, and although the data set was not originally designed to be a statistical representation of national occurrence, it encompasses large parts of the United States including at least some wells sampled in every state and Puerto Rico. Inorganic contaminants were detected in many of the wells, and concentrations exceeded the U.S. EPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs; federal drinking water standards used to regulate public drinking water quality) more often than organic contaminants. Of the inorganic constituents evaluated, arsenic concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 ??g/L) in ???11% of the 7580 wells evaluated, nitrate exceeded the MCL (10 mg/L) in ???8% of the 3465 wells evaluated, uranium-238 exceeded the MCL (30 ??g/L) in ???4% of the wells, and radon-222 exceeded 300 and 4000 pCi/L (potential drinking water standards currently under review by the U.S. EPA) in ???75% and 9% of the wells, respectively. The MCLs for total mercury and fluoride were each exceeded in <1% of the wells evaluated. The MCL was exceeded in <1% of all wells for all anthropogenically derived organic contaminants evaluated and was not exceeded for many contaminants. In addition, 10 contaminants evaluated do not currently have an MCL. Atrazine, however, was detected in 24% of the wells evaluated and was the most frequently detected organic contaminant of the 28 organic contaminants evaluated in this study. Simazine and metolachlor each were detected in ???9% of all wells and tied for second in frequency of detection for organic contaminants. The third and fourth most frequently detected organic contaminants were methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (6%) and chloroform (5%), respectively. Because the water quality of domestic wells is not federally regulated or

  8. Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. II: potential routes of entry.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Guido; Hübner, Iris; Schmidt, Carsten K; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested to understand by which route fungi building these black biofilms enter their habitat at affected sites in domestic sanitary. A wide variety of fungi is known to be common in wet indoor environments, as well as in the drinking water resources. Two possible routes of entry are therefore considered as follows: (a) distribution by the drinking water system or (b) a retrograde route of colonisation. Previous compositional analysis revealed that the black constituents of biofilms primarily belong to the herpotrichiellaceous black yeast and relatives. Therefore, a systematic search for black fungi in the drinking water system was performed using Sabouraud's glucose agar medium with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol agar as isolation media. Cadophora malorum was the dominant fungus in the investigated drinking water systems, and samples taken from the house connections (n = 50; 74 %, <200 cfu/L), followed by a so far undescribed Alternaria sp. (28 %; <10 cfu/L) and E. castellanii (26 %; <10 cfu/L). Of note, C. malorum was not present in any previously analysed biofilm. Since E. lecanii-corni was not found in any water sample from the distribution system tested, but represented the most abundant species in dark biofilms previously analysed, a retrograde route of contamination in case of E. lecanii-corni can be assumed. PMID:23385953

  9. Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters in free water surface constructed wetlands using Azolla pinnata.

    PubMed

    Akinbile, Christopher O; Ogunrinde, Temitope A; Che Bt Man, Hasfalina; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Two constructed wetlands, one with Azolla pinnata plant (CW1) and the other without (CW2) for treating domestic wastewaters were developed. Fifteen water parameters which include: Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3N), Turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), and heavy metals such as Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The experiments were conducted in two (dry and wet) seasons simultaneously. Results showed considerable reductions in all parameters and metals including Zn in CW1 compared with CW2 in the two seasons considered while Pb and Mn were not detected throughout the study. Zn concentration levels reduced significantly in both seasons just as removal efficiencies of 70.03% and 64.51% were recorded for CW1 while 35.17% and 33.45% were recorded for CW2 in both seasons. There were no significant differences in the removal efficiencies of Fe in both seasons as 99.55%, 59.09%, 88.89%, and 53.56% were recorded in CW1 and CW2 respectively. Azolla pinnata has proved effective in domestic wastewater phytoremediation studies. PMID:26121232

  10. Variability of mercury concentrations in domestic well water, New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; Barringer, Julia L.; Jacobsen, Eric; Smith, Nicholas P; Gallagher, Robert A; Sites, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of total (unfiltered) mercury (Hg) exceed the Maximum Contaminant Level (2 µg/L) in the acidic water withdrawn by more than 700 domestic wells from the areally extensive unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Background concentrations of Hg generally are <0.01 µg/L. The source of the Hg contamination has been hypothesized to arise from Hg of pesticide-application, atmospheric, and geologic origin being mobilized by some component(s) of septic-system effluent or urban leachates in unsewered residential areas. Initial results at many affected wells were not reproducible upon later resampling despite rigorous quality assurance, prompting concerns that duration of well flushing could affect the Hg concentrations. A cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection examined variability in Hg results during the flushing of domestic wells. Samples were collected at regular intervals (about 10 minutes) during flushing for eight domestic wells, until stabilization criteria was met for field-measured parameters; the Hg concentrations in the final samples ranged from about 0.0005 to 11 µg/L. Unfiltered Hg concentrations in samples collected during purging varied slightly, but particulate Hg concentration (unfiltered – filtered (0.45 micron capsule) concentration) typically was highly variable for each well, with no consistent pattern of increase or decrease in concentration. Surges of particulates probably were associated with pump cycling. Pre-pumping samples from the holding tanks generally had the lowest Hg concentrations among the samples collected at the well that day. Comparing the newly obtained results at each well to results from previous sampling indicated that Hg concentrations in water from the Hg-contaminated areas were generally greater among samples collected on different dates (long-term variations, months to years) than among samples collected on the same day (short

  11. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  12. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. PMID:21642647

  13. Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

    Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

  14. Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Murinda, Shelton E; Graves, Alexandria K

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible

  15. Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, A. Mark; Murinda, Shelton E.; Graves, Alexandria K.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible

  16. An investigation of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    The performance of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water (PV-SDHW) systems has been studied. The direct PV- SDHW system employs a photovoltaic array, a separately excited DC- motor, a centrifugal pump, a thermal collector, and a storage tank. A search methodology for an optimum PV-SDHW system configuration has been proposed. A comparison is made between the long-term performance of a PV-SDHW system and a conventional SDHW system operating under three control schemes. The three schemes are: an ON-OFF flow controlled SDHW system operating at the manufacturer-recommended constant flow rate, and a linear proportional flow controlled SDHW system with the flow proportional to the solar radiation operating under an optimum proportionality. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  18. Definitional-mission report: Domestic and industrial waste-sludge management project, Istanbul, Turkey. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration (ISKI) was formed in 1982, and since that time a phased program of sewage collection and treatment has been implemented. Fifteen waste treatment plants, ranging from full scale biological treatment to pre-treatment, are in the design or planning stage, and over 2,000 km of collection lines have been installed. Concurrent with the program is an increasing emphasis on industrial waste treatment, which results in the production of both non-hazardous and hazardous sludges.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  20. Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, D.A. ); Lee, R.G. )

    1994-11-01

    Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

  1. ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

  2. Indicators of the sources and distribution of nitrate in water from shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vowinkel, Eric F.; Tapper, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Previously collected and new water-quality data from shallow wells (screened interval less than 30 meters below the land surface) in predominantly agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain were used to determine the relation of nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water to various hydrogeologic and land-use factors in the study area. Information on land use, well construction, hydrogeology, and water quality were used to predict the conditions under which concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in water from domestic wells in predominantly agricultural areas are most likely to be equal to or larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter. Results of the analyses of water-quality samples collected during 1980-89 from 230 shallow wells in the outcrop areas of the Kirkwood-Cohansey and Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer systems were used to evaluate the regional effects of land use on shallow-ground-water quality. Results of statistical analysis indicate that concentrations of nitrate in shallow ground water are significantly different (p= 0.001) in agricultural areas than in undeveloped areas in both aquifer systems. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen exceeded the MCL in water from more than 33 percent of the 60 shallow wells in agricultural areas. Concentrations of hitrate in water from shallow wells in agricultural areas increased as the percentage of agricultural land within an 800-meter-radius buffer zone of the wellhead increased (r= 0.81). Concentrations ofhitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas were similar (p= 0.23) to those concentrations in water from irrigation wells. These results indicate that most of the nitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas results from agricultural practices rather than other sources, such as septic systems. Water-quality samples collected from 12 shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas screened in the outcrop areas of

  3. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  4. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Marciano-Cabral, Francine; MacLean, Rebecca; Mensah, Alex; LaPat-Polasko, Laurie

    2003-10-01

    The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system. In the United States, the disease is generally acquired while swimming and diving in freshwater lakes and ponds. In addition to swimming, exposure to N. fowleri and the associated disease can occur by total submersion in bathwater or small backyard wading pools. In the present study, swipe samples and residual pipe water from homes in Arizona were examined for N. fowleri by nested PCR due to the death of two previously healthy children from PAM. Since neither child had a history of swimming in a freshwater lake or pond prior to the onset of disease symptoms, the domestic water supply was the suspected source of infection. Of 19 samples collected from bathroom and kitchen pipes and sink traps, 17 samples were positive for N. fowleri by PCR. A sample from a Micro-Wynd II filter was obtained by passing water from bathtubs through the filter. Organisms attached to the filter also tested positive by PCR. The two samples that tested negative for N. fowleri were one that was obtained from a kitchen sink trap and a swipe sample from the garbage disposal of one home. PMID:14532037

  5. 51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 2, ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2, AND OUTDOOR ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR THE PRIMARY AND 22 BAR MILLS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

  8. Apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Besik, F.

    1983-12-20

    An apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters achieving biological oxidation of organic matter, biological nitrification and denitrification of nitrogenous compounds and biological removal of phosphorus and clarification of the treated waste water in a single reaction tank in a single suspended growth sludge system without the use of traditional compressors, mixers, recirculation pumps, piping and valving and without the use of the traditional clarifier.

  9. From the tap to the mouth, drinking water quality in the domestic context in Khartoum, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Hassan El-Tayib, Noha

    2013-04-01

    The city of Khartoum experienced a rapid growth and an urban spread towards its periphery that has become denser than the centre. Urban planning was unable to follow the pace of demographic growth (5.5 million inhabitants in 2008), and the establishment of a decent drinking water network is slow. The population is incited to be independent from quantitative variations by storing drinking water, because of water turbidity, many cuts, and pressure decreases. These bad habits of storage, the lack of efficiency of treatment, and the absence of collective supply network maintenance, are responsible for a significant decrease in the physical and biological water quality. The result is a development of water-borne diseases (generally diarrheal symptoms and kidney diseases). Our study aimed at measuring the changes of water quality in these storage recipients, so as to evaluate the possible risks on people health. It demonstrated that the distinction made between quantity and quality in the institutional management of drinking water in Khartoum is a dead-end. It also suggested that treatment would be more efficient and water would have better quality if smaller quantity of drinking water was produced and the amount of wasted water was reduced. Storage is a worsening factor of bacteriological pollution. Then, contrary to what numerous researchers observed in other fieldworks, here the temperature does not limit the bacteriological development and bacteriology does not seem to be in connection with turbidity. Then water storage is an important problem for people's health, responsible for many diarrheal (bacteria) and kidney diseases (salinization). Nevertheless, conscientious of the quantitative deficiency, the Khartoum State Water Cooperation (in charge of water supply) tries to produce more water so as to avoid cuts. On the contrary, we think that the solution is in the maintenance of the infrastructure. Best network (30% of losses occur in the network) and better

  10. Waste-water treatment and receiving-water-body interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, L.A.

    1988-10-01

    Estimates are presented of the impact of the passage of five recently proposed acid rain bills on electric utility costs for coal-burning utilities servicing the domestic aluminum smelting industry, and on the costs of production for affected aluminum smelters. As aluminum smelting is an energy-intensive industry, domestic increases in electricity prices could affect the industry's competitiveness. Energy costs in U.S. aluminum smelting are compared to aluminum smelting energy costs in the rest of the world. Governmental policies affecting these energy costs are discussed.

  11. Ion removal from waste water using immobilized adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, A.E.; Jeffers, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes experiments investigating the removal of various anions from dilute aqueous streams using mixtures of ferric hydroxide and peat moss immobilized in porous polymer beads. Cyclic load-strip tests were conducted at aqueous-to-bead radios of 20, 10, and 5 for loading, stripping, and conditioning, respectively. Beads were stripped with a sodium hydroxide solution and regenerated with a dilute acid. Waste waters containing arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, tungsten, and vanadium were tested. The maximum waste loading on the beads was determined for each waste water; experimental isotherms are presented.

  12. Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, J. M.; Hardy, C. J.

    1981-05-01

    Alternaive nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. Management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium manufacture and enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes are discussed. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes were made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation.

  13. Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

  14. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dayan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  15. Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.N.

    1996-09-01

    Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Assessing domestic water use habits for more effective water awareness campaigns during drought periods: a case study in Alicante, eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, H.; Hernández, M.; Saurí, D.

    2015-05-01

    The design of water awareness campaigns could benefit from knowledge of the specific characteristics of domestic water use and the factors that may influence certain water consumption habits. This paper investigates water use in 450 households in 10 municipalities of drought-prone Alicante (Spain). We aim to increase knowledge about existing domestic water behaviors and therefore help to improve the design and implementation of future water awareness campaigns and even to consolidate reductions in water use after drought periods. The survey suggests that awareness campaigns should revise their scope and their channels of diffusion on a regular basis. In a more specific way, for the Alicante case we propose policy-oriented recommendations on the scope of action for further reductions.

  17. A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

  18. Septic systems as sources of organic wastewater compounds in domestic drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer.

    PubMed

    Schaider, Laurel A; Ackerman, Janet M; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2016-03-15

    Domestic drinking water wells serve 44 million people in the US and are common globally. They are often located in areas served by onsite wastewater treatment systems, including septic systems, which can be sources of biological and chemical pollutants to groundwater. In this study we tested 20 domestic drinking water wells in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, for 117 organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and for inorganic markers of septic system impact. We detected 27 OWCs, including 12 pharmaceuticals, five per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), four organophosphate flame retardants, and an artificial sweetener (acesulfame). Maximum concentrations of several PFASs and pharmaceuticals were relatively high compared to public drinking water supplies in the US. The number of detected OWCs and total concentrations of pharmaceuticals and of PFASs were positively correlated with nitrate, boron, and acesulfame and negatively correlated with well depth. These wells were all located in areas served exclusively by onsite wastewater treatment systems, which are likely the main source of the OWCs in these wells, although landfill leachate may also be a source. Our results suggest that current regulations to protect domestic wells from pathogens in septic system discharges do not prevent OWCs from reaching domestic wells, and that nitrate, a commonly measured drinking water contaminant, is a useful screening tool for OWCs in domestic wells. Nitrate concentrations of 1mg/L NO3-N, which are tenfold higher than local background and tenfold lower than the US federal drinking water standard, were associated with wastewater impacts from OWCs in this study. PMID:26822473

  19. Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes in recreational and domestic water sources from Jamaica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Todd, Cheridah D; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Streete, Don; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Lindo, John F

    2015-09-01

    Free living amoebae (FLA) are amphizoic protozoa that are ubiquitous in nature. Infection with FLA may result in neurological, ocular and skin infections. Exposure to Acanthamoeba occurs frequently through water contact and knowledge of the presence of the organisms in water sources is important in understanding transmission dynamics. The distribution of Acanthamoeba was studied in recreational and domestic water samples collected from across Jamaica. Morphological assessment and polymerase chain reaction revealed Acanthamoeba spp. isolates in 50.6% (42/83) and 17.3% (14/81) of recreational and domestic water, respectively. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotypes T3, T4, T5, T10 and T11 corresponding to Acanthamoeba spp: A. griffini, A. triangularis, A. lenticulata, A. culbertsoni and A. hatchetti. Moreover, T4 was the most frequently isolated genotype in both recreational and domestic water. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays indicated that most isolates were potentially pathogenic. This is the first report of T3 and T10 genotypes in the Caribbean and the first report of these Acanthamoeba spp. in Jamaican waters. The study shows that there is potential risk of infection to contact wearers who practise poor lens care. Further, Acanthamoeba should be considered as a cause of neurological infections in Jamaica. PMID:26322776

  20. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As. PMID:20153878

  1. Potential Impacts of Organic Wastes on Small Stream Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S. E.; Fischer, D. T.; Burke, R. A.; Molinero, J.

    2005-05-01

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. The subwatersheds were chosen to reflect a range of land uses including forested, pasture, mixed, and developed. The SFBR watershed is heavily impacted by organic wastes, primarily from its large poultry industry, but also from its rapidly growing human population. The poultry litter is primarily disposed of by application to pastures. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship between mean DOC and mean DO and suggested that concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), DOC, and the trace gases nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide are impacted by organic wastes and/or nutrients from animal manure applied to the land and/or human wastes from wastewater treatment plants or septic tanks in these watersheds. Here we estimate the organic waste loads of these watersheds and evaluate the impact of organic wastes on stream DOC and alkalinity concentrations, electrical conductivity, sediment potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratios. All of these water quality parameters are significantly correlated with watershed waste loading. DOC is most strongly correlated with total watershed waste loading whereas conductivity, alkalinity, potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratio are most strongly correlated with watershed human waste loading. These results suggest that more direct inputs (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents, near-stream septic tanks) have a greater relative impact on stream water quality than more dispersed inputs (land applied poultry litter, septic tanks far from streams) in the SFBR watershed. Conductivity, which is generally elevated in organic wastes, is also significantly correlated with total watershed waste loading suggesting it may be a useful indicator of overall

  2. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad

    2016-08-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  3. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    GJERDE, Bjørn; HILALI, Mosaad

    2016-01-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8–10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3–100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  4. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

  5. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

  6. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  7. Testing and analysis of load-side immersed heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report describes work to determine the performance of load-side heat exchangers for use in residential solar domestic hot water systems. We measured the performance of four heat exchangers: a smooth coil and a finned coil having heat transfer areas of 2.5 m/sup 2/ (26 ft/sup 2/) and those having areas of 1.7 m/sup 2/ (19 ft/sup 2/). A numerical model using the thermal network program MITAS was constructed, and results were compared to the experimental results. Research showed a smooth coil with only 70% of the surface area of a finned coil performed better than the finned coil. Also, load-side heat exchangers can maintain and enhance stratification in storage tanks, permitting the use of control strategies that take advantage of stratified storage tanks to increase system performance. The analytical model, which agreed reasonably well with the experimental results, was used to vary heat exchanger flow rate and area and initial tank temperature for both a smooth- and a finned-coil heat exchanger. Increasing the heat exchanger flow rate and area results in higher heat transfer rates but not necessarily optimal performance. Lower initial tank temperatures resulted in reduced tank stratification. The smooth heat exchanger outperformed the finned heat exchanger with the same outside surface area. 15 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

    2005-01-01

    In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

  9. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia. PMID:19124304

  10. Anaerobic treatability of waste water from pulp and paper industries.

    PubMed

    Norrman, J; Narbuvold, R; Nyström, L

    1984-01-01

    A black liquor evaporator condensate from a Kraft mill and a waste water from production of corrugating medium were anaerobically treated on a laboratory scale. The composition of the waste waters was determined before and after treatment in fixed bed reactors. Toxicity studies by the Microtox-method showed that both waste waters were highly toxic and a slight decrease in toxicity was achieved by anaerobic treatment. Despite the toxicity efficient anaerobic treatment was obtained. Major components of the condensate were methanol, ethanol, acetone, guaiacol, hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl disulfide. Anaerobic treatment reduced the concentration of the major components considerably with one exception. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide was unchanged. Organic overloading of the fixed bed reactor or a temperature drop resulted in an accumulation of acetone, although methanol and ethanol were degraded. Major components of the waste water from the production of corrugating medium were: Klason-lignin, acid-soluble lignin, carbohydrates, extractives and ash. When the fixed bed reactor was operated at a volumetric load of 1.6 kg COD/m(3).d the following reductions were obtained: Klason - lignin (solids fraction 84%; soluble and colloidal fraction 76%), acid-soluble lignin (solids fraction 56%; soluble and colloidal fraction 7%), carbohydrates (100%), extractives (71%), total-S (80%), COD (73%) and BOD(7) (78%). Kinetic studies showed that condensate was more easily degraded anaerobically than corrugating medium waste water. PMID:14545703

  11. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  12. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  13. Impact of Persistent Degassing of Kilauea Volcano on Domestic Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Macomber, T.

    2010-12-01

    In March, 2008, a small explosive eruption in the summit crater of Kilauea Volcano marked the initiation of a new, persistently degassing vent at Kilauea. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide initially exceeded 1000 tons per day but declined to a longer term rate of ~800 tons per day. Because of its location farther inland, the plume from this vent generated more severe and more frequent adverse air quality impacts on the surrounding and downwind communities than has the longer lived degassing vents at Pu'u O'o. Because many residents on Hawaii Island derive their domestic water supply from roof catchment systems, deposition of aerosols produced in the volcanic plume could pose a significant health threat to the community. In order to quantify that risk, a program of screening of water catchment systems was undertaken in three communities: Lower Puna, upwind of the vent; Volcano Village, immediately adjacent to the Kilauea summit; and Hawaiian Ocean View Estates, located ~65 km downwind from the vent. An aggregate of 439 samples were collected and analyzed for pH, and fluoride, chloride and sulfate ion concentrations; the median values and extrema are shown in Table I below. The pH values for the catchments proved not to be a good indicator of plume influence: the Volcano and Ocean View communities showed a bimodal distribution of values reflecting residents managing their water systems (median pH = 6.2 and 7.2 respectively) and those that didn't (median pH = 4.5 and 4.3 respectively); however, the lower extremes for pH gave values of 2.9 and 3.3 respectively. Chloride values were also variable due to the use of sodium hypochlorite to treat for biological contaminants. The median values for fluoride and sulfate show a progressive increase from the Puna catchments to Volcano and Ocean View. We believe that these values are consistent with the relative exposure of the communities to the volcanic plume: although the Volcano community is closer to the source, wind

  14. Absorption type water chiller fired directly by waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, K. L.; Kalwar, K.

    1982-08-01

    The direct use of waste heat as heating element in a water chiller of the absorption type was studied. The chilled water is used as cooling element in the industrial process, producing the waste heat or for conditioning the workplace or further located places. The heat source is gaseous or liquid. The cooling capacity is in the range from 10 to 120 kW. After reviewing the different absorption systems, LiBr/H20 proved to be the most suitable. The process retained for experimenting was the manufacturing of synthetic materials polymer industry and was tested in two different factories. It is proved that the use of absorption type water chillers is practicable with an efficiency of 10% to 25% of the waste heat energy, but that the existing chillers need extensive conversion for obtaining economical operation when using a low temperature heating source.

  15. Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, Toshio; Hirose, Yasuo; Ishii, Yoshinori; Takatsudo, Atsushi; Wakasugi, Kazuhico; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO{sub 3} solution of 6 M and NH{sub 4}OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH{sub 3} gas from NH{sub 4}OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH{sub 4}OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day.

  16. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  17. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  18. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

    Controlled-Ecological-Life-Support-System (CELSS) model wastes were wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500°C, i.e., below and above the critical point of water (374°C and 218 kg/cm2 or 21.4 MPa). A solution of ammonium hydroxide and acetic acid and a slurry of human urine, feces, and wipes were used as model wastes. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500°C, i.e., above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. Although the extent of nitrogen oxidation to nitrous oxide (N2O) and/or nitrogen gas (N2) increased with reaction temperature, most of the nitrogen was retained in solution as ammonia near 400°C. This important finding suggests that most of the nitrogen in the waste feed can be retained in solution as ammonia during oxidation at low supercritical temperatures and be subsequently used as a nitrogen source for plants in a CELSS while at the same time organic matter is almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. It was also found in this study the Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during waste oxidation. The rate of corrosion was lower above than below the critical temperature for water.

  19. Army Reserve Expands Net Zero Energy, Water, Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.

    2015-04-14

    In 2012, the Army initiated a Net Zero (NZ) program to establish NZ energy, water, and/or waste goals at installations across the U.S. In 2013, the U.S. Army Reserve expanded this program to cover all three categories at different types of Reserve Centers (RCs) across 5 regions. Projects identified at 10 pilot sites resulted in an average savings potential from recommended measures of 90% for energy, 60% for water, and 83% for waste. This article provides results of these efforts.

  20. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOEpatents

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  1. Combination gas producing and waste water disposal well

    SciTech Connect

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1984-02-07

    The present invention is directed to a waste water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased borehole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. By-pass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the by-pass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  2. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF COMBINED POTATO PROCESSING AND MUNICIPAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstration and evaluation of the treatment of combined potato processing waste-water and domestic wastes using various combinations of anaerobic and aerated lagoons. Measured parameters included: BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile acids, total coliform, fecal c...

  3. Mutagenicity assays of leachate from domestic waste landfills in Japan: The establishment of a protocol for measuring mutagenicity levels of leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Omura, Minoru; Inamasu, Takeo, Ishinishi, Noburu )

    1991-04-01

    In modern society, production of industrial and domestic waste is increasing so much that waste disposal has become a serious problem in many countries in terms of both difficulty in obtaining a location for waste disposal and concern for the hazardous effects upon the human-environmental system. In Japan, combustible waste is burned in an incinerator and the cinders are buried in landfills together with incombustible waste. These buried substances are degraded by soil bacteria and the physico-chemical milieu existing underground. This requires a great deal of time. However, leachate from the waste landfill is unceasingly dispersed into the environment throughout the degradation period. It is known that leachate contains various kinds of chemicals both organic and inorganic, resulting from the degradation process. Leachate should therefore be examined from the point of view of both environmental pollution and hazardous effects on human health. In an attempt to evaluate the mutagenicity of leachate, the authors endeavored to establish some methods. They developed a protocol for the preconcentration of mutagens in the leachate and for the examination of the mutagenicity of leachate obtained from waste landfills in Japan using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian-microsome system (Ames test).

  4. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  5. Guide to land treatment of municipal waste water in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, L.W.; Hinesly, T.D.; John, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Waste water is a recyclable commodity. Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in waste water are generally harmful when discharged to lakes and streams, but these constituents have a positive economic value when applied under properly controlled conditions to vegetated soils. The guide provides an overview of planning for a land-treatment system. It first discusses the potential for land treatment in Illinois, how to modify lagoons for land treatment, economic considerations, health and environmental concerns, regulatory requirements, and public education. It then provides more technical information on land-treatment processes, site and waste-load evaluation, systems for agricultural production, the potential for supplemental irrigation in Illinois, general site management, and system monitoring.

  6. [Spending review, personal view, water and waste in (home) hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In a moment of particular attention to the health care costs, of global crisis and of concerns not only for the economic future of our Society, but also for the precarious health of our Planet, it is worth reading an Australian article entitled Personal viewpoint: hemodialysis-water, power, and waste disposal: rethinking our environmental responsibilities, by Agar, one of the spokesman of the "ecological dialysis". The article describes, with some irony, some paradoxes of the ecological and economic costs of dialysis. Among these, 156 billion of liters of water per year and a minimum of 625000 tons of waste products, at least partly potentially reusable. With regards to his battle for a planet friendly dialysis, Agar comments that perseverance is not a diffused virtue. Keeping in mind the cost of waste disposal, reading this paper can be an invitation to an intelligent saving policy that directs attention to the economy and to the world around us. PMID:24671836

  7. N-SINK - reduction of waste water nitrogen load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Sanni; Tiirola, Marja; Arvola, Lauri; Huotari, Jussi; Tulonen, Tiina; Rissanen, Antti; Nykänen, Hannu

    2014-05-01

    Protection of the Baltic Sea from eutrophication is one of the key topics in the European Union environmental policy. One of the main anthropogenic sources of nitrogen (N) loading into Baltic Sea are waste water treatment plants, which are currently capable in removing only 40-70% of N. European commission has obliged Finland and other Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which would require high monetary investments on nitrate removal processes in treatment plants. In addition, forced denitrification in treatment plants would increase emissions of strong greenhouse gas N2O. In this project (LIFE12 FI/ENV/597 N-SINK) we will develop and demonstrate a novel economically feasible method for nitrogen removal using applied ecosystem services. As sediment is known to have enormous capacity to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas through denitrification, we predict that spatial optimization of the waste water discharge would be an efficient way to reduce nitrate-based load in aquatic systems. A new sediment filtration approach, which will increase both the area and time that nitrified waste water will be in contact with the reducing microbes of the sediment, is tested. Compared to the currently implemented practice, where purified waste water is discharged though one-point outlet system, we expect that sediment filtration system will result in more efficient denitrification and decreased N load to aquatic system. We will conduct three full-scale demonstrations in the receiving water bodies of waste water treatment plants in Southern and Central Finland. The ecosystem effects of sediment filtration system will be monitored. Using the most advanced stable isotope techniques will allow us accurately measure denitrification and unfavoured DNRA (reduction of nitrite to ammonium) activity.

  8. Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have established that approximately 10 percent of domestic wells in Maine have arsenic levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (10 micrograms per liter (ug/L)). Of even greater concern are multiple discoveries of wells with very high arsenic levels (> 500 ug/L) in several areas of the State. A study was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ME-CDC) in developing a better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and generate data for potential use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The State's Health and Environmental and Testing Laboratory (HETL) annually analyzes samples from thousands of domestic wells for arsenic. Results of arsenic analyses of domestic well water submitted to the HETL from 2005 to 2009 were screened and organized, by town, in order to summarize the results for all towns with samples submitted to the HETL. In order to preserve the privacy of well owners, the screening and organization of samples was conducted in the offices of the ME-CDC, following applicable Maine and United States laws, rules, and privacy policies. After screening, the database contained samples from 531 towns in Maine and from 11,111 individual wells. Of those towns, 385 had samples from 5 or more individual wells, 174 towns had samples from 20 or more individual wells, and 49 towns had samples from 60 or more wells. These samples, because they were submitted by homeowners and were not part of a random sample, may not be representative of all wells in a given area. The minimum, maximum, and median arsenic values for the towns with five or more samples were calculated, and the maximum and median values were mapped for the State. The percentages of samples

  9. STRATEGIES FOR WATER AND WASTE REDUCTION IN DAIRY FOOD PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable throughout the dairy industr...

  10. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  11. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  12. 49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.W.; Kheifets, L.; Obrinsky, D.L.; Whorton, M.D.; Foliart, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of conception.

  14. The Determination of Anionic Surfactants in Natural and Waste Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, P. T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results of an experiment suitable for measuring subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and waste effluents are provided. The experiment required only a spectrophotometer or filter photometer and has been successfully performed by students in an undergraduate environmental…

  15. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  16. Toxicity testing of ground water, surface water and waste water in the island of Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, E.; Kouris, D.; Guden, H.; Gokcekus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The island of Cyprus is an exporter of agricultural products to the European Community (EC). Public health and environmental toxicity testing programs on the island, especially in the Greek-dominated south, are based on EC models. Following EC guidelines, an environmental toxicology laboratory is being established at the State Laboratory in Nicosia. It will test water for toxicity using the acute Daphnia magna survival test, the chronic 4-day algal growth test (Selenastrum capricomutum), Microtox and Mutatox. During a 6-month survey of water and wastewater using the acute Ceriodaphnia dubia test and the algal growth test, the question of the relevance of environmental toxicity testing in an ecosystem devoid of natural year round freshwater sources, excepting ground water, was examined. Municipal wells, potable and agricultural water reservoirs, municipal and industrial effluent were tested. Preliminary studies showed some municipal well water to be toxic to freshwater species, probably due to high salt content. Water from a newly developed reservoir was toxic, probably due to its location at the base of eroding hills recently mined for copper. Effluent from a paper factory was toxic, but the reservoir into which it flows was not, nor was the sulfide-rich water toxic to untreated seeds. For the water-deficient ecosystem of Cyprus, the environmental testing program must be different from those developed for the European continent. The choice of appropriate test species, the need to focus on water quality for public health and agricultural use, and the possible benefits of nutrient-enriched waste water flowing into sterile ocean water, must all be considered.

  17. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  18. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  19. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-11-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

  20. Discharges in Water and Applications to Wasted Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Chobei; Yamashita, Takanori; Ihara, Satoshi

    Recently the electrical discharge in water has been used for the water treatment. In this study, various shape of electrodes were examined to observe and measure the electrical discharge phenomena in water. Both the Marx generator and the pulsed power generator were used to generate the discharge in water. The oscillation on the waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current was observed using the pulsed power generator whose peak applied voltage was about 80-120 kV and its discharge repetition rate was about one pulse per thirty seconds although it wasn't observed on the waveforms in the practical use of the high voltage generator (peak applied voltage was about 30-40 kV) with high repetition rate of discharge (20-300 pulses per second). Bubbles were introduced into the discharge region of main electrode using the ejector and the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by the measurement of emission spectrum of discharge in water and the intensity of OH radicals increased with the ratio of G/L (where, G is gas flow rate and L is water flow rate). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also measured and this reactor system was applied for the de-color of water.

  1. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  2. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  3. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Khan, S.U.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  4. SUMMARY REPORT: SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

  5. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  6. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  7. Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

    2012-08-01

    Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

  8. [WASTE WATERS AS THE RESERVOIR OF INTESTINAL ENTERIC VIRAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Nedachin, A E; Dmitrieva, R A; Doskina, T V; Dolgin, V A; Chulanov, V P; Pimenov, N N

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented data of field observations of the spectrum of viruses, contained in the waste waters. The studies were performed on the territory of the city and the territory unfavorable for hepatitis A. In the territory of the big city by RT-PCR in the waste liquid the enterovirus RNA was detected in 45% of samples; astroviruses--90%; noroviruses--80% and 15% of rotaviruses. Samples from 2 wells were slightly positive for the presence of HCV RNA A. In the waste liquid on the territory, unfavorable for viral hepatitis A, in 100% of the samples there were determined noro- and astroviruses RNA and adenovirus DNA, in 75%--enterovirus RNA; 50%--HAV RNA and a 25%--rotavirus RNA. PMID:26856138

  9. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  10. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time. PMID:17591220

  11. Characterization of domestic gray water from point source to determine the potential for urban residential reuse: a short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwin, Golda A.; Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli; Muthu, Nandhivarman

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to discern the domestic gray water (GW) sources that is least polluting, at the urban households of India, by examining the GW characteristics, comparing with literature data, reuse standards and suitable treatment technologies. In view of this, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic GW originating from bath, wash basin, laundry and kitchen sources are determined and compared with established standards for reuse requirements. Quality of different gray water sources is characterized with respect to the physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, ground element and heavy metal properties. The pollutant loads indicate that the diversion techniques are not suitable for household application and, therefore, treatment is necessary prior to storage and reuse. It is observed that the total volume of GW generated exceeds the reuse requirement for suggested reuse such as for flushing and gardening/irrigation. In spite of generating less volume, the kitchen source is found to be the major contributor for most of the pollutant load and, therefore, not recommended to be considered for treatment. It is concluded that treatment of GW from bathroom source alone is sufficient to meet the onsite reuse requirements and thereby significantly reduce the potable water consumption by 28.5 %. Constructed wetland systems and constructed soil filters are suggested as suitable treatment alternatives owing to its ability to treat highly variable pollutant load with lower operational and maintenance cost, which is more practical for tropical and developing countries.

  12. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

  13. Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes δ18O, δ2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 μgL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 μgL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination

  14. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  15. Treatment of dairy waste by using water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, R K; Pattanshetty, S M

    2002-01-01

    In the present study treatment of wastewater from a large dairy by using water hyacinth was studied in laboratory experiments. Effects of depth of the system, variations in area coverage, prior settling and of daily renewal of the plants was also studied on the efficacy of hyacinth in treating the dairy waste. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was found to grow exceptionally well in the waste (BOD 840.0 mg/L) and brought down the level of BOD from 840.0 to 121.0 mg/L; COD from 1,160.0 to 164.0 mg/L, total suspended solids from 359.0 mg/L to 245.0 mg/L, TDS from 848.0 mg/L to 352.0 mg/L, total nitrogen from 26.6 mg/L to 8.9 mg/L in 4 days. There was very little reduction, however in calcium, sodium and potassium concentration. Results of different experiments showed that systems with shallow depth were more efficient in removing dissolved solids, suspended solids, BOD, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus. Daily renewal of the plants led to slightly better reduction in suspended and dissolved solids, BOD, COD and nitrogen. Water hyacinth coverage was found to have a direct bearing on the treatment efficiency. Pretreatment (settling) of the waste was also found to be favourable as dissolved oxygen content increased rapidly in the experimental sets with pretreatment. Efficiency of removal of various parameters was also good in these sets. From the study it can be concluded that dairy waste can be effectively treated by water hyacinth. Consideration of above parameters and incorporating them in design factors can greatly increase the efficiency of the system. PMID:12201119

  16. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Arid countries, such as the Sultanate of Oman, are facing challenges of water shortages threatening economic development and social stability. Most of those countries are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise, and desertification. The combined effect of existing adverse conditions and likely impacts of future climate change will make water management even more difficult than what it is today. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to augment the water resources. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is practiced widely to store water during periods of surpluses and withdraw during deficits from an aquifer. In Muscat, there will be a surplus of >100,000 m3/day of TWW during winter months in the coming few years. The aquifer along the northern coast of Oman (Al-Khawd Aquifer) is conducive for MAR. Data show that TWW volumes will increase from 7.6 Mm3 in 2003 to 70.9 Mm3 in 2035 in Muscat city only. This study assesses, using MODFLOW 2005 numerical code, the impact of MAR using TWW on better management of the Al-Khawd unconfined coastal aquifer for better urban water supply. Specifically, aiming to maximize withdrawals from the domestic wells with minimize adverse effect of seawater intrusion. The model operates under a number of constrains that minimize the loss to the sea and the injected TWW must not migrates upstream (due to developed mound) and reach the wellfields used for domestic supply. The hypothetical injection wells are located downstream the domestic wellfield zone. The results of different managerial scenarios show that MAR produces a hydraulic barrier that decelerates the seawater intrusion which allows higher abstraction of pristine water from the upstream part of the aquifer. MAR along with redistribution/relocation of public wells allows abstraction of 2 times the current abstraction rate (around 6 Mm3/year to 12 Mm3

  17. Post-irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soils, crops and ground water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Goyal, B; Sharma, R K; Dubey, S K; Minhas, P S

    2002-12-01

    Long-term irrigation with sewage water adds large amounts of carbon, major and micro- nutrients to the soil. We compared the spatial distribution of N, P, K and other micronutrients and toxic elements in the top 0.6 m of an alluvial soil along with their associated effects on the composition of crops and ground waters after about three decades of irrigation with domestic sewage effluent as a function of distance from the disposal point. Use of sewage for irrigation in various proportions improved the organic matter to 1.24-1.78% and fertility status of soils especially down to a distance of 1 km along the disposal channel. Build up in total N was up to 2908 kg ha(-1), available P (58 kg ha(-1)), total P (2115 kg ha(-1)), available K (305 kg ha(-1)) and total K (4712 kg ha(-1)) in surface 0.15 m soil. Vertical distribution of these parameters also varied, with most accumulations occurring in surface 0.3 m. Traces of NO3-N (up to 2.8 mg l(-1)), Pb (up to 0.35 mg l(-1)) and Mn (up to 0.23 mg l(-1)) could also be observed in well waters near the disposal point thus indicating initiation of ground water contamination. However, the contents of heavy metals in crops sampled from the area were below the permissible critical levels. Though the study confirms that the domestic sewage can effectively increase water resource for irrigation but there is a need for continuous monitoring of the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soil, plants and ground water. PMID:12503913

  18. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  19. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous- monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply.

  20. Croatian refiner meets waste water treatment standards, reduces fines

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, A.L.; Nikolic, O.

    1995-11-27

    A new approach to waste water treatment at a refinery in Croatia produces effluent that not only meets the region`s regulations for disposal into the Adriatic Sea, but also surpasses the refinery`s specifications for recycling process water. Key to the dramatic reduction in pollutants was the installation of a Sandfloat unit developed by Krofta Engineering Corp. The Sandfloat unit is a dissolved air flotation clarifier that combines flocculation, flotation, and multilayer filtration to produce high-quality effluent. In fact, the effluent from the unit has a lower hydrocarbon concentration than water from the underground wells that supply process water to the refinery. While similar systems have been used for decades in industrial applications, this is the first time a Sandfloat unit has been installed in an oil refinery. The article describes the problem, refinery operations, treatment costs, and effluent recycling.

  1. Distribution and Diversity of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Peri-domestic Surface Waters from South Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Meghan R.; Encina, Carolina; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis affecting animals and humans caused by infection with Leptospira. The bacteria can survive outside of hosts for long periods of time in soil and water. While identification of Leptospira species from human cases and animal reservoirs are increasingly reported, little is known about the diversity of pathogenic Leptospira species in the environment and how surveillance of the environment might be used for monitoring and controlling disease. Methods and Findings Water samples (n = 104) were collected from the peri-domestic environment of 422 households from farms, rural villages, and urban slums participating in a broader study on the eco-epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Los Rios Region, Chile, between October 2010 and April 2012. The secY region of samples, previously detected as pathogenic Leptospira by PCR, was amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned using ClustalW in MEGA, and a minimum spanning tree was created in PHYLOViZ using the goeBURST algorithm to assess sequence similarity. Sequences from four clinical isolates, 17 rodents, and 20 reference strains were also included in the analysis. Overall, water samples contained L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, and L. weilii, with descending frequency. All species were found in each community type. The distribution of the species differed by the season in which the water samples were obtained. There was no evidence that community-level prevalence of Leptospira in dogs, rodents, or livestock influenced pathogen diversity in the water samples. Conclusions This study reports the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the peri-domestic environment of households in three community types and the differences in Leptospira diversity at the community level. Systematic environmental surveillance of Leptospira can be used for detecting changes in pathogen diversity and to identify and monitor contaminated areas where an increased risk of human infection exists. PMID

  2. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal mining wastes, refuse dumps, and spoil. The disposal, environmental impact, waste treatment, utilization, and pollution control of these wastes are discussed. The revegetation of mined lands using waste water sludge is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 138 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal mining wastes, refuse dumps, and spoil. The disposal, environmental impact, waste treatment, utilization, and pollution control of these wastes are discussed. The revegetation of mined lands using waste water sludge is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 243 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  5. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  6. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  7. Application of Integrated Control of Linked Water and Waste Water Systems in the Hoeksche Waard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Heeringen, K.-J.; Mol, B.

    2012-04-01

    Presented is a project in which an experimental integrated automatic control system for sewer systems and open water is developed for a rural region in The Netherlands, containing five municipalities and one water board. The goal of the project is to improve the water quality through increased cooperation between the authorities. The most effective method for realizing the water quality goals is to reduce the number of sewer spills, and to position the spills on locations less sensitive to sewer spills. In the project, three main methods are used to reduce the number of sewer spills: The first method involves optimizing the use of the available storage in the sewer system; the control of the pumps aim at keeping the filling rates of the sewer subsystems equal. A second method entails increasing the inflow of the Waste Water Treatment Plants during heavy rainfall events without disturbing the treatment process. The third method is about controlling the system in such a way that spills occur at less sensitive locations, thus avoiding spills in ecologically valuable waterbodies. All these methods require an extensive sensor network and centrally real-time controlled systems (RTC). An extensive study of the waste water chain constitutes the basis for the deployment of the automatic central control. The project has resulted so far in an extensive knowledge on the functioning of the waste water systems and an increased cooperation between water authorities. Preliminary results on the central control indicate that the number and volume of spills have decreased.

  8. The Effects of Industrial Wastes of Memphis and Shelby County on Primary Planktonic Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, R.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Diversity and total numbers of plankton, particularly diatoms, were analyzed and correlated with physical factors of water. Diversity index values appear to provide an indication of pollution of water by industrial and domestic wastes. (AL)

  9. Removal of atrazine from water by low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural and industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Joseph, P E

    2008-05-01

    In the present study six adsorbents viz. wood charcoal, fly ash, coconut charcoal, saw dust, coconut fiber and baggasse charcoal were studied for their capacity to remove atrazine from water. The removal efficiency of different adsorbents varied from 76.5% to 97.7% at 0.05 ppm concentration and 78.5% to 95.5% at 0.1 ppm concentration of atrazine solution, which was less than removal efficiency of activated charcoal reported as 98% for atrazine (Adams and Watson, J Environ Eng ASCE 39:327-330, 1996). Wood charcoal was a cheap (Rs 15 kg(-1)) and easily available material in house holds. Since wood charcoal was granular in nature, it could be used for the removal of atrazine from water to the extent of 95.5%-97.7%. Fly ash is a waste product of thermal plant containing 40%-50% silica, 20%-35% alumina, 12%-30% carbon and unburnt minerals having a high pH of 9-10. It is very cheap and abundant material and has comparatively good adsorption capacity. It was found that fly ash effectively removed about 84.1%-88.5% atrazine from water at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm levels. Coconut shell is also waste product. Therefore, both are inexpensive. The removal efficiency of atrazine from water was 92.4%-95.2% by coconut shell charcoal and 85.9%-86.3% by coconut fiber. Sawdust is generally used as domestic fuel and found everywhere. It is also very cheap (Re. 1 kg(-1)). Baggasse charcoal is a waste product of sugar mill and abundant material. Its cost is due to transport expense, which depends upon distance from the sugar mill. The removal efficiency of sawdust and baggasse charcoal was found 78.5-80.5 and 76.5-84.6, respectively. The efficacy of chemically treated adsorbents for the removal of atrazine from water is in the order: wood charcoal > coconut shell charcoal > fly ash > coconut fiber charcoal > baggasse charcoal > sawdust. PMID:18357400

  10. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  11. Gasifier waste water treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Details of an advanced study of the treatability of waste waters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite describe the test equipment and results at a pilot plant in North Dakota using stripped-gas liquor (SGL) as cooling tower makeup. Ammonia, alkalinity, phenol, and other non-hydantoin organics were removed from the cooling water by stripping and/or biological degradation, with the phenol concentration in the exhaust air exceeding the odor threshold. It will be necessary to control foaming of the circulating water, but both glycol and silicon based agents performed well during the test. It will also be necessary to reduce the high level of biofouling on heat transfer surfaces, although stainless steel fouling was not a major problem. The conclusion is that SGL is limited by potentially serious operating problems without additional treatment. 5 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  12. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  13. Warm water aquaculture using waste heat and water from zero discharge power plants in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Heckmann, R.A.; Winget, R.N.; Infanger, R.C.; Mickelsen, R.W.; Hendersen, J.M.

    1984-01-31

    Two series of experiments were completed to determine (a) toxicity of waste water from power plants on warm water fish and (b) multiple use of waste heat and water for aquatic animal and plant production. All three types of waste water from a typical coal-fired power plant are acceptable for growing catfish and tilapia following aeration. This growth was compared with fish raised in spring water. Closed, recirculating polyculture systems using evaporation pond water operated efficiently for plant (duckweed) and animal (fish and freshwater prawns) production. Duckweed is an excellent supplement for fish feed. Tilapia and freshwater prawns grew rapidly in the tanks containing duckweed only. 10 references, 13 tables.

  14. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

    1989-01-01

    A mixture of ammonium hydroxide with acetic acid and a slurry of human feces, urine, and wipes were used as CELSS model wastes to be wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500 C, i.e. below and above the critical point of water (374 C and 218 kg/sq cm or 21.4 MPa). The effects of oxidation temperature ( 250-500 C) and residence time (0-120 mn) on carbon and nitrogen and on metal corrosion from the reactor material were studied. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500 C, above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. A substantial amount of nitrogen remained in solution in the form of ammonia at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 C suggesting that, around 400 C, organic carbon is completely oxidized and most of the nitrogen is retained in solution. The Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during subcritical and supercritical water oxidation.

  15. Device for the removal of heat from waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kalberer, F.

    1983-12-27

    Waste water is led into a container (1) through a inlet (4) at the top. A connection (20) between the inlet (4) and an outlet (21) having a check valve (22) comprises adjacent to the inlet (4) two inverted frusto-conical hollow bodies (24, 25) which are directly connected to each other. The connecting surface between the two hollow bodies (24, 25) is formed as a coarse screen (26). A round fine screen (30), which diverges downwardly, surrounds the hollow bodies (24,25). Heat exchangers (31) are located in the space between the fine screen (30) and the wall (2) of the container (1). An outlet (5) terminates at the bottom of the container and connects with a riser (6) and via a bend (7) with the sewerage conduit (8). Through the coarse screen (26) the waste water reaches the container, and the heat can reach the heat exchangers (31) through the fine screen (30), so that practically uncontaminated water is present at the heat exchangers, and the need for cleansing is substantially diminished.

  16. Application of fiber optic sensors in waste water management from microelectronics fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulieru, Dumitru G.

    1999-09-01

    The concept of waste water treatment from microelectronics fab processes is referring to waste water discharged from ultrapure water plant which can't be treated on recovery waste water section. These wastes concentrated contains organic and inorganic acids, alkalis, metals, cyanide, chromium and fluoride effluent from fab processes. They will be canalized on qualities for treatment sections which permit the discharge of treated waste water as neutral with solids removal as compacted sludge. For management of waste water treatment plant we are using the fiber optic sensors as follows: level and flow control, signalization automatic pumps control and protection, solid control, leak detection a.s.o. The neutral quality of treated water has 'null' impact against of environmental system recommended for all semiconductors and microelectronics fab processes.

  17. Evaluation of Point of Use Water Treatment Devices for Removal of Mine Wastes from Well Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA Region VII and the Office of Research and Development (ORD) are conducting a large-scale study to identify the prevalence of lead (Pb) and other contaminants in drinking water at four mine waste areas in Washington County, Missouri. Numerous households in Potosi, Richwoo...

  18. Mercury and methylmercury contents in mine-waste calcine, water, and sediment collected from the Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Greaves, I.A.; Bustos, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines, produced about 2,900 t of mercury during mining of cinnabar ore from 1953 to 1976. More than 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining, much of which were used to construct a jetty in nearby Honda Bay. Since 1995, high Hg contents have been found in several people living near the mine, and 21 of these people were treated for mercury poisoning. Samples of mine-waste calcine contain high total Hg concentrations ranging from 43-660 ??g/g, whereas total Hg concentrations in sediment samples collected from a mine pit lake and local stream vary from 3.7-400 ??g/g. Mine water flowing through the calcines is acidic, pH 3.1-4.3, and total Hg concentrations ranging from 18-31 ??g/l in this water significantly exceed the 1.0-??g/l drinking water standard for Hg recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total Hg contents are generally lower in water samples collected from surrounding domestic wells, the mine pit lake, Honda Bay, and the nearby stream, varying from 0.008-1.4 ??g/l. Methylmercury concentrations in water draining mine calcines range from <0.02-1.4 ng/l, but methylmercury is highest in the pit lake water, ranging from 1.7-3.1 ng/l. Mercury methylation at the Palawan mine is similar to or higher than that found in other mercury mines worldwide. Much of the methylmercury generated in Palawan mine-waste calcines and those in Honda Bay is transferred to water, and then to marine fish and seafood. A food source pathway of Hg to humans is most likely in this coastal, high fish-consuming population.

  19. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  20. Performance and cost evaluation of constructed wetland for domestic waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Deeptha, V T; Sudarsan, J S; Baskar, G

    2015-09-01

    Root zone treatment through constructed wetlands is an engineered method of purifying wastewater. The aim of the present research was to study the potential of wetland plants Phragmites and Typha in treatment of wastewater and to compare the cost of constructed wetlands with that of conventional treatment systems. A pilot wetland unit of size 2x1x0.9 m was constructed in the campus. 3x3 rows of plants were transplanted into the pilot unit and subjected to wastewater from the hostels and other campus buildings. The raw wastewater and treated wastewater were collected periodically and tested for Total nitrogen (TN),Total Phosphorous (TP), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). It was observed that this pilot unit reduced the concentrations of TN, TP, BOD and COD by 76, 73, 83 and 86%, respectively, on an average. Root zone system achieved standards for tertiary treatment with low operating costs, low maintenance costs, enhance the landscape, provide a natural habitat for birds, and did not emit any odour. PMID:26521546

  1. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  2. Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Sara V.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 μg/L, replacing the old standard of 50 μg/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner’s responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented January 2013 in 13 towns of central Maine with the goal of understanding the population’s testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported their well has been tested, for half it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing regularly testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. PMID:24875279

  3. Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 μg/L, replacing the old standard of 50 μg/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. PMID:24875279

  4. Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Smith, B.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of two metals, either nickel-tungsten, nickel-zinc, or zinc-tin. This report reviews the literature and details currently available on emerging technologies that could affect recovery of metals from electroplating baths under development by Boeing Aerospace. This literature survey summarizes technologies relevant to the recovery of metals from electroplating processes. The authors expanded the scope to investigate single metal ion recovery technologies that could be applied to metal ion recovery from alloy baths. This review clearly showed that the electroplating industry has traditionally relied on precipitation and more recently on electrowinning as its waste treatment methods. Despite the almost ubiquitous use of precipitation to remove contaminant metal ions from waste electroplating baths and rinse waters, this technology is clearly no longer feasible for the electroplating industry for several reasons. First, disposal of unstabilized sludge is no longer allowed by law. Second, these methods are no longer adequate as metal-removal techniques because they cannot meet stringent new metal discharge limits. Third, precious resources are being wasted or discarded because these methods do not readily permit recovery of the target metal ions. As a result, emerging technologies for metal recovery are beginning to see application to electroplating waste recycle. This report summarizes current research in these areas. Included are descriptions of various membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, ion exchange and chelating polymer technology, and electrodialysis.

  5. THE OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN LEAD PIPE SCALES FROM DOMESTIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants, such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps, and current monitoring practices d...

  6. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  7. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  8. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is when a person uses abusive behavior to control a partner or other family member. The ... of any age, sex, culture, or class. When domestic violence is aimed at a child, it is called ...

  9. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  10. The Cyprus experience with protection of ground- and surface waters from domestic sewage and excreta.

    PubMed

    Andreou, C

    2000-01-01

    Water resources in Cyprus are scarce and expensive to exploit; rainfall is highly variable and droughts occur frequently. The Cyprus authorities are concerned with the conservation and protection of water supply sources. For this purpose the Water Pollution Control Law has been issued. According to the Street and Buildings Law, all dwellings must be equipped with a septic tank, followed by an absorption pit. When the pits overflow due to saturation of the soil, the septage is pumped out and transported to a sewage treatment plant for treatment and reuse. Based on land-use zoning, housing developments are not allowed in the vicinity of water-supply sources, rivers and reservoirs. In order to avoid contamination of the water sources from sewage and excreta, protection zones are designated in which the disposal of sewage is not allowed. PMID:10842850

  11. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    PubMed

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  12. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

  13. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  14. Carbon Isotope Environmental Forensics: Fingerprinting Gas From Domestic Water Wells From petroleum Fields of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, K.; Tilley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sixty years of petroleum development has resulted in over 500,000 petroleum wells drilled in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, many in agricultural areas that rely on groundwater (GW). The impact on GW quality by petroleum development is increasingly becoming a societal and regulatory concern triggered by intensive, recent CBM development. To protect GW the production tubing of a resource well is encased by a larger diameter surface casing (SCV) that is set deeper than the depth of potable water. Because of poor cementing the SCVs and soils near the wells often contain gas heightening concern for integrity of GW. Carbon isotope analyses of thousands of SCV gases shows them only rarely to be sourced from the target zone of the resource well, but rather from an intermediate depth. It has long been known that many water wells produce methane and traces of ethane and it needs to be determined if the water wells have been impacted. Alberta now requires all water wells to be tested prior to drilling of nearby resource wells. Carbon isotope analyses are mandated on a proportion of all gases produced by water wells and many hundreds of gas analyses will be placed in a public data base. Carbon isotope values of gases vary within the basin and can be used to quantify natural gas contamination of GW. Two case studies will be presented where landowners have filed complaints about gas contamination of their water wells. Attributing specific contaminant sources to a given resource well has proven to be difficult in areas where there is ongoing CBM development. However, in one area, the problem gas can be attributed to previous conventional petroleum development rather than the current CBM drilling and production. Carbon isotope analyses of water wells in another area suggest a few per cent of CBM contamination in water wells. Unfortunately, lack of pre-drilling background water data prevents reliable quantification of the contamination.

  15. Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

  16. Estimating the Risk of Domestic Water Source Contamination Following Precipitation Events.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Ian F; Hoover, Christopher M; Remais, Justin V; Monaghan, Andrew; Celada, Marco; Carlton, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase precipitation extremes, threatening water quality. In low resource settings, it is unclear which water sources are most vulnerable to contamination following rainfall events. We evaluated the relationship between rainfall and drinking water quality in southwest Guatemala where heavy rainfall is frequent and access to safe water is limited. We surveyed 59 shallow household wells, measured precipitation, and calculated simple hydrological variables. We compared Escherichia coli concentration at wells where recent rainfall had occurred versus had not occurred, and evaluated variability in the association between rainfall and E. coli concentration under different conditions using interaction models. Rainfall in the past 24 hours was associated with greater E. coli concentrations, with the strongest association between rainfall and fecal contamination at wells where pigs were nearby. Because of the small sample size, these findings should be considered preliminary, but provide a model to evaluate vulnerability to climate change. PMID:27114298

  17. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  18. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided in this paper. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  19. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg) over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back) pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048). For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069) and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051) were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011) and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018) Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size and future research

  20. Risk in the mist? Deriving data to quantify microbial health risks associated with aerosol generation by water-efficient devices during typical domestic water-using activities.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, J; Keywood, M; Sinclair, M; Leder, K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address existing data gaps and to determine the size distribution of aerosols associated with water-efficient devices during typical domestic activities. This information is important to assist in understanding infection spread during water-using activities and in designing water regulations. Three water-using scenarios were evaluated: i) showering using a water-efficient showerhead; ii) use of a high pressure spray unit for cleaning cars and iii) toilet flushing using a dual flush low volume flush device. For each scenario a control condition (conventional lower efficiency device) was selected for benchmarking purposes. Shower module results highlighted the complexity of particle generation and removal processes and showed that more than 90% of total particle mass in the breathing zone was attributed to particle diameters greater than 6 mum. Conversely, results for car washing experiments showed that particle diameters up to 6 mum constituted the major part of the total mass generated by both water-efficient and conventional devices. Even under worse case scenario conditions for toilet flushing, particle measurements were at or below the level of detection of the measuring instrumentation. The data provide information that assists in health risk assessment and in determining future research directions, including methodological aspects. PMID:19934513

  1. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wood, B.D.; Ji, L.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

  2. Prevalence of Acanthamoeba and other naked amoebae in South Florida domestic water.

    PubMed

    Shoff, M E; Rogerson, A; Kessler, K; Schatz, S; Seal, D V

    2008-03-01

    The purpose was to identify the prevalence of naked amoebae in tap water in south Florida to ascertain the risk of amoebal infections of the cornea in contact lens wearers. Over the course of a 2-year period, water samples were collected from sites throughout Broward, Palm Beach, and Dade counties, Florida. The presence of amoebae in samples was based on an enrichment cultivation method appropriate for Acanthamoeba. Amoebae were identified using diagnostic features discernable by light microscopy. A total of 283 water samples were processed and amoebae were noted in 80 of these. Acanthamoeba were found on 8 occasions (2.8%). The genera Hartmannella and Vahlkampfia, rarely involved in keratitis cases, were found in 3.5% and 2.8% of samples, respectively. A total of 19 different naked amoebae were recorded and amoebae (regardless of genus) were present in 19.4% of all samples. Previous surveys in England and Korea have shown that acanthamoebae are found in 15 to 30% of tap water samples in the home and have been associated with corneal infection in contact lens wearers. The incidence of acanthamoebae infection in the USA (2.8%) has been found to be lower than that in the UK and it has been postulated that this is related to the lack of a storage water tank in the roof loft space. However, the level of treatment of municipal water is clearly not effective at killing amoebal cysts (or trophozoites) as evidenced by the high occurrence of amoebae (19.4%) in this study. PMID:17998610

  3. Temporal variability in domestic point source discharges and their associated impact on receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Richards, Samia; Withers, Paul J A; Paterson, Eric; McRoberts, Colin W; Stutter, Marc

    2016-11-15

    Discharges from the widely distributed small point sources of pollutants such as septic tanks contribute to microbial and nutrient loading of streams and can pose risks to human health and stream ecology, especially during periods of ecological sensitivity. Here we present the first comprehensive data on the compositional variability of septic tank effluents (STE) as a potential source of water pollution during different seasons and the associated links to their influence on stream waters. To determine STE parameters and nutrient variations, the biological and physicochemical properties of effluents sampled quarterly from 12 septic tank systems were investigated with concurrent analyses of upstream and downstream receiving waters. The study revealed that during the warmer dryer months of spring and summer, effluents were similar in composition, as were the colder wetter months of autumn and winter. However, spring/summer effluents differed significantly (P<0.05) from autumn/winter for concentrations of biological oxygen demand (BOD), arsenic, barium (Ba), cobalt, chromium, manganese, strontium (Sr), titanium, tungsten (W) and zinc (Zn). With the exception of BOD, Ba and Sr which were greater in summer and spring, the concentrations of these parameters were greater in winter. Receiving stream waters also showed significant seasonal variation (P≤0.05) in alkalinity, BOD, dissolved organic carbon, sulphate, sulphur, lithium, W, Zn and Escherichiacoli abundance. There was a clear significant influence of STE on downstream waters relative to upstream from the source (P<0.05) for total suspended solids, total particulate P and N, ammonium-N, coliforms and E. coli. The findings of this study found seasonal variation in STE and place effluent discharges as a factor affecting adjacent stream quality and call for appropriate measures to reduce or redirect STE discharges away from water courses. PMID:27474989

  4. Unique wood-fired system for domestic hot water generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This project has proven that it is possible to construct in a home workshop situation, a simple, durable, reasonably modest-cost stove and heat-exchanger which will conveniently generate wood-fueled hot water year-round to meet household needs and daily demand schedules. Included with this report are the illustrations, descriptions, and details which should make it possible for someone with the proper skills to construct their own system. However, before rushing out to buy copper and steel, it would be important for anyone to consider the costs, benefits, and possible alternatives available. Whatever the source of hot water, conservation is a major way of saving energy and money. Some major ways of conserving are to add extra insulation to the water heater tank, turning the heating elements down to 115 to 120/sup 0/F thermostat settings, using a timer to turn on the elements only during the time of day that hot water will be needed, using warm or cold water for laundry, and using flow-restricting shower heads. These measures can save up to 50% of the energy previously used, with very little investment. Total costs for the system using an existing water heater for the storage tank could range from $200 to over $1000. Assuming free firewood, at current utility prices this would make a pay-back period for original investment of only 8 months to 3 years 4 months for the average family. Considering these costs, one might reasonably wonder if it would be worthwhile to purchase and use a wood-fired system which would save only a dollar or less per daily use. This would amount to a rate of savings pay equal to no more than the minimum wage for the time involved.

  5. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Domestic Wells in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southeastern United States, 1998-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, Marian P.; Crandall, Christy A.; Deacon, Michael; Embry, Teresa L.; Howard, Rhonda S.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is a highly productive carbonate aquifer that provides drinking water to about 10 million people in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. Approximately 1.6 million people rely on domestic wells (privately owned household wells) for drinking water. Withdrawals of water from the Floridan aquifer system have increased by more than 500 percent from 630 million gallons per day (2.38 cubic meters per day) in 1950 to 4,020 million gallons per day (15.2 cubic meters per day) in 2000, largely due to increases in population, tourism, and agriculture production. Water samples were collected from 148 domestic wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama during 1998-2005 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The wells were located in different hydrogeologic settings based on confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Five networks of wells were sampled con-sisting of 28 to 30 wells each: two networks were in unconfined areas, two networks were in semiconfined areas, and one network was in the confined area. Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, radon, and organic compounds (volatile organic compounds and pesticides) were measured in water samples. Concentrations were compared to water-quality benchmarks for human health, either U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for public water supplies or USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs). The MCL for fluoride of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) was exceeded for two samples (about 1 percent of samples). A proposed MCL for radon of 300 picocuries per liter was exceeded in about 40 percent of samples. Nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer ranged from less than the laboratory reporting level of 0.06 to 8 mg/L, with a median nitrate concentration less than 0.06 mg/L (as nitrogen). Nitrate concentrations did not exceed the

  6. FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL. Third, Dallas, Texas, June 11-13, 1991 - TECHNICAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 11 -13,1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Technology Innovation Office and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory hosted an international conference in Dallas, TX, to exchange solutions to hazardous waste treatment problems. This conference, the Third Forum...

  7. Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used in chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents th...

  8. Mineralogy of Galvanic Corrosion By-products in Domestic Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the results of a visual and mineralogical characterization of scales developed over long time periods at galvanically coupled lead-brass and lead-copper pipe joints from several different drinking water distribution systems. The long-term exposure aspect of t...

  9. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. PMID:24157507

  10. [Surveillance and testing of domestic installations according to the new drinking water regulations].

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, S

    2003-12-01

    Effective 1.1.2003 the new drinking water regulation (TrinkwV2001) was enacted. For public health authorities new tasks result, for example the monitoring of house installations with supply of drinking water for the public, in particular in hospitals, old person nursing homes, kindergartens, schools, hotels, restaurants etc. Public health authorities are obligated to establish a monitor programme on the basis of suitable controls by random sampling. The investigations of drinking water are to extend to at least the parameters, which can change in the house installation unfavourably. In view of the multiplicity of the plants which can be supervised the question arises, how far public health authorities can conscientiously fulfil their monitoring obligation. The Ministry of Health MFAS of Lower Saxony initiated country-wide a working group developed for a pattern administrative regulation, which, revised by the "Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Umweltbezogener Gesundheitsschutz" LAUG, has been published in some Lands of the German Federal Republic with changes. The pattern administrative regulation plans to examine hospitals and old person nursing homes at least 1 x annually, schools and kindergartens every 5 years, other communal facilities, sport and leisure facilities, hotels and restaurants after a risk evaluation by random sampling at least however one plant per 10,000 inhabitants. Restaurants in stations, ports and airports are to be controlled at least once annually. The drinking water investigation is to extend to micro-biological parameters, like E. coli, coliform germs, germs tested at 22 degrees C and 36 degrees C as well as the chemical parameters copper and lead. The investigation on Legionella pneumophila in the warm-water system can be arranged in individual cases. In this article the considerations for these defaults are described, and pointers to a practicable risk assessment are given. PMID:14685927

  11. Domestic solid waste management and its impacts on human health and the environment in Sharg El Neel Locality, Khartoum State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdellah, A M; Balla, Q I

    2013-11-15

    Due to rapid urbanization in Khartoum State, Domestic Solid Waste (DSW) management remains the biggest obsession that recurrently attracts the attention of the concern authorities and stakeholders. As one of the seven localities comprised the state, the Sharg El Neel Locality was chosen to study the DSW management efficiency. The materials and methods employed in collection of data is a package of techniques, one of which was by conducting interviews using structured and unstructured questions mainly directed to appropriate persons i.e., householders and particular government employees directly engaged in DSW management operations. The main findings reached in this study were that local authorities lack the necessary capacities to handle the immense problems of DSW management. Shortages of funds, inadequate number of workers, lack of transport and facilities and weakness of attitudes of respondents found to be among factors hindering the DSW management. Accordingly, proper scheduled and timing, well-trained public health officers and sanitary overseers and strict sustainable program to controlling flies, rodents, cockroach and other disease vectors are essential to properly managing DSW. Otherwise, problems resulting from solid waste generation in the study area will be magnitudized and the surrounding environment will definitely be deteriorated. PMID:24511697

  12. State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

  13. Genetic Diversity in the Prion Protein Gene (PRNP) of Domestic Cattle and Water Buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    UCHIDA, Leo; HERIYANTO, Agus; THONGCHAI, Chalermchaikit; HANH, Tran Thi; HORIUCHI, Motohiro; ISHIHARA, Kanako; TAMURA, Yutaka; MURAMATSU, Yasukazu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

  14. In-situ parameter estimation for solar domestic hot water heating systems components. Final report, June 1995--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1997-03-01

    Three different solar domestic hot water systems are being tested at the Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory; an unpressurized drain-back system with a load side heat exchanger, an integral collector storage system, and an ultra low flow natural convection heat exchanger system. The systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. The level of detail allows the observation of the performance of the total system and the performance of the individual components. This report evaluates the systems based on in-situ experimental data and compares the performances with simulated performances. The verification of the simulations aids in the rating procedure. The whole system performance measurements are also used to analyze the performance of individual components of a solar hot water system and to develop improved component models. The data are analyzed extensively and the parameters needed to characterize the systems fully are developed. Also resulting from this indepth analysis are suggested design improvements wither to the systems or the system components.

  15. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  16. Method and apparatus for waste destruction using supercritical water oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Haroldsen, Brent Lowell; Wu, Benjamin Chiau-pin

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved apparatus and method for initiating and sustaining an oxidation reaction. A hazardous waste, is introduced into a reaction zone within a pressurized containment vessel. An oxidizer, preferably hydrogen peroxide, is mixed with a carrier fluid, preferably water, and the mixture is heated until the fluid achieves supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. The heating means comprise cartridge heaters placed in closed-end tubes extending into the center region of the pressure vessel along the reactor longitudinal axis. A cooling jacket surrounds the pressure vessel to remove excess heat at the walls. Heating and cooling the fluid mixture in this manner creates a limited reaction zone near the center of the pressure vessel by establishing a steady state density gradient in the fluid mixture which gradually forces the fluid to circulate internally. This circulation allows the fluid mixture to oscillate between supercritical and subcritical states as it is heated and cooled.

  17. Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Müller, T G; Noykova, N; Gyllenberg, M; Timmer, J

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical reactions can often be formulated mathematically as ordinary differential equations. In the process of modeling, the main questions that arise are concerned with structural identifiability, parameter estimation and practical identifiability. To clarify these questions and the methods how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes using two data sets obtained from different experimental setups. In both experiments only biogas production rate was measured which complicates the analysis considerably. We show that proving structural identifiability of the mathematical models with currently used methods fails. Therefore, we introduce a new, general method based on the asymptotic behavior of the maximum likelihood estimator to show local structural identifiability. For parameter estimation we use the multiple shooting approach which is described. Additionally we show that the Hessian matrix approach to compute confidence intervals fails in our examples while a method based on Monte Carlo Simulation works well. PMID:11965253

  18. Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

  19. System design package for SIMS prototype system 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The system consisted of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit, containing solar collectors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping, and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system were packaged for evaluation.

  20. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  1. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  2. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

    2014-08-15

    Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. ecently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and ...

  4. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  5. Optimisation of water-cannon cleaning for deposit removal on water walls inside waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Graube, Franziska; Grahl, Sebastian; Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Deposits in municipal waste incinerators are very inhomogeneous in structure and constitution. They cause corrosion and reduce the efficiency, so they need to be removed frequently. Among other systems, operators use water cannons for the deposit removal. Two different removal mechanisms of water-cannon cleaning are suggested: A direct shattering of the deposit by the impact of the water jet, as well as the cracking caused by thermal stresses where droplets cool the deposits. As the contribution of each of the aforementioned mechanisms to the overall cleaning efficiency is unknown, we performed empirical investigations to determine the dominating effect. In a first experimental setup focusing on thermal stress, cold droplets were applied onto hot deposits taken from a waste incinerator. Results showed that the cleaning effect strongly depends on the deposit thickness and structure, so that the deposits could be categorised in three different groups. A second measurement campaign focused on the influence of deposit material, deposit temperature and water jet momentum. It could be shown that both deposit material and temperature have a significant effect on the cleaning efficiency, whereas an increase in water jet momentum only led to modest improvements. The combination of these two parameter studies implies that the influence of the thermal stress outweighs that of the momentum. This knowledge is applicable to the cleaning setup by increasing the temperature gradient. PMID:26608897

  6. Measured water heating performance of a vertical-bore water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for domestic water heating over twelve months under simulated occupancy loads

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 5.275 kW (1.5 ton) WW-GSHP providing 227 L day-1 domestic hot water at 49 C. Daily water use is simulated as stipulated in the Building America Research Benchmark Definition capturing the living habits of the average U.S household. The 94.5m vertical-bore ground loop is shared with a separate GSHP for space conditioning the 251m2 residential home. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, delivered energy, compressor electricity use, COP, WW-GSHP run times, and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Factors influencing performance metrics are highlighted.

  7. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Deep Geological Repository: A Domestic and Global Blueprint for Safe Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste - 12081

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.

    2012-07-01

    At the end of 2011, the world's first used/spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is projected to open in 2020, followed by two more in 2025. The related pre-opening periods will be at least 40 years, as it also would be if USA's candidate HLW-repository is resurrected by 2013. If abandoned, a new HLW-repository site would be needed. On 26 March 1999, USA began disposing long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The related pre-opening period was less than 30 years. WIPP has since been re-certified twice. It thus stands to reason the WIPP repository is the global proof of principle for safe deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also stands to reason that the lessons learned since 1971 at the WIPP site provide a unique, continually-updated, blueprint for how the pre-opening period for a new HLW repository could be shortened both in the USA and abroad. (authors)

  8. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  9. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  10. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  11. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  12. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  13. Contaminated Groundwater N flux to Surface Waters from Biosolid Waste Application Fields at a Waste Water Treatment Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, W. J.; Fountain, M.; Fountain, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Biosolids have been land applied at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) since 1980. The long biosolid application history at this site has resulted in a build up of nitrate in the ground water beneath the Waste Application Fields (WAFs). We have used an innovative river monitoring system that measures in situ nitrate concentrations and discharge above and below the plant to determine the amount of nitrate gained in the reach from the WAFs. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the WAF groundwater indicates that 18% of the monitoring wells are impacted by fertilizer N, 57% of the wells are impacted by biosolid N, 22% of the wells are affected by denitrification, and one well is impacted by A.D.N. The net daily contribution of surface / ground water and nitrate to the reach was calculated from the sum of the flux into the reach at the upper RiverNet station plus the plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach at the lower RiverNet station. The difference between the flux into the reach and plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach is termed the non-point source gain (NPS gain). The NPS gain could come from groundwater and/or surface drainage additions to the reach. On an annual basis, daily integrated NPS nitrate gains were ~70,000 kg in year 2004 and ~27,900 kg in 2005. This represents an average over the two year period of ~12% of the total nitrate flux out of the reach and 43% of the nitrate discharged from the plant. During the past year groundwater wells were installed in the river riparian buffer and N Flux was measured in a surface water drainage in the WAF. The results indicate that N is not migrating through the shallow groundwater, and most of the NPS gains in the reach can come from surface drainages which have nitrate concentrations of 30-80 mg/l. Over the next year wetlands will be reconstructed in the surface drainages to attenuate the N flux and protect river water quality.

  14. Analysis of thermosyphon heat exchangers for use in solar domestic hot water heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Scott David

    1998-11-01

    A recent innovation in the solar industry is the use of thermosyphon heat exchangers. Determining the performance of these systems requires knowledge of how thermosyphon flow rate and heat exchanger performance vary with operating conditions. This study demonstrates that several thermosyphon heat exchanger designs operate in the laminar mixed convection regime. Empirical heat transfer and pressure drop correlations are obtained for three tube-in-shell heat exchangers (four, seven, and nine tube). Thermosyphon flow is on the shell side. Correlations are obtained with uniform heat flux on the tube walls and with a mixture of glycol and water circulating inside the tubes. Ranges of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof numbers are 50 to 1800, 2.5 and 6.0, and 4×105 to 1×108, respectively. Nusselt number correlations are presented in a form that combines the contributions of forced and natural convection, Nu4Mixed=Nu4Forced+Nu4Natural. The Nusselt number is influenced by natural convection when the term Raq0.25/(Re0.5Pr0.33) is greater than unity. Pressure drop through these three designs is not significantly affected by mixed convection because most pressure drop losses are at the heat exchanger inlet and outlet. A comparison and discussion of the performance of several other heat exchanger designs (tube-in-shell and coil-in- shell designs) are presented. Generally, the coil-in- shell heat exchangers perform better than the tube-in- shell heat exchangers. Data from all heat exchanger designs is used to develop a new one-dimensional model for thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heating systems. The model requires two empirically determined relationships, pressure drop as a function of water mass flow rate and the overall heat transfer coefficient-area product (UA) as a function of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof number. A testing protocol is presented that describes the procedure to obtain the data for the correlations. Two new TRNSYS component models are presented

  15. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  16. Summary of Selected U.S. Geological Survey Data on Domestic Well Water Quality for the Centers for Disease Control's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Carter, Janet M.; Qi, Sharon L.; Squillace, Paul J.; Rowe, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    About 10 to 30 percent of the population in most States uses domestic (private) water supply. In many States, the total number of people served by domestic supplies can be in the millions. The water quality of domestic supplies is inconsistently regulated and generally not well characterized. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has two water-quality data sets in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database that can be used to help define the water quality of domestic-water supplies: (1) data from the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, and (2) USGS State data. Data from domestic wells from the NAWQA Program were collected to meet one of the Program's objectives, which was to define the water quality of major aquifers in the United States. These domestic wells were located primarily in rural areas. Water-quality conditions in these major aquifers as defined by the NAWQA data can be compared because of the consistency of the NAWQA sampling design, sampling protocols, and water-quality analyses. The NWIS database is a repository of USGS water data collected for a variety of projects; consequently, project objectives and analytical methods vary. This variability can bias statistical summaries of contaminant occurrence and concentrations; nevertheless, these data can be used to define the geographic distribution of contaminants. Maps created using NAWQA and USGS State data in NWIS can show geographic areas where contaminant concentrations may be of potential human-health concern by showing concentrations relative to human-health water-quality benchmarks. On the basis of national summaries of detection frequencies and concentrations relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human-health benchmarks for trace elements, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds, 28 water-quality constituents were identified as contaminants of potential human-health concern. From this list, 11 contaminants were selected for summarization of water

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  18. Filamentous fungi in Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) sewage treatment plant for biological treatment of domestic wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Fakhrul-Razi, A; Alam, M Zahangir; Idris, Azni; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Molla, Abul H

    2002-03-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify filamentous fungi for the treatment of domestic wastewater sludge by enhancing biodegradability, settleability and dewaterability of treated sludge using liquid state bioconversion process. A total of 70 strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from three different sources (wastewater, sewage sludge and leachate) of IWK's (Indah Water Konsortium) sewage treatment plant, Malaysia. The isolated strains were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. The strains isolated belonged to the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Spicaria and Hyaloflorae The distribution of observed isolated fungi were 41% in sewage sludge followed by 39% in wastewater and 20% in leachate. The predominant fungus was Penicillium (39 strains). The second and third most common isolates were Aspergillus (14 strains) and Trichoderma (12 strains). The other isolates were Spicaria (3 strains) and Hyaloflorae (2 strains). Three strains (WWZP1003, LZP3001, LZP3005) of Penicillium (P. corylophilum, P. waksmanii, and P. citrinum respectively), 2 strains (WWZA1006 and SS2017) of Aspergillus (A. terrues and A. flavus respectively) and one strain (SSZT2008) of Trichoderma (T. harzianum) were tentatively identified up to species level and finally verified by CABI Bioscience Identification Services, UK. PMID:11929070

  19. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  20. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  1. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  2. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  3. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  4. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  5. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4-7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1-3 (High) and 4-6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  6. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J.; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M.; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D.; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4–7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1–3 (High) and 4–6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  7. Water treatment facilities (excluding wastewater facilities). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, costs, and operation of water treatment facilities. Facilities covered include those that provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for industrial use. Types of water treatment covered include reverse osmosis, chlorination, filtration, and ozonization. Waste water treatment facilities are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2 (1989 edition). Solar heating and domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1 were developed to provide a sound technical basis for housing under numerous programs of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These Intermediate Minimum Property Standards for Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems are intended to provide a companion technical basis for the planning and design of solar heating and domestic hot water systems. These standards have been prepared as a supplement to the Minimum Property Standards (MPS) and deal only with aspects of planning and design that are different from conventional housing by reason of the solar systems under consideration. The document contains requirements and standards applicable to one- and two-family dwellings, multifamily housing, and nursing homes and intermediate care facilities references made in the text to the MPS refer to the same section in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1.

  9. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  10. Performance of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland Using Typhalatifolia and Canna Lilies for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, Avinash N; Nema, P; Mhaisalkar, Vasant A

    2014-01-01

    Discharge of untreated wastewater or partially treated wastewater into surface water bodies or on to land is a major cause of surface and ground water pollution thereby posing health hazards. Conventional wastewater treatment is generally not preferred for small communities due to higher capital and maintenance costs and lack of skilled supervision required for operation and maintenance. A constructed wetland treatment appears to be an appropriate alternative that can be employed both in developed and developing countries. A constructed wetland system is simple to construct and operate with low cost, and hence worth considering for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, especially from small communities. In this context, the site for carrying out the studies related to wastewater treatment was chosen at Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science (KITS), Ramtek, Dist. Nagpur. A Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland (FWSCW) of size 22.00m x 6.50 m x 0.60m was constructed at KITS, Ramtek. The performance of FWS CW system was studied for domestic wastewater treatment with theoretical hydraulic retention times of 10 days, 7 days and 5 days. Important parameters, such as BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4-N, PO4-P, DO, pH and faecal coliforms in both raw and treated wastewaters were monitored during a macrophytes life cycle. Based on the studies, it is concluded that minimum 5 days HRT is necessary for the treatment of wastewater in FWSCW using Typhalatifolia or Canna Lilies. Typhalatifolia is better in removal of pollutants from the wastewater in comparison to Canna Lilies and hence, is recommended for use in constructed wetland. The nutrient uptake capacity of Typhalatifolia is also quite encouraging and hence has great potential for application in treating wastewater from fertilizer industry. During the application of kinetic model, the observed and predicted values in respect of BOD, TSS and NH4-N in case of Typhalatifolia and BOD, COD and TSS in case of Canna Lilies were

  11. Removal of dissolved organic matter in water-hyacinth waste-water treatment lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Victoria-Rueda, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in water hyacinth lagoons was evaluated under experimental conditions to assess the role of the roots' bacterial biofilm in the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Research was conducted to (1) quantify removal rates by the biofilm as a function of bulk DOM concentration, (2) formulate an analytical model of DOM removal incorporating biofilm activity, and (3) test the model response to variable organic loads in a pilot-scale plant. Removal of DOM by the biofilm was quantified in continuous-flow water hyacinth tanks at ten concentrations ranging from 45 to 330 g COD m {sup {minus}3} . Total DOM removal in the denitrifying, acetate-based experimental system was measured and partitioned into two fractions associated with the activity of biofilm and suspended bacteria. Calculated DOM removal by the biofilm was adjusted for the release of organic compounds by debris decomposition. Values of DOM removal were used to calculate oxygen transfer rates from the water hyacinth roots. A model of DOM removal in water hyacinth lagoons was formulated. The model, composed of four differential equations, was solved at steady-state conditions and the validity of its simulation results was tested in pilot-scale tanks. Hydraulic detection times ranging from 2 to 28 days were evaluated using biofilm density and concentrations of DOM and particulate organics as monitoring parameters of the model response. The observed decrease of suspended bacterial biomass along the tank was correctly simulated by the model, but predictions of effluent concentrations were not always consistent. Predicted values of biofilm bacterial mass were similar to those measured in the tanks, except when large algal populations were present in the film.

  12. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm

    2004-07-01

    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer. PMID:15223288

  13. Occurrence and potential human-health relevance of volatile organic compounds in drinking water from domestic wells in the United States.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, B.L.; Toccalino, P.L.; Moran, M.J.; Zogorski, J.S.; Price, C.V.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic wells increase, it is important to examine water quality and contaminant occurrence. A national assessment in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey reported findings for 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on 2,401 domestic wells sampled during 1985-2002. OBJECTIVES: We examined the occurrence of individual and multiple VOCs and assessed the potential human-health relevance of VOC concentrations. We also identified hydrogeologic and anthropogenic variables that influence the probability of VOC occurrence. METHODS: The domestic well samples were collected at the wellhead before treatment of water and analyzed for 55 VOCs. Results were used to examine VOC occurrence and identify associations of multiple explanatory variables using logistic regression analyses. We used a screening-level assessment to compare VOC concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and health-based screening levels. RESULTS: We detected VOCs in 65% of the samples; about one-half of these samples contained VOC mixtures. Frequently detected VOCs included chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. VOC concentrations generally were < 1 microg/L. One or more VOC concentrations were greater than MCLs in 1.2% of samples, including dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and ethylene dibromide (fumigants); perchloroethene and trichloroethene (solvents); and 1,1-dichloroethene (organic synthesis compound). CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water supplied by domestic wells is vulnerable to low-level VOC contamination. About 1% of samples had concentrations of potential human-health concern. Identifying factors associated with VOC occurrence may aid in understanding the sources, transport, and fate of VOCs in groundwater.

  14. Occurrence and potential human-health relevance of volatile organic compounds in drinking water from domestic wells in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, B.L.; Toccalino, P.L.; Moran, M.J.; Zogorski, J.S.; Price, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic wells increase, it is important to examine water quality and contaminant occurrence. A national assessment in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey reported findings for 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on 2,401 domestic wells sampled during 1985-2002. OBJECTIVES: We examined the occurrence of individual and multiple VOCs and assessed the potential human-health relevance of VOC concentrations. We also identified hydrogeologic and anthropogenic variables that influence the probability of VOC occurrence. METHODS: The domestic well samples were collected at the wellhead before treatment of water and analyzed for 55 VOCs. Results were used to examine VOC occurrence and identify associations of multiple explanatory variables using logistic regression analyses. We used a screening-level assessment to compare VOC concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and health-based screening levels. RESULTS: We detected VOCs in 65% of the samples; about one-half of these samples contained VOC mixtures. Frequently detected VOCs included chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. VOC concentrations generally were < 1 ??g/L. One or more VOC concentrations were greater than MCLs in 1.2% of samples, including dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and ethylene dibromide (fumigants); perchloroethene and trichloroethene (solvents); and 1,1-dichloroethene (organic synthesis compound). CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water supplied by domestic wells is vulnerable to low-level VOC contamination. About 1% of samples had concentrations of potential human-health concern. Identifying factors associated with VOC occurrence may aid in understanding the sources, transport, and fate of VOCs in groundwater.

  15. Occurrence and Potential Human-Health Relevance of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water from Domestic Wells in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Price, Curtis V.

    2007-01-01

    Background As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic wells increase, it is important to examine water quality and contaminant occurrence. A national assessment in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey reported findings for 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on 2,401 domestic wells sampled during 1985–2002. Objectives We examined the occurrence of individual and multiple VOCs and assessed the potential human-health relevance of VOC concentrations. We also identified hydrogeologic and anthropogenic variables that influence the probability of VOC occurrence. Methods The domestic well samples were collected at the wellhead before treatment of water and analyzed for 55 VOCs. Results were used to examine VOC occurrence and identify associations of multiple explanatory variables using logistic regression analyses. We used a screening-level assessment to compare VOC concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and health-based screening levels. Results We detected VOCs in 65% of the samples; about one-half of these samples contained VOC mixtures. Frequently detected VOCs included chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. VOC concentrations generally were < 1 μg/L. One or more VOC concentrations were greater than MCLs in 1.2% of samples, including dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and ethylene dibromide (fumigants); perchloroethene and trichloroethene (solvents); and 1,1-dichloroethene (organic synthesis compound). Conclusions Drinking water supplied by domestic wells is vulnerable to low-level VOC contamination. About 1% of samples had concentrations of potential human-health concern. Identifying factors associated with VOC occurrence may aid in understanding the sources, transport, and fate of VOCs in groundwater. PMID:18007981

  16. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto, Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  17. Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Siang Yee; Choi, Siwon; Dien, Vivian; Sow-Peh, Yoke Keow; Qi, Genggeng; Hatton, T. Alan; Doyle, Patrick S.; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ∼70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions. PMID:23818955

  18. Final technical report: Effects of water on properties of the simulated nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Tomozawa, M.

    1996-02-01

    For isolation of nuclear wastes through the vitrification process, waste slurry is mixed with borosilicate based glass and remelted at high temperature. During these processes, water can enter into the final waste glass. It is known that water in silica and silicate glasses changes various glass properties, such as chemical durability, viscosity and electrical conductivity. These properties are very important for processing and assuring the quality and safety controls of the waste glasses. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of water in the simulated nuclear waste glasses on various glass properties, including chemical durability, glass transition temperature, liquidus temperature, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This report summarizes the results of this investigation conducted at Rensselaer during the past one year.

  19. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunn, Griffin Michael; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Ruby, Anna Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  20. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all ... ABOUT The Attorney General Budget & Performance Strategic Plans History AGENCIES BUSINESS Business Opportunities Small & Disadvantaged Business Grants ...

  1. Genetic differentiation of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations in China, Nepal and south-east Asia: inferences on the region of domestication of the swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Vankan, D; Zhang, Y; Barker, J S F

    2011-08-01

    Data from three published studies of genetic variation at 18 microsatellite loci in water buffalo populations in China (18 swamp type, two river type), Nepal (one wild, one domestic river, one hybrid) and south-east Asia (eight swamp, three river) were combined so as to gain a broader understanding of genetic relationships among the populations and their demographic history. Mean numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosities were significantly different among populations. Estimates of θ (a measure of population differentiation) were significant among the swamp populations for all loci and among the river populations for most loci. Differentiation among the Chinese swamp populations (which was due primarily to just one population) was much less than among the south-east Asian. The Nepal wild animals, phenotypically swamp type but genetically like river type, are significantly different from all the domestic river populations and presumably represent the ancestral Bubalus arnee (possibly with some river-type introgression). Relationships among the swamp populations (D(A) genetic distances, principal component analysis and structure analyses) show the south-east Asian populations separated into two groups by the Chinese populations. Given these relationships and the patterns of genetic variability, we postulate that the swamp buffalo was domesticated in the region of the far south of China, northern Thailand and Indochina. Following domestication, it spread south through peninsular Malaysia to Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi, and north through China, and then to Taiwan, the Philippines and Borneo. PMID:21749419

  2. Saline Drainage and Waste Water Use and its Effects on Forages and Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow saline water tables in the western San Joaquin Valley result from regional water management and irrigation. Since 1999, saline-sodic drainage and other waste waters (range: ECiw: 2-10 dS m-1) have been used to irrigate Bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon) grazed rotationally by cattle at a 30 ...

  3. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  4. PRETREATMENT OF THE COMBINED INDUSTRIAL-DOMESTIC WASTEWATERS OF HAGERSTOWN, MARYLAND. APPENDIX. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewage treatment plant of the city of Hagerstown, Maryland--a manufacturing city with about 130 industrial firms, which are classified in more than 25 different product categories--receives for treatment domestic sewage and a diversity of industrial waste and process waters. ...

  5. PRETREATMENT OF THE COMBINED INDUSTRIAL-DOMESTIC WASTEWATERS OF HAGERSTOWN, MARYLAND. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewage treatment plant of the city of Hagerstown, Maryland--a manufacturing city with about 130 industrial firms, which are classified in more than 25 different product categories--receives for treatment domestic sewage and a diversity of industrial waste and process waters. ...

  6. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  7. BOREHOLE SENSING METHODS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geophysical methods are becoming a cost effective approach to providing answers to hydrogeologic questions associated with ground-water contamination. Geophysical methods applicable to hazardous waste site investigations can be broken into two categories: surface and subsurface m...

  8. Oil-containing waste water treating material consisting of modified active carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Shigeta, S.; Takenaka, Y.

    1982-03-16

    An oil-containing waste water treating material comprises an active carbon upon whose surface is chemically bonded at least one nitrogenous compound which is an amine or a quaternarized derivative thereof.

  9. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-09-15

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  10. Methane occurrence is associated with sodium-rich valley waters in domestic wells overlying the Marcellus shale in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Kayla M.; Lautz, Laura K.; Hoke, Gregory D.; Siegel, Donald I.; Lu, Zunli; Kessler, John

    2016-01-01

    Prior work suggests spatial parameters (e.g., landscape position, distance to nearest gas well) can be used to estimate the amount of dissolved methane in domestic drinking water wells overlying the deep Marcellus Shale. New York (NY) provides an opportunity to investigate methane occurrence prior to expansion of high-volume hydraulic fracturing because unconventional gas production is currently banned in the state. We sampled domestic groundwater wells for methane in 2013 (n = 137) across five counties of NY bordering Pennsylvania, and then resampled a subset of those wells in 2014 for methane concentrations and δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4. The majority of waters from wells sampled (77%) had low concentrations of methane (<0.1 mg/L), and only 5% (n = 7) had actionable levels of methane (>10 mg/L). Dissolved methane concentrations did not change as a function of proximity to existing vertical gas wells, nor other parameters indicating subsurface planes of weakness (i.e., faults or lineaments). Methane levels were significantly higher in wells closer to hydrography flow lines, and most strongly correlated to Na-HCO3 water type. The distribution of methane between Ca-HCO3 (n = 76) and Na-HCO3 (n = 23) water types significantly differed (p < 0.01), with median methane concentrations of 0.002 and 0.78 mg/L, respectively. Combined classification of sampled waters based on the dominant water cation, well topographic position, and geologic unit of well completion effectively identified wells with a greater than 50% probability of having methane concentrations exceeding 1 mg/L. Such classification schemes may be useful as a screening tool to assess natural versus gas production-related sources of methane in domestic wells.

  11. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. PMID:23954716

  12. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  13. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in

  14. RATES OF IRON OXIDATION AND ARSENIC SORPTION DURING GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER MIXING AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a pond at a hazardous waste site is controlled, in part, by the rate of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact...

  15. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  17. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  18. Comparison of ammonia volatilisation rates in algae and duckweed-based waste stabilisation ponds treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zimmo, O R; van der Steen, N P; Gijzen, H J

    2003-11-01

    Quantification of ammonia volatilisation from wastewater stabilisation ponds is important in order to understand its significance for overall nitrogen removal in these widely applied low-cost treatment systems. Ammonia volatilisation rates were measured in pilot plant facilities consisting of one line of four algae-based ponds in series and a parallel line of four ponds with a floating mat of duckweed (Lemna gibba). Ammonia volatilisation was assessed during a period of one and a half years. The method applied is accurate, convenient and is proposed for analysis of a wide range of gasses emitted from stabilisation ponds and possibly other aquatic systems. The ammonia volatilisation rates in algae-based ponds (ABPs) were higher than in duckweed-based ponds (DBPs). This can be explained by the lower values of NH(3) in DBPs due to shading and lower pH values, since the volatilisation rate highly correlated with free ammonia concentration (NH(3)) in pond water. The duckweed cover appeared not to provide a physical barrier for volatilisation of unionised ammonia, because whenever NH(3) concentrations were equal in ABP and DBP also the volatilisation rates were equal. Volatilisation was in the range of 7.2-37.4 mg-Nm(-2)d(-1) and 6.4 -31.5 mg-Nm(-2)d(-1) in the ABPs and DBPs, respectively. Average influent and effluent ammonium nitrogen measurements showed that the ammonia volatilisation during the study period in any system did not exceed 1.5% of total ammonium nitrogen removal. Therefore this study confirmed results from simultaneous experimental work in our laboratory indicating that nitrification/denitrification, rather than ammonia volatilisation, is the most important mechanism for N removal in ABPs and DBPs. PMID:14568043

  19. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  20. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  1. Stabilization of crab scrap and processing waste water. Final report, 1984-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McCaleb, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes, in detail, the application of a National Space Technology Laboratories (NASA) developed technology involving anaerobic-digestion and microbial-filter processes as a possible solution to the blue crab waste-disposal problem. The project attempted to use this technology with crab waste and processing waste water to produce new products of organic fertilizer and methane (energy) while purifying the water to prevent nutrient enrichment of the Chesapeake Bay. Results of the project indicate that significant biogas production can be obtained with crab waste. However, digestion time is excessive, compared to that of cow manure. More work needs to be done on physical and/or chemical pretreatment to render the waste more amenable to digestion. The system was found costly and would not be practical except in periods of high energy prices.

  2. Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Joel N; Cone, Michael T; Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S; Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Scully, Marlan O

    2014-05-20

    Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

  3. Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Hokr, Brett H.; Mason, John D.; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2014-01-01

    Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

  4. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Michael B.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

  5. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

  6. Upgrading and extended testing of the MSC integrated water and waste management hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.; Hurley, T. L.; Jasionowski, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of upgrading and testing an integrated water and waste management system, which uses the compression distillation, reverse osmosis, adsorption filtration and ion-exchange processes to recover potable water from urine, flush water and used wash water. Also included is the development of techniques for extending the useful biological life of biological filters, activated carbon filters and ion-exchange resins to at least 30 days, and presterilizing ion-exchange resins so that sterile water can be recovered from waste water. A wide variety of reverse osmosos materials, surfactants and germicides were experimentally evaluated to determine the best combination for a wash water subsystem. Full-scale module tests with real wash water demonstrated that surface fouling is a major problem.

  7. New Method of Online Measurement of Oil and Suspended Material Concentration In Flowing Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hongwei; Xu, Guobing; Xu, Xinqiang; Zhou, Fangde

    2007-06-01

    At present, the most of the measurements of oil and suspended material concentration in waste water measuring are not online surveys. A new method of online measurement of oil and suspended material concentration in flowing waste water is presented. The room experiments and field tests showed that it is suitable to waste water treatment on line. After sampling, It needed to measure immediately the concentration in first time. Then let sample to be in still in 10 - 20 seconds. After that the bulk concentration was measured in second time. Because of the suspended solids having heavy density, they would be dropped from waster water. During ultrasonic operation, emulsify the oil in waster water, the oil and suspended solid would be depart. After that the third time measurement was done. In thus way the concentrations of oil and suspended solids can be measured. At present there are two on-site equipments operating in the Changqing oilfield, and the results are pretty well.

  8. Domestic violence.

    PubMed

    2016-03-30

    Essential facts Domestic violence and abuse includes any incident or repeated incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between family members or intimate partners (including former partners). It can involve psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional abuse, as well as 'honour'-based violence and forced marriage. According to the Office for National Statistics, at least 1.4 million women and 700,000 men aged between 16 and 59 experienced domestic abuse in England and Wales in 2013/14 - equivalent to 8.5% of women and 4.5% of men. PMID:27027171

  9. Waste load equilibrium allocation: a soft path for coping with deteriorating water systems.

    PubMed

    Yao, Liming; Xu, Jiuping; Zhang, Mengxiang; Lv, Chengwei; Li, Chaozhi

    2016-08-01

    Waste load allocation is always regarded as another efficient approach comparing with the technology-based approach to improve the water quality. This paper proposes a bi-level multi-objective optimization model for optimally allocating the waste load of a river basin incorporating some concerns (i) the allocation equity from the regional authority, (ii) maximal benefits from the subareas along the river, and (iii) the Stackelberg-Nash-Cournot equilibrium strategy between the upper and lower decision makers. Especially, a novel Gini coefficient for measuring the load allocation equity is defined by considering the economic level and waste water quantity. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated through a practical case based on the Tuojiang River, which is a typical basin with diversified industrial waste discharges in western China. Some operational suggestions are developed to assist the decision makers' cope with deteriorating water systems. PMID:27080404

  10. Evaluation and comparison of alternative designs for water/solid-waste processing systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Promising candidate designs currently being considered for the management of spacecraft solid waste and waste-water materials were assessed. The candidate processes were: (1) the radioisotope thermal energy evaporation/incinerator process; (2) the dry incineration process; and (3) the wet oxidation process. The types of spacecraft waste materials that were included in the base-line computational input to the candidate systems were feces, urine residues, trash and waste-water concentrates. The performance characteristics and system requirements for each candidate process to handle this input and produce the specified acceptable output (i.e., potable water, a storable dry ash, and vapor phase products that can be handled by a spacecraft atmosphere control system) were estimated and compared. Recommendations are presented.

  11. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  12. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities.

  13. Direct oxidation of strong waste waters, simulating combined wastes in extended-mission space cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The applications of modern technology to the resolution of the problem of solid wastes in space cabin environments was studied with emphasis on the exploration of operating conditions that would permit lowering of process temperatures in wet oxidation of combined human wastes. It was found that the ultimate degree of degradation is not enhanced by use of a catalyst. However, the rate of oxidation is increased, and the temperature of oxidation is reduced to 400 F.

  14. Restoration of wadi aquifers by artificial recharge with treated waste water.

    PubMed

    Missimer, Thomas M; Drewes, Jörg E; Amy, Gary; Maliva, Robert G; Keller, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country's treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. PMID:22536878

  15. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  16. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  17. Effects of Weathering at Waste Rock Dump on Water Quality Inside the Mine Wastes; A Case Study in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, G.; Cheong, Y.; Park, H.; Ji, S.; Lee, H.

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the route of acid rock drainage production and some of the important factors at the abandoned Geo-pung copper mine in Okcheon, Korea. In this research area, planting and remediation have been carried out to prevent environmental pollution, but these effects turned out to be a failure and that acid rock drainage is observed around waste rock dump and planted vegetation is dying. Currently, the slope of mine waste rock dump in the study site is about 40°. It is composed of particles with a variety of shapes, with the surface exposure to atmosphere being transformed to oxide minerals due to weathering. Since groundwater level underneath the mine wastes is directly related to rainfall, a comparative evaluation of weather records and groundwater level data obtained using on-site measuring device (CTD diver) would allow estimation of locational media-specific pattern of rainfall effect in term of infiltration flux and time of threshold impact on groundwater. Sampling and analysis of there borehole water were conducted in July and September, 2007. It was found that all of the borehole water had highly variable levels of Fe (0.4-588 mg/l), Al (8.2-41.9 mg/l), Cu (6.0-32.2 mg/l), Zn (22.2-226.7 mg/l) and other elements. Also, in general, pH of the borehole waters decreased while electric conducivity measured. Such a high variance in the water quality among different borehole water suggests that geochemical environment inside the mine wastes is largely dependent on the local variation in rainfall infiltration of waste rock dump and underneath groundwater level. Vadose zone which has vertical variation of 2-4 m is directly impacted by amount of rainfall and maintains oxidizing condition due to diffusion of oxygen carred by rainfall. Therefore, sulfide minerals within in the zone continued to be oxidized, producing acid rock drainage. To prevent production of acid rock drainage of mine waste, it is necessary to control infiltration of

  18. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. PMID:26926783

  19. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Aman, Tehseen; Kazi, Asrar Ahmad; Sabri, Muhammad Usman; Bano, Qudsia

    2008-05-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid ratios. The optimum pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto potato peels charcoal (PPC) was found to be 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibb's free energy (Delta G degrees ), standard enthalpy (Delta H degrees ) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto PPC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. PMID:18215510

  20. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  1. Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

    The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.

  2. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION IN SOURCE WATERS: A SIMPLIFIED ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities a tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give pub...

  3. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  4. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluents For Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two ass...

  5. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION: ANALYSIS OF UROBILIN AND PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. Most of the methods used today detect such contamination by quantifying microbes occurring in feces in high enough...

  6. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  7. Strains of toxic and harmful microalgae, from waste water, marine, brackish and fresh water.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palacio, M C; Crisóstomo-Vázquez, L; Alvarez-Hernández, S; Lozano-Ramírez, C

    2012-01-01

    Some microalgae are economically important in Mexico and the world because they can be potentially toxic. Algal explosive population growths are named harmful algal blooms and are frequently recorded in Mexico. The authors set up potentially toxic microalgae cultures from the Gulf of Mexico (Garrapatas tideland, Barberena river, Carpintero lagoon in Tamaulipas State; Chalchoapan and Catemaco lakes in Veracruz State), from the Mexican Pacific Ocean, Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán States, and from interior water bodies such as Vicente Aguirre dam, Chapultepec lake and several waste water treatment plants. This research is about the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton in relation a specific site because of harmful algal bloom events. Microalgae cultures are useful in order to solve taxonomic problems, to know life cycles, molecular studies, for the study of toxic species, and the isolation of useful metabolites. The cultures for this research are clonal, non-axenic, semi-continuous, 12:12 light/dark photoperiod, 20 ± 1 °C temperature and 90.5 µmol m(-2)s(-1) illumination. Four different culture media were used. This collection is open to the worldwide scientific community as a source of organisms in controlled conditions that can be used as a useful tool for microalgae research work. PMID:21815840

  8. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-12-31

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water.

  9. Preparation of low water-sorption lightweight aggregates from harbor sediment added with waste glass.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Ko, Kuan-Wei; Wang, H Paul

    2011-01-01

    A harbor sediment is successfully recycled at 1150 °C as low water-absorption lightweight aggregate via addition of waste glass powder. Sodium content in the waste glass is responsible for the formation of low-viscosity viscous phases during firing process to encapsulate the gases generated for bloating pellet samples. Water sorption capacity of the lightweight products can be considerably reduced from 5.6% to 1.5% with the addition of waste glass powder. Low water-absorption property of lightweight products is beneficial for preparing lightweight concrete because the water required for curing the cement would not be seized by lightweight aggregate filler, thus preventing the failure of long-term concrete strength. PMID:21367431

  10. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate. PMID:26055751

  11. WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WATER ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at...

  13. Lost water and nitrogen resources due to EU consumer food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bouraoui, F.; Leip, A.; Grizzetti, B.; Bidoglio, G.

    2015-08-01

    The European Parliament recently called for urgent measures to halve food waste in the EU, where consumers are responsible for a major part of total waste along the food supply chain. Due to a lack of data on national food waste statistics, uncertainty in (consumer) waste quantities (and the resulting associated quantities of natural resources) is very high, but has never been previously assessed in studies for the EU. Here we quantify: (1) EU consumer food waste, and (2) associated natural resources required for its production, in term of water and nitrogen, as well as estimating the uncertainty of these values. Total EU consumer food waste averages 123 (min 55-max 190) kg/capita annually (kg/cap/yr), i.e. 16% (min 7-max 24%) of all food reaching consumers. Almost 80%, i.e. 97 (min 45-max 153) kg/cap/yr is avoidable food waste, which is edible food not consumed. We have calculated the water and nitrogen (N) resources associated with avoidable food waste. The associated blue water footprint (WF) (the consumption of surface and groundwater resources) averages 27 litre per capita per day (min 13-max 40 l/cap/d), which slightly exceeds the total blue consumptive EU municipal water use. The associated green WF (consumptive rainwater use) is 294 (min 127-max 449) l/cap/d, equivalent to the total green consumptive water use for crop production in Spain. The nitrogen (N) contained in avoidable food waste averages 0.68 (min 0.29-max 1.08) kg/cap/yr. The food production N footprint (any remaining N used in the food production process) averages 2.74 (min 1.02-max 4.65) kg/cap/yr, equivalent to the use of mineral fertiliser by the UK and Germany combined. Among all the food product groups wasted, meat accounts for the highest amounts of water and N resources, followed by wasted cereals. The results of this study provide essential insights and information on sustainable consumption and resource efficiency for both EU policies and EU consumers.

  14. Impact to Underground Sources of Drinking Water and Domestic Wells from Production Well Stimulation and Completion Practices in the Pavillion, Wyoming, Field.

    PubMed

    DiGiulio, Dominic C; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-04-19

    A comprehensive analysis of all publicly available data and reports was conducted to evaluate impact to Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDWs) as a result of acid stimulation and hydraulic fracturing in the Pavillion, WY, Field. Although injection of stimulation fluids into USDWs in the Pavillion Field was documented by EPA, potential impact to USDWs at the depths of stimulation as a result of this activity was not previously evaluated. Concentrations of major ions in produced water samples outside expected levels in the Wind River Formation, leakoff of stimulation fluids into formation media, and likely loss of zonal isolation during stimulation at several production wells, indicates that impact to USDWs has occurred. Detection of organic compounds used for well stimulation in samples from two monitoring wells installed by EPA, plus anomalies in major ion concentrations in water from one of these monitoring wells, provide additional evidence of impact to USDWs and indicate upward solute migration to depths of current groundwater use. Detections of diesel range organics and other organic compounds in domestic wells <600 m from unlined pits used prior to the mid-1990s to dispose diesel-fuel based drilling mud and production fluids suggest impact to domestic wells as a result of legacy pit disposal practices. PMID:27022977

  15. High-resolution profiling of the stable isotopes of water in unsaturated coal waste rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, S. Lee; Hendry, M. Jim; Carey, Sean K.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of the rate of water migration through unsaturated mine waste rock dumps is an essential element in assessing the chemical loading from these landforms; yet our understanding of how water moves into, through and out of waste rock is incomplete. To further understand the rates and magnitude of percolation through waste rock, deep high-resolution (every 0.1-4.5 m) depth profiles of the stable isotopes of water (δ2H and δ18O) at two coal waste rock dumps and a natural alluvial deposit down-gradient of one of the dumps were collected in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. The profiles were generated using vapor equilibrium techniques applied to continuous core samples collected using dry sonic drilling methods. Elevated core temperatures (up to 80 °C) were measured during sonic coring. The isotopic values of pore waters measured in the core samples were corrected for water loss to the atmosphere attributed to the elevated core temperatures. The average isotopic composition of the core samples were compared to water collected from rock drains discharging from the base of the dumps. The results indicate that high-resolution profiles of δ2H and δ18O can be measured to depths of 86 m in coal waste rock dumps and, based on the seasonal cycles in the isotopic composition of recharging water, can be used to characterize the migration of recharge water within these dumps. These profiles also suggest that recharge into these dumps occurs from both rain as well as snow melt and may be as high as 400-600 mm/yr (60-75% of annual precipitation). Combined with the relatively low volumetric water contents of these dumps (5-10%) the rates of water migration through the dumps are tens of meters each year.

  16. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  17. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248... liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  18. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248...) § 250.248 What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information... cooling water intake information must accompany your DPP or DOCD: (a) Projected wastes. A table...

  19. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 550.217 Section 550.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  20. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany your EP: (a) Projected wastes....

  1. Time Domain Reflectometry for Measuring Volumetric Water Content in Processed Oil Shale Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, T. L.; Elgezawi, S. M.

    1992-03-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was evaluated and developed to monitor volumetric water content (θυ) in oil shale solid waste retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process. A TDR probe was designed and tested that could be buried and compacted in waste embankments and provide in situ measurements for θυ in the high-saline and high-alkaline conditions exhibited by this waste. TDR was found to be accurate for measurement of θυ across a broad range of water contents in the processed oil shale waste. A computer algorithm to automate the analysis of TDR traces to determine θυ, was developed and tested. A sensitivity test was performed to analyze differences between three smoothing algorithms on the measurement. No significant differences were found between smoothing algorithms or between the number of points applied for smoothing.

  2. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  3. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Olive Mill Waste Water - OMWW Secoiridoid Lactones.

    PubMed

    Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2015-08-01

    Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol. PMID:26218340

  4. Contrasting adaptive strategies to terminal drought-stress gradients in Mediterranean legumes: phenology, productivity, and water relations in wild and domesticated Lupinus luteus L.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J. D.; Ludwig, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of within-species annual plant adaptation to rainfall gradients is fragmented. Broad-scale ecological applications of Grime’s C-S-R triangle are often superficial, while detailed drought physiology tends to be narrow, focusing on elite cultivars. The former lack the detail to explain how plants respond, while the latter provide little context to investigate trade-offs among traits, to explain where/why these might be adaptive. Ecophysiology, combining the breadth of the former with the detail of the latter, can resolve this disconnect and is applied here to describe adaptive strategies in the Mediterranean legume Lupinus luteus. Wild and domesticated material from low- and high-rainfall environments was evaluated under contrasting terminal drought. These opposing environments have selected for contrasting, integrated, adaptive strategies. Long-season, high-rainfall habitats select for competitive (C) traits: delayed phenology, high above- and below-ground biomass, productivity, and fecundity, leading to high water-use and early stress onset. Terminal drought-prone environments select for the opposite: ruderal (R) traits that facilitate drought escape/avoidance but limit reproductive potential. Surprisingly, high-rainfall ecotypes generate lower critical leaf water potentials under water deficit, maintaining higher relative water content than the latter. Given that L. luteus evolved in sandy, low-water-holding capacity soils, this represents a bet-hedging response to intermittent self-imposed water-deficits associated with a strongly C-selected adaptive strategy that is therefore redundant in R-selected low-rainfall ecotypes. Domesticated L. luteus is even more R-selected, reflecting ongoing selection for early maturity. Introgression of appropriate C-selected adaptive traits from wild germplasm may widen the crop production range. PMID:24591050

  5. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Method 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.

  6. Identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Treated Waste Water Used for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Ortiz, Carolina; Mazo, Martín; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos Arturo; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo

    2016-03-01

    We conducted an observational study to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba spp., in samples collected in a waste water treatment plant that provides water for agricultural irrigation. Samples were collected weekly over a period of 10 weeks at representative contamination stages from within the treatment plant. Protozoan identification was performed via light microscopy and culture. PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was performed in culture positive samples. Light microscopy revealed the presence of Entamoeba spp., in 70% (14/20) of the raw waste water samples and in 80% (8/10) of the treated water samples. PCR amplification after culture at both 24 and 37°C revealed that 100% (29/29) of the raw waste water samples and 78.6% (11/14) of the treated waste water were positive for E. moshkovskii. We report the first isolation of E. moshkovskii in Colombia, confirmed by PCR. Recent reports of E. moshkovskii pathogenic potential suggest this finding could constitute a public health risk for people exposed to this water. PMID:26732073

  7. Partitioning gas tracer tests for measurement of water in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Paul T; Jakubowitch, Andrew; Briening, Michele L; Chiu, Pei C

    2003-11-01

    A key component in the operation of almost all bioreactor landfills is the addition of water to maintain optimal moisture conditions. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, in situ methods are required to measure water within solid waste. Existing technologies often result in measurements of unknown accuracy, because of the variability of solid waste materials and time-dependent changes in packing density, both of which influence most measurement methods. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone--the partitioning gas tracer test--was tested. In this technology, the transport behavior of two gas tracers within solid waste is used to measure the fraction of the void space filled with water. One tracer is conservative and does not react with solids or liquids, while a second tracer partitions into the water and is separated from the conservative tracer during transport. This technology was tested in four different solid waste packings and was capable of determining the volumetric water content to within 48% of actual values, with most measurement errors less than 15%. This technology and the factors that affect its applicability to landfills are discussed in this paper. PMID:14649759

  8. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M. K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S. W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-03-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature (δD), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally depleted compared to ambient intake air, while CO was significantly elevated. These findings contradict the often assumed co-occurring net H2 and CO emissions in combustion processes and suggest that previous H2 emissions from combustion may have been overestimated when scaled to CO emissions. For the heater exhausts, H2 and δD generally decrease with increasing fuel-to-air ratio, from ambient values of ∼0.5 ppm and +130‰ to 0.2 ppm and -206‰, respectively. These results are interpreted as a combination of an isotopically light H2 source from fossil fuel combustion and a D/H kinetic isotope fractionation of hydrogen in the advected ambient air during its partial removal during combustion. Diesel exhaust measurements from dynamometer test stand driving cycles show elevated H2 and CO emissions during cold-start and some acceleration phases. Their molar H2/CO ratios are <0.25, significantly smaller than those for gasoline combustion. Using H2/CO emission ratios, along with CO global emission inventories, we estimate global H2 emissions for 2000, 2005, and 2010. For road transportation (gasoline and diesel), we calculate 8.6 ± 2.1 Tg, 6.3 ± 1.5 Tg, and 4.1 ± 1.0 Tg, respectively, whereas the contribution from diesel vehicles has increased from 5% to 8% over this time. Other fossil fuel emissions are believed to be negligible but H2 emissions from coal combustion are unknown. For residential (domestic) emissions, which are likely dominated by biofuel combustion, emissions for the same years are estimated at 2.7 ± 0.7 Tg, 2.8 ± 0.7 Tg, and 3.0 ± 0.8 Tg, respectively. Our wood combustion measurements are combined with results from the literature to calculate

  9. WasteWater Treatment And Heavy Metals Removal In The A-01 Constructed Wetland 2003 Report

    SciTech Connect

    ANNA, KNOX

    2004-08-01

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall. The purpose of research conducted during 2003 was to evaluate (1) the ability of the A-01 wetland treatment system to remediate waste water, (2) retention of the removed contaminants in wetland sediment, and (3) the potential remobilization of these contaminants from the sediment into the water column. Surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in this study.

  10. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

  11. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. PMID:26011615

  12. Reduction of chemical oxygen demand of industrial wastes using subcritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.C.; Chang, C.J. )

    1992-10-01

    If wastes have strong toxicity, high organic content, and a deep hue, they are difficult to handle in the waste disposal. It is very practical that waste of this kind is treated by Subcritical Water Oxidation (SWO). In our work, caprolactum (CPL) waste, purged from a petrochemical plant, and dyeing waste, purged from a textile plant, were individually treated by a semi-batch SWO process. Within a one-hour treatment, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction reached 89% for CPL waste (6.90 MPa, 260[degree]C) and 95% for dyeing waste (6.90 MPa, 240[degree]C). There is also a great improvement in hue, especially for the dyeing waste. When CPL wastewater was treated by the SWO process using a chromium metal powder as a catalyst, COD reduction improved further under the same operating conditions. A kinetic model was used to illustrate the oxidation mechanism and the effectiveness of the catalyst. The oxygen concentration in the effluent showed that oxygen consumption corresponded to COD reduction. With the monitoring of concentrations of total soluble chromium in the effluent, a suitable reaction period could be found in order to meet the standard of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R.

    2006-07-01

    Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the

  14. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. PMID:27128189

  15. Microorganism levels in air near spray irrigation of municipal waste water: The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study

    SciTech Connect

    Camann, D.E.; Moore, B.E.; Harding, H.J.; Sorber, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study (LISS) investigated possible adverse effects on human health from slow-rate land application of municipal wastewater. Extensive air sampling was conducted to characterize the irrigation site as a source of infectious microbial aerosols. Spray irrigation of poor-quality waste water received directly from the treatment plant significantly elevated air densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, mycobacteria, and coliphage above ambient background levels for at least 200 m downwind. Enteroviruses were repeatedly recovered at 44 to 60 m downwind at a higher level (geometric mean = 0.05 pfu/m3) than observed at other waste water aerosol sites in the U.S. and in Israel. Waste water storage in reservoirs reduced downwind air densities of indicator organisms by two orders of magnitude.

  16. Helium and methane anomalies in domestic well waters in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, and their relationship to other dissolved constituents, oil and gas fields, and tectonic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, Willy; Dunn, Colin E.

    1986-11-01

    During the summer of 1976 a regional groundwater survey was undertaken in an area of 18,000 km2 in southwestern Saskatchewan. Approximately 940 domestic wells and springs were sampled at a density of 1 per 13 km2, where possible. The samples were analyzed for up to 30 variables, including He, CH4, and many trace and minor elements. The results of the survey are related to regional topographic, geological, and hydrological features. Of particular interest are CH4 and He anomalies associated with known gas and oil reservoirs in the region. Several anomalies of similar magnitude occur away from known reservoirs and hence may point to new ones. The close association of CH4 with He, sample depth and deeper "softer" waters, as indicated by the positive correlations of CH4 with He, Na, CO2-3, HCO-3 and sample depth is postulated to be a good criterion for distinguishing between reservoir CH4 and marsh gas. The coincidence of CH4 and He anomalies with known tectonic features also indicates fracture leakage from depth and the possible existence of oil and gas fields. Regional surveys of domestic well waters can be of use in delineating areas with proven and potential oil and gas reservoirs at depth.

  17. Biological processes for the treatment of waste water from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenbregt, L.H.J.; Potma, A.A.; Enoch, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    In The Netherlands, all coal-fired power stations are equipped with a wet lime(stone)-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installation, in order to meet the SO{sub 2} emission requirements. During wet desulfurization a waste water stream is produced containing among others suspended solids, heavy metals, nitrate and in some cases ammonia. Besides, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste water is increased if the FGD process is optimized by application of organic buffers. The traditional waste water treatment plant (WWTP) does not remove nitrate, ammonia and COD, and only poorly removes the anions of oxygenated metals such as selenium. In a previous research it was demonstrated that nitrate and ammonia can be removed biologically, even at the relatively extreme conditions of FGD waste water, which is characterized by a high chloride concentration (5 and 40 g/l) and relatively high temperatures (typically 35--50 C). However, the removal is no longer solely focused on nitrogen components, but also on COD removal and for the anions of some oxygenated metals target values are expected in the near future. In this paper attention is focused on two biological processes. One process is the combined removal of nitrate and COD in a fluid-bed reactor which can be applied upstream of the traditional WWTP. The application of this process was successfully demonstrated at a bench-scale fluid bed reactor. The optimal process conditions were determined in activated-sludge reactors on a laboratory scale. The second biological process is the combined removal of COD and metals from FGD waste water. An upflow sludge blanket reactor was successfully tested on laboratory scale at a wide range of process conditions with actual waste water. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the biological removal processes are discussed and compared with the well known chemical precipitation process.

  18. Removal of chromium ions from waste waters using reverse osmosis AG and SWHR membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çimen, Aysel; Kılıçel, Fevzi; Arslan, Gülşin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate removal of chromium from waste waters. The effect of pH and concentration of the feed water and operating pressure on the chromium rejection were also investigated. In the study; the reverse osmosis (RO) technique and the sea water high rejection (SWHR) and high rejection brackish water (AG) membrane were used for the separation process. Results of the study indicated that chromium rejection mostly depends on the membrane type, pH of the feed water and operating pressure. Also pH of the feed water was found to be 3 for the effective removal of chromium. Furthermore the rejection efficiency of the membranes was found to be in the order of AG > SWHR. For two membranes, chromium rejection increased with increasing operating pressure. Finally, waste water sample containing 7542 mg/L (with 100 mg/L) of chromium was treated by using RO technique with AG membrane. RO could be efficiently used (with >91% rejection) for the removal of chromium from waste water sample.

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  20. Data, exergy, and energy analysis of a vertical-bore, ground-source heat pump to for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-05-27

    Evidence is provided to support the view that greater than two-thirds of energy required to produce domestic hot water may be extracted from the ground which serves as renewable energy resource. The case refers to a 345 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days (3993 F-days) and CDD of 723 C-days (1301 F-days). The house is operated under simulated occupancy conditions in which the hot water use protocol is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which captures themore » water consumption lifestyles of the average family in the United States. The 5.275 (1.5-ton) water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) shared the same vertical bore with a 7.56 KW water-to-air ground source heat pump for space conditioning the same house. Energy and exergy analysis of data collected continuously over a twelve month period provide performance metrics and sources of inherent systemic inefficiencies. Data and analyses are vital to better understand how WW-GSHPs may be further improved to enable the ground to be used as a renewable energy resource.« less

  1. Data, exergy, and energy analysis of a vertical-bore, ground-source heat pump to for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-05-27

    Evidence is provided to support the view that greater than two-thirds of energy required to produce domestic hot water may be extracted from the ground which serves as renewable energy resource. The case refers to a 345 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days (3993 F-days) and CDD of 723 C-days (1301 F-days). The house is operated under simulated occupancy conditions in which the hot water use protocol is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which captures the water consumption lifestyles of the average family in the United States. The 5.275 (1.5-ton) water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) shared the same vertical bore with a 7.56 KW water-to-air ground source heat pump for space conditioning the same house. Energy and exergy analysis of data collected continuously over a twelve month period provide performance metrics and sources of inherent systemic inefficiencies. Data and analyses are vital to better understand how WW-GSHPs may be further improved to enable the ground to be used as a renewable energy resource.

  2. LCA of waste prevention activities: a case study for drinking water in Italy.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2012-10-15

    The strategic relevance of waste prevention has considerably increased worldwide during recent years, such that the current European legislation requires the preparation of national waste prevention programmes in which reduction objectives and measures are identified. In such a context, it is possible to recognise how, in order to correctly evaluate the environmental consequences of a prevention activity, a life cycle perspective should be employed. This allows us to go beyond the simple reduction of the generated waste which, alone, does not automatically imply achieving better overall environmental performance, especially when this reduction is not pursued through the simple reduction of consumption. In this study, the energetic and environmental performance of two waste prevention activities considered particularly meaningful for the Italian context were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The two activities were the utilisation of public network water (two scenarios) and of refillable bottled water (two scenarios) for drinking purposes, instead of one-way bottled water (three scenarios). The energy demand and specific potential impacts of the four waste prevention scenarios and of the three baseline scenarios were compared with the aim of evaluating whether, and under what conditions, the analysed prevention activities are actually associated with overall energetic and environmental benefits. In typical conditions, the use of public network water directly from the tap results in the best scenario, while if water is withdrawn from public fountains, its further transportation by private car can involve significant impacts. The use of refillable PET bottled water seems the preferable scenario for packaged water consumption, if refillable bottles are transported to local distributors along the same (or a lower) distance as one-way bottles to retailers. The use of refillable glass bottled water is preferable to one-way bottled water only if a

  3. Urban Australians using recycled water for domestic non-potable use--an evaluation of the attributes price, saltiness, colour and odour using conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Hurlimann, Anna; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Recycled water use in urban areas is viewed as one part of the solution to Australia's water shortage. The effectiveness of policies designed to promote recycled water systems depends on the acceptance by the community of the price, colour, odour and salt content of the recycled water. In Australia and other countries, limited research has been conducted that investigates community attitudes to and willingness to pay for recycled water, especially in urban settings. Community acceptance of recycled water and the economic feasibility of such projects have not been widely evaluated, even though the long-term feasibility of many projects is dependent on such information. This paper examines the attitudes of an urban Australian community living at Mawson Lakes in South Australia, to using recycled water for non-potable domestic purposes. Conjoint analysis (CA) was used to evaluate participant's (n=136) preferences for various attributes of recycled water (colour, odour, salt content and price) for various uses (garden watering, toilet flushing and clothes washing). The analysis was used to estimate the respondent's willingness to pay (WTP) for quality increases for each of the attributes. Differences in WTP were investigated according to various demographic variables including income and education. Results indicate that for garden watering having 'low salt levels' is the most important attribute of recycled water, for clothes washing 'colourless' is the most important attribute, and for toilet flushing a 'low price' was the most important attribute. Respondents were willing to pay for increases in the quality of recycled water. The amount they were willing to pay varied depending on applied use and the attribute in question. Respondents were most willing to pay for an increase in quality of recycled water when used for clothes washing (willing to pay Australian dollars (A$) 0.07/cubic meter (m(3)) for removal of colour, A$0.065 per cubic meter for an increase in

  4. Waste water/storm water characterization survey, Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility, Pennsylvania. Final report, 15-26 Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.

    1992-03-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility from 15-26 July 1991 by personnel from the Water Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. Quantitative data were also collected after a rain event to assess the quality of the water in the storm water holding pond. Sampling of the oil/water separators was also performed and recommendations were made concerning good management practices to implement to maintain the separators. Slight contamination of the wastewater discharged from the Facility was found, indicating the base is using good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial wastes through the sanitary sewer system. Results of the storm water sampling showed that the quality of the water in the holding pond was not greatly impacted by storm water runoff from the industrial areas on the Facility. A recommendation was made to install a pollution control device on the drain at the Bulk Fuels Storage Area. One oil/water separator was found to contain oil that had hazardous waste characteristics. All others had oil that was suitable for energy recovery.

  5. Tracing isolates from domestic human Campylobacter jejuni infections to chicken slaughter batches and swimming water using whole-genome multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, Sara; Kivistö, Rauni; Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Zhang, Ji; Kärkkäinen, Ulla-Maija; Tuuminen, Tamara; Uksila, Jaakko; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis and chicken is considered a major reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, we investigated temporally related Finnish human (n=95), chicken (n=83) and swimming water (n=20) C. jejuni isolates collected during the seasonal peak in 2012 using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome MLST (wgMLST). Our objective was to trace domestic human C. jejuni infections to C. jejuni isolates from chicken slaughter batches and swimming water. At MLST level, 79% of the sequence types (STs) of the human isolates overlapped with chicken STs suggesting chicken as an important reservoir. Four STs, the ST-45, ST-230, ST-267 and ST-677, covered 75% of the human and 64% of the chicken isolates. In addition, 50% of the swimming water isolates comprised ST-45, ST-230 and ST-677. Further wgMLST analysis of the isolates within STs, accounting their temporal relationship, revealed that 22 of the human isolates (24%) were traceable back to C. jejuni positive chicken slaughter batches. None of the human isolates were traced back to swimming water, which was rather sporadically sampled. The highly discriminatory wgMLST, together with the patient background information and temporal relationship data with possible sources, offers a new, accurate approach to trace back the origin of domestic campylobacteriosis. Our results suggest that potentially a substantial proportion of campylobacteriosis cases during the seasonal peak most probably are due to other sources than chicken meat consumption. These findings warrant further wgMLST-based studies to reassess the role of other reservoirs in the Campylobacter epidemiology both in Finland and elsewhere. PMID:27041390

  6. Water-quality reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality sampling reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste disposal facility (landfill) near Carol City, Florida, was conducted during 1977-78. The purpose of the reconnaissance was to determine selected quality characteristics of the surface- and ground-water of the landfill and contiguous area; and to assess, generally, if leachate produced by the decomposition of landfill wastes was adversely impacting the downgradient water quality. Sampling results indicated that several water-quality characteristics were present in landfill ground water at significantly higher levels than in ground water upgradient or downgradient from the landfill. Moreover, many of these water-quality characteristics were found at slightly higher levels at down gradient site 5 than at upgradient site 1 which suggested that some downgradient movement of landfill leachate had occurred. For example, chloride and alkalinity in ground water had average concentrations of 20 and 290 mg/L at background wells (site 1), 144 and 610 mg/L at landfill wells (sites 2 and 4), and 29 and 338 mg/L at downgradient wells (site 5). A comparison of the 1977-78 sampling results with the National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations indicated that levels of iron and color in ground water of the study area frequently exceeded national maximum contaminant levels, dissolved solids, turbidity, lead, and manganese occasionally exceeded regulations. Concentrations of iron and levels of color and turbidity in some surface water samples also exceeded National maximum contaminant levels. (USGS)

  7. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  8. Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations on Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, JoAnn; Libra, Bob; Weyer, Peter; Heathcote, Susan; Kolpin, Dana; Thorne, Peter S.; Wichman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This work-group, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems. PMID:17384784

  9. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  10. Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Abundance in Correlation with Waste Water Effluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Dangerfield, L.; Minor, D.; Subedar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pollutants such as ammonia and copper have had negative effects on marine invertebrate lifecycles. Along the Pacific Coast of California, a filter feeding invertebrate, the Pacific mole crab, Emerita analoga, is exposed to such pollutants regularly. In San Francisco, habitats for populations of Pacific mole crabs are located near the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant, which dumps waste water 4.5 miles off the coast. Due to this disturbance at the south end of Ocean Beach, we hypothesize that there is a negative correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and the levels of copper, zinc and ammonia in sewage released from the Oceanside plant each year. By analyzing four years of Pacific mole crab abundance data and utilizing yearly waste water discharge figures, we found that there is a slight negative correlation (-0.67057) between mole crab abundances and the total amount of waste water being released annually. The amount of copper released from 2007-2010 and the abundance of E. analoga also has a slight negative correlation (-0.6714). The correlation between Pacific mole crab abundance and the total amount of zinc is also a slightly negative (-0.48434). However, the correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and total amount of ammonia released is positive (0.4497). Further data are needed to ascertain the relationship between the abundance of the Pacific mole crab and the amount of pollutants released from nearby waste water treatment plants.

  11. The Use of Waste Materials in the Passive Remediation of Mine Water Polution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The contamination and resulting degradation of water courses by effluents from abandoned and active mines is a world-wide problem. Traditional methods of remediating the discharges from mines involve the addition of chemicals and the utilisation of artificial energy sources. Over the last 15-20 years passive treatment systems have been developed that harness natural chemical and biological processes to ameliorate the potentially toxic effects of such discharges. There are many different types of passive system, including compost wetlands, reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS), permeable reactive barriers and inorganic media passive systems. Different waste materials can be utilised as reactive media within each of these systems, dependent upon the type of mine water and treatment technology. In many cases the reactivity of these recycled waste materials is key to the remedial performance of these systems. The materials used may be organic (e.g., composts) or inorganic (e.g., blast furnace slag) and where possible are sourced locally in order to minimise transport costs. The remediation of mine waters in itself can produce large quantities of waste products in the form of iron oxide sludge. Potential uses of this material in the production of pigments and in the treatment of phosphate contaminated waters is also currently under investigation. The exploitation of what are traditionally thought of as waste materials within treatment systems for polluted waters is an expanding technology which provides great scope for recycling.

  12. Waste water treatment costs reduced by 50% with rotary vacuum precoat filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mrozinski, W.; Short, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes a rotary vacuum precoat filter which reduces waste treatment costs by 50%. This filter was used to solve Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division's plant problem of high operating costs at the facility due to frequent cleaning, repair, and replacement of electric filters.The solids separation system at Linde's waste water treatment facility also had high operating, maintenance and sludge disposal costs. Installation of the rotary vacuum precoat filter with diatomite precoat performs the same functions as were previously accomplished with the high pressure filter and a centrifuge, and does these with less total horsepower, fewer water treatment chemicals, reduced maintenance, and lower water content in the sludge. All of these improvements have added up to a 50% reduction in the total cost of waste water treatment. On a trial-basis, the small rotary vacuum precoat flter satisfactorily handled all the waste water treatment required at present plant production rates. Based on full plant operating rates and the installation of an appropriate sized filter, total savings from using this system are estimated at $92,000/yr.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix F: Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Levin, A.; O`Kelley, M.

    1991-08-01

    This study characterizes potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste streams, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates their radionuclide content and distribution. Several types of low-level radioactive wastes produced by light water reactors were identified in an earlier study as being potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste, including specific activated metal components and certain process wastes in the form of cartridge filters and decontamination resins. Light water reactor operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants were reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste generated per fuel cycle. The amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste were estimated as a function of fuel cycle. Component-specific radionuclide content and distribution was calculated for activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste streams were used to estimate radionuclide content and distribution for process wastes. The greater-than-Class C low-level waste volumes that could be generated through plant closure were also estimated, along with volumes and activities for potential greater-than-Class C activated metals generated at decommissioning.

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR MONITORING THE ENVIRONMENT. WATER AND WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This first EPA manual contains uniform laboratory and field methods for microbiological analyses of waters and wastewaters, and is recommended in enforcement, monitoring and research activities. The procedures are prepared in detailed, stepwise form for the bench worker. The manu...

  15. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

  16. Waste-water treatment: lagoons. January 1977-May 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of waste waters in lagoons. The design, operation, equipment, and pretreatment processes are discussed. The treatment of waste water from breweries, tanneries, paper mills, and other industrial operations are considered. Descriptions and evaluations of specific facilities are provided. (This updated bibliography contains 401 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Soil water repellency patterns following long-term irrigation with waste water in a sandy calcareous soil, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; García-Irles, L.; Morugán, A.; Doerr, S. H.; García-Orenes, F.; Atanassova, I.; Navarro, M. A.; Ayguadé, H.

    2009-04-01

    One of the consequences of long-term irrigation with waste water can be the development of soil water repellency (WR). Its emergence can affect soil-water balance, irrigation efficiency and crop yield. Water repellency development has been suggested to be controlled by parameters such as organic matter quantity and type present in the waste water, soil properties (particularly the texture), and the overall time period of irrigation. Here we examine the effect of long-term (~20 years) irrigation with low quality waste-water on soil wettability under a Populus alba tree stand used as a "green filter". The plot exhibited considerable micro-topography (ridges and furrows) and consisted of sandy calcareous soil (Xerofluvent). Water repellency and organic carbon content (OC) were studied in 160 samples taken from the plot and from an adjacent area used as control (no irrigated). From the control area 40 samples were taken from the first 5 cm of mineral soil (C samples). From the irrigated plot a total of 120 samples were collected. To account for the micro-topography of the terrain, 40 samples each were taken from ridges (R samples; 0-5 cm depth), furrows (F samples; 0-5 cm depth), and from furrows at depth (FD samples, 5-10 cm depth). Soil WR was assessed in the laboratory for all air dry samples using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT Test). Samples with WDPT ? 5 seconds were classified as non-repellent. Organic carbon content (OC) was analyzed in all samples by potassium dichromate oxidation method. We also carried out a detailed chemical characterisation of the organic matter in two furrow samples that exhibited contrasting wettability, but no major difference in OC content (F10: WDPT 9960s, OC 6.7%; F31: WDPT 10s, OC 7.5%). Following accelerated solvent extraction with Dichloro-methane/MeOH (95:5), the extract was analysed by GC-MS. All samples from the control area (C) were wettable (mean WDPT=1s). In the irrigated plot, water repellency was present for 48

  18. Development of an advanced spacecraft water and waste materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Middleton, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    An Integrated Waste Management-Water System (WM-WS) which uses radioisotopes for thermal energy is described and results of its trial in a 4-man, 180 day simulated space mission are presented. It collects urine, feces, trash, and wash water in zero gravity, processes the wastes to a common evaporator, distills and catalytically purifies the water, and separates and incinerates the solid residues using little oxygen and no chemical additives or expendable filters. Technical details on all subsystems are given along with performance specifications. Data on recovered water and heat loss obtained in test trials are presented. The closed loop incinerator and other projects underway to increase system efficiency and capacity are discussed.

  19. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  20. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M. K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S. W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-07-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature (δD), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally depleted compared to ambient intake air, while CO was significantly elevated. These findings contradict the often assumed co-occurring net H2 and CO emissions in combustion processes and suggest that previous H2 emissions from combustion may have been overestimated when scaled to CO emissions. For the gas and oil-fired heater exhausts, H2 and δD generally decrease with increasing CO2, from ambient values of ~0.5 ppm and +130‰ to 0.2 ppm and -206‰, respectively. These results are interpreted as a combination of an isotopically light H2 source from fossil fuel combustion and a D/H kinetic isotope fractionation of hydrogen in the advected ambient air during its partial removal during combustion. Diesel exhaust measurements from dynamometer test stand driving cycles show elevated H2 and CO emissions during cold-start and some acceleration phases. While H2 and CO emissions from diesel vehicles are known to be significantly less than those from gasoline vehicles (on a fuel-energy base), we find that their molar H2/CO ratios (median 0.026, interpercentile range 0.12) are also significantly less compared to gasoline vehicle exhaust. Using H2/CO emission ratios, along with CO global emission inventories, we estimate global H2 emissions for 2000, 2005, and 2010. For road transportation (gasoline and diesel), we calculate 8.3 ± 2.2 Tg, 6.0 ± 1.5 Tg, and 3.8 ± 0.94 Tg, respectively, whereas the contribution from diesel vehicles is low (0.9-1.4%). Other fossil fuel emissions are believed to be negligible but H2 emissions from coal combustion are unknown. For residential (domestic) emissions, which are likely dominated by biofuel combustion, emissions for the same years are

  1. Secondary phases formed during nuclear waste glass-water interactions: Thermodynamic and derived properties

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of secondary phases observed to form during nuclear waste glass-water interactions are of particular interest as it is with the application of these properties together with the thermodynamic properties of other solid phases, fluid phases, and aqueous species that one may predict the environmental consequences of introducing radionuclides contained in the glass into groundwater at a high-level nuclear waste repository. The validation of these predicted consequences can be obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations at natural analogue sites. The purpose of this report is to update and expand the previous compilation (McKenzie, 1991) of thermodynamic data retrieved from the literature and/or estimated for secondary phases observed to form (and candidate phases from observed chemical compositions) during nuclear waste glass-water interactions. In addition, this report includes provisionally recommended thermodynamic data of secondary phases.

  2. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  3. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical method using a water medium.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenlong; Wen, Xuefeng; Shi, Changsheng; Zhao, Yuemin; Wen, Baofeng; He, Yaqun

    2009-07-15

    Research on the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCB) is at the forefront of environmental pollution prevention and resource recycling. To effectively crush waste PCB and to solve the problem of secondary pollution from fugitive odors and dust created during the crushing process, a wet impacting crusher was employed to achieve comminution liberation of the PCB in a water medium. The function of water in the crushing process was analyzed. When using slippery hammerheads, a rotation speed of 1470 rpm, a water flow of 6m(3)/h and a sieve plate aperture of 2.2mm, 95.87% of the crushed product was sized less than 1mm. 94.30% of the metal was in this grade of product. Using smashed material graded -1mm for further research, a Falcon concentrator was used to recover the metal from the waste PCB. Engineering considerations were the liberation degree, the distribution ratio of the metal and a way to simplify the technology. The separation mechanism for fine particles of different densities in a Falcon concentrator was analyzed in detail and the separation process in the segregation and separation zones was deduced. Also, the magnitude of centrifugal acceleration, the back flow water pressure and the feed slurry concentration, any of which might affect separation results, were studied. A recovery model was established using Design-Expert software. Separating waste PCB, crushed to -1mm, with the Falcon separator gave a concentrated product graded 92.36% metal with a recovery of 97.05%. To do this the reverse water pressure was 0.05 MPa, the speed transducer frequency was set at 30 Hz and the feed density was 20 g/l. A flow diagram illustrating the new technique of wet impact crushing followed by separation with a Falcon concentrator is provided. The technique will prevent environmental pollution from waste PCB and allow the effective recovery of resources. Water was used as the medium throughout the whole process. PMID:19121892

  4. Destruction of representative submarine food waste using supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiying; Qu, Xuan; Zhang, Rong; Bi, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 13 types of organic materials were oxidized using H2O2 in a continuous flow reactor under the condition of supercritical water. The effect of the operational parameters on the conversion of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) was investigated, and the resulting quality of treated water was analyzed. It was found that these materials were easily oxidized with a TOC conversion achieving 99% at temperature of 460 °C and TN conversion reaching 94% at temperature of 500 °C. Rice decomposition was rapid, with TOC and TN decomposition rates of 99% obtained within residence of 100 s at temperature of 460 °C. At temperature of 460 °C, pressure of 24 MPa, residence time of 100 s, and excess oxygen of 100%, the quality of treated water attained levels commensurate with China's Standards for Drinking Water Quality. Reaction rate equation parameters were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the differential equation obtained using the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The decrease of the TOC in water samples exhibited reaction orders of 0.95 for the TOC concentration and 0.628 for the oxygen concentration. The activation energy was 83.018 kJ/mol. PMID:25315932

  5. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment.

    PubMed

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning. PMID:26515938

  6. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26612563

  7. Natural radioactivity in drinking underground waters in Upper Silesia and solid wastes produced during treatment.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Chałupnik, Stanisław; Bonczyk, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Content of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and uranium isotopes in waters from subsurface aquifers was studied. The sampling points were chosen for having the elevated natural content of iron and manganese. Measurements of radium were made by LSC, while uranium was measured by alpha spectrometry. Waste sludge was measured by gamma spectrometry and three-stage BCR sequential extraction was performed. Radon activity concentration in the air at water treatment plants was determined and dose adsorbed by staff was calculated. PMID:24565994

  8. The evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test procedure.

    PubMed

    Smaka-Kincl, V; Stegnar, P; Lovka, M; Toman, M J

    1996-07-01

    The bulbs of Allium cepa were grown in test liquids of various pollution levels as follows: undiluted industrial and municipal waste water; biological treatment plant output water; water from the Drava river upstream and downstream of the city of Maribor; and non-chlorinated drinking water as a negative control test. The paper presents the response of the Allium cepa genetic material to the presence of potential cytotoxic and genotoxic substances in test liquids and the suitability of the Allium cepa testing procedure as a method for short-term determination of water pollution level. The suitability of the Allium test procedure as a system for environmental monitoring is presented. The influence of water pollution on macroscopic and cytologic parameters of the common onion by application of the biological testing method was examined. The macroscopic parameter was inhibition of root growth. The cytological parameters were: aberrant cells in metaphase and anaphase, index of micronuclei appearance and inhibition of cell division. The possibility of categorization the different polluted test liquids into quality classes is presented according to the influence of the test liquids on macroscopic and cytologic parameters. Test liquids are divided into 8 quality classes: the first class is the least polluted surface waters, the second and the third classes are more polluted surface water, the fourth and the fifth classes are biological treatment plant output waters, the sixth till the eighth quality classes are untreated waste waters. The most polluted test liquids (untreated industrial and municipal waste waters) caused sublethal and even lethal effects. The most polluted tested liquids cause the inhibition of root growth over 50% (even up to 74%), decrease of mitotic index over 36% (even up to 66%), increase of presence of interphase cells with micronuclei over 3% and increase of presence of aberrant cells for more than 10 times in comparison to control test. PMID

  9. Study on shrimp waste water and vermicompost as a nutrient source for bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquaculture industry generates significant nutrient-rich wastewater that is released into streams and rivers causing environmental concern. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effect of waste shrimp water (SW), vermicompost (VC), at rates of 10%, 20%, 40%, and ...

  10. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  11. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Removal of two antibacterial compounds triclocarban and triclosan in a waste water treatment plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigates the fate of Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS) in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Our goal was to identify the most effective removal step and to determine the amount on the solid phase versus degraded. Our influent contained higher TCS than TCC concentrations (8....

  13. TREATMENT AND PRODUCT RECOVERY: SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION OF NYLON MONOMER MANUFACTURING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R822721C569
    Title: Treatment and Product Recovery: Supercritical Water Oxidation of Nylon Monomer Manufacturing Waste
    Investigator: Earnest F. Gloyna
    Institution: University of Texas at Austin
    EPA Project Officer:<...

  14. Biodegradation studies of aniline and nitrobenzene in aniline plant waste water by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S.S.; Shinde, V.M.

    1988-10-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for studying the biodegradation of aniline and/or nitrobenzene in aniline plant waste water. The effects of various parameters have been reported and critically discussed. The results are precise and afford simultaneous determination of aniline and nitrobenzene.

  15. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  16. PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR METALS IN SURFACE WATER, SOIL, AND WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents metal partition coefficients for the surface water pathway and for the source model used in the Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment (3MRA) technology under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Partition ...

  17. Acanthamoeba spp. in domestic tap water in houses of contact lens wearers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Ramírez-Bautista, Gerardo A; Zamora-Muñoz, Claudia; Ibarra-Montes, María Del Rocío; Ramírez-Flores, Elizabeth; Hernández-Martínez, María Dolores

    2010-09-01

    A survey was carried out in the metropolitan area of Mexico City to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the tap water of houses of contact lens wearers. Water samples were taken from the mains water entry, bathroom sinks and storage containers (roof tanks, cisterns) of 27 houses; and from the solution contained in the contact lens cases. Samples were filtered and cultured onto NNE medium. The isolates were identified based on their morphological features and pathogenicity. Total and fecal coliforms, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and residual free-chlorine were measured by standard methods. Forty five isolates of Acanthamoeba from 200 water samples were obtained. The highest number of amoebae was isolated from cisterns and roof tanks. Most Acanthamoeba isolates were non-pathogenic, however, their presence in tap water is a potential hazard since some species can cause Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. PMID:19995560

  18. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  19. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  20. FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL - 2nd Philadelphia, Pennsylania, MAY 14-16, 1990 - Technical Papers (EPA/540/2-90/010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of the high level of interest in innovative hazardous waste control technologies, U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) jointly conducted this conference. The conference consisted of presenta...

  1. Hazardous waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure water jet scarifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, B.K.; Rinker, M.W.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, has proposed a baseline technology of high-pressure water jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mining strategies, forces related to scarifier and conveyance line, and retrieval rate. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date.

  2. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  3. Analysis of Distribution System and Domestic Service Line Pipe Deposits to Understand Water Treatment/Metal Release Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project puts the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) into a unique position of being able to bring analytical tools to bear to solve or anticipate future drinking water infrastructure water quality and metallic or cement material performance problems, for which little...

  4. The Occurrence of Contaminant Accumulation in Lead Pipe Scales from Domestic Drinking Water Distribution Systems-ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps. The current regulatory...

  5. Water quality at and adjacent to the south Dade County solid-waste disposal facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance was conducted at the south Dade County solid-waste landfill near Goulds, Florida, from December 1977 through August 1978. The landfill is located directly on the unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which, in the study area, is affected by saltwater intrusion. Water samples collected from six monitor well sites at two depths and four surface-water sites were analyzed to determine the chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the ground water and surface water of the study area. Results indicated that water quality beneath the landfill was highly variable with location and depth. Leachate was generally more evident in the shallow wells and during the dry-season sampling, but was greatly diluted and dispersed in the deep wells and during the wet season. High concentrations of contaminants were generated primarily in areas of the landfill with the most recent waste deposits. Chloride (limited to the shallow wells and the dry season), alkalinity, ammonia, iron, manganese, lead, phosphorus, and organic nitrogen indicate leachate contamination of the aquifer. Water-quality characteristics in the surface waters were generally only slightly above background levels. (USGS)

  6. Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene waste in subcritical water optimized by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wong, S L; Ngadi, N; Amin, N A S; Abdullah, T A T; Inuwa, I M

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene (LDPE) waste from local waste separation company in subcritical water was conducted to investigate the effect of reaction time, temperature, as well as the mass ratio of water to polymer on the liquid yield. The data obtained from the study were used to optimize the liquid yield using response surface methodology. The range of reaction temperature used was 162-338°C, while the reaction time ranged from 37 min to 143 min, and the ratio of water to polymer ranged from 1.9 to 7.1. It was found that pyrolysis of LDPE waste in subcritical water produced hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, while the liquid product contained alkanes and alkenes with 10-50 carbons atoms, as well as heptadecanone, dichloroacetic acid and heptadecyl ester. The optimized conditions were 152.3°C, reaction time of 1.2 min and ratio of water solution to polymer of 32.7, with the optimum liquid yield of 13.6 wt% and gases yield of 2.6 wt%. PMID:26150081

  7. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Roseboom, E.H. Jr.

    1983-12-31

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository`s performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous {sup 129}I and {sup 14}C to the atmosphere.

  8. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1983-01-01

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository's performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous iodine-129 and carbon-14 to the atmosphere.

  9. Water, vapour and heat transport in concrete cells for storing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carme Chaparro, M.; Saaltink, Maarten W.

    2016-08-01

    Water is collected from a drain situated at the centre of a concrete cell that stores radioactive waste at 'El Cabril', which is the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility of Spain. This indicates flow of water within the cell. 2D numerical models have been made in order to reproduce and understand the processes that take place inside the cell. Temperature and relative humidity measured by sensors in the cells and thermo-hydraulic parameters from laboratory test have been used. Results show that this phenomenon is caused by capillary rise from the phreatic level, evaporation and condensation within the cell produced by temperature gradients caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations outside. At the centre of the cell, flow of gas and convection also play a role. Three remedial actions have been studied that may avoid the leakage of water from the drain.

  10. Polyurethane waste recycling; glycolysis and hydroglycolysis of water-blown foams

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlock, J.; Braslaw, J.; Zinbo, M.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper, glycolysis of toluenediisocyanate based water-blown polyurethane foam has been examined by high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography to determine the product distribution. Glycolysis with diethylene glycol (DEG) yields toluenediamine (TDA), TDA mono- and di- DEG carbamates, a series of urea-linked mono- and di- DEG carbamate TDA oligomers, and polyether triol (polyol). The complexity of the product mixture suggests problems in applying simple glycolysis to the recovery of mixed and/or contaminated polyurethane wastes. A simpler product mixture results when water and a base catalyst are added to the glycolysis reaction (hydroglycolysis). Hydroglycolysis yields TDA and polyol as principal products. Data for the rate of the hydroglycolysis reaction are presented in the temperature range of 150 to 190/sup 0/C. These results suggest that hydroglycolysis could be used to recover polyols from mixed and/or contaminated water-blown polyurethane wastes.

  11. Characterization and electrical properties of chitosan for waste water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saengkaew, Phannee; Chantanachai, Kanittha; Cheewajaroen, Kulthawat; Nimsiri, Woraporn

    2016-05-01

    Chitosan extracted from shrimp shell waste was characterized in order to use for the industrial wastewater treatment. By XRF technique, the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of pure chitosan were performed with the relative compositions of Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Al, and Na of 0.321%, 0.738%, 0.713%, 0.363%, 0.338%, and 3.858%, respectively. In the case of two types of the contaminated chitosan from the wastewater treatment before and after a process of a primary H2O2-treatment, the relative compositions of Ca, Mg, Si and Fe were obtained with an increasing of 0.356%, 1.321%, 1.536%, 0.451% and 0.406%, 1.105%, 1.178%, 0.591%, respectively. This shows that the suspended materials in the wastewater were absorbed by chitosan. By I-V Measurements, the across-through voltage of the pure chitosan disc was 0.245V±0.053 at the applied voltage of 17V, and resistance of 53.9MΩ ±10.3 at the applied voltage of 590V. After the utilization for the wastewater treatment, the across voltage of chitosan discs from two cases were 0.133V±0.047 and 0.223V±0.063, and the resistance of 122.8MΩ ±16.1 and 24.8MΩ ±5.1. The used chitosan has a lower conductivity because of a decreasing in the chitosan's electrical dipoles by combining with the suspended ions in the wastewater. Moreover, the adsorption efficiencies of chitosan for formaldehyde in the wastewater of two cases were 31.08% and 25.40%. In summary, chitosan is efficiently utilized in the wastewater treatment by absorption of the suspended materials and formaldehyde due to its molecular structure providing a good electrical property.

  12. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui-mei; Liang, Jun-wu

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methods and equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Three separating methods and equipment are used to control three different groups of electronic wastes. The first group includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes of semiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure for this group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric and manganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. The second group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus, HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedure involves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with a separator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions of As, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in a flocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test results showed that all waste gases and water after the abatement procedures presented in this article passed the discharge standards set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. PMID:12491721

  13. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-07-01

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  14. Personal viewpoint: hemodialysis--water, power, and waste disposal: rethinking our environmental responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2012-01-01

    While medical health professionals are trained to detect, treat, and comfort, they are not trained to consider the environmental impact of the services they provide. Dialysis practitioners seem particularly careless in the use of natural resources—especially water and power—and seem broadly ignorant of the profound medical waste issues created by single use dialysis equipment. If the data we have collected is an indication, then extrapolation of this data to a dialysis population currently estimated at ~2 million patients worldwide, a “world dialysis service” would use ~156 billion liters of water and discard ~2/3 of that during reverse osmosis. This waste occurs, despite the discarded water being high-grade “gray water” of potable standard. The same world dialysis service would consume 1.62 billion kWh of power—mostly generated from coal and other environmentally damaging sources. Our world dialysis service, based on ~2 kg of waste from each dialysis treatment, would generate ~625,000 tonnes of plastic waste—waste that would be potentially reusable if simple sterilizing techniques were applied to it at the point of generation. Dialysis services must begin to explore eco-dialysis potentials. The continued plundering of resources without considering reuse or recycling, exploration of renewable energy options, or the reduction of the carbon footprint of the dialysis process . . . is unsustainable. Sustainable dialysis practices should be a global goal in the coming decade. PMID:22098705

  15. Testing of the cytotoxic effects of sulfate pulp mill waste waters.

    PubMed

    Cernáková, M; Golis, E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of 22 technological waste water samples and of some standards was tested on bacteria, fungi, chlorococcal algae, flagellata, plant cells, cells of Tubifex tubifex, hamster cells V79 and the fish Lebistes reticulatus. Of these 22 samples, some inhibition of cell life processes was displayed by the black liquor formed in the production of paper pulp and viscose pulp, by the waste solution produced during the preparation of bleaching agents for paper pulp and viscose pulp, and by the residual liquor after hypochlorite treatment of paper pulp. PMID:7729767

  16. Managing water and salinity with desalination, conveyance, conservation, waste-water treatment and reuse to counteract climate variability in Gaza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Aljuaidi, A. E.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We include demands for water of different salinity concentrations as input parameters and decision variables in a regional hydro-economic optimization model. This specification includes separate demand functions for saline water. We then use stochastic non-linear programming to jointly identify the benefit maximizing set of infrastructure expansions, operational allocations, and use of different water quality types under climate variability. We present a detailed application for the Gaza Strip. The application considers building desalination and waste-water treatment plants and conveyance pipelines, initiating water conservation and leak reduction programs, plus allocating and transferring water of different qualities among agricultural, industrial, and urban sectors and among districts. Results show how to integrate a mix of supply enhancement, conservation, water quality improvement, and water quality management actions into a portfolio that can economically and efficiently respond to changes and uncertainties in surface and groundwater availability due to climate variability. We also show how to put drawn-down and saline Gaza aquifer water to more sustainable and economical use.

  17. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rickard, W H; Kirby, L J

    1987-02-01

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow. PMID:3818287

  18. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  19. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  20. Laboratory Methods for the Measurement of Pollutants in Water and Waste Effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1971-01-01

    The requirement for accurate, precise, and rapid analytical procedures for the examination of water and waste samples requires the use of a variety of instruments. The instrumentation in water laboratories includes atomic absorption, UV-visible. and infrared spectrophotometers, automatic colorimetric analyzers, gas chromatographs and mass spectrometers. Because of the emphasis on regulatory action, attention is being directed toward quality control of analytical results. Among the challenging problems are the differentiation of metallic species in water at nanogram concentrations, rapid measurement of free cyanide and free ammonia, more sensitive methods for arsenic and selenium and improved characterization of organic contaminants.