Science.gov

Sample records for dominant precipitation processes

  1. Assessing Precipitation Isotope Variations during Atmospheric River Events to Reveal Dominant Atmospheric/Hydrologic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe-Glynn, S. E.; Johnson, K. R.; Yoshimura, K.; Buenning, N. H.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events across the Western US commonly associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs), whereby extensive fluxes of moisture are transported from the subtropics, can result in major damage and are projected by most climate models to increase in frequency and severity. However, they are difficult to project beyond ~ten days and the location of landfall and topographically induced precipitation is even more uncertain. Water isotopes, often used to reconstruct past rainfall variability, are useful natural tracers of atmospheric hydrologic processes. Because of the typical tropical and sub-tropical origins, ARs can carry unique water isotope (δ18O and δ2H, d-excess) signatures that can be utilized to provide source and process information that can lead to improving AR predictions. Recent analysis of the top 10 weekly precipitation total samples from Sequoia National Park, CA, of which 9 contained AR events, shows a high variability in the isotopic values. NOAA Hysplit back trajectory analyses reveals a variety of trajectories and varying latitudinal source regions contributed to moisture delivered to this site, which may explain part of the high variability (δ2H = -150.03 to -49.52 ‰, δ18O = -19.27 to -7.20 ‰, d-excess = 4.1 to 25.8). Here we examine the top precipitation totals occurring during AR events and the associated isotopic composition of precipitation samples from several sites across the Western US. We utilize IsoGSM, an isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model, to characterize the hydrologic processes and physical dynamics contributing to the observed isotopic variations. We investigate isotopic influences from moisture source location, AR speed, condensation height, and associated temperature. We explore the dominant controls on spatial and temporal variations of the isotopic composition of AR precipitation which highlights different physical processes for different AR events.

  2. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  3. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  4. Precipitation Process and Apparatus Therefor

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Jr, L C

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns an apparatus for remotely-controlled precipitation and filtration operations. Liquid within a precipitation chamber is maintained above a porous member by introducing air beneath the member; pressure beneath the porous member is reduced to suck the liquid through the member and effect filtration.

  5. Identifying Anomality in Precipitation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Safety, risk and economic analyses of engineering constructions such as storm sewer, street and urban drainage, and channel design are sensitive to precipitation storm properties. Whether the precipitation storm properties exhibit normal or anomalous characteristics remains obscure. In this study, we will decompose a precipitation time series as sequences of average storm intensity, storm duration and interstorm period to examine whether these sequences could be treated as a realization of a continuous time random walk with both "waiting times" (interstorm period) and "jump sizes" (average storm intensity and storm duration). Starting from this viewpoint, we will analyze the statistics of storm duration, interstorm period, and average storm intensity in four regions in southwestern United States. We will examine whether the probability distribution is temporal and spatial dependent. Finally, we will use fractional engine to capture the randomness in precipitation storms.

  6. Do oxygen stable isotopes track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant dominated peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charman, D.; Amesbury, M. J.; Newnham, R.; Loader, N.; Goodrich, J. P.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Royles, J.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature and humidity dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives. Exploitation of this record from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, has been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with limited application in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. Throughout New Zealand (NZ), the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) forms deep peat deposits. NZ provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because sites are ideally suited to single taxon analysis, preserve potentially high resolution full Holocene palaeoclimate records and are situated in the climatically sensitive SH mid-latitudes. Crucially, large gradients exist in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. We test the capacity for δ18O analysis of Empodisma alpha cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ to provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records. We took surface plant, water and precipitation samples over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. We found a strong link between the isotopic compositions of surface root water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in surface root water. The link between source water and plant

  7. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  8. The Dominant Synoptic-Scale Modes of North American Monsoon Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Y. L.; Seastrand, S.; Castro, C. L.; Ritchie, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we explore the mechanisms of synoptic rainfall variability using observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. While previously shown to have an important impact on North American monsoon rainfall, tropical cyclones are excluded from this analysis, in order to focus on more frequent synoptic disturbances within the region. A rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis of North American monsoon rainfall for June through September 2002-2009 suggests low-level tropical disturbances contribute to the leading two modes of precipitation variability within this region. The low-level disturbances result in gulf surges, or low-level surges of moisture up the Gulf of California, and provide a key low-level moisture source to facilitate development of organized convection. In the first mode the low-level trough brings precipitation to lower elevations along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental south of Hermosillo, Mexico and over the southern Baja Peninsula. In the second mode the low-level trough interacts with an upper-level inverted trough enhancing precipitation into the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. In particular, the upper-level trough contributes to the easterly-northeasterly shear across the region, favoring mesoscale convective organization and enhanced deep convection over the Sierra Madre Occidental and higher elevations in southeast Arizona. The EOF methodology offers an objective approach for determining the dominant modes of precipitation for the monsoon region useful for identifying past and monitoring future low-frequency impacts on these modes.

  9. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

    2009-06-01

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  10. Scattering by chorus waves as the dominant cause of diffuse auroral precipitation.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Richard M; Ni, Binbin; Tao, Xin; Horne, Richard B; Meredith, Nigel P

    2010-10-21

    Earth's diffuse aurora occurs over a broad latitude range and is primarily caused by the precipitation of low-energy (0.1-30-keV) electrons originating in the central plasma sheet, which is the source region for hot electrons in the nightside outer magnetosphere. Although generally not visible, the diffuse auroral precipitation provides the main source of energy for the high-latitude nightside upper atmosphere, leading to enhanced ionization and chemical changes. Previous theoretical studies have indicated that two distinct classes of magnetospheric plasma wave, electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves and whistler-mode chorus waves, could be responsible for the electron scattering that leads to diffuse auroral precipitation, but it has hitherto not been possible to determine which is the more important. Here we report an analysis of satellite wave data and Fokker-Planck diffusion calculations which reveals that scattering by chorus is the dominant cause of the most intense diffuse auroral precipitation. This resolves a long-standing controversy. Furthermore, scattering by chorus can remove most electrons as they drift around Earth's magnetosphere, leading to the development of observed pancake distributions, and can account for the global morphology of the diffuse aurora. PMID:20962841

  11. Modeling precipitate-dominant clogging for landfill leachate with NICA-Donnan theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenze

    2014-06-15

    Bioclogging of leachate drains is ubiquitous in landfills for municipal solid wastes. Formation of calcium precipitates and biofilms in pore space is the principal reason for clogging. But the calcium speciation in leachte rich in dissolved organic matters (DOM) remains to be uncovered. In spite of its complexity, NICA-Donnan model has been used to compute the speciation of metals and the binding capacities of humic substances. This study applies NICA-Donnan theory into the simulation of calcium speciation during the formation of precipitate-dominant clogging in leachate drainage aggregates for the first time. The consideration of DOC-Ca complexation gives reasonable explanation to the speciation of calcium, which is viewed as oversaturated, in leachate with concentrated DOM. The modeling results for calcium speciation are in good agreement with a large collection of experimental observations, suggesting that NICA-Donnan theory could be used in the modelings of reactive transport and clogging of landfill leachate collection systems. PMID:24806870

  12. Skill and predictability in multimodel ensemble forecasts for Northern Hemisphere regions with dominant winter precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Azhar; Tippett, Michael K.; Almazroui, Mansour; Ismail, Muhammad; Yousef, Ahmed; Kucharski, Fred; Omar, Mohamed; Hussein, Mahmoud; Alkhalaf, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-07-01

    Northern Hemisphere winter precipitation reforecasts from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast System-4 and six of the models in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble are evaluated, focusing on two regions (Region-A: 20°N-45°N, 10°E-65°E and Region-B: 20°N-55°N, 205°E-255°E) where winter precipitation is a dominant fraction of the annual total and where precipitation from mid-latitude storms is important. Predictability and skill (deterministic and probabilistic) are assessed for 1983-2013 by the multimodel composite (MME) of seven prediction models. The MME climatological mean and variability over the two regions is comparable to observation with some regional differences. The statistically significant decreasing trend observed in Region-B precipitation is captured well by the MME and most of the individual models. El Niño Southern Oscillation is a source of forecast skill, and the correlation coefficient between the Niño3.4 index and precipitation over region A and B is 0.46 and 0.35, statistically significant at the 95 % level. The MME reforecasts weakly reproduce the observed teleconnection. Signal, noise and signal to noise ratio analysis show that the signal variance over two regions is very small as compared to noise variance which tends to reduce the prediction skill. The MME ranked probability skill score is higher than that of individual models, showing the advantage of a multimodel ensemble. Observed Region-A rainfall anomalies are strongly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, but none of the models reproduce this relation, which may explain the low skill over Region-A. The superior quality of multimodel ensemble compared with individual models is mainly due to larger ensemble size.

  13. Can oxygen stable isotopes be used to track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant-dominated peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amesbury, Matthew J.; Charman, Dan J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Loader, Neil J.; Goodrich, Jordan; Royles, Jessica; Campbell, David I.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Roland, Thomas P.; Gallego-Sala, Angela V.

    2015-11-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature- and humidity-dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives, which integrate this signal over time. Applications from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, have been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with few in the Southern Hemisphere or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. New Zealand (NZ) provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because single taxon analysis can be easily carried out, in particular using the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) that forms deep Holocene peat deposits throughout the country. Furthermore, large gradients are observed in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. Here, we test whether δ18O of Empodisma α-cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ can provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records of past precipitation δ18O. Surface plant, water and precipitation samples were taken over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. A link between the isotopic composition of root-associated water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets was found. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in root-associated water. The link between source water and plant cellulose was less clear, although mechanistic modelling predicted mean

  14. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuxin Wu; Roelof Versteeg; Lee Slater; Doug Labrecque

    2009-05-01

    Calcium carbonate is a major secondary mineral precipitate that influences PRB reactivity and hydraulic performance. In this study, we conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO3 and iron oxides precipitation in two simulated PRB media. Solid phase analysis identified CaCO3 (calcite and aragonite) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite being another major phase present close to the influent. Electrical measurements revealed a consistent decrease in conductivity and polarization magnitude of both columns, suggesting that the electrically insulating CaCO3 dominates the electrical response despite the presence of both electrically conductive iron oxides and CaCO3 precipitates. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical properties result from the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. The CaCO3 forms an insulating film on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, which we assume restricts redox-driven transfer of electric charge between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss.

  15. Response of two dominant boreal freshwater wetland plants to manipulated warming and altered precipitation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuanchun; Wang, Guoping; Grace, Michael; Lou, Xiaonan; Yu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xianguo

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two wetland plant species when they were subject to 2-6 °C fluctuations in growth temperature and ± 50% of precipitation, in order to predict the evolution of natural wetlands in Sanjiang Plain of North-eastern China. We investigated the morphological and photosynthetic responses of two dominant and competitive boreal freshwater wetland plants in Northeastern China to manipulation of warming (ambient, +2.0 °C, +4.0 °C, +6.0 °C) and altered precipitation (-50%, ambient, +50%) simultaneously by incubating the plants from seedling to senescence within climate-controlled environmental chambers. Post-harvest, secondary growth of C. angustifolia was observed to explore intergenerational effects. The results indicated that C. angustifolia demonstrated a greater acclimated capacity than G. spiculosa to respond to climate change due to higher resistance to temperature and precipitation manipulations. The accumulated effect on aboveground biomass of post-harvest secondary growth of C. angustifolia was significant. These results explain the expansion of C. angustifolia during last 40 years and indicate the further expansion in natural boreal wetlands under a warmer and wetter future. Stability of the natural surface water table is critical for the conservation and restoration of G. spiculosa populations reacting to encroachment stress from C. angustifolia expansion. PMID:25105764

  16. Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients.

    PubMed

    Fay, Philip A; Newingham, Beth A; Polley, H Wayne; Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R; Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere will continue to be enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2) over the coming century. Carbon dioxide enrichment often reduces leaf transpiration, which in water-limited ecosystems may increase soil water content, change species abundances and increase the productivity of plant communities. The effect of increased soil water on community productivity and community change may be greater in ecosystems with lower precipitation, or on coarser-textured soils, but responses are likely absent in deserts. We tested correlations among yearly increases in soil water content, community change and community plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in experiments in a mesic grassland with fine- to coarse-textured soils, a semi-arid grassland and a xeric shrubland. We found no correlation between CO2-caused changes in soil water content and changes in biomass of dominant plant taxa or total community aboveground biomass in either grassland type or on any soil in the mesic grassland (P > 0.60). Instead, increases in dominant taxa biomass explained up to 85 % of the increases in total community biomass under CO2 enrichment. The effect of community change on community productivity was stronger in the semi-arid grassland than in the mesic grassland, where community biomass change on one soil was not correlated with the change in either the soil water content or the dominant taxa. No sustained increases in soil water content or community productivity and no change in dominant plant taxa occurred in the xeric shrubland. Thus, community change was a crucial driver of community productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in the grasslands, but effects of soil water change on productivity were not evident in yearly responses to CO2 enrichment. Future research is necessary to isolate and clarify the mechanisms controlling the temporal and spatial variations in the linkages among soil water, community change and plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment. PMID

  17. Indian summer monsoon precipitating clouds: role of microphysical process rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Anupam; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Pokhrel, Samir; Saha, Subodh K.

    2016-04-01

    The budget analysis of microphysical process rates based on Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) products are presented in the study. The relative importance of different microphysical process rates, which is crucial for GCMs, is investigated. The autoconversion and accretion processes are found to be vital for Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The map-to-map correlations are examined between observed precipitation and MERRA reanalysis. The pattern correlations connote the fidelity of the MERRA datasets used here. Results of other microphysical parameters (e.g. ice water content from CloudSat, high cloud fraction from CALIPSO and MODIS, latent heating from TRMM, cloud ice mixing ratio from MERRA) are presented in this study. The tropospheric temperature from reanalysis product of MERRA and NCEP are also analyzed. Furthermore, the linkages between cloud microphysics production rates and dynamics, which are important for North-South tropospheric temperature gradient for maintaining the ISM circulation, are also discussed. The study demonstrates the microphysical process rates, which are actually responsible for the cloud hydrometeors and precipitation formation on the monsoon intraseasonal oscillations timescale. Cloud to rain water auto-conversion and snow accretion rates are the dominant processes followed by the rain accretion. All these tendency terms replicates the similar spatial patterns as that of precipitation. The quantification of microphysical process rates and precipitation over different regions are shown here. The freezing rate is also imperative for the formation of cloud ice as revealed by the observation. Freezing rates at upper level and snow accretion at middle level may have effect on latent heating release. Further it can modulate the north-south temperature gradient which can influence the large-scale monsoon dynamics. The rain water evaporation is also considered as a key aspect for controlling the low level

  18. Processing NPP Bottoms by Ferrocyanide Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Savkin, A. E.; Slastennikov Y. T.; Sinyakin O. G.

    2002-02-25

    The purpose of work is a laboratory test of a technological scheme for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides by use of ozonization, ferrocyanide precipitation, filtration and selective sorption. At carrying out the ferrocyanide precipitation after ozonization, the specific activity of bottoms by Cs{sup 137} is reduced in 100-500 times. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of ferrocyanide precipitation depends on the quality of consequent filtration. Pore sizes of a filter has been determined to be less than 0.2 {micro}m for complete separation of ferrocyanide residue. The comparison of two technological schemes for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides, characterized by presence of the ferrocyanide precipitation stage has been performed. Application of the proposed schemes allows reducing volumes of radioactive waste in many times.

  19. Modeling greenup date of dominant grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland using air temperature and precipitation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jing; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li; Ding, Deng

    2014-05-01

    This work was undertaken to examine the combined effect of air temperature and precipitation during late winter and early spring on modeling greenup date of grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. We used the traditional thermal time model and developed two revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation to simulate greenup date of three dominant grass species at six stations from 1983 to 2009. Results show that climatic controls on greenup date of grass species were location-specific. The revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation show higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the traditional thermal time model for five of 11 data sets at Bayartuhushuo, Xilinhot and Xianghuangqi, whereas the traditional thermal time model indicates higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation for the other six data sets at E'ergunayouqi, Ewenkeqi and Chaharyouyihouqi. The mean root mean square error of the 11 models is 4.9 days. Moreover, the influence of late winter and early spring precipitation on greenup date seems to be stronger at stations with scarce precipitation than at stations with relatively abundant precipitation. From the mechanism perspectives, accumulated late winter and early spring precipitation may play a more important role as the precondition of forcing temperature than as the supplementary condition of forcing temperature in triggering greenup. Our findings suggest that predicting responses of grass phenology to global climate change should consider both thermal and moisture scenarios in some semiarid and arid areas.

  20. Local biomass burning is a dominant cause of the observed precipitation reduction in southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Sillmann, Jana; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate a precipitation decline over large parts of southern Africa since the 1950s. Concurrently, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols have increased due to anthropogenic activities. Here we show that local black carbon and organic carbon aerosol emissions from biomass burning activities are a main cause of the observed decline in southern African dry season precipitation over the last century. Near the main biomass burning regions, global and regional modelling indicates precipitation decreases of 20–30%, with large spatial variability. Increasing global CO2 concentrations further contribute to precipitation reductions, somewhat less in magnitude but covering a larger area. Whereas precipitation changes from increased CO2 are driven by large-scale circulation changes, the increase in biomass burning aerosols causes local drying of the atmosphere. This study illustrates that reducing local biomass burning aerosol emissions may be a useful way to mitigate reduced rainfall in the region. PMID:27068129

  1. Local biomass burning is a dominant cause of the observed precipitation reduction in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M; Sillmann, Jana; Samset, Bjørn H

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate a precipitation decline over large parts of southern Africa since the 1950s. Concurrently, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols have increased due to anthropogenic activities. Here we show that local black carbon and organic carbon aerosol emissions from biomass burning activities are a main cause of the observed decline in southern African dry season precipitation over the last century. Near the main biomass burning regions, global and regional modelling indicates precipitation decreases of 20-30%, with large spatial variability. Increasing global CO2 concentrations further contribute to precipitation reductions, somewhat less in magnitude but covering a larger area. Whereas precipitation changes from increased CO2 are driven by large-scale circulation changes, the increase in biomass burning aerosols causes local drying of the atmosphere. This study illustrates that reducing local biomass burning aerosol emissions may be a useful way to mitigate reduced rainfall in the region. PMID:27068129

  2. Local biomass burning is a dominant cause of the observed precipitation reduction in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Sillmann, Jana; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-04-01

    Observations indicate a precipitation decline over large parts of southern Africa since the 1950s. Concurrently, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols have increased due to anthropogenic activities. Here we show that local black carbon and organic carbon aerosol emissions from biomass burning activities are a main cause of the observed decline in southern African dry season precipitation over the last century. Near the main biomass burning regions, global and regional modelling indicates precipitation decreases of 20-30%, with large spatial variability. Increasing global CO2 concentrations further contribute to precipitation reductions, somewhat less in magnitude but covering a larger area. Whereas precipitation changes from increased CO2 are driven by large-scale circulation changes, the increase in biomass burning aerosols causes local drying of the atmosphere. This study illustrates that reducing local biomass burning aerosol emissions may be a useful way to mitigate reduced rainfall in the region.

  3. Modeling greenup date of dominant grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland using air temperature and precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jing; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li; Ding, Deng

    2014-05-01

    This work was undertaken to examine the combined effect of air temperature and precipitation during late winter and early spring on modeling greenup date of grass species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. We used the traditional thermal time model and developed two revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation to simulate greenup date of three dominant grass species at six stations from 1983 to 2009. Results show that climatic controls on greenup date of grass species were location-specific. The revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation show higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the traditional thermal time model for five of 11 data sets at Bayartuhushuo, Xilinhot and Xianghuangqi, whereas the traditional thermal time model indicates higher simulation parsimony and efficiency than the revised thermal time models coupling air temperature and precipitation for the other six data sets at E'ergunayouqi, Ewenkeqi and Chaharyouyihouqi. The mean root mean square error of the 11 models is 4.9 days. Moreover, the influence of late winter and early spring precipitation on greenup date seems to be stronger at stations with scarce precipitation than at stations with relatively abundant precipitation. From the mechanism perspectives, accumulated late winter and early spring precipitation may play a more important role as the precondition of forcing temperature than as the supplementary condition of forcing temperature in triggering greenup. Our findings suggest that predicting responses of grass phenology to global climate change should consider both thermal and moisture scenarios in some semiarid and arid areas. PMID:24065573

  4. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  5. Sediment chronologies of atmospheric deposition in a precipitation-dominated seepage lake.

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P. V.; Talbot, R. W.; Environmental Research; Univ. of New Hampshire

    2000-01-01

    Chronologies of Pb, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Al, carbon, and n-alkanes in pelagic sediments of Crystal Lake, a precipitation-dominated seepage lake in north-central Wisconsin, were determined to investigate the geochemistry of sediments derived from atmospheric deposition and to evaluate the impact of environmental changes in the region on the geochemistry of this oligotrophic lake. Concentrations of Pb and combustion-derived PAHs in Crystal Lake sediments have increased by factors of 8 and 3, respectively, over the past 150 years. In contrast, levels of perylene increased with depth in the sediment, indicating that postdepositional formation of this PAH might be occurring. Atmospheric fluxes of anthropogenic Pb and combustion-derived PAHs were estimated to be 10,000 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1} and 34 {mu}g m{sup 02} a{sup -1}, respectively. The settling sediment fluxes of planktonic n-alkanes ({Sigma} C{sub 15}, C{sub 17}, C{sub 19}) and terrestrial n-alkanes ({Sigma} C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}) in Crystal Lake were 4,400 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1} and 10,500 {mu}g m{sup 2} a{sup 1}, respectively, whereas their accumulation rates in pelagic sediments were 270 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1} and 7,100 {mu}g m 2 a{sup 1}, respectively. The large difference between the settling sediment flux and the accumulation rate of the planktonic n-alkanes in the sediments is ascribed to microbial degradation during or soon after deposition. In contrast, the terrestrial n-alkanes are incorporated in a wax matrix and are protected from degradation. The contribution of terrestrial n-alkanes to the organic carbon of the sediments has remained relatively constant over the past 150 years. About 20% of the organic carbon that is incorporated in the present-day sediments of Crystal Lake can be attributed to the deposition of pine pollen in the lake. Deforestation of the region in the late 1800s apparently caused terrigenous inputs and primary productivity of

  6. Ecophysiological responses of two dominant grasses to altered temperature and precipitation regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystem responses to climate change will largely be driven by responses of the dominant species. However, if co-dominant species have traits that lead them to differential responses, then predicting how ecosystem structure and function will be altered is more challenging. We assessed differences i...

  7. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf nitrogen of dominant Stipa L. species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaohui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Jiang, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Xu, Zhenzhu; Song, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) serves as an important mineral element affecting plant productivity and nutritional quality. However, few studies have addressed the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf N of dominant grassland genera such as Stipa L. This has restricted our understanding of the responses of grassland to climate change. We simulated the interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and varied precipitation on leaf N concentration (Nmass) of four Stipa species (Stipa baicalensis, Stipa bungeana, Stipa grandis, and Stipa breviflora; the most dominant species in arid and semiarid grassland) using open-top chambers (OTCs). The relationship between the Nmass of these four Stipa species and precipitation well fits a logarithmic function. The sensitivity of these four species to precipitation change was ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis > S. grandis. The Nmass of S. bungeana was the most sensitive to precipitation change, while S. grandis was the least sensitive among these Stipa species. Elevated CO2 exacerbated the effect of precipitation on Nmass. Nmass decreased under elevated CO2 due to growth dilution and a direct negative effect on N assimilation. Elevated CO2 reduced Nmass only in a certain precipitation range for S. baicalensis (163-343 mm), S. bungeana (164-355 mm), S. grandis (148-286 mm), and S. breviflora (130-316 mm); severe drought or excessive rainfall would be expected to result in a reduced impact of elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 affected the Nmass of S. grandis only in a narrow precipitation range. The effect of elevated CO2 reached a maximum when the amount of precipitation was 253, 260, 217, and 222 mm for S. baicalensis, S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora, respectively. The Nmass of S. grandis was the least sensitive to elevated CO2. The Nmass of S. breviflora was more sensitive to elevated CO2 under a drought condition compared with the other Stipa species

  8. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf nitrogen of dominant Stipa L. species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yaohui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Jiang, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Xu, Zhenzhu; Song, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) serves as an important mineral element affecting plant productivity and nutritional quality. However, few studies have addressed the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf N of dominant grassland genera such as Stipa L. This has restricted our understanding of the responses of grassland to climate change. We simulated the interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and varied precipitation on leaf N concentration (Nmass) of four Stipa species (Stipa baicalensis, Stipa bungeana, Stipa grandis, and Stipa breviflora; the most dominant species in arid and semiarid grassland) using open-top chambers (OTCs). The relationship between the Nmass of these four Stipa species and precipitation well fits a logarithmic function. The sensitivity of these four species to precipitation change was ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis > S. grandis. The Nmass of S. bungeana was the most sensitive to precipitation change, while S. grandis was the least sensitive among these Stipa species. Elevated CO2 exacerbated the effect of precipitation on Nmass. Nmass decreased under elevated CO2 due to growth dilution and a direct negative effect on N assimilation. Elevated CO2 reduced Nmass only in a certain precipitation range for S. baicalensis (163–343 mm), S. bungeana (164–355 mm), S. grandis (148–286 mm), and S. breviflora (130–316 mm); severe drought or excessive rainfall would be expected to result in a reduced impact of elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 affected the Nmass of S. grandis only in a narrow precipitation range. The effect of elevated CO2 reached a maximum when the amount of precipitation was 253, 260, 217, and 222 mm for S. baicalensis, S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora, respectively. The Nmass of S. grandis was the least sensitive to elevated CO2. The Nmass of S. breviflora was more sensitive to elevated CO2 under a drought condition compared with the other Stipa

  9. Daily spatiotemporal precipitation simulation using latent and transformed Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiber, William; Katz, Richard W.; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    A daily stochastic spatiotemporal precipitation generator that yields spatially consistent gridded quantitative precipitation realizations is described. The methodology relies on a latent Gaussian process to drive precipitation occurrence and a probability integral transformed Gaussian process for intensity. At individual locations, the model reduces to a Markov chain for precipitation occurrence and a gamma distribution for precipitation intensity, allowing statistical parameters to be included in a generalized linear model framework. Statistical parameters are modeled as spatial Gaussian processes, which allows for interpolation to locations where there are no direct observations via kriging. One advantage of such a model for the statistical parameters is that stochastic generator parameters are immediately available at any location, with the ability to adapt to spatially varying precipitation characteristics. A second advantage is that parameter uncertainty, generally unavailable with deterministic interpolators, can be immediately quantified at all locations. The methodology is illustrated on two data sets, the first in Iowa and the second over the Pampas region of Argentina. In both examples, the method is able to capture the local and domain aggregated precipitation behavior fairly well at a wide range of time scales, including daily, monthly, and annually.

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  11. Principal uncertainty patterns in precipitation among CMIP5 models: Dominant modes of intermodel disagreement in precipitation climatologies and projected change patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J.; Anderson, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Projections of modeled precipitation change in global warming scenarios demonstrate marked intermodel disagreement, especially at regional scales. While these differences are often considered within a geographically local domain, they are in part caused by intermodel uncertainty inherited from the large scale. It is therefore important to identify the major aspects of model disagreement at larger scales in order to better understand differences at the regional level. One way to do this is to pinpoint the major modes of intermodel disagreement through objective analysis of modeled precipitation change patterns, as well as the disagreement in precipitation climatologies in historical and radiative forcing scenarios. For brevity, these modes are labeled Principal Uncertainty Patterns (PUPs). For the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, a PUP analysis is applied to projected changes in precipitation, upper-level wind, and temperature fields, for both coupled model runs (36 models) and atmosphere-only simulations (30 models). This analysis is also applied to the simulated historical and future climatologies for the same ensembles. We take a global approach first, and then focus on specific regions: Africa, the tropical and subtropical Americas, and the mid-latitude Pacific storm tracks. For Africa, the leading June-July-August (JJA) PUP is associated with disagreement in the amplitude of positive end-of-century precipitation changes in the monsoon region. For the tropical Americas, intermodel uncertainty in the amount of end-of-century drying is the dominant PUP for JJA. The two leading December-January-February (DJF) PUPs in the storm tracks region appear to represent (1) an amplitude mode that shows the eastward extension of mid-latitude Pacific storm tracks trailing into the North American coast, and (2) a gradient mode associated with the meridional shift of these storm tracks. Relationships of precipitation uncertainties to model

  12. The Role of Aerosols on Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, X.; Khain, A.; Simpson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Cloud physics is inevitably affected by the smoke particle (CCN, cloud condensation nuclei) size distribution below the clouds. Therefore, the size distributions parameterized as spectral bin microphysics are needed to explicitly study the effects of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud development, rainfall production, and rainfall rates for convective clouds. Recently, a detailed spectral--bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The formulation for the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (i.e., cloud droplets and raindrops), and several types of ice particles [i.e., pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail]. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing many categories (i.e., 33 bins). Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions.

  13. Impact of Urban Surfaces on Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the "risk of human-induced climate change". Such reports are used by decision-makers around the world to assess how our climate is changing. Its reports are widely respected and cited and have been highly influential in forming national and international responses to climate change. The Fourth Assessment report includes a section on the effects of surface processes on climate. This sub-chapter provides an overview of recent developments related to the impact of cities on rainfall. It highlights the possible mechanisms that buildings, urban heat islands, urban aerosols or pollution, and other human factors in cities that can affect rainfall.

  14. Is the interannual variability of summer rainfall in China dominated by precipitation frequency or intensity? An analysis of relative importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Er; Ding, Ying; Zhou, Bing; Zou, Xukai; Chen, Xianyan; Cai, Wenyue; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Haishan

    2016-07-01

    The summer rainfall in China has a large interannual variability, which results from the concurrent variations of precipitation frequency and intensity. Using the observed daily precipitation in the 194 stations during recent 62 years, we examine the relative importance of the frequency and intensity in the variability of the rainfall. A simple method, based on linear regression, is used to estimate the relative importance. The products of the change rates of rainfall with respect to frequency and intensity, determined from the regression, and the corresponding standard deviations of the two variables, which reflect their variation scales, are defined to measure the importance of frequency and intensity. To determine the frequency, rainfall amount, and intensity from daily precipitation, we need a threshold to define the "rainy day". In this study, we use a series of thresholds, ranging from 1 to 30 mm/day. So, while presenting the result of relative importance for each threshold, we also examine how the relative importance varies with the threshold. Results show that for the threshold of 1 mm/day, with which the rainfall may include even the light rains, the variabilities of summer rainfall in most stations are dominated by intensity. With the increase in threshold, the importance of frequency increases, while the importance of intensity decreases. When the threshold reaches 30 mm/day, with which the rainfall includes only moderate-to-heavy rains, the variabilities of the rainfall in all stations are dominated by frequency. Analysis suggests that such a change, in the dominance with the threshold, is reasonable. This reasonability, in turn, supports the reliability and robustness of the method.

  15. Modeling Cloud and Precipitation Processes - Considerations for Future Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Saleeby, S. M.; Wu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid developments in computing resources have allowed for cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations to be conducted over larger domains at higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Indeed, global CRMs are now a reality. Within such modeling frameworks, microphysical processes cannot be isolated from the vertical velocity that drives them, from the impact of energy exchanges due to phase changes, nor from the precipitation they produce, as has historically been the case with more highly parameterized frameworks. The increasing utilization of such high resolution, large-domain CRMs therefore introduces a new set of observational challenges. Instead of only taking into account global distributions of clouds and precipitation, observational strategies now need to be adapted to focus on the actual microphysical processes and feedbacks that are responsible for such cloud and precipitation distributions. Incorrectly representing such processes and feedbacks has significant implications for precipitation rates, efficiency and partitioning; the horizontal and vertical distribution of clouds; anvil ice properties; the partitioning between the liquid water and ice phase; and the location and amount of latent energy release associated with phase changes, all of which have subsequent implications for the global energy and water budget. Numerous microphysical and dynamical processes, and the feedbacks between them, are not well represented in CRMs. However, correctly simulating the magnitude of vertical velocity, as well as various ice processes appear to be particularly challenging. This talk will focus on the range of precipitation and cloud responses obtained within CRM simulations due to changes in the manner various ice processes are represented including melting, riming and shedding. Those parameters causing the greatest simulated cloud and precipitation responses will be identified. Factors impacting the representation of vertical velocity will also be addressed. Finally

  16. Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite obtained by precipitation and sol gel processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, C. G.; Barba, C. P.; Munguia, N.

    2005-06-01

    Three methods for obtaining hydroxiapatite (HA) are described. HA is a very interesting ceramic because of its many medical applications. The first two precipitation methods start from calcium and phosphorous compounds, whereas the third method is a sol-gel process that uses alcoxides. The products were characterized and compared. The observed differences are important for practical applications.

  17. Process of precipitating zirconium or hafnium from spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, C.L.; Walker, R.G.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a process for regenerating a spent, fluoride-containing pickle solution used in the pickling of zirconium or hafnium metal or their alloys. It comprises adding to the spent pickle solution a sufficient amount of sodium sulfate to precipitate sodium zirconium or hafnium fluoride.

  18. Same catchment, different models, same dominant processes? - How temporal patterns of dominant parameters vary between two hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guse, Björn; Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Donnelly, Chantal; Arheimer, Berit; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Dominant hydrological processes change during the year. The variations in the dominance of modelled processes also lead to changes in the sensitivity of model parameters over time. An analysis of the temporal dynamics in parameter sensitivity (TEDPAS) provides daily sensitivity values for each model parameter. Thus, TEDPAS shows seasonal patterns of model parameter sensitivities and the seasonality of the corresponding processes. Each hydrological model consists of model-specific structures and parameters. Depending on differences in the model concepts, the parameters are partly similar or can be partly difficult to compare. Thus, the application of TEDPAS to different models is expected to lead to different seasonal patterns of dominant model parameters. However, in a world of perfect models, seasonal patterns of the corresponding dominant processes of the same catchment should be identical in different models. To investigate this, TEDPAS is applied on the hydrological models SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) for the Treene catchment in Northern Germany. By comparing daily sensitivities of parameters between both models, similarities and differences in the seasonal patterns of parameter dominance are detected. These results are analyzed and explained in relation to differences in the model structure of SWAT and HYPE. The comparison of SWAT and HYPE shows differences in the seasonal variations in dominant parameters and corresponding processes. Similar patterns of dominant processes in both models provide more confidence on the model structures. In contrast, differences in these patterns give insights which model components need to be reconsidered for an appropriate use in the study catchment. Based on the TEDPAS analysis it could be clearly derived which process needs to be investigated more detailed. This study contributes thus to improved hydrological consistency during model construction and a better

  19. Gene expression patterns of two dominant tallgrass prairie species differ in response to warming and altered precipitation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melinda D; Hoffman, Ava M; Avolio, Meghan L

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms underlying plant species responses to climate change, we compared transcriptional profiles of the co-dominant C4 grasses, Andropogon gerardii Vitman and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash, in response to increased temperatures and more variable precipitation regimes in a long-term field experiment in native tallgrass prairie. We used microarray probing of a closely related model species (Zea mays) to assess correlations in leaf temperature (Tleaf) and leaf water potential (LWP) and abundance changes of ~10,000 transcripts in leaf tissue collected from individuals of both species. A greater number of transcripts were found to significantly change in abundance levels with Tleaf and LWP in S. nutans than in A. gerardii. S. nutans also was more responsive to short-term drought recovery than A. gerardii. Water flow regulating transcripts associated with stress avoidance (e.g., aquaporins), as well as those involved in the prevention and repair of damage (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, HSPs), were uniquely more abundant in response to increasing Tleaf in S. nutans. The differential transcriptomic responses of the co-dominant C4 grasses suggest that these species may cope with and respond to temperature and water stress at the molecular level in distinct ways, with implications for tallgrass prairie ecosystem function. PMID:27174156

  20. Gene expression patterns of two dominant tallgrass prairie species differ in response to warming and altered precipitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Melinda D.; Hoffman, Ava M.; Avolio, Meghan L.

    2016-05-13

    To better understand the mechanisms underlying plant species responses to climate change, we compared transcriptional profiles of the co-dominant C4 grasses, Andropogon gerardii Vitman and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash, in response to increased temperatures and more variable precipitation regimes in a long-term field experiment in native tallgrass prairie. We used microarray probing of a closely related model species (Zea mays) to assess correlations in leaf temperature (Tleaf) and leaf water potential (LWP) and abundance changes of ~10,000 transcripts in leaf tissue collected from individuals of both species. A greater number of transcripts were found to significantly change in abundance levelsmore » with Tleaf and LWP in S. nutans than in A. gerardii. S. nutans also was more responsive to short-term drought recovery than A. gerardii. Water flow regulating transcripts associated with stress avoidance (e.g., aquaporins), as well as those involved in the prevention and repair of damage (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, HSPs), were uniquely more abundant in response to increasing Tleaf in S. nutans. Furthermore, the differential transcriptomic responses of the co-dominant C4 grasses suggest that these species may cope with and respond to temperature and water stress at the molecular level in distinct ways, with implications for tallgrass prairie ecosystem function.« less

  1. Gene expression patterns of two dominant tallgrass prairie species differ in response to warming and altered precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Melinda D.; Hoffman, Ava M.; Avolio, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms underlying plant species responses to climate change, we compared transcriptional profiles of the co-dominant C4 grasses, Andropogon gerardii Vitman and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash, in response to increased temperatures and more variable precipitation regimes in a long-term field experiment in native tallgrass prairie. We used microarray probing of a closely related model species (Zea mays) to assess correlations in leaf temperature (Tleaf) and leaf water potential (LWP) and abundance changes of ~10,000 transcripts in leaf tissue collected from individuals of both species. A greater number of transcripts were found to significantly change in abundance levels with Tleaf and LWP in S. nutans than in A. gerardii. S. nutans also was more responsive to short-term drought recovery than A. gerardii. Water flow regulating transcripts associated with stress avoidance (e.g., aquaporins), as well as those involved in the prevention and repair of damage (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, HSPs), were uniquely more abundant in response to increasing Tleaf in S. nutans. The differential transcriptomic responses of the co-dominant C4 grasses suggest that these species may cope with and respond to temperature and water stress at the molecular level in distinct ways, with implications for tallgrass prairie ecosystem function. PMID:27174156

  2. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  3. Precipitation softening: a pretreatment process for seawater desalination.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, George M; Zayyat, Ramez M; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis systems and elimination of scaling of heat transfer surfaces in thermal plants are a major challenge in the desalination of seawater. Precipitation softening has the potential of eliminating the major fouling and scaling species in seawater desalination plants, thus allowing thermal plants to operate at higher top brine temperatures and membrane plants to operate at a reduced risk of fouling, leading to lower desalinated water costs. This work evaluated the use of precipitation softening as a pretreatment step for seawater desalination. The effectiveness of the process in removing several scale-inducing materials such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and boron was investigated under variable conditions of temperature and pH. The treatment process was also applied to seawater spiked with other known fouling species such as iron and bacteria to determine the efficiency of removal. The results of this work show that precipitation softening at a pH of 11 leads to complete elimination of calcium, silica, and bacteria; to very high removal efficiencies of magnesium and iron (99.6 and 99.2 %, respectively); and to a reasonably good removal efficiency of boron (61 %). PMID:24151028

  4. Precipitation processes as deduced by combining Doppler radar and disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Alan Douglas

    Precipitation processes are investigated in stratiform and convective weather systems by combining Doppler radar and disdrometer measurements. Vertical scans are designed to measure the standard radar data fields and the power spectrum of the vertical Doppler velocities with high spatial and temporal resolution. A new method, based on iterative application of a disdrometer-determined Z-R relation, is developed to estimate vertical winds from the vertical scan data. Using this method, radar-based raindrop size spectra calculated near the surface in light stratiform rain compare well with simultaneous measurements from a collocated disdrometer. A full raindrop size spectrum profile is deduced for a specific steady state case. It is found that the spectrum does not vary with height, suggesting that the spectral shape is mainly controlled by the ice particles occurring above the 0oC level. Vertical scan data are also combined with volume scan data obtained by the Atmospheric Environment Service King City radar to examine the precipitation structure of a hail producing region within a severe squall line. The vertical scan shows a large variation in precipitation structure and also reveals important storm features which, in this case, are not detected by the conventional volume scans, such as a weak echo vault, a downdraught outflow, and streaks of very high downward velocity corresponding to separate hail trajectories. The power spectra were used to identify and locate hailstones, to deduce the growth of descending hailstones, and to qualitatively examine properties of raindrop size spectra. A conceptual model of hail formation is proposed by comparing the deduced storm structure and precipitation processes with the analyses of two somewhat similar storms documented in the literature.

  5. Upscaling Empirically Based Conceptualisations to Model Tropical Dominant Hydrological Processes for Historical Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, R.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Jones, J.

    2009-12-01

    Surface runoff and percolation to ground water are two hydrological processes of concern to the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica because of their impacts on flooding and drinking water contamination. As per legislation, the Costa Rican Government funds land use management from the farm to the regional scale to improve or conserve hydrological ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how land use (e.g., forest, coffee, sugar cane, and pasture) affects hydrological response at the point, plot (1 m2), and the field scale (1-6ha) to empirically conceptualize the dominant hydrological processes in each land use. Using our field data, we upscaled these conceptual processes into a physically-based distributed hydrological model at the field, watershed (130 km2), and regional (1500 km2) scales. At the point and plot scales, the presence of macropores and large roots promoted greater vertical percolation and subsurface connectivity in the forest and coffee field sites. The lack of macropores and large roots, plus the addition of management artifacts (e.g., surface compaction and a plough layer), altered the dominant hydrological processes by increasing lateral flow and surface runoff in the pasture and sugar cane field sites. Macropores and topography were major influences on runoff generation at the field scale. Also at the field scale, antecedent moisture conditions suggest a threshold behavior as a temporal control on surface runoff generation. However, in this tropical climate with very intense rainstorms, annual surface runoff was less than 10% of annual precipitation at the field scale. Significant differences in soil and hydrological characteristics observed at the point and plot scales appear to have less significance when upscaled to the field scale. At the point and plot scales, percolation acted as the dominant hydrological process in this tropical environment. However, at the field scale for sugar cane and pasture sites, saturation-excess runoff increased as

  6. Right Hemisphere Dominance for Emotion Processing in Baboons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallez, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetries of emotional facial expressions in humans offer reliable indexes to infer brain lateralization and mostly revealed right hemisphere dominance. Studies concerned with oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates largely showed a left-sided asymmetry in chimpanzees, marmosets and macaques. The presence of asymmetrical oro-facial…

  7. Monaural Congenital Deafness Affects Aural Dominance and Degrades Binaural Processing.

    PubMed

    Tillein, Jochen; Hubka, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    Cortical development extensively depends on sensory experience. Effects of congenital monaural and binaural deafness on cortical aural dominance and representation of binaural cues were investigated in the present study. We used an animal model that precisely mimics the clinical scenario of unilateral cochlear implantation in an individual with single-sided congenital deafness. Multiunit responses in cortical field A1 to cochlear implant stimulation were studied in normal-hearing cats, bilaterally congenitally deaf cats (CDCs), and unilaterally deaf cats (uCDCs). Binaural deafness reduced cortical responsiveness and decreased response thresholds and dynamic range. In contrast to CDCs, in uCDCs, cortical responsiveness was not reduced, but hemispheric-specific reorganization of aural dominance and binaural interactions were observed. Deafness led to a substantial drop in binaural facilitation in CDCs and uCDCs, demonstrating the inevitable role of experience for a binaural benefit. Sensitivity to interaural time differences was more reduced in uCDCs than in CDCs, particularly at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear. Compared with binaural deafness, unilateral hearing prevented nonspecific reduction in cortical responsiveness, but extensively reorganized aural dominance and binaural responses. The deaf ear remained coupled with the cortex in uCDCs, demonstrating a significant difference to deprivation amblyopia in the visual system. PMID:26803166

  8. Monaural Congenital Deafness Affects Aural Dominance and Degrades Binaural Processing

    PubMed Central

    Tillein, Jochen; Hubka, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Cortical development extensively depends on sensory experience. Effects of congenital monaural and binaural deafness on cortical aural dominance and representation of binaural cues were investigated in the present study. We used an animal model that precisely mimics the clinical scenario of unilateral cochlear implantation in an individual with single-sided congenital deafness. Multiunit responses in cortical field A1 to cochlear implant stimulation were studied in normal-hearing cats, bilaterally congenitally deaf cats (CDCs), and unilaterally deaf cats (uCDCs). Binaural deafness reduced cortical responsiveness and decreased response thresholds and dynamic range. In contrast to CDCs, in uCDCs, cortical responsiveness was not reduced, but hemispheric-specific reorganization of aural dominance and binaural interactions were observed. Deafness led to a substantial drop in binaural facilitation in CDCs and uCDCs, demonstrating the inevitable role of experience for a binaural benefit. Sensitivity to interaural time differences was more reduced in uCDCs than in CDCs, particularly at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear. Compared with binaural deafness, unilateral hearing prevented nonspecific reduction in cortical responsiveness, but extensively reorganized aural dominance and binaural responses. The deaf ear remained coupled with the cortex in uCDCs, demonstrating a significant difference to deprivation amblyopia in the visual system. PMID:26803166

  9. Dominant hydrological processes at three contrasting small permafrost watersheds in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The most pronounced climatic changes are observed and projected in the Arctic. Large part of the Arctic is influenced by permanently or seasonally frozen ground that controls river runoff generation. The research aims at assessment of observed and projected changes of hydrological regime and identification of dominant hydrological processes at three small watersheds in different landscape and permafrost conditions of Siberia for the last sixty years by data analysis and process-based modelling. Three studied watersheds are located within the Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma river basins. The Graviyka river basin (323 km2) is situated in discontinuous permafrost in transition zone between tundra and taiga ecotones in the lower Yenisei region. Mean annual precipitation is 510 mm/year and air temperature is -8°C (1936-2014). Both air temperature and precipitation have shown significant increase for the last forty years. The Shestakovka river basin (170 km2), a tributary of the Lena river near Yakutsk, is characterized by extremely dry (240 mm/year) and cold (-9.5°C) climate of Central Yakutiya. Larch and pine forests grow on sandy deposits covered by continuous permafrost. Air temperature and river flow have increased for the last thirty years but precipitation have shown no significant changes. The Kontaktovy creek watershed (22 km2) is located in mountains of upper Kolyma river basin. The permafrost is continuous. Main land cover types are bare rocks, mountain tundra and sparse larch forest. Only insignificant changes of air temperature, precipitation and river flow were detected for the last decades. To assess dominant hydrological processes and to project their future changes in each studied watershed the process-based Hydrograph model was applied to historical and future time periods using temperate and extreme climate scenarios. The Hydrograph model does not rely on calibration and the parameters were estimated using all available a-priori information - thematic maps

  10. Stochastic investigation of precipitation process for climatic variability identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadou, Alexia; Petsiou, Amalia; Feloni, Elisavet; Kastis, Paris; Iliopoulou, Theano; Markonis, Yannis; Tyralis, Hristos; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation process is important not only to hydrometeorology but also to renewable energy resources management. We use a dataset consisting of daily and hourly records around the globe to identify statistical variability with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale). Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  11. Experimental investigation of Mars meandering rivers: Chemical precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Lim, Y.; Cleveland, J.; Reid, E.; Jew, C.

    2014-12-01

    On Earth, meandering streams occur where the banks are resistant to erosion, which enhances narrow and deep channels. Often this is because the stream banks are held firm by vegetation. The ancient, highly sinuous channels with cutoffs found on Mars are enigmatic because vegetation played no role in providing bank cohesion and enhancing fine sediment deposition. Possible causes of the meandering therefore include ice under permafrost conditions and chemical processes. We conducted carbonate flume experiments to investigate possible mechanisms creating meandering channels other than vegetation. The experiment includes a tank that dissolves limestone by adding CO2 gas and produces artificial spring water, peristaltic pumps to drive water through the system, a heater to control the temperature of the spring water, and a flume where carbonate sediment deposits. Spring water containing dissolved calcium and carbonate ions moves through a heater to increase temperature, and then into the flume. The flume surface is open to the air to allow CO2 degassing, decrease temperature, and increase pH, which promotes carbonate precipitation. A preliminary experiment was done and successfully created a meander pattern that evolved over a 3-day experiment. The experiment showed lateral migration of the bend and avulsion of the stream, similar to a natural meander. The lateral variation in flow speed increased the local residence time of water, thus increasing the degassing of CO2 on the two sides of the flow and promoting more precipitation. This enhanced precipitation on the sides provided a mechanism to build levees along the channel and created a stream confined in a narrow path. This mechanism also potentially applies to Earthly single thread and/or meandering rivers developed and recorded before vegetation appeared on Earth's surface.

  12. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-10-05

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF).

  13. Evaluating process origins of sand-dominated fluvial stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, E.; Hajek, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sand-dominated fluvial stratigraphy is often interpreted as indicating times of relatively slow subsidence because of the assumption that fine sediment (silt and clay) is reworked or bypassed during periods of low accommodation. However, sand-dominated successions may instead represent proximal, coarse-grained reaches of paleo-river basins and/or fluvial systems with a sandy sediment supply. Differentiating between these cases is critical for accurately interpreting mass-extraction profiles, basin-subsidence rates, and paleo-river avulsion and migration behavior from ancient fluvial deposits. We explore the degree to which sand-rich accumulations reflect supply-driven progradation or accommodation-limited reworking, by re-evaluating the Castlegate Sandstone (Utah, USA) and the upper Williams Fork Formation (Colorado, USA) - two Upper Cretaceous sandy fluvial deposits previously interpreted as having formed during periods of relatively low accommodation. Both units comprise amalgamated channel and bar deposits with minor intra-channel and overbank mudstones. To constrain relative reworking, we quantify the preservation of bar deposits in each unit using detailed facies and channel-deposit mapping, and compare bar-deposit preservation to expected preservation statistics generated with object-based models spanning a range of boundary conditions. To estimate the grain-size distribution of paleo-sediment input, we leverage results of experimental work that shows both bed-material deposits and accumulations on the downstream side of bars ("interbar fines") sample suspended and wash loads of active flows. We measure grain-size distributions of bar deposits and interbar fines to reconstruct the relative sandiness of paleo-sediment supplies for both systems. By using these novel approaches to test whether sand-rich fluvial deposits reflect river systems with accommodation-limited reworking and/or particularly sand-rich sediment loads, we can gain insight into large

  14. Oxygen isotope values of precipitation and surface waters in northern Central America (Belize and Guatemala) are dominated by temperature and amount effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachniet, Matthew S.; Patterson, William P.

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of the climatic controls on precipitation δ18O is required to interpret isotopic records of paleoclimate and paleoaltimetry. However, variations in precipitation δ18O in time and space are only poorly known in northern Central America. To test the hypothesis that precipitation and surface water δ18O values are dominated by temporal and spatial amount effects, we analyzed δ18O in surface waters collected from Guatemala and Belize, and in precipitation from the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation database for Veracruz, Mexico, and San Salvador, El Salvador. Herein we show that the dominant controls on δ18O values of precipitation and surface waters are fairly simple. Temporally, the dominant control on precipitation δ18O values is the amount effect, whereby there is an inverse correlation between rainfall amount and δ18O. Precipitation δ18O values decrease by 1.24‰ per 100 mm increase of monthly rainfall. Spatially, only two variables - distance from the coast and mean catchment altitude - explain 84% of the surface water δ18O variability. Surface water δ18O values show an altitude effect of - 1.9 to - 2.4‰ km - 1 and a continental effect of 0.69‰ per 100 km once corrected for altitude effects. A decrease in surface water δ18O by 3 to 4‰ from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean is evident as an isotopic rain shadow on the Pacific slope. Our data also show that river waters in this humid tropical environment are good proxies for δ18O values of precipitation in northern Central America. The Guatemala/Belize surface water line is defined as δD = 8.0 × δ18O + 8.7, which is similar to the meteoric water line at San Salvador of δD = 8.1 × δ18O + 10.9. Spatial variability in δ18O values is interpreted to reflect 1) progressive rainout of Caribbean-sourced air masses upon traverse of Central America, and 2) the temperature-dependent equilibrium fractionation between vapor and condensate related to the altitude effect

  15. Responses of Precipitation and Hydrologic Processes to Tropical SST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.; Li, X.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the research is to identify the mechanisms in the response of tropical precipitation and atmospheric hydrologic cycle to sea surface temperature (SST) variability at seasonal-to-interannual time scales, and to utilize the knowledge for better understanding of climate feedback processes relevant to global change. As a first step to achieve the goal, we characterize the inter-relationship among convective/stratiform rain, ice/water clouds water vapor, and SST using TRMM satellite data and a cloud-resolving model. We examined the daily hydrologic variables [column water vapor (PW), cloud liquid water (CW), rainfall rates (RR)] as a function of SST using high-resolution data (0.25 x 0.25, daily) derived from TRMM satellite measurements. Comparing the winter of 97/98 (El Nino condition) against the winter of 99/00 (La Nina condition), area-mean values of all four hydrologic variables in cloudy areas within the tropical Pacific are higher in the El Nino winter than in the La Nina winter. This is consistent with previous observational analyses and SST warming experiments (idealized or ENSO-like) that showed the interaction between hydrologic cyclic and radiation at the seasonal to interannual time scales leads to intensified tropical circulation and hydrologic cycle. However, there is evidence that the enhanced hydrologic cycle over the warm pool is accompanied by an expansion of radiatively -driven subsidence in response to a stronger SST gradient between warm pool and surrounding cold pool. The expanding subsidence effectively reduces cloud amounts over the warm pool. Our analysis of daily variability further indicates a more vigorous water cycle characterized by higher PW, CW, and RR in response to overall warming. This is expected from the Clausius Clapeyron relation as a thermodynamic response to warming. However cloudy areas decrease in response to overall warming. This may be due to factors that are fundamentally different. One possibility is that in a

  16. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Lambert, D.P.

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for tetraphenylborate precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92-737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The program was in conjunction with reducing the nitrite ion level in DWPF feed.

  17. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Lambert, D.P.

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for tetraphenylborate precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92-737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The program was in conjunction with reducing the nitrite ion level in DWPF feed.

  18. Hand Dominance Influences the Processing of Observed Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Mark R.; Potts, Rosalind

    2010-01-01

    In motor tasks, subgroups of lefthanders have been shown to differ in the distribution of attention about their own bodies. The present experiment examined whether similar attentional biases also apply when processing observed bodies. Sixteen right handers (RHs), 22 consistent left handers (CLHs) and 11 relatively ambidextrous inconsistent left…

  19. Effect of grassland vegetation type on the responses of hydrological processes to seasonal precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salve, Rohit; Sudderth, Erika A.; St. Clair, Samuel B.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryUnder future climate scenarios, rainfall patterns and species composition in California grasslands are predicted to change, potentially impacting soil-moisture dynamics and ecosystem function. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of altered rainfall on soil-moisture dynamics in three annual grassland vegetation types. We monitored seasonal changes in soil moisture under three different rainfall regimes in mesocosms planted with: (1) a mixed forb-grass community, (2) an Avena barbata monoculture, and (3) an Erodium botrys monoculture. We applied watering treatments in pulses, followed by dry periods that are representative of natural rainfall patterns in California annual grasslands. While rainfall was the dominant treatment, its impact on hydrological processes varied over the growing season. Surprisingly, there were only small differences in the hydrologic response among the three vegetation types. We found significant temporal variability in evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil-moisture content. Both Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and Rain Use Efficiency (RUE) decreased as annual precipitation totals increased. Results from this investigation suggest that both precipitation and vegetation have a significant interactive effect on soil-moisture dynamics. When combined, seasonal precipitation and grassland vegetation influence near-surface hydrology in ways that cannot be predicted from manipulation of a single variable.

  20. Determination of dominant biogeochemical processes in a contaminated aquifer-wetland system using multivariate statistical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baez-Cazull, S. E.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the processes governing aqueous biogeochemistry in a wetland hydrologically linked to an underlying contaminated aquifer is challenging due to the complex exchange between the systems and their distinct responses to changes in precipitation, recharge, and biological activities. To evaluate temporal and spatial processes in the wetland-aquifer system, water samples were collected using cm-scale multichambered passive diffusion samplers (peepers) to span the wetland-aquifer interface over a period of 3 yr. Samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, methane, and a suite of organic acids resulting in a large dataset of over 8000 points, which was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen with the purpose of exploring the sources of variation in the dataset to expose related variables and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that control the water chemistry of the system. Factor scores computed from PCA were mapped by date and depth. Patterns observed suggest that (i) fermentation is the process controlling the greatest variability in the dataset and it peaks in May; (ii) iron and sulfate reduction were the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes in the system and were associated with fermentation but had more complex seasonal variability than fermentation; (iii) methanogenesis was also important and associated with bacterial utilization of minerals as a source of electron acceptors (e.g., barite BaSO4); and (iv) seasonal hydrological patterns (wet and dry periods) control the availability of electron acceptors through the reoxidation of reduced iron-sulfur species enhancing iron and sulfate reduction. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Processing energetic materials with supercritical fluid precipitation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essel, Jonathan

    Research has shown that nano-sized particles of explosives have a reduced sensitivity to impact and shock. Nano-sized energetic particles have also shown promise in improving the performance of propellants and explosives. Therefore, a method to produce nano-sized explosive particles could be ideal for sensitivity and performance reasons. Supercritical fluid precipitation has been shown to produce nano-sized explosive particles effectively. This research explores the feasibility of processing energetic materials using three different supercritical fluid precipitation techniques. The first technique is called the Rapid Expansion of a Supercritical Solution (RESS). The RESS process dissolves a solute in a supercritical fluid and then rapidly expands the resulting solution through a nozzle to produce small (nano-sized) and uniform particles from a high degree of supersaturation. The second technique is the Rapid Expansion of a Supercritical Solution into a Liquid Solvent (RESOLV) Process. This process is similar to the RESS process except the supercritical solution is expanded into a liquid and dispersant solution to reduce particle agglomeration and to reduce the size of the particles further. The final technique investigated is the Rapid Expansion of a Supercritical Solution with a Nonsolute (RESS-N) process in which the precipitating solute is used to encapsulate or coat a nonsoluble substance by heterogeneous nucleation. This works takes both a theoretical an empirical approach. On the theoretical side, a numerical code that accounts for nucleation and condensation in the RESS process was written in FORTRAN to predict how altering pre-expansion pressures and pre-expansion temperatures in the RESS process could affect the final particle size of the produced RDX. It was determined that pre-expansion temperature had a marginal impact on final particle size but higher pre-expansion pressures were beneficial in forming smaller particles. Also, a software program called

  2. Significant differences in biogeochemical processes between a glaciated and a permafrost dominated catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindshaw, Ruth; Heaton, Tim; Boyd, Eric; Lang, Susan; Tipper, Ed

    2014-05-01

    It is increasingly recognised that microbially mediated processes have a significant impact on chemical fluxes from glaciated catchments. One important reaction is the oxidation of pyrite since the production of sulphuric acid facilitates the dissolution of minerals without the need for acidity generated by dissolved atmospheric CO2. Thus weathering processes can still continue even when isolated from the atmosphere, as is thought to occur under large ice masses. However, as a glacier melts, it is expected that the microbial community will change with knock-on effects on the stream water chemistry. Understanding the difference in solute generation processes between glaciated and un-glaciated terrain is key to understanding how glacial-interglacial cycles affect atmospheric CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. In order to investigate whether biogeochemical processes differ between glaciated and un-glaciated terrain we collected stream water samples from two small catchments (each approximately 3 km2) in Svalbard. One catchment is glaciated and the other catchment is un-glaciated but is affected by permafrost and a seasonal snow-pack. The two catchments are situated next to each other with identical bedrock (shale with minor siltstone and sandstone). The proximity of the catchments to each other ensures that meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very similar. Sampling was conducted early in the melt-season when there was still significant snow-cover and in mid-summer when most of the seasonal snow-pack had melted. The water samples were analysed for δ34S-SO4, δ18O-SO4, δ18O-H2O, δ13C-DIC and δ13C-DOC, together with major anions and cations. Despite the nominally identical lithology, there were significant differences in the stream water chemistry between the two catchments. For example, sulphate was the dominant anion in the un-glaciated catchment whereas bicarbonate was the dominant anion in the glaciated catchment. Pyrite

  3. Investigating dominant processes in ZVI permeable reactive barriers using reactive transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Weber, Anne; Ruhl, Aki S; Amos, Richard T

    2013-08-01

    The reactive and hydraulic efficacy of zero valent iron permeable reactive barriers (ZVI PRBs) is strongly affected by geochemical composition of the groundwater treated. An enhanced version of the geochemical simulation code MIN3P was applied to simulate dominating processes in chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) treating ZVI PRBs including geochemical dependency of ZVI reactivity, gas phase formation and a basic formulation of degassing. Results of target oriented column experiments with distinct chemical conditions (carbonate, calcium, sulfate, CHCs) were simulated to parameterize the model. The simulations demonstrate the initial enhancement of anaerobic iron corrosion due to carbonate and long term inhibition by precipitates (chukanovite, siderite, iron sulfide). Calcium was shown to enhance long term corrosion due to competition for carbonate between siderite, chukanovite, and aragonite, with less inhibition of iron corrosion by the needle like aragonite crystals. Application of the parameterized model to a field site (Bernau, Germany) demonstrated that temporarily enhanced groundwater carbonate concentrations caused an increase in gas phase formation due to the acceleration of anaerobic iron corrosion. PMID:23743511

  4. Meaning Dominance and Semantic Context in the Processing of Lexical Ambiguity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Greg B.

    1981-01-01

    Describes two experiments on the processing of ambiguous words: one involving lexical decisions for words related to dominant or subordinate meanings of homograph primes, the other involving ambiguous words ending sentences that bias the homographs at varying degrees. Concludes that dominance and context contribute independently to processing of…

  5. Warming and increased precipitation frequency on the Colorado Plateau: implications for biological soil crusts and soil processes

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikova, Tamara J.; Housman, David C.; Grote, Ed E.; Neher, Deborah A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-20

    Changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to influence ecosystem processes worldwide. Despite their globally large extent, few studies to date have examined the effects of climate change in desert ecosystems, where biological soil crusts are key nutrient cycling components. The goal of this work was to assess how increased temperature and frequency of summertime precipitation affect the contributions of crust organisms to soil processes. With a combination of experimental 2°C warming and altered summer precipitation frequency applied over 2 years, we measured soil nutrient cycling and the structure and function of crust communities. We saw no change in crust cover, composition, or other measures of crust function in response to 2°C warming and no effects on any measure of soil chemistry. In contrast, crust cover and function responded to increased frequency of summer precipitation, shifting from moss to cyanobacteria-dominated crusts; however, in the short timeframe we measured, there was no accompanying change in soil chemistry. Total bacterial and fungal biomass was also reduced in watered plots, while the activity of two enzymes increased, indicating a functional change in the microbial community. Taken together, our results highlight the limited effects of warming alone on biological soil crust communities and soil chemistry, but demonstrate the substantially larger effects of altered summertime precipitation.

  6. Modeling the neutralizing processes of acid precipitation in soils and glacial sediments of northern Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Yoram; Hau, Joseph A.

    1992-02-01

    Most studies of the acidic deposition phenomena have been focused on processes occurring in the northeastern USA and Scandinavia. In these regions the soil cover is thin, the bedrock is acidic, and the terrain has very poor acid buffering capacity. Most of the US Midwest, including northern Ohio, has been ignored because the terrain is covered by glacial sediments with an abundance of carbonate minerals. Yet, for the last three decades the area has been experiencing acidic precipitation with a pH range of 3.5-4.5. the lowest in the USA. Samples of precipitation, soil water, and shallow ground water from Leroy Township in Lake County, Ohio, and from Wooster Township in Wayne County, Ohio, were analyzed and processed using WATEQ3 and PHREEQE computer models to quantify the effects of the acidic deposition. The two regions are characterized by very similar topographic, geological and hydrogeological conditions. Although the cation content of the precipitation in both regions is similar, the anion concentrations are much higher (sulfate by 70%, nitrate by 14% and chloride by 167%) in Leroy, located 50 km east-northeast and downwind of the Cleveland-Akron industrial complex, than in Wooster, located 80 km south-southwest and off-wind from the industrial complex. Computer modeling results indicate that buffering of acidic deposition in the surficial sediments and glacial tills of the two regions is dominated apparently by calcite dissolution, and dissolution and exchange of hydrogen for magnesium ions are the dominant neutralizing processes. However, reaction simulations also suggest that the buffering capacity of the Leroy soils and tills has been depleted to a much greater degree than in Wooster Township. In Leroy more acidic input is reacting with less buffering material to produce lower soil and groundwater pH. The depletion of carbonate and alumino-silicate minerals in the soils of Leroy Township is occurring at a rate that is 3-5 times faster than in the same type

  7. Genomic and Resistance Gene Homolog Diversity of the Dominant Tallgrass Prairie Species across the U.S. Great Plains Precipitation Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Matthew N.; Saleh, Amgad A.; Seck, Amadou; Keeler, Kathleen H.; Travers, Steven E.; Hulbert, Scot H.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental variables such as moisture availability are often important in determining species prevalence and intraspecific diversity. The population genetic structure of dominant plant species in response to a cline of these variables has rarely been addressed. We evaluated the spatial genetic structure and diversity of Andropogon gerardii populations across the U.S. Great Plains precipitation gradient, ranging from approximately 48 cm/year to 105 cm/year. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic diversity was evaluated with AFLP markers and diversity of a disease resistance gene homolog was evaluated by PCR-amplification and digestion with restriction enzymes. We determined the degree of spatial genetic structure using Mantel tests. Genomic and resistance gene homolog diversity were evaluated across prairies using Shannon's index and by averaging haplotype dissimilarity. Trends in diversity across prairies were determined using linear regression of diversity on average precipitation for each prairie. We identified significant spatial genetic structure, with genomic similarity decreasing as a function of distance between samples. However, our data indicated that genome-wide diversity did not vary consistently across the precipitation gradient. In contrast, we found that disease resistance gene homolog diversity was positively correlated with precipitation. Significance Prairie remnants differ in the genetic resources they maintain. Selection and evolution in this disease resistance homolog is environmentally dependent. Overall, we found that, though this environmental gradient may not predict genomic diversity, individual traits such as disease resistance genes may vary significantly. PMID:21532756

  8. Estimating the effects of potential climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes of a large agriculture dominated watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-10-01

    Land use and climate are two major components that directly influence catchment hydrologic processes, and therefore better understanding of their effects is crucial for future land use planning and water resources management. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess the effects of potential land use change and climate variability on hydrologic processes of large agriculture dominated Big Sioux River (BSR) watershed located in North Central region of USA. Future climate change scenarios were simulated using average output of temperature and precipitation data derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B, and A2) for end-21st century. Land use change was modeled spatially based on historic long-term pattern of agricultural transformation in the basin, and included the expansion of corn (Zea mays L.) cultivation by 2, 5, and 10%. We estimated higher surface runoff in all land use scenarios with maximum increase of 4% while expanding 10% corn cultivation in the basin. Annual stream discharge was estimated higher with maximum increase of 72% in SRES-B1 attributed from higher groundwater contribution of 152% in the same scenario. We assessed increased precipitation during spring season but the summer precipitation decreased substantially in all climate change scenarios. Similar to decreased summer precipitation, discharge of the BSR also decreased potentially affecting agricultural production due to reduced future water availability during crop growing season in the basin. However, combined effects of potential land use change with climate variability enhanced for higher annual discharge of the BSR. Therefore, these estimations can be crucial for implications of future land use planning and water resources management of the basin.

  9. Microstructure and Crystallographic Texture Evolution During the Friction-Stir Processing of a Precipitation-Hardenable Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadammal, Naresh; Kailas, Satish V.; Szpunar, Jerzy; Suwas, Satyam

    2015-05-01

    Friction-stir processing (FSP) has been proven as a successful method for the grain refinement of high-strength aluminum alloys. The most important attributes of this process are the fine-grain microstructure and characteristic texture, which impart suitable properties in the as-processed material. In the current work, FSP of the precipitation-hardenable aluminum alloy 2219 has been carried out and the consequent evolution of microstructure and texture has been studied. The as-processed materials were characterized using electron back-scattered diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis. Onion-ring formation was observed in the nugget zone, which has been found to be related to the precipitation response and crystallographic texture of the alloy. Texture development in the alloy has been attributed to the combined effect of shear deformation and dynamic recrystallization. The texture was found heterogeneous even within the nugget zone. A microtexture analysis revealed the dominance of shear texture components, with C component at the top of nugget zone and the B and A2* components in the middle and bottom. The bulk texture measurement in the nugget zone revealed a dominant C component. The development of a weaker texture along with the presence of some large particles in the nugget zone indicates particle-stimulated nucleation as the dominant nucleation mechanism during FSP. Grain growth follows the Burke and Turnbull mechanism and geometrical coalescence.

  10. Application of a Process Based Hydrologic Model in a Snow Dominant WaterShed: Upper Feather River Basin in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, F. I.; Kadir, T.; Galef, J.

    2008-12-01

    Milly et al. in a recent article (Science, Vol319, 1February, 2008, pp573-574) declared that "stationarity is dead." They went on stating, "Finding a suitable successor is crucial for human adaptation to changing climate." California's Department of Water Resources' (DWR's) search for a suitable successor led to the conclusion that a "temperature based approach" might be a good candidate to replace or supplement the traditional "precipitation based" hydrology. In this paper application of a physically based model that begins with ambient air temperature is presented. The projections of precipitation by various GCM's are wide spread and uncertainties on the wetness (or dryness) are abound whereas the future temperature projections, through also wide spread, are unanimous in directional sense-going up or getting warmer over time. Noting this robust nature of the future temperature projections and also noting that the cause of the future precipitation changes is due to the rising temperature, the authors take an approach that the temperature, rather than the precipitation, should be the commencing point in the development of the changing future hydrology. We claim that the main cause of the "death" of the stationarity in a snow dominant high elevation watershed is the warming temperature. Therefore, by commencing with the temperature in the hydrologic process, either the form of precipitation or the melting of the accumulated snow can be captured and the non-stationary future hydrology can be generated for water resources planning and management. The USGS under a contract to DWR completed development of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) application for simulating daily streamflow for the Upper Feather River Basin. PRMS simulates all the major snowmelt/precipitation related physical processes including snowpack accumulation/melting, sublimation, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, subsurface flow, and ground water flow. The model was calibrated for Water

  11. Advanced process for precipitation of lignin from ethanol organosolv spent liquors.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Peter; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Lorenz, Heike; Leschinsky, Moritz; Unkelbach, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An advanced process for lignin precipitation from organosolv spent liquors based on ethanol evaporation was developed. The process avoids lignin incrustations in the reactor, enhances filterability of the precipitated lignin particles and significantly reduces the liquor mass in downstream processes. Initially, lignin solubility and softening properties were understood, quantified and exploited to design an improved precipitation process. Lignin incrustations were avoided by targeted precipitation of solid lignin at specific conditions (e.g. 100 mbar evaporation pressure, 43°C and 10%wt. of ethanol in lignin dispersion) in fed-batch operation at lab and pilot scale. As result of evaporation the mass of spent liquor was reduced by about 50%wt., thus avoiding large process streams. By controlled droplet coalescence the mean lignin particle size increased from below 10 μm to sizes larger than 10 μm improving the significantly filterability. PMID:26459197

  12. The Dominant Snow-forming Process in Warm and Cold Mixed-phase Orographic Clouds: Effects of Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ice Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Leung, L. R.; DeMott, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring from long-range transport can be efficient ice nuclei (IN) and enhance snow precipitation in mixed-phase orographic clouds. On the other hand, local pollution particles can serve as good CCN and suppress warm rain, but their impacts on cold rain processes are uncertain. The main snow-forming mechanism in warm and cold mixed-phase orographic clouds (refer to as WMOC and CMOC, respectively) could be very different, leading to different precipitation response to CCN and IN. We have conducted 1-km resolution model simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model for WMOC and CMOC cases from CalWater2011. We investigated the response of cloud microphysical processes and precipitation to CCN and IN with extremely low to extremely high concentrations using ice nucleation parameterizations that connect with dust and implemented based on observational evidences. We find that riming is the dominant process for producing snow in WMOC while deposition plays a more important role than riming in CMOC. Increasing IN leads to much more snow precipitation mainly due to an increase of deposition in CMOC and increased rimming in WMOC. Increasing CCN decreases precipitation in WMOC by efficiently suppressing warm rain, although snow is increased. In CMOC where cold rain dominates, increasing CCN significantly increases snow, leading to a net increase in precipitation. The sensitivity of supercooled liquid to CCN and IN has also been analyzed. The mechanism for the increased snow by CCN and caveats due to uncertainties in ice nucleation parameterizations will be discussed.

  13. Dominant modes of blocking variability in the North Atlantic region and their relationship with extreme temperature and precipitation events over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbu, Norel; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ionita, Monica

    2013-04-01

    precipitation are higher than the corresponding 90th percentile. The frequency of extreme low temperature events is defined as the number of days in a winter when minimum daily temperature is lower than the corresponding 10th percentile. A correlation analysis reveals that the dominant blocking variability patterns are related with large-scale anomalies in the frequency of temperature and precipitation extreme events. The first blocking pattern is associated with a north-south dipole in the frequency of temperature and precipitation extreme events. The second blocking pattern is responsible for interannual to decadal variations in extreme events mainly over western Europe while the third controls mainly the extreme temperature and precipitation variability over the southeastern Europe. We argue that a large part of the interannual to multidecadal variability of the extreme temperature and precipitation events over Europe are induced by the dominant climate modes, i.e. the NAO and AMO, through modulation of blocking activity in the Atlantic-European region.

  14. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  15. Left hemispheric dominance of vestibular processing indicates lateralization of cortical functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Best, Christoph; Lange, Elena; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Reuss, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats. In human functional imaging studies, the processing of vestibular information was found to be correlated with the hemispherical dominance as determined by the handedness. It is located mainly within the right hemisphere in right handers and within the left hemisphere in left handers. Since dominance of vestibular processing is unknown in animals, our aim was to study the lateralization of cortical processing in a functional imaging study applying small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and galvanic vestibular stimulation in an in vivo rat model. The cortical and subcortical network processing vestibular information could be demonstrated and correlated with data from other animal studies. By calculating a lateralization index as well as flipped region of interest analyses, we found that the vestibular processing in rats follows a strong left hemispheric dominance independent from the "handedness" of the animals. These findings support the idea of an early hemispheric specialization of vestibular cortical functions in ontogenetic older species. PMID:23979449

  16. PROCESS OF TREATING OR FORMING AN INSOLUBLE PLUTONIUM PRECIPITATE IN THE PRESENCE OF AN ORGANIC ACTIVE AGENT

    DOEpatents

    Balthis, J.H.

    1961-07-18

    Carrier precipitation processes for the separation of plutonium from fission products are described. In a process in which an insoluble precipitate is formed in a solution containing plutonium and fission products under conditions whereby plutonium is carried by the precipitate, and the precipitate is then separated from the remaining solution, an organic surface active agent is added to the mixture of precipitate and solution prior to separation of the precipitate from the supernatant solution, thereby improving the degree of separation of the precipitate from the solution.

  17. Drought and Snow: Analysis of Drivers, Processes and Impacts of Streamflow Droughts in Snow-Dominated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Ploum, S.

    2015-12-01

    Around the world, drought events with severe socio-economic impacts seem to have a link with winter snowpack. That is the case for the current California drought, but analysing historical archives and drought impact databases for the US and Europe we found many impacts that can be attributed to snowpack anomalies. Agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) were found to be the sectors that are most affected by drought related to snow. In this study, we investigated the processes underlying hydrological drought in snow-dominated regions. We found that drought drivers are different in different regions. In Norway, more than 90% of spring streamflow droughts were preceded by below-average winter precipitation, while both winter air temperature and spring weather were indifferent. In Austria, however, spring streamflow droughts could only be explained by a combination of factors. For most events, winter and spring air temperatures were above average (70% and 65% of events, respectively), and winter and spring precipitation was below average (75% and 80%). Because snow storage results from complex interactions between precipitation and temperature and these variables vary strongly with altitude, snow-related drought drivers have a large spatial variability. The weather input is subsequently modified by land properties. Multiple linear regression between drought severity variables and a large number of catchment characteristics for 44 catchments in Austria showed that storage influences both drought duration and deficit volume. The seasonal storage of water in snow and glaciers was found to be a statistically important variable explaining streamflow drought deficit. Our drought impact analysis in Europe also showed that 40% of the selected drought impacts was caused by a combination of snow-related and other drought types. For example, the combination of a winter drought with a preceding or subsequent summer drought was reported to have a large effect on

  18. Drought and Snow: Analysis of Drivers, Processes and Impacts of Streamflow Droughts in Snow-Dominated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, Anne; Laaha, Gregor; Van Lanen, Henny; Parajka, Juraj; Fleig, Anne; Ploum, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, drought events with severe socio-economic impacts seem to have a link with winter snowpack. That is the case for the current California drought, but analysing historical archives and drought impact databases for the US and Europe we found many impacts that can be attributed to snowpack anomalies. Agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) were found to be the sectors that are most affected by drought related to snow. In this study, we investigated the processes underlying hydrological drought in snow-dominated regions. We found that drought drivers are different in different regions. In Norway, more than 90% of spring streamflow droughts were preceded by below-average winter precipitation, while both winter air temperature and spring weather were indifferent. In Austria, however, spring streamflow droughts could only be explained by a combination of factors. For most events, winter and spring air temperatures were above average (70% and 65% of events, respectively), and winter and spring precipitation was below average (75% and 80%). Because snow storage results from complex interactions between precipitation and temperature and these variables vary strongly with altitude, snow-related drought drivers have a large spatial variability. The weather input is subsequently modified by land properties. Multiple linear regression between drought severity variables and a large number of catchment characteristics for 44 catchments in Austria showed that storage influences both drought duration and deficit volume. The seasonal storage of water in snow and glaciers was found to be a statistically important variable explaining streamflow drought deficit. Our drought impact analysis in Europe also showed that 40% of the selected drought impacts was caused by a combination of snow-related and other drought types. For example, the combination of a winter drought with a preceding or subsequent summer drought was reported to have a large effect on

  19. Responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis and lipid peroxidation to warming and precipitation change in two dominant species (Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis) from North China Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiliang; Wang, Yuhui; Lv, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    Influential factors of global change affect plant carbon uptake and biomass simultaneously. Although the effects from warming and precipitation change have been extensive studied separately, the responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation to the interaction of these factors are still not fully understood. In this study, we examined the physiological responses of two dominant plant species from grasslands of northern China with different functional traits to combinations of five simulated warming patterns and five simulated precipitation patterns in environment-controlled chambers. Our results showed that the biomass, net CO 2 assimilation rate (P n), maximal efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (F v/F m), and chlorophyll content (Chl) of Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis were enhanced by moderate warming and plus precipitation, but they declined drastically with high temperature and drought. High temperature and drought also led to significant malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, which had a negative correlation with leaf biomass. The lower level of lipid peroxidation in leaves of S. grandis suggests that this species is better protected from oxidative damage under heat stress, drought stress and their interactive conditions than L. chinensis. Using the subordinate function values method, we found S. grandis to be more sensitive to climate change than L. chinensis and the gross biomass and root biomass of S. grandis and the leaf biomass of L. chinensis were most sensitive to climate change. Furthermore, the P n of both S. grandis and L. chinensis had a significant linear relationship with F v/F m and Chl, indicating that carbon assimilation may be caused by nonstomatal limitations. PMID:26933491

  20. The Effects of Gender and Dominant Mental Processes on Hypermedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Holly; Howard, W. Gary; Donofrio, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of gender and dominant mental process on learning is an area of increased interest among educators. This study was designed to explore those effects on hypermedia learning. The hypermedia module was created using a modified hierarchical structure, and a pre-test/post-test was conducted. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was…

  1. Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Lee, Li; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wang, Zheng

    2007-11-19

    Alkaline white mud (AWM) has been investigated as a low-cost material for removal of an anionic dye, acid blue 80. The effects of contact time, initial pH of dye solution, AWM dosage, and the presence of inorganic anion sulphate or phosphate ion on removal of the dye were evaluated. The results show that AWM could be used as an effective material for removal of acid blue 80 in a pre or main process, particularly at high dye concentration (>300 mgL(-1)), reaching maximum removal efficiency of 95%. At low dye concentration, surface adsorption is mainly responsible for the dye removal, while chemical precipitation of the dye anions with soluble Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may play a dominant role for the dye removal at high concentration, producing much less sludge than conventional adsorption method. Solution pH has only a limited effect on the dye removal due to high alkalinity and large pH buffer capacity of AWM suspension and thereby pH is not a limiting factor in pursuing high dye removal. The presence of SO(4)(2-) could reduce the dye removal by AWM only when SO(4)(2-) concentration is beyond 0.7 mmolL(-1). The dye removal may be significantly suppressed by the presence of phosphate with increasing concentration, and the reduction in the dye removal is much larger at high dye concentrations than at low ones. PMID:17532132

  2. Direct solid-state precipitation-processed A15 /Nb3Al/ superconducting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1980-12-01

    A 'solid-state precipitation' process was used to prepare superconducting tapes containing Nb3Al in a niobium matrix. Small ingots of Nb-(17-19 at. %)Al were prepared by arc melting, homogenizing, quenching, warm rolling into tape, and aging at 750-900 C to precipitate the A15 phase. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed Nb3Al precipitation in fine particles which formed a semicontinuous network over subgrain boundaries formed by the recovery of deformation-induced dislocations. Promising high-field critical currents were obtained (current density approximately 10 thousand A/sq cm in a field of 14 T at 4.2 K).

  3. Detection of dominant modelled nitrate processes with a high temporally resolved parameter sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Marcelo; Guse, Björn; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The river systems in the catchment are impacted by nutrient inputs from different sources of the landscape. The input of nitrate from agricultural areas into the river systems is related to numerous processes which occur simultaneously and influence each other permanently. These complex nitrate processes are represented in eco-hydrological models. To obtain reliable future predictions of nitrate concentrations in rivers, the nitrogen cycle needs to be reproduced accurately in these models. For complex research questions dealing with nitrate impacts, it is thus essential to better understand the nitrate process dynamics in models and to reduce the uncertainties in water quality predictions. This study aims to improve the understanding of nitrate process dynamics by using a temporal parameter sensitivity analysis, which is applied on an eco-hydrological model. With this method, the dominant model parameters are detected for each day. Thus, by deriving temporal variations in dominant model parameters, the nitrate process dynamic is investigated for phases with different conditions for nitrate transport and transformations. The results show that the sensitivity of different nitrate parameters varies temporally. These temporal dynamics in dominant parameters are explained by temporal variations in nitrate transport and plant uptake processes. An extended view on the dynamics of the temporal parameter sensitivity is obtained by analysing different modelled runoff components and nitrate pathways. Thereby, the interpretation of seasonal variations in dominant nitrate pathways is assisted and a better understanding of the role of nitrate in the environment is achieved. We conclude that this method improves the reliability of modelled nitrate processes. In this way, a better basis for recent and future scenarios of nitrate loads management is provided.

  4. Use of surfactants in alumina precipitation in the bayer process

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.O.; Davis, D.C.

    1988-04-12

    In the method for producing alumina trihydrate crystals by crystallization of alumina trihydrate from a hot, caustic pregnant Bayer process liquor, to obtain a reduced percent of small size crystals -325 mesh fraction thereby to increase the yield of crystals coarser than -325 mesh subsequently to be processed to yield aluminum, the improvement is described comprising the addition to the pregnant liquor, after red mud separation and immediately prior to crystallization of alumina trihydrate, of two mutually soluble components (A) and (B) in an amount effective to increase the yield of the coarser crystals, component (A) being a surfactant which will disperse component (B) in the pregnant liquor and component (B) being an oil in which the surfactant is dissolved and having a boiling point above the temperature prevailing alumina hydrate crystallization.

  5. Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit

    DOEpatents

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Williams, Everett H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

  6. Tributylphosphate in the In-Tank Precipitation Process Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs, D.T.; Swingle, R.F.

    1993-11-23

    A material balance investigation and evaluation of n- tributylphosphate (TBP) recycle throughout ITP and its carryover to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was performed. Criticality and DWPF-related issues were determined to pose no adverse consequences due to TBP addition. Effects of decomposition products were also considered. Flammability of 1-butanol, a TBP decomposition product, in Tank 22 was investigated. Calculations show that Tank 22 would be ventilated with air at a rate sufficient to maintain a 1-butanol concentration (volume percent) well below 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for 1-butanol.

  7. A Preliminary Analysis of Precipitation Properties and Processes during NASA GPM IFloodS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence; Gatlin, Patrick; Petersen, Walt; Wingo, Matt; Lang, Timothy; Wolff, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) is a NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ground measurement campaign, which took place in eastern Iowa from May 1 to June 15, 2013. The goals of the field campaign were to collect detailed measurements of surface precipitation using ground instruments and advanced weather radars while simultaneously collecting data from satellites passing overhead. Data collected by the radars and other ground instruments, such as disdrometers and rain gauges, will be used to characterize precipitation properties throughout the vertical column, including the precipitation type (e.g., rain, graupel, hail, aggregates, ice crystals), precipitation amounts (e.g., rain rate), and the size and shape of raindrops. The impact of physical processes, such as aggregation, melting, breakup and coalescence on the measured liquid and ice precipitation properties will be investigated. These ground observations will ultimately be used to improve rainfall estimates from satellites and in particular the algorithms that interpret raw data for the upcoming GPM mission's Core Observatory satellite, which launches in 2014. The various precipitation data collected will eventually be used as input to flood forecasting models in an effort to improve capabilities and test the utility and limitations of satellite precipitation data for flood forecasting. In this preliminary study, the focus will be on analysis of NASA NPOL (S-band, polarimetric) radar (e.g., radar reflectivity, differential reflectivity, differential phase, correlation coefficient) and NASA 2D Video Disdrometers (2DVDs) measurements. Quality control and processing of the radar and disdrometer data sets will be outlined. In analyzing preliminary cases, particular emphasis will be placed on 1) documenting the evolution of the rain drop size distribution (DSD) as a function of column melting processes and 2) assessing the impact of range on ground-based polarimetric radar estimates of DSD properties.

  8. PROCESS USING BISMUTH PHOSPHATE AS A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AND PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-03-10

    A process is described for separating plutonium from fission products carried therewith when plutonium in the reduced oxidation state is removed from a nitric acid solution of irradiated uranium by means of bismuth phosphate as a carrier precipitate. The bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate is dissolved by treatment with nitric acid and the plutonium therein is oxidized to the hexavalent oxidation state by means of potassium dichromate. Separation of the plutonium from the fission products is accomplished by again precipitating bismuth phosphate and removing the precipitate which now carries the fission products and a small percentage of the plutonium present. The amount of plutonium carried in this last step may be minimized by addition of sodium fluoride, so as to make the solution 0.03N in NaF, prior to the oxidation and prccipitation step.

  9. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vázquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  10. Contributions of TRMM to Our Understanding of Precipitation Processes and Climate Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan effort, has completed seven and a half years in orbit. This successful research mission studying precipitation processes and climatology has also become a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first rain radar and microwave radiometer combination in space, continues to function perfectly, and the satellite has the capability to operate for a number of additional years, providing a unique, long-term record of global tropical precipitation characteristics. A summary of research highlights will be presented covering topics ranging over climate analysis, improving forecasts, and storm and precipitation processes. A focus of the talk will be the important role of TRMM data in multi-satellite precipitation analyses at fine time scales and in improving our understanding of the validity of climate-scale variations through comparison with, and eventual improvement of, the GEWEX Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 25-year data set.

  11. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C A; Moubarac, J-C; Cannon, G; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the global food system and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing are beneficial. But what is identified and defined here as ultra-processing, a type of process that has become increasingly dominant, at first in high-income countries, and now in middle-income countries, creates attractive, hyper-palatable, cheap, ready-to-consume food products that are characteristically energy-dense, fatty, sugary or salty and generally obesogenic. In this study, the scale of change in purchase and sales of ultra-processed products is examined and the context and implications are discussed. Data come from 79 high- and middle-income countries, with special attention to Canada and Brazil. Results show that ultra-processed products dominate the food supplies of high-income countries, and that their consumption is now rapidly increasing in middle-income countries. It is proposed here that the main driving force now shaping the global food system is transnational food manufacturing, retailing and fast food service corporations whose businesses are based on very profitable, heavily promoted ultra-processed products, many in snack form. PMID:24102801

  12. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE E-SOX PROCESS ON THE EPA PILOT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a small pilot-scale evaluation of the E-SOx process, undertaken to obtain information needed to conduct a planned 5 MWe field pilot demonstration. he process uses an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for combined sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and particu...

  14. Identifying Hydrologic Processes in Agricultural Watersheds Using Precipitation-Runoff Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linard, Joshua I.; Wolock, David M.; Webb, Richard M.T.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals applied to agricultural fields will assist in designing the most effective strategies to prevent water-quality impairments. At a watershed scale, the processes controlling the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals are generally understood only conceptually. To examine the applicability of conceptual models to the processes actually occurring, two precipitation-runoff models - the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) - were applied in different agricultural settings of the contiguous United States. Each model, through different physical processes, simulated the transport of water to a stream from the surface, the unsaturated zone, and the saturated zone. Models were calibrated for watersheds in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska. The calibrated sets of input parameters for each model at each watershed are discussed, and the criteria used to validate the models are explained. The SWAT and WEBMOD model results at each watershed conformed to each other and to the processes identified in each watershed's conceptual hydrology. In Maryland the conceptual understanding of the hydrology indicated groundwater flow was the largest annual source of streamflow; the simulation results for the validation period confirm this. The dominant source of water to the Indiana watershed was thought to be tile drains. Although tile drains were not explicitly simulated in the SWAT model, a large component of streamflow was received from lateral flow, which could be attributed to tile drains. Being able to explicitly account for tile drains, WEBMOD indicated water from tile drains constituted most of the annual streamflow in the Indiana watershed. The Nebraska models indicated annual streamflow was composed primarily of perennial groundwater flow and infiltration-excess runoff, which conformed to the conceptual hydrology developed for that watershed. The hydrologic

  15. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  16. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  17. CSER 00-003 Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    SciTech Connect

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-07-13

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material.

  18. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 5–28 yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 7–29 yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 5–30 yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  19. Polarization fluctuation dominated electrical transport processes of polymer-based ferroelectric field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Guha, S.; Narayan, K. S.

    2012-03-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FE-FETs) consisting of tunable dielectric layers are utilized to investigate interfacial transport processes. Large changes in the dielectric constant as a function of temperature are observed in FE-FETs in conjunction with the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition. The devices offer a test bed to evaluate specific effects of polarization on the electrical processes. FE-FETs have dominant contributions from polarization fluctuation rather than static dipolar disorder prevalent in high k paraelectric dielectric-based FETs. Additionally, photo-excitation measurements in the depletion mode reveal clear features in the FET response at different temperatures, indicative of different transport regimes.

  20. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  1. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Precipitation process in a Mg–Gd–Y alloy grain-refined by Al addition

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jichun; Zhu, Suming; Easton, Mark A.; Xu, Wenfan; Wu, Guohua; Ding, Wenjiang

    2014-02-15

    The precipitation process in Mg–10Gd–3Y (wt.%) alloy grain-refined by 0.8 wt.% Al addition has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The alloy was given a solution treatment at 520 °C for 6 h plus 550 °C for 7 h before ageing at 250 °C. Plate-shaped intermetallic particles with the 18R-type long-period stacking ordered structure were observed in the solution-treated state. Upon isothermal ageing at 250 °C, the following precipitation sequence was identified for the α-Mg supersaturated solution: β″ (D0{sub 19}) → β′ (bco) → β{sub 1} (fcc) → β (fcc). The observed precipitation process and age hardening response in the Al grain-refined Mg–10Gd–3Y alloy are compared with those reported in the Zr grain-refined counterpart. - Highlights: • The precipitation process in Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.8Al (wt.%) alloy has been investigated. • Particles with the 18R-type LPSO structure were observed in the solution state. • Upon ageing at 250 °C, the precipitation sequence is: β″ → β′ → β1 (fcc) → β. • The Al grain-refined alloy has a lower hardness than the Zr refined counterpart.

  3. Forecasting and nowcasting process: A case study analysis of severe precipitation event in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, Ioannis; Nastos, Panagiotis; Avgoustoglou, Euripides; Gofa, Flora; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Kamberakis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    An early warning process is the result of interplay between the forecasting and nowcasting interactions. Therefore, (1) an accurate measurement and prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall over an area and (2) the efficient and appropriate description of the catchment properties are important issues in atmospheric hazards (severe precipitation, flood, flash flood, etc.). In this paper, a forecasting and nowcasting analysis is presented, regarding a severe precipitation event that took place on September 21, 2015 in Athens, Greece. The severe precipitation caused a flash flood event at the suburbs of Athens, with significant impacts to the local society. Quantitative precipitation forecasts from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and from the COSMO.GR atmospheric model, including ensemble forecast of precipitation and probabilistic approaches are analyzed as tools in forecasting process. Satellite remote sensing data close and six hours prior to flash flood are presented, accompanied with radar products from Hellenic National Meteorological Service, illustrating the ability to depict the convection process.

  4. Mapping and modelling spatial patterns of dominant processes in a karstic catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Stadler, Hermann; Komma, Jürgen; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a framework of combining hydrogeological mapping and hydrological modelling for dominant processes identification in karstic catchments. The aim is to identify areas with a potential of surface erosion and solute input into a karst system. Hydrogeological mapping is based on a mapping catalogue, where the items can be transferred directly to model structure and parameters. The items contain mappable properties such as geological units, overlaying loose material/debris and soils. The synthesis of these properties leads to identification of dominant hydrological mechanisms, particularly the interplay between direct infiltration and surface runoff. Model structure and a priori model parameters can be set and modified based on hydrogeological expert evaluation. This enhances the calibration and validation procedure and includes the formulation of a conceptual karst drainage module. Besides discharge data of springs water quality data (e.g. SAC 254) are used to obtain a better understanding of the karst system and its drainage characteristics and to estimate particle travel time.

  5. Odourant dominance in olfactory mixture processing: what makes a strong odourant?

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Marco; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Galizia, Giovanni; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The question of how animals process stimulus mixtures remains controversial as opposing views propose that mixtures are processed analytically, as the sum of their elements, or holistically, as unique entities different from their elements. Overshadowing is a widespread phenomenon that can help decide between these alternatives. In overshadowing, an individual trained with a binary mixture learns one element better at the expense of the other. Although element salience (learning success) has been suggested as a main explanation for overshadowing, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. We studied olfactory overshadowing in honeybees to uncover the mechanisms underlying olfactory-mixture processing. We provide, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive dataset on overshadowing to date based on 90 experimental groups involving more than 2700 bees trained either with six odourants or with their resulting 15 binary mixtures. We found that bees process olfactory mixtures analytically and that salience alone cannot predict overshadowing. After normalizing learning success, we found that an unexpected feature, the generalization profile of an odourant, was determinant for overshadowing. Odourants that induced less generalization enhanced their distinctiveness and became dominant in the mixture. Our study thus uncovers features that determine odourant dominance within olfactory mixtures and allows the referring of this phenomenon to differences in neural activity both at the receptor and the central level in the insect nervous system. PMID:25652840

  6. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R; Guzman, J; Saucedo, I; Revilla, J; Guibal, E

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation. PMID:16563726

  7. Extreme Daily Precipitation in North American Climate Simulations: Scales and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Glisan, J. M.; Kawazoe, S.; Smalley, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the ability of global and regional climate models to simulate extreme daily precipitation and supporting processes for midlatitude and Arctic regions of North America. Regional model output comes from the NARCCAP archive and simulations by an Arctic version of WRF; global model output comes from the CMIP5 archive. The NARCCAP results also include output from a time-slice, high-resolution global simulation. All regional model output is at half degree resolution, whereas the CMIP5 resolutions vary but are coarser than the regional model resolutions. The combined analysis allows us to assess added value of finer resolution in simulating extreme precipitation. Analysis focuses on selected regions of North America for winter (DJF) and summer (JJA), building on several previous analyses focused on this region. In addition to comparing results from the different models, we also compare simulated precipitation and supporting processes with those obtained from observed precipitation and reanalysis atmospheric states. In the central U.S., the models generally reproduce well the precipitation-vs.-intensity spectrum seen in observations, with a tendency for coarse-resolution global models to produce somewhat less intense precipitation. In contrast, all models are deficient in high intensity precipitation in Alaska. Further analysis focuses on precipitation events exceeding the 99.5 percentile that occur simultaneously at several points in the region, yielding so-called "widespread events". Analysis of 500 hPa heights, near-surface circulation and fields such as temperature and humidity reveal the processes leading to extreme events in the models and observations. The finer resolution models generally reproduce the physical behavior of these extreme events, with the coarser models showing a smoother rendition. In the central U.S., for winter, these events are produced by slowly moving low-pressure systems that all models simulate fairly well. In Alaska, these events

  8. Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D; Voit, Stewart L; Vedder, Raymond James

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be controlled for co-precipitation

  9. FORMATION PROCESSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF REACTIVE AND NON-REACTIVE MINERAL PRECIPITATES IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineral precipitates in zero-valent iron PRBs can be classified by formation processes into three groups: 1) those that result from changes in chemical conditions (i.e., change in pH, e.g., calcite); 2) those that are a consequence of microbial activity (i.e., sulfate reduction, ...

  10. Effects of Outer Plasmasphere Processes on Atmospheric Precipitation: A Multipoint Observational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, P. J.; Foster, J. C.; Coster, A. J.; Halford, A.; Millan, R. M.; Wygant, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's inner and outer radiation belts are surrounded by a natural high intensity radiation environment, composed of high energy and relativistic particles. The dynamic outer plasmasphere overlaps the outer radiation belt beyond L=2.5 and can play a key role in modulating the outer radiation belt. In particular, ambient cold plasma density associated with plasmaspheric structure and density gradients in the plasmasphere boundary layer (PBL) can regulate the occurrence and characteristics of wave-particle interactions (WPI) leading to large changes in precipitation/loss efficiency. These interactions are efficient at scattering high energy particles into the atmospheric loss cone, resulting in spatially localized enhancements in outer radiation belt acceleration and precipitation. We discuss a multi-point observational case study of the relationship of dayside radiation belt precipitation temporal and spatial dynamics to outer plasmasphere processes during a coronal mass ejection driven shock injection and plasmasphere reconfiguration event on 2014-01-09. We combine in-situ magnetosphere diagnostics from the Van Allen Probes A and B spacecraft with in-situ data from multiple BARREL balloons measuring atmospheric precipitation in the afternoon MLT sector, near the Van Allen Probes magnetic footprints. Van Allen Probes and THEMIS E data from their respective EFW instruments determines electric field structure and thermal electron density configurations to L~7. Finally, we place the in-situ diagnostics in a larger context using GPS ground based total electron content observations of L <= 4 wide field plasmaspheric structure and PBL dynamics. We present analysis explaining the observed atmospheric precipitation, and demonstrating the significance of the outer plasmasphere boundary location in processes leading to energetic electron precipitation. Such multi-instrument analysis demonstrates that consideration of interconnected system-level processes leads to a clearer

  11. Dominant processes controlling water chemistry of the Pecos River in American southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fasong; Miyamoto, Seiichi

    2005-09-01

    Here we show an analysis of river flow and water chemistry data from eleven gauging stations along the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico and western Texas, with time spanning 1959-2002. Analysis of spatial relationship between the long-term average flow and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration allows us to illuminate four major processes controlling river chemistry, namely saline water addition, evaporative concentration with salt gain or loss, dilution with salt gain or loss, and salt storage. Of the 10 river reaches studied, six reaches exhibit the process dominated by evaporative concentration or freshwater dilution with little change in salt load. Four reaches show considerable salt gains or losses that are induced by surface-ground water interactions. This analysis suggests that the evaporative concentration and freshwater dilution are the prevailing mechanisms, but local processes (e.g., variations in hydrologic flowpath and lithologic formation) also play an important role in regulating the hydrochemistry of the Pecos River.

  12. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  13. Extraction of rare earth elements from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of apatite processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropov, M. O.; Anufrieva, A. V.; Buynovskiy, A. S.; Makaseev, Y. N.; Mazov, I. N.; Nefedov, R. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Stepanova, O. B.; Valkov, AV

    2016-01-01

    The features of extraction of rare earth elements (REE) were considered from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of REE of apatite processing by nitric acid technology. The preliminary purification of nitrate solution of REE from impurities of titanium, aluminum, iron, uranium and thorium was suggested to obtain stable solutions not forming precipitates. Washing the extract was recommended with the evaporated reextract that allows to obtain directly on the cascade of REE extraction the concentrated solutions suitable for the separation into groups by the extraction method. Technical decisions were suggested for the separation of REE in groups without the use of salting-out agent.

  14. Effect of some organic solvent-water mixtures composition on precipitated calcium carbonate in carbonation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacka-Łyskawa, Donata; Kościelska, Barbara; Karczewski, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    Precipitated calcium carbonate particles were obtained during carbonation of calcium hydroxide slurry with carbon dioxide. Aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol and glycerol were used as solvents. Concentration of organic additives in the reactive mixture was from 0% to 20% (vol). Precipitation process were performed in a stirred tank reactor equipped with gas distributor. Multimodal courses of particles size distribution were determined for produced CaCO3 particles. Calcium carbonate as calcite was precipitated in all experiments. The mean Sauter diameter of CaCO3 particles decreased when the concentration of all used organic additives increased. The amount of small particle fraction in the product increased with the increasing concentration of organic solvents. Similar physical properties of used liquid phase resulted in the similar characteristics of obtained particles.

  15. A Data System Architecture for Measurement Based Systems: Precipitation Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is changing focus from single satellite missions to measurement oriented programs. An example of this paradigm shift is the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project. GPM is conceptualized as a rolling-wave of measurement possibilities all focused on the key precipitation parameter. In response to this shift to measurement programs and also integral to the ESE s new strategy for processing and management its data, a measurement based approach is also critical for data processing system that support measurement programs like GPM. This paper provides an overview of the paradigm shift from mission to measurement. It also presents a summary of the ESE s new strategy for its data systems. Building on this background the paper details the architectural, design and implementation aspects of the Precipitation Processing System (PPS). The PPS is an evolution of a single point system developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission to a generic precipitation data system. The paper provides the context within which PPS will support the GPM program.

  16. The air-water exchange of C{sub 15}-C{sub 31} n-alkanes in a precipitation-dominated seepage lake.

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research

    2000-01-01

    The air-water exchange of semivolatile n-alkanes in Crystal Lake, a small precipitation-dominated seepage lake in northern Wisconsin, was investigated with modeling and mass balance approaches. The results suggest that atmospheric deposition contributes approximately 80% of the allochthonous input of n-alkanes to Crystal Lake. Atmospheric deposition accounts for about 50% of the total annual input of n-alkanes to Crystal Lake, and an additional 30% is contributed by in situ production of planktonic n-alkanes ({Sigma}C{sub 15}, C{sub 17}, C{sub 19}). Contributions to the particle dry flux of terrestrial n-alkanes ({Sigma}C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}) by pine pollen dispersal and by dry deposition of particles containing leaf waxes are similar in magnitude and constitute about 60% of the atmospheric input, with particle wet deposition being responsible for the remainder. Approximately 30% of the atmospheric input of the n-alkanes occurs during a two-week episode of pine pollen dispersal in spring. Concentration gradients between gaseous n-alkanes in the atmosphere and dissolved n-alkanes in the water column of Crystal Lake favor volatilization of n-alkanes from the lake surface; however, distributions of dissolved n-alkanes are characteristic of bacteria, and therefore are contained in organic matter and not available for air-water exchange. The estimated net atmospheric input of terrestrial n-alkanes is about 20% less than the settling sediment flux. Additional allochthonous sources of the terrestrial n-alkanes might include diffuse surface runoff or episodes of coarse-particle deposition. The discrepancies in the results from the modeling and mass balance approaches indicate that direct measurements of air-water exchange rates and measurements of the seasonal variations of particle size distributions in air and rain would greatly improve our ability to quantify air-water exchange rates of n-alkanes.

  17. Processes and mechanisms of persistent extreme precipitation events in East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Panmao; Chen, Yang

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly presents recent progresses on persistent extreme precipitation events (PEPEs) in East China. A definition focusing both persistence and extremity of daily precipitation is firstly proposed. An identification method for quasi-stationary regional PEPEs is then designed. By utilizing the identified PEPEs in East China, typical circulation configurations from the lower to the upper troposphere are confirmed, followed by investigations of synoptic precursors for key components with lead time of 1-2 weeks. Two characteristic circulation patterns responsible for PEPEs in East China are identified: a double blocking high type and a single blocking high type. They may account for occurrence of nearly 80% PEPEs during last 60 years. For double blocking high type, about two weeks prior to PEPEs, two blockings developed and progressed towards the Ural Mountains and the Sea of Okhotsk, respectively. A northwestward progressive anomalous anticyclone conveying abundant moisture and eastward-extended South Asia High favoring divergence can be detected about one week in advance. A dominant summertime teleconnection over East Asia, East Asia/ Pacific (EAP) pattern, is deemed as another typical regime inducing PEPEs in the East China. Key elements of the EAP pattern initiated westward movement since one week prior to PEPEs. Eastward energy dispersion and poleward energy dispersion contributed to early development and subsequent maintenance of this teleconnection pattern, respectively. These typical circulation patterns and significant precursors may offer local forecasters some useful clues in identifying and predicting such high-impact precipitation events about 1-2 weeks in advance.

  18. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes: role of physiological fitness and microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-03-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable fitness for alcoholic fermentation, also uses defensive strategies mediated by different mechanisms, such as cell-to-cell contact and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, to combat other microorganisms. In this paper, we review the main physiological features underlying the special aptitude of S. cerevisiae for alcoholic fermentation and discuss the role of microbial interactions in its dominance during alcoholic fermentation, as well as its relevance for winemaking. PMID:26728020

  19. Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the

  20. Diffusion dominated process for the crystal growth of a binary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Rui; Hirata, Akira; Nishizawa, Shin-ichi

    1996-11-01

    The pure diffusion process has been often used to study the crystal growth of a binary alloy in the microgravity environment. In the present paper, a geometric parameter, the ratio of the maximum deviation distance of curved solidification and melting interfaces from the plane to the radius of the crystal rod, was adopted as a small parameter, and the analytical solution was obtained based on the perturbation theory. The radial segregation of a diffusion dominated process was obtained for cases of arbitrary Peclet number in a region of finite extension with both a curved solidification interface and a curved melting interface. Two types of boundary conditions at the melting interface were analyzed. Some special cases such as infinite extension in the longitudinal direction and special range of Peclet number were reduced from the general solution and discussed in detail.

  1. Unmasking the effect of a precipitation pulse on the biological processes composing Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sanchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Drylands occupy 47.2% of the global terrestrial area and are key ecosystems that significantly determine the inter-annual variability of the global carbon balance. However, it is still necessary to delve into the functional behavior of arid and semiarid ecosystems due to the complexity of drivers and interactions between underpinning processes (whether biological or abiotic) that modulate net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In this context, water inputs are crucial to biological organisms survival in arid ecosystems and frequently arrive via rain events that are commonly stochastic and unpredictable (i.e. precipitation pulses) and strongly control arid land ecosystem structure and function. The eddy covariance technique can be used to investigate the effect of precipitation pulses on NEE, but provide limited understanding of what exactly happens after a rain event. The chief reasons are that, firstly, we cannot measure separately autotrophic and heterotrophic components, and secondly, the partitioning techniques widely utilized to separate Gross Primary Production and Total Ecosystem Respiration, do not work properly in these water-limited ecosystems, resulting in biased estimations of plant and soil processes. Consequently, it is essential to combine eddy covariance measurements with other techniques to disentangle the different biological processes composing NEE that are activated by a precipitation pulse. Accordingly, the main objectives of this work were: (i) to quantify the contribution of precipitation pulse events to annual NEE using the eddy covariance technique in a semiarid steppe located in Almería (Spain), and (ii) to simulate a realistic precipitation pulse in order to understand its effect on the ecosystem, soil and plant CO2 exchanges by using a transitory-state closed canopy chamber, soil respiration chambers and continuous monitoring CO2 sensors inserted in the subsoil. Preliminary results showed, as expected, a delay between soil and plant

  2. X-band radar field campaign data analysis for orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcacchia, Leonardo; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Bousquet, Olivier; Cheong, Boon-Leng; Maggioni, Viviana; Hong, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate quantitative precipitation estimation over mountainous basins is of great importance because of their susceptibility to hazards such as flash floods, shallow landslides, and debris flows. It is usually hard to obtain reliable weather radar information in mountainous areas, due to difficulties connected to non-meteorological scattering and the elevation of the study sites. Such regions are particularly interested by orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes, characterized by no ice phase in the cloud and prevailing concentration of small drops in the drop size distribution. Field campaigns are able to provide complete and solid datasets in mountainous regions, thanks to mobile radars and the complementary information provided by rain gauges and disdrometers. This study analyzes datasets collected during the Hymex, IPHEX, and Colorado field campaigns in mountainous areas in Italy, France, North Carolina, and Colorado. Mobile X-band radars from the NOAA National Severe Storm Laboratory and the Advanced Radar Research Center at the University of Oklahoma are utilized. The X-band dual polarimetric radar data are corrected for attenuation through the SCOP algorithm, and evaluated against disdrometer and rain-gauge data. Warm-rain events are identified by looking at the Gorgucci, Cao-Zhang, and Kumjian-Ryzhkov parameter spaces relating polarimetric radar variables to precipitation development processes in the cloud and rain size distributions. A conceptual model for the vertical profile of precipitation and microphysical structure of the cloud is also derived, to be contrasted against other typical convective and stratiform profiles.

  3. IPHEx 2014: Observations of Orographic Precipitation Processes in the Southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Lang, T. J.; Wilson, A. M.; Duan, Y.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Cifelli, R.; Schwaller, M.; Wolff, D. B.; Miller, D. K.; Gourley, J. J.; Petters, M.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) in the Southern Appalachians and including the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of North Carolina was to characterize warm season orographic precipitation regimes, and to investigate the relationship between precipitation regimes and hydrologic processes in regions of complex terrain. IPHEX consisted of two phases: 1) an extended observing period (EOP) from October 2013 through October 2014 including a science-grade high elevation raingauge network, in addition to the fixed regional observing system; a disdrometer network consisting of twenty separate clusters; three mobile profiling facilities including MicroRain Radars, microwave radiometers, radiosondes, and microphysics characterization instruments; and 2) an intense observing period (IOP) from May-July of 2014 post GPM launch focusing on 4D mapping of precipitation structure during which NASA's NPOL S-band scanning dual-polarization radar, the dual-frequency Ka-Ku, dual polarimetric, Doppler radar (D3R), four additional MRRs, and the NOAA NOXP radar were deployed along with the long-term fixed instrumentation. During the IOP, high altitude and "in the column" measurements were conducted using the NASA ER-2 and the UND Citation aircraft. By taking place after the launch of the GPM satellite, IPHEx provided the first opportunity for coordinated observations among all platforms. Here, we present a first synthesis of ground-based observations of precipitation processes and science findings from IPHEx, including a 4D physically-based integration of multisensor observations incorporating DPR Level 1 products in the inner mountain region that captures the complex vertical structure of microphysical processes modulated by orography, and a first interrogation of GMI and DPR Level 2 products in the IPHEX domain.

  4. Denitrification as the dominant nitrogen loss process in the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Devol, A H; Rich, J J; Chang, B X; Bulow, S E; Naik, Hema; Pratihary, Anil; Jayakumar, A

    2009-09-01

    Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability. The main loss term from the fixed nitrogen inventory is the production of dinitrogen gas (N(2)) by heterotrophic denitrification or the more recently discovered autotrophic process, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are responsible for about 35% of oceanic N(2) production and up to half of that occurs in the Arabian Sea. Although denitrification was long thought to be the only loss term, it has recently been argued that anammox alone is responsible for fixed nitrogen loss in the OMZs. Here we measure denitrification and anammox rates and quantify the abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria in the OMZ regions of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find that denitrification rather than anammox dominates the N(2) loss term in the Arabian Sea, the largest and most intense OMZ in the world ocean. In seven of eight experiments in the Arabian Sea denitrification is responsible for 87-99% of the total N(2) production. The dominance of denitrification is reproducible using two independent isotope incubation methods. In contrast, anammox is dominant in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ, as detected using one of the isotope incubation methods, as previously reported. The abundance of denitrifying bacteria always exceeded that of anammox bacteria by up to 7- and 19-fold in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and Arabian Sea, respectively. Geographic and temporal variability in carbon supply may be responsible for the different contributions of denitrification and anammox in these two OMZs. The large contribution of denitrification to N(2) loss in the Arabian Sea indicates the global significance of denitrification to the oceanic nitrogen budget. PMID:19727197

  5. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model (GCE): Improvements and Applications for Studying Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Zeng, Xiping; Li, Xiaowen; Matsui, Toshi; Mohr, Karen; Posselt, Derek; Chern, Jiundar; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Norris, Peter M.; Kang, In-Sik; Choi, Ildae; Hou, Arthur; Lau, K.-M.; Yang, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Convection is the primary transport process in the Earth's atmosphere. About two-thirds of the Earth's rainfall and severe floods derive from convection. In addition, two-thirds of the global rain falls in the tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) have been used to improve our understanding of cloud and precipitation processes and phenomena from micro-scale to cloud-scale and mesoscale as well as their interactions with radiation and surface processes. CRMs use sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes and can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems. CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past three decades. It is amulti-dimensional non-hydrostatic CRM that can simulate clouds and cloud systems in different environments. Early improvements and testing were presented in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003a). A review on the application of the GCE to the understanding of precipitation processes can be found in Simpson and Tao (1993) and Tao (2003). In this paper, recent model improvements (microphysics, radiation and land surface processes) are described along with their impact and performance on cloud and precipitation events in different geographic locations via comparisons with observations. In addition, recent advanced applications of the GCE are presented that include understanding the physical processes responsible for diurnal variation, examining the impact of aerosols (cloud condensation nuclei or CCN and ice nuclei or IN) on

  6. Numerical Simulation of Tuff Dissolution and Precipitation Experiments: Validation of Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Coupled-Process Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, P. F.; Kneafsey, T. J.

    2001-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to evaluate THC effects on flow in fractured media, we performed a laboratory experiment and numerical simulations to investigate mineral dissolution and precipitation. To replicate mineral dissolution by condensate in fractured tuff, deionized water equilibrated with carbon dioxide was flowed for 1,500 hours through crushed Yucca Mountain tuff at 94° C. The reacted water was collected and sampled for major dissolved species, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, and pH. The resulting steady-state fluid composition had a total dissolved solids content of about 140 mg/L; silica was the dominant dissolved constituent. A portion of the steady-state reacted water was flowed at 10.8 mL/hr into a 31.7-cm tall, 16.2-cm wide vertically oriented planar fracture with a hydraulic aperture of 31 microns in a block of welded Topopah Spring tuff that was maintained at 80° C at the top and 130° C at the bottom. The fracture began to seal within five days. A 1-D plug-flow model using the TOUGHREACT code developed at Berkeley Lab was used to simulate mineral dissolution, and a 2-D model was developed to simulate the flow of mineralized water through a planar fracture, where boiling conditions led to mineral precipitation. Predicted concentrations of the major dissolved constituents for the tuff dissolution were within a factor of 2 of the measured average steady-state compositions. The fracture-plugging simulations result in the precipitation of amorphous silica at the base of the boiling front, leading to a hundred-fold decrease in fracture permeability in less than 6 days, consistent with the laboratory experiment. These results help validate the use of the TOUGHREACT code for THC modeling of the Yucca Mountain system. The experiment and simulations indicate that boiling and concomitant precipitation of amorphous silica could cause significant reductions in fracture porosity and permeability on a local scale. The TOUGHREACT code will be used

  7. River flow forecasting with artificial neural networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. K.; Corzo, G. A.; van Andel, S. J.; Jonoski, A.

    2009-09-01

    This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually incorporated in distributed physically-based hydrological modelling approaches. However, these modelling approaches are recognised to be quite complex and expensive, especially due to the data collection of multiple inputs and parameters, which vary in space and time. On the other hand, ANN models for flow forecasting are frequently developed only with precipitation and discharge as inputs, usually without taking into consideration the spatial variability of precipitation. Full inclusion of spatially distributed inputs into ANN models still leads to a complex computational process that may not give acceptable results. Therefore, here we present an analysis of the flow length and travel time as a basis for pre-processing remotely sensed (satellite) rainfall data. This pre-processed rainfall is used together with local stream flow measurements of previous days as input to ANN models. The case study for this modelling approach is the Ganges river basin. A comparative analysis of multiple ANN models with different hydrological pre-processing is presented. The ANN showed its ability to forecast discharges 3-days ahead with an acceptable accuracy. Within this forecast horizon, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is marginal, because of dominant influence of strongly auto-correlated discharge inputs. For forecast horizons of 7 to 10 days, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is noticeable, although the overall model performance deteriorates. The incorporation of remote sensing data of spatially distributed precipitation information as pre-processing step showed to be a promising alternative for the setting-up of ANN models for river flow

  8. River flow forecasting with Artificial Neural Networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. K.; Corzo, G. A.; van Andel, S. J.; Jonoski, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually incorporated in distributed physically-based hydrological modelling approaches. However, these modelling approaches are recognised to be quite complex and expensive, especially due to the data collection of multiple inputs and parameters, which vary in space and time. On the other hand, ANN models for flow forecasting are frequently developed only with precipitation and discharge as inputs, usually without taking into consideration the spatial variability of precipitation. Full inclusion of spatially distributed inputs into ANN models still leads to a complex computational process that may not give acceptable results. Therefore, here we present an analysis of the flow length and travel time as a basis for pre-processing remotely sensed (satellite) rainfall data. This pre-processed rainfall is used together with local stream flow measurements of previous days as input to ANN models. The case study for this modelling approach is the Ganges river basin. A comparative analysis of multiple ANN models with different hydrological pre-processing is presented. The ANN showed its ability to forecast discharges 3-days ahead with an acceptable accuracy. Within this forecast horizon, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is marginal, because of dominant influence of strongly auto-correlated discharge inputs. For forecast horizons of 7 to 10 days, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is noticeable, although the overall model performance deteriorates. The incorporation of remote sensing data of spatially distributed precipitation information as pre-processing step showed to be a promising alternative for the setting-up of ANN models for river flow

  9. Atmospheric circulation processes contributing to a multidecadal variation in reconstructed and modeled Indian monsoon precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianru; Hu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    analysis of the recently reconstructed gridded May-September total precipitation in the Indian monsoon region for the past half millennium discloses significant variations at multidecadal timescales. Meanwhile, paleo-climate modeling outputs from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 4.0 show similar multidecadal variations in the monsoon precipitation. One of those variations at the frequency of 40-50 years per cycle is examined in this study. Major results show that this variation is a product of the processes in that the meridional gradient of the atmospheric enthalpy is strengthened by radiation loss in the high-latitude and polar region. Driven by this gradient and associated baroclinicity in the atmosphere, more heat/energy is generated in the tropical and subtropical (monsoon) region and transported poleward. This transport relaxes the meridional enthalpy gradient and, subsequently, the need for heat production in the monsoon region. The multidecadal timescale of these processes results from atmospheric circulation-radiation interactions and the inefficiency in generation of kinetic energy from the potential energy in the atmosphere to drive the eddies that transport heat poleward. This inefficiency creates a time delay between the meridional gradient of the enthalpy and the poleward transport. The monsoon precipitation variation lags that in the meridional gradient of enthalpy but leads that of the poleward heat transport. This phase relationship, and underlining chasing process by the transport of heat to the need for it driven by the meridional enthalpy gradient, sustains this multidecadal variation. This mechanism suggests that atmospheric circulation processes can contribute to multidecadal timescale variations. Interactions of these processes with other forcing, such as sea surface temperature or solar irradiance anomalies, can result in resonant or suppressed variations in the Indian monsoon precipitation.

  10. Evaluating Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Numerical Models using Current and Potential Future Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Tanelli, S.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Petersen, W. A.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud, aerosol and precipitation processes play a fundamental role in the water and energy cycle. It is critical to accurately represent these microphysical processes in numerical models if we are to better predict cloud and precipitation properties on weather through climate timescales. Much has been learned about cloud properties and precipitation characteristics from NASA satellite missions such as TRMM, CloudSat, and more recently GPM. Furthermore, data from these missions have been successfully utilized in evaluating the microphysical schemes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and global models. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. These uncertainties can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that microphysical processes cannot be directly observed or measured, but instead have to be inferred from those cloud properties that can be measured. Evaluation of microphysical parameterizations are becoming increasingly important as enhanced computational capabilities are facilitating the use of more sophisticated schemes in CRMs, and as future global models are being run on what has traditionally been regarded as cloud-resolving scales using CRM microphysical schemes. In this talk we will demonstrate how TRMM, CloudSat and GPM data have been used to evaluate different aspects of current CRM microphysical schemes, providing examples of where these approaches have been successful. We will also highlight CRM microphysical processes that have not been well evaluated and suggest approaches for addressing such issues. Finally, we will introduce a potential NASA satellite mission, the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CAPPM), which would facilitate the development and evaluation of different microphysical-dynamical feedbacks in numerical models.

  11. Using Multi-Scale Modeling Systems to Study the Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols will be presented. Also how to use of the multi-satellite simulator to improve precipitation processes will be discussed.

  12. Using Multi-Scale Modeling Systems and Satellite Data to Study the Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei--Kuo; Chern, J.; Lamg, S.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Zeng, X.; Shi, R.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 sq km in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale models can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving models through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model). (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, W8F). (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling systems to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols will be presented. Also how to use the multi-satellite simulator to improve precipitation processes will be discussed.

  13. Frequency of deflagration in the in-tank precipitation process tanks due to loss of nitrogen purge system. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.M.; Mason, C.L.; Olsen, L.M.; Shapiro, B.J.; Gupta, M.K.; Britt, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    High-level liquid wastes (HLLW) from the processing of nuclear material at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are stored in large tanks in the F- and H-Area tank farms. The In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process is one step in the processing and disposal of HLLW. The process hazards review for the ITP identified the need to implement provisions that minimize deflagration/explosion hazards associated with the process. The objective of this analysis is to determine the frequency of a deflagration in Tank 48 and/or 49 due to nitrogen purge system failures (including external events) and coincident ignition source. A fault tree of the nitrogen purge system coupled with ignition source probability is used to identify dominant system failures that contribute to the frequency of deflagration. These system failures are then used in the recovery analysis. Several human actions, recovery actions, and repair activities are identified that reduce total frequency. The actions are analyzed and quantified as part of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). The probabilities of failure of these actions are applied to the fault tree cutsets and the event trees.

  14. Higher-level linguistic categories dominate lower-level acoustics in lexical tone processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-08-01

    Native tonal-language speakers exhibit reduced sensitivity to lexical tone differences within, compared to across, categories (higher-level linguistic category influence). Yet, sensitivity is enhanced among musically trained, non-tonal-language-speaking individuals (lower-level acoustics processing influence). The current study investigated the relative contribution of higher- and lower-level influences when both are present. Seventeen Mandarin musicians completed music pitch and lexical tone discrimination tasks. Similar to English musicians [Zhao and Kuhl (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137(3), 1452-1463], Mandarin musicians' overall sensitivity to lexical tone differences was associated with music pitch score, suggesting lower-level contributions. However, the musician's sensitivities to lexical tone pairs along a continuum were similar to Mandarin non-musicians, reflecting dominant higher-level influences. PMID:26328738

  15. Engineering evaluation of neutralization and precipitation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1998-08-25

    Engineering evaluations have been performed to determine likely unit operations and methods required to support the removal, storage, treatment and disposal of solids/sludges present in the K Basins at the Hanford Site. This evaluation was initiated to select a neutralization process for dissolver product solution resulting from nitric acid treatment of about 50 m{sup 3} of Hanford Site K Basins sludge. Neutralization is required to meet Tank Waste Remediation Waste System acceptance criteria for storage of the waste in the double shell tanks after neutralization, the supernate and precipitate will be transferred to the high level waste storage tanks in 200E Area. Non transuranic (TRU) solids residue will be transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This report presents an overview of neutralization and precipitation methods previously used and tested. This report also recommends a neutralization process to be used as part of the K Basins Sludge Treatment Project and identifies additional operations requiring further evaluation.

  16. The Doubting Process: A Longitudinal Study of the Precipitants and Consequences of Religious Doubt

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Religious doubt arises from a process in which there is a precipitant, the experience of doubt, a coping response, and a health-related outcome. We explore this process by assessing whether social factors precipitate doubt and the coping responses that are invoked to deal with it. Moreover, we evaluate whether these coping responses are, in turn, associated with health. The data reveal that, over time, people who encounter more negative interaction with fellow congregants have more doubts about religion, whereas more spiritual support and greater involvement in prayer groups are associated with less religious doubt. The findings further indicate that people who encounter more negative interaction are more likely to suppress religious doubts, but people who attend Bible study groups are more likely to seek spiritual growth when faced with doubt. Finally, the results suggest that suppressing religious doubt is associated with less favorable health, whereas seeking spiritual growth does not have a significant effect. PMID:20300487

  17. Influence of Surface Processes over Africa on the Atlantic Marine ITCZ and South American Precipitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies show that the climatological precipitation over South America, particularly the Nordeste region, is influenced by the presence of the African continent. Here the influence of African topography and surface wetness on the Atlantic marine ITCZ (AMI) and South American precipitation are investigated.Cross-equatorial flow over the Atlantic Ocean introduced by north south asymmetry in surface conditions over Africa shifts the AMI in the direction of the flow. African topography, for example, introduces an anomalous high over the southern Atlantic Ocean and a low to the north. This results in a northward migration of the AMI and dry conditions over the Nordeste region.The implications of this process on variability are then studied by analyzing the response of the AMI to soil moisture anomalies over tropical Africa. Northerly flow induced by equatorially asymmetric perturbations in soil moisture over northern tropical Africa shifts the AMI southward, increasing the climatological precipitation over northeastern South America. Flow associated with an equatorially symmetric perturbation in soil moisture, however, has a very weak cross-equatorial component and very weak influence on the AMI and South American precipitation. The sensitivity of the AMI to soil moisture perturbations over certain regions of Africa can possibly improve the skill of prediction.

  18. Analyses of precipitation processes of BIS(dimethylglyoximato)Ni(II) and related complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskii, M. I.; Wakita, H.; Masuda, I.

    1983-03-01

    Precipitates of Ni(dioximato) 2 complexes, where dioximato is 2,3-butanedione dioximate (dimethyglyoximate: dmgH), 2,3-pentanedione dioximate (ethylmethylglyoximate: emgH) or 1,2-cyclohexanedione dioximate (nioximate: nioxH) monoanions, were formed by a manner of direct mixing of NiCl 2 and dioxime solutions in the molar ratios: [dioxime]/[NiCl 2] is 0.57-5.0 for dmgH 2, 1.0-2.2 for emgH 2, and 0.03-0.09 for nioxH 2. The precipitation processes followed by light-scattering measurements were found to fit Avrami's equation. This fact made it possible for us to obtain the induction periods for the precipitation. The p values, the number of molecules in a "nucleus", were estimated from these induction periods and the evaluated concentrations for the supersaturated solutions of the complexes; these values were 3.58 for Ni(dmgH) 2, 2.73 for Ni(emgH) 2, and 2.81 for Ni(nioxH) 2 precipitates.

  19. Water balance and magnesium control in electrolytic zinc plants using the E.Z. selective zinc precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthew, I. G.; Newman, O. M. G.; Palmer, D. J.

    1980-03-01

    There is an increasing tendency for modern electrolytic zinc plants to experience water balance and magnesium control problems because of the simultaneous need to maximize zinc recovery and produce environmentally acceptable leach residues and precipitates. The Selective Zinc Precipitation process developed by the Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia involves the precipitation of basic zinc sulfate using limestone. Water balance and magnesium control may be achieved by either discarding the process filtrate, or by using it to wash precipitates in a closed circuit operation. The process filter cake is used as a neutralizing agent in the zinc plant. The process can be operated over a wide range of temperatures and calcined zinc concentrate may be preferred to limestone as a zinc precipitant to minimize the discard of sulfate. This paper is particularly concerned with a quantitative assessment of various modes of integrating the process into modern electrolytic zinc plants.

  20. [Using instantaneous spectra to determine dominant species in the DDT process of epoxypropane].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Hu, Dong; Yuan, Chang-Ying; Dai, Song-Hui; Xiao, Hai-Bo

    2006-09-01

    After solving problems of weak light detection, the calibration of the spectral sensitivity of the measuring system, and the synchronization of the measuring system, instantaneous emission spectra of epoxypropane in the process of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) with the exposure time of 2-8 micros and the resolution of 0. 2 nm were acquired from six different side windows of an explosion shock tube. Using the corrected spectral data, curves of the optical radiant intensity of main reaction products versus the DDT distance from the ignition point were obtained. These curves provided information about the evolution of the reaction and the products during the DDT process. Results indicate that the chemical reaction rate of the gaseous fuel and the corresponding concentrations of intermediate products increased gradually at the deflagration stage, but at the moment of deflagration to detonation transition, the reaction rate increased rapidly and the concentrations! of products increased sharply. Among these main products, concentration increments of molecule CO, and radicals CHO and OH were greater than other products, which means that CO, CHO and OH are the dominant species that affect the DDT process greatly. PMID:17112018

  1. Kinetics and thermodynamics of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process using Brocadia spp. dominated mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Puyol, D; Carvajal-Arroyo, J M; Garcia, B; Sierra-Alvarez, R; Field, J A

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial process commonly applied to treat ammonium pollution in effluents with low organic carbon content. Modeling anammox processes is important for simulating and controlling full-scale plants. In this study, the anammox process was simulated using three models, and substrate and growth parameters obtained by different research groups. Two Brocadia spp.-dominated mixed cultures, one granular and the other flocculent, were used for this purpose. A very good correlation between experimental data using both sludges and model predictions was achieved by one of the models, obtaining correlation coefficients higher than 0.997. Other models and stoichiometric equations tested were unable to predict the anammox kinetics and stoichiometry. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behavior of the two mixed cultures was compared through the determination of the energy of activation of the anammox conversion at temperatures ranging from 9 to 40 °C. Optimum temperature for anammox activity was established at 30-35 °C in both cases. The energy of activation values calculated for granular sludge and flocculent sludge were 64 and 124 kJ mol(-1), respectively. PMID:24759529

  2. Synthesis of nano precipitated calcium carbonate by using a carbonation process through a closed loop reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thriveni, Thenepalli; Ahn, Ji Whan; Ramakrishna, Chilakala; Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon

    2016-01-01

    Nano calcium carbonate particles have a wide range of industrial applications due to their beneficial properties such as high porosity and high surface area to volume ratio and due to their strengthening the mechanical properties of plastics and paper. Consequently, significant research has been done to deliver a new approach for the synthesis of precipitated nano calcium carbonate by using a carbonation process through a closed loop reactor. Both the experimental and the instrumental parameters, i.e. the CO2 flow rate, the concentration of the starting materials (Ca(OH)2 and CaO), the pH, the orifice diameter, etc., were investigated. The carbonation efficiency was increased due to the diffusion process involved in the loop reactor. The particle size was affected by the CO2 flow rate, reaction time, and orifice diameter. Finally, precipitated nano calcite calcium carbonate (50 to 100 nm) was synthesized by optimizing all the experimental and the instrumental parameters. The synthesized precipitated nano calcium carbonate was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This study has proved that the carbonation efficiency can be enhanced for a short time by using a loop reactor and that the carbonation process was more energy efficient and cost effective than other conventional methods.

  3. Recovery of ammonia in digestates of calf manure through a struvite precipitation process using unconventional reagents.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, A; De Rosa, S

    2014-01-01

    Land spreading of digestates causes the discharge of large quantities of nutrients into the environment, which contributes to eutrophication and depletion of dissolved oxygen in water bodies. For the removal of ammonia nitrogen, there is increasing interest in the chemical precipitation of struvite, which is a mineral that can be reused as a slow-release fertilizer. However, this process is an expensive treatment of digestate because large amounts of magnesium and phosphorus reagents are required. In this paper, a struvite precipitation-based process is proposed for an efficient recovery of digestate nutrients using low-cost reagents. In particular, seawater bittern, a by-product of marine salt manufacturing and bone meal, a by-product of the thermal treatment of meat waste, have been used as low-cost sources of magnesium and phosphorus, respectively. Once the operating conditions are defined, the process enables the removal of more than 90% ammonia load, the almost complete recovery of magnesium and phosphorus and the production of a potentially valuable precipitate containing struvite crystals. PMID:24645466

  4. Using Multi-Scale Modeling Systems and Satellite Data to Study the Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, J.; Lamg, S.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Zeng, X.; Shi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (l) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, the recent developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the precipitating systems and hurricanes/typhoons will be presented. The high-resolution spatial and temporal visualization will be utilized to show the evolution of precipitation processes. Also how to

  5. The Impact of Aerosols on Cloud and Precipitation Processes: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen; Khain, Alexander; Matsui, Toshihisa; Lang, Stephen; Simpson, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al ., 2001]." Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 19991. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005

  6. Dissolution Dominating Calcification Process in Polar Pteropods Close to the Point of Aragonite Undersaturation

    PubMed Central

    Bednaršek, Nina; Tarling, Geraint A.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Fielding, Sophie; Feely, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Thecosome pteropods are abundant upper-ocean zooplankton that build aragonite shells. Ocean acidification results in the lowering of aragonite saturation levels in the surface layers, and several incubation studies have shown that rates of calcification in these organisms decrease as a result. This study provides a weight-specific net calcification rate function for thecosome pteropods that includes both rates of dissolution and calcification over a range of plausible future aragonite saturation states (Ωar). We measured gross dissolution in the pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean) by incubating living specimens across a range of aragonite saturation states for a maximum of 14 days. Specimens started dissolving almost immediately upon exposure to undersaturated conditions (Ωar∼0.8), losing 1.4% of shell mass per day. The observed rate of gross dissolution was different from that predicted by rate law kinetics of aragonite dissolution, in being higher at Ωar levels slightly above 1 and lower at Ωar levels of between 1 and 0.8. This indicates that shell mass is affected by even transitional levels of saturation, but there is, nevertheless, some partial means of protection for shells when in undersaturated conditions. A function for gross dissolution against Ωar derived from the present observations was compared to a function for gross calcification derived by a different study, and showed that dissolution became the dominating process even at Ωar levels close to 1, with net shell growth ceasing at an Ωar of 1.03. Gross dissolution increasingly dominated net change in shell mass as saturation levels decreased below 1. As well as influencing their viability, such dissolution of pteropod shells in the surface layers will result in slower sinking velocities and decreased carbon and carbonate fluxes to the deep ocean. PMID:25285916

  7. Synergistic Cellulose Hydrolysis Dominated by a Multi-Modular Processive Endoglucanase from Clostridium cellulosi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Kun-Di; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Zhou, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrance of biomass feedstock remains a challenge for microbial conversion of lignocellulose into biofuel and biochemicals. Clostridium cellulosi, one thermophilic bacterial strain dominated in compost, could hydrolyze lignocellulose at elevated temperature by secreting more than 38 glycoside hydrolases belong to 15 different families. Though one multi-modular endoglucanase CcCel9A has been identified from C. cellulosi CS-4-4, mechanism of synergistic degradation of cellulose by various cellulases from strain CS-4-4 remains elusive. In this study, CcCel9A, CcCel9B, and CcCel48A were characterized as processive endoglucanase, non-processive endoglucanase, and exoglucanase, respectively. To understand how they cooperate with each other, we estimated the approximate concentration ratio on the zymogram and optimized it using purified enzymes in vitro. Synergism between individual glycoside hydrolase during cellulose hydrolysis in the mixture was observed. CcCel9A and CcCel48A could degrade cellulose chain from non-reducing ends and reducing ends, respectively, to cello-oligosaccharide. CcCel9B could cut cellulose chain randomly and cello-oligosaccharides with varied length were released. In addition, a β-glucosidase BlgA from Caldicellulosiruptor sp. F32 which could cleave cello-oligosaccharides including G2-G6 to glucose was added to the enzyme mixture to remove the product inhibition of its partners. The combination and ratios of these cellulases were optimized based on the release rate of glucose. Hydrolysis of corn stalk was conducted by a four-component cocktail (CcCel9A:CcCel9B:CcCel48A:BlgA = 25:25:10:18), and only glucose was detected as main production by using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Processive endoglucanase CcCel9A, dominated in secretome of C. cellulosi, showed good potential in developing cellulase cocktail due to its exquisite cooperation with various cellulases. PMID:27379062

  8. a Numerical Study of Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Mesoscale Rainbands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Steven Allan

    Field studies conducted during the University of Washington's CYCLES PROJECT have investigated the dynamical and microphysical processes operating in mesoscale rainbands within extratropical cyclones. Conceptual models of the cloud and precipitation mechanisms present in the various types of rainbands have been developed. The test these conceptual models, a numerical modeling study was undertaken. The numerical simulations centered on warm-frontal rainbands, characterized by a "seeder-feeder" process, and the convective -like narrow cold-frontal rainband. The warm-frontal rainband simulations were divided into two categories based on the observed vertical motions in the feeder zone. In the first category (TYPE 1), the vertical air motions are typical of those associated with the widespread lifting in the vicinity of warm fronts ((TURN)10 cm s('-1)). In the second category (TYPE 2), the vertical motions are stronger ((TURN)70 cm s('-1)). In the TYPE 1 situation the growth of "seed" ice crystals within the feeder zone occurs through vapor deposition. In the TYPE 2 case, seed ice crystals grow by accreting cloud water. In both cases the seed ice crystals provide the necessary particles for the efficient removal of condensate in the feeder zone. The model simulations for the narrow cold-frontal rainband are also divided into two categories. In the first category (non-embedded case) the narrow cold-frontal rainband is considered to be independent of any surrounding precipitation. In the second case (considered more realistic), the narrow cold-frontal rainband is embedded within a region of stratiform precipitation. In the non-embedded case, graupel develops when frozen raindrops grow rapidly by accreting cloud water within the updraft region. In the embedded case snow particles (originating in the stratiform clouds) are swept into the updraft region and are converted rapidly to graupel through riming. The efficient removal of cloud water by snow particles entering the

  9. Decomposition and Precipitation Process During Thermo-mechanical Fatigue of Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Anja; Kolmorgen, Roman; Kubena, Ivo; Kulawinski, Dirk; Kruml, Tomas; Biermann, Horst

    2016-05-01

    The so-called 748 K (475 °C) embrittlement is one of the main drawbacks for the application of ferritic-austenitic duplex stainless steels (DSS) at higher temperatures caused by a spinodal decomposition of the ferritic phase. Thermo-mechanical fatigue tests performed on a DSS in the temperature range between 623 K and 873 K (350 °C and 600 °C) revealed no negative influence on the fatigue lifetime. However, an intensive subgrain formation occurred in the ferritic phase, which was accompanied by formation of fine precipitates. In order to study the decomposition process of the ferritic grains due to TMF testing, detailed investigations using scanning and transmission electron microscopy are presented. The nature of the precipitates was determined as the cubic face centered G-phase, which is characterized by an enrichment of Si, Mo, and Ni. Furthermore, the formation of secondary austenite within ferritic grains was observed.

  10. Adsorption compared with sulfide precipitation as metal removal processes from acid mine drainage in a constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machemer, Steven D.; Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Metal removal processes from acid mine drainage were studied in an experimental constructed wetland in the Idaho Springs-Central City mining district of Colorado. The wetland was designed to passively remove heavy metals from the mine drainage flowing from the Big Five Tunnel. Concurrent studies were performed in the field on the waters flowing from the wetland and in the laboratory on the wetland substrate. Both studies suggest that there is competition for organic adsorption sites among Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. Iron and Cu appear to be more strongly adsorbed than Zn and Mn. The adsorption of metals varies with the fluctuation of pH in the outflow water. Also indicated by field and laboratory studies is the microbial reduction of sulfate with a corresponding increase in the sulfide concentration of the water. As sulfide is generated. Cu and Zn are completely removed. The field results suggest that upon start up of a constructed wetland, the adsorption of dissolved metals onto organic sites in the substrate material will be an important process. Over time, sulfide precipitation becomes the dominant process for metal removal from acid mine drainage.

  11. Excitatory interneurons dominate sensory processing in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of rat

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sónia F A; Rebelo, Sandra; Derkach, Victor A; Safronov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    Substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) is a spinal cord region where most unmyelinated primary afferents terminate and the central nociceptive processing begins. It is formed by several distinct groups of interneurons whose functional properties and synaptic connections are poorly understood, in part, because recordings from synaptically coupled pairs of SG neurons are quite challenging due to a very low probability of finding connected cells. Here, we describe an efficient method for identifying synaptically coupled interneurons in rat spinal cord slices and characterizing their excitatory or inhibitory function. Using tight-seal whole-cell recordings and a cell-attached stimulation technique, we routinely tested about 1500 SG interneurons, classifying 102 of them as monosynaptically connected to neurons in lamina I–III. Surprisingly, the vast majority of SG interneurons (n = 87) were excitatory and glutamatergic, while only 15 neurons were inhibitory. According to their intrinsic firing properties, these 102 SG neurons were also classified as tonic (n = 49), adapting (n = 17) or delayed-firing neurons (n = 36). All but two tonic neurons and all adapting neurons were excitatory interneurons. Of 36 delayed-firing neurons, 23 were excitatory and 13 were inhibitory. We conclude that sensory integration in the intrinsic SG neuronal network is dominated by excitatory interneurons. Such organization of neuronal circuitries in the spinal SG can be important for nociceptive encoding. PMID:17331995

  12. The dominant patterns of the precipitation in China during the boreal winter and their relationship with 30-60-days intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yonghong; Wu, Qigang; Huang, Ying

    2013-04-01

    With the daily rainfall data from the National Meteorological Information Center of China and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data, variability of the precipitation field during the boreal winter in China from 1979 to 2011 and its relationship with the 30-60-days intraseasonal oscillation activity is investigated in this study. It is shown that the distribution of the precipitation during the winter season (DJF) in China is featured by two typical patterns. The first one is characterized by the uniformly enhanced rainfall over the South China, and the second one is represented by meridionally banded dipole-like structure with the more or less precipitation changing alternatively between the Yangtze River Basin and the South China. The 30-60-day periodicity is found to contribute mostly to these two distribution patterns. The leading uniform pattern of the filtered precipitation with 30-60-day periodicity over the South China is closely related with the wavelike pattern of Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern, which is coupled with the dipole distribution pattern of the tropical convection, and with the convective center elongating from tropical Indian Ocean to Phillipine. The dipole-like pattern of the 30-60-day filtered precipitation is related to the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern, and to the tripole pattern of tropical convection centering at tropical Indian Ocean, Phillipine and tropical western North Pacific respectively. It is suggested that the enhanced precipitation over the South China or Yangtze River Basin induced by the intensified southwesterlies flow is the result of the interaction between the southward movement of the middle and high latitude 30-60-days oscillation and the northward movement of the tropical convection in these areas during the boreal winter.

  13. GIS-based NEXRAD Stage III precipitation database: automated approaches for data processing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongjie; Zhou, Xiaobing; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Small, Eric E.

    2005-02-01

    This study develops a geographical information system (GIS) approach for automated processing of the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) Stage III precipitation data. The automated processing system, implemented by using commercial GIS and a number of Perl scripts and C/C++ programs, allows for rapid data display, requires less storage capacity, and provides the analytical and data visualization tools inherent in GIS as compared to traditional methods. In this paper, we illustrate the development of automatic techniques to preprocess raw NEXRAD Stage III data, transform the data to a GIS format, select regions of interest, and retrieve statistical rainfall analysis over user-defined spatial and temporal scales. Computational expense is reduced significantly using the GIS-based automated techniques. For example, 1-year Stage III data processing (˜9000 files) for the West Gulf River Forecast Center takes about 3 days of computation time instead of months of manual work. To illustrate the radar precipitation database and its visualization capabilities, we present three application examples: (1) GIS-based data visualization and integration, and ArcIMS-based web visualization and publication system, (2) a spatial-temporal analysis of monsoon rainfall patterns over the Rio Grande River Basin, and (3) the potential of GIS-based radar data for distributed watershed models. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of automated techniques for radar rainfall processing and its integration with GIS-based hydrologic information systems.

  14. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions. PMID:26618763

  15. A Coupled GCM-Cloud Resolving Modeling System to Study Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiundar; Atlas, Robert; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur; Lin, Xin

    2006-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA Satellite and field campaign cloud related data sets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. Also we have implemented a Land Information System (LIS that includes the CLM and NOAH land surface models into the MMF. The Goddard MMF is based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) This modeling system has been applied and tested its performance for two different climate scenarios, El Nino (1998) and La Nina (1999). The coupled new modeling system produced more realistic propagation and intensity of tropical rainfall systems and intraseasonal oscillations, and diurnal variation of precipitation that are very difficult to forecast using even the state-of-the-art GCMs. In this talk I will present: (1) a brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes (both Microphysical and land processes) and (2) The Goddard MMF and the Major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF) and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs).

  16. Morphological study of cationic polymer-anionic surfactant complex precipitated in solution during the dilution process.

    PubMed

    Miyake, M; Kakizawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phase diagrams and the morphology of the complexes that were formed by cationic polymers, cationic cellulose (CC) and cationic dextran (CD), and by anionic surfactant-based sodium poly(oxyethylene) lauryl ether sulfate (LES). The anionic charge of the LES-based surfactants was changed by adding an amphoteric surfactant, lauryl amidopropyl betaine acetate (LPB), or a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene stearyl ether (C18EO25). We discuss the relationship between the complex aggregation process and the morphology of the precipitated complexes. The morphologies of CC complex aggregates, which precipitated during the dilution process in a model shampoo solution, changed from membranous forms to mesh-like forms by decreasing the charges of both the CC and the surfactant. Their touch on hair in the rinsing process changed from sticky to smooth and velvety, corresponding to their rheological properties. In contrast, CD complex aggregates had a membranous form and a smooth touch independently of the charges on the polymer and surfactant. These results suggested that the control of the charges of both the polymer and surfactant and the choice of polymer structure are important for excellent conditioning effects upon rinsing with shampoo. PMID:20716437

  17. Integrated Modeling of Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation and Land Processes at Satellite-Resolved Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chin, Mian; Braun, Scott; Case, Jonathan; Hou, Arthur; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Sujay; Lau, William; Matsui, Toshihisa; Miller, Tim; Santanello, Joseph, Jr.; Shi, Jainn; Starr, David; Tao, Qian; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I will present recent results from a project led at NASA/GSFC, in collaboration with NASA/MSFC and JHU, focused on the development and application of an observation-driven integrated modeling system that represents aerosol, cloud, precipitation and land processes at satellite-resolved scales. The project, known as the NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF), is funded by NASA's Modeling and Analysis Program, and leverages prior investments from the Air Force Weather Agency and NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). We define "satellite-resolved" scales as being within a typical mesoscale atmospheric modeling grid (roughly 1-25 km), although this work is designed to bridge the continuum between local (microscale), regional (mesoscale) and global (synoptic) processes. NU-WRF is a superset of the standard NCAR Advanced Research WRF model, achieved by fully integrating the GSFC Land Information System (LIS, already coupled to WRF), the WRF/Chem enabled version of the Goddard Chemistry Aerosols Radiation Transport (GOCART) model, the Goddard Satellite Data Simulation Unit (SDSU), and boundary/initial condition preprocessors for MERRA and GEOS-5 into a single software release (with source code available by agreement with NASA/GSFC). I will show examples where the full coupling between aerosol, cloud, precipitation and land processes is critical for predicting local, regional, and global water and energy cycles, including some high-impact phenomena such as floods, hurricanes, mesoscale convective systems, droughts, and monsoons.

  18. Simultaneous measurements of stable water isotopes in near-surface vapor and precipitation to constrain below-cloud processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Pascal; Sodemann, Harald; Pfahl, Stephan; Schneebeli, Marc; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Leuenberger, Andreas; Grazioli, Jacopo; Raupach, Tim; Berne, Alexis; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Present-day observations of stable water isotopes (SWI) in precipitation on monthly time scales are abundant and the processes governing the variation of SWI on these time scales have been investigated by many studies. However, also on much shorter time scales of hours mesoscale meteorological processes lead to significant variations of SWIs, which are important to understand. There are only few studies investigating the variations of SWI on this short time scale, for which, e.g., frontal dynamics, convection and cloud microphysics play an essential role. In particular, the isotopic composition of both near-surface vapor and precipitation is significantly influenced by below-cloud processes that include precipitation evaporation and isotopic exchange between falling precipitation and surrounding vapor. In this study, simultaneous measurements of SWI in near-surface vapor and precipitation with high (sub-hourly) temporal resolution in combination with observational data from radars, disdrometers, radiosondes and standard meteorological instruments are used for a detailed analysis of the relative importance of below-cloud and in-cloud (i.e., precipitation formation) processes during the course of three rain events in Switzerland in spring 2014. Periods are identified when the isotopic composition of near-surface vapor and equilibrium vapor above liquid rain drops agree and when they differ due to either evaporation of precipitation or incomplete equilibration of precipitation with surrounding vapor. These findings are verified by the supporting observational data. In addition, calculations with a simple rain-shaft model fed with observational data are compared to the actual isotopic composition of precipitation. This combination of isotope measurements and model calculations allows us to test the sensitivity of the precipitation isotope signal to rain intensity, drop-size distribution and temperature and humidity profiles.

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Steel Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafi, H. Khalid; Pal, Deepankar; Patil, Nachiket; Starr, Thomas L.; Stucker, Brent E.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical behavior and the microstructural evolution of 17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel processed using selective laser melting have been studied. Test coupons were produced from 17-4 PH stainless steel powder in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Characterization studies were carried out using mechanical testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results show that post-process heat treatment is required to obtain typically desired tensile properties. Columnar grains of smaller diameters (<2 µm) emerged within the melt pool with a mixture of martensite and retained austenite phases. It was found that the phase content of the samples is greatly influenced by the powder chemistry, processing environment, and grain diameter.

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Steel Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafi, H. Khalid; Pal, Deepankar; Patil, Nachiket; Starr, Thomas L.; Stucker, Brent E.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanical behavior and the microstructural evolution of 17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel processed using selective laser melting have been studied. Test coupons were produced from 17-4 PH stainless steel powder in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Characterization studies were carried out using mechanical testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results show that post-process heat treatment is required to obtain typically desired tensile properties. Columnar grains of smaller diameters (<2 µm) emerged within the melt pool with a mixture of martensite and retained austenite phases. It was found that the phase content of the samples is greatly influenced by the powder chemistry, processing environment, and grain diameter.

  1. Fractionation and Assimilation Processes Dominate in the Generation of Silicic Magmas from Four Kermadec Arc Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, S. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Baker, J.; Wysoczanski, R. J.; Rotella, M. D.; Millet, M.; Wright, I. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent work has shown that silicic volcanism can be abundant in intra-oceanic subduction settings, and is often associated with large explosive caldera forming eruptions. Several major petrogenic questions arise from the generation and eruption of large silicic magma bodies in such a simple subduction setting, where continental crust is absent. We have investigated the geochemistry of pyroclasts collected from four volcanoes along the Kermadec arc; a relatively young (<2 Ma) oceanic subduction zone. Raoul, Macauley and a newly discovered volcano in the northern Kermadec arc, and Healy volcano in the southern Kermadec arc have all erupted dacite-rhyolite pumice within the last 10 kyr. Examination of whole-rock, mineral and glass major and trace element chemical data shows patterns which indicate that evolved magmas are primarily generated through crystal fractionation and not by partial melting of lower crustal lithologies, particularly amphibolite. Silicic magmas and co-eruptive mafic enclaves show sub-parallel REE patterns, and crystal zonation suggests that mafic and silicic magmas are closely related, spatially and temporally. However, distinctive crystal populations in both pumice samples and plutonic xenoliths suggest that many of the crystals did not grow in the evolved magmas, but were mixed in from other sources including gabbros and tonalites. Such open system mixing is ubiquitous in magmas from the four Kermadec volcanoes. Although crystallization is the dominant process driving melt evolution in the Kermadec volcanoes, the magmatic systems are open to contributions from both newly arriving melts and previously crystallized plutonic bodies. Such contributions occur in variable proportions between magma batches, reflected by the chemical variations observed between eruption units in subaerial sequences on Raoul Island and between clustered pumice chemical compositions in dredged samples from the submarine volcanoes.

  2. Mapping dominant runoff processes: an evaluation of different approaches using similarity measures and synthetic runoff simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonetti, Manuel; Buss, Rahel; Scherrer, Simon; Margreth, Michael; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2016-07-01

    The identification of landscapes with similar hydrological behaviour is useful for runoff and flood predictions in small ungauged catchments. An established method for landscape classification is based on the concept of dominant runoff process (DRP). The various DRP-mapping approaches differ with respect to the time and data required for mapping. Manual approaches based on expert knowledge are reliable but time-consuming, whereas automatic GIS-based approaches are easier to implement but rely on simplifications which restrict their application range. To what extent these simplifications are applicable in other catchments is unclear. More information is also needed on how the different complexities of automatic DRP-mapping approaches affect hydrological simulations. In this paper, three automatic approaches were used to map two catchments on the Swiss Plateau. The resulting maps were compared to reference maps obtained with manual mapping. Measures of agreement and association, a class comparison, and a deviation map were derived. The automatically derived DRP maps were used in synthetic runoff simulations with an adapted version of the PREVAH hydrological model, and simulation results compared with those from simulations using the reference maps. The DRP maps derived with the automatic approach with highest complexity and data requirement were the most similar to the reference maps, while those derived with simplified approaches without original soil information differed significantly in terms of both extent and distribution of the DRPs. The runoff simulations derived from the simpler DRP maps were more uncertain due to inaccuracies in the input data and their coarse resolution, but problems were also linked with the use of topography as a proxy for the storage capacity of soils. The perception of the intensity of the DRP classes also seems to vary among the different authors, and a standardised definition of DRPs is still lacking. Furthermore, we argue not to use

  3. Mapping dominant runoff processes: an evaluation of different approaches using similarity measures and synthetic runoff simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonetti, M.; Buss, R.; Scherrer, S.; Margreth, M.; Zappa, M.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of landscapes with similar hydrological behaviour is useful for runoff predictions in small ungauged catchments. An established method for landscape classification is based on the concept of dominant runoff process (DRP). The various DRP mapping approaches differ with respect to the time and data required for mapping. Manual approaches based on expert knowledge are reliable but time-consuming, whereas automatic GIS-based approaches are easier to implement but rely on simplifications which restrict their application range. To what extent these simplifications are applicable in other catchments is unclear. More information is also needed on how the different complexity of automatic DRP mapping approaches affects hydrological simulations. In this paper, three automatic approaches were used to map two catchments on the Swiss Plateau. The resulting maps were compared to reference maps obtained with manual mapping. Measures of agreement and association, a class comparison and a deviation map were derived. The automatically derived DRP-maps were used in synthetic runoff simulations with an adapted version of the hydrological model PREVAH, and simulation results compared with those from simulations using the reference maps. The DRP-maps derived with the automatic approach with highest complexity and data requirement were the most similar to the reference maps, while those derived with simplified approaches without original soil information differed significantly in terms of both extent and distribution of the DRPs. The runoff simulations derived from the simpler DRP-maps were more uncertain due to inaccuracies in the input data and their coarse resolution, but problems were also linked with the use of topography as a proxy for the storage capacity of soils. The perception of the intensity of the DRP classes also seems to vary among the different authors, and a standardised definition of DRPs is still lacking. We therefore recommend not only using expert

  4. Investigation of the effect of anthropogenic pollution on typhoon precipitation and microphysical processes using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.

    2015-12-01

    This letter presents an analysis of the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on typhoon, with Usagi as an example, using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Three simulations (CTL, CLEAN, EXTREME) were designed according to the emission intensity of anthropogenic pollution. The results showed that although anthropogenic pollution did not have a clear influence on typhoon track and strength, it clearly changed precipitation, the distribution of water hydrometeors, and microphysical processes. In the CLEAN experiment, precipitation rate declined because of cloud water collected by rain decreased. Similarly, precipitation rate decreased in the EXTREME experiment, because cloud water auto-conversion to rain water was restrained. Regarding precipitation type, stratiform precipitation rate in the CLEAN and EXTREME simulations was suppressed because the ice phase microphysical processes weakened. Compared to CTL run, stratiform precipitation rate at the periphery was reduced by about 28% in CLEAN and EXTREME simulations. Moreover, convective precipitation rate annulus 140-160km in EXTREME experiment was about 33% larger than that in CTL simulation. It was triggered new convection at the periphery in EXTREME simulation due to cloud water re-evaporation. Finally, compared to the CTL experiment, rainfall peaks of convective and mixed precipitation type in the CLEAN and EXTREME experiments shifted 10km toward the typhoon periphery.

  5. A potential DSD retrieval process for dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board GPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Minda; Chandresekar, V.

    2012-11-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is poised to be the next generation precipitation monitoring system from space after the Tropical rainfall measurement (TRMM) mission. The GPM mission is centered on the deployment of a core observatory satellite with an active dual-frequency radar DPR, operating at Ku- and Ka- band. Two independent observations from DPR provide the possibility to retrieve two independent parameters from gamma drop size distribution (DSD), namely median volume diameter (D0) and scaled intercept (NW), at each resolution volume. Dual-frequency method proposed for the DPR radar can be formulated in terms of integral equations and the two DSD parameters D0 and NW can be estimated at each bin based on the assumed microphysical models of hydrometeors. One known error in the dual frequency retrievals is the dual-valued problem when retrieving D0 from DFR for rain. Rose and Chandrasekar (2006)[1], remedied the bi-valued problem by assuming a linear model with height for D0 as well as NW (in log scale) in rain. The algorithm with the linear assumption was evaluated by Le et al. (2009) [2] based on the whole vertical profile including rain, melting ice, and ice region through a hybrid method. The hybrid method combines forward retrieval by Meneghini et al (1997) [3] in frozen and melting region and the linear assumption in rain region. The retrieval process uses recursive procedure to optimize DSD parameters at the bottom of rain by constructing the cost function along the vertical profile. This retrieval algorithm is applied to tropical storm Earl, a category 4 hurricane captured by APR-2 precipitation radar during the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010.

  6. Extreme Precipitation along the Himalayan Slope - Main Processes and Long Term Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlinger, P.; Sorteberg, A.

    2014-12-01

    The precipitation climatology for the Himalayan slope is heavily influenced by the main topographic features of the region. The precipitation variability is strongly connected to variability in the large scale Indian monsoon. In Nepal the average annual precipitation ranges from a few hundred to over 5000 mm and has been shown to be strongly linked to orography.Based on daily measurements of precipitation we calculate a climatology and long term trends for 270 meteorological stations. Especially, extreme precipitation is of increasing interest due to social impacts. Therefore, we further investigate extreme events for each measurement station. Since precipitation is influenced by large scale weather situations we relate the appearance of typical synoptical patterns to corresponding occurances of extreme precipitation events. In order to form groups with similar characteristics in precipitation we performe a cluster analysis on the stations and synoptical situations revealing typical weather patterns responsible for extreme precipitation events.

  7. Multiscale Precipitation Processes Over Mountain Terrain - Landform and Vegetation Controls of Microphysics and Convection in Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Wilson, A. M.; Sun, X.; Duan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent precipitation observations in mountainous regions do not exhibit the classical orographic enhancement with elevation, especially where fog and multi-layer clouds are persistent. The role of landform in modulating moisture convergence patterns and constraining the thermodynamic environment that supports the development of complex vertical structures of clouds and precipitation is discussed first using observations and model results from the IPHEx (Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment) field campaign in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (SAM). Analysis of the complex spatial heterogeneity of precipitation microphysics in the SAM suggests that seeder-feeder interactions (SFI) among stratiform precipitation, low level clouds (LLC), and fog play a governing role on the diurnal and seasonal cycles of observed precipitation regimes. Further, in the absence of synoptic-scale forcing, results suggest that evapotranspiration makes a significant contribution to the moisture budget in the lower atmosphere, creating super-saturation conditions favorable to CCN activation, LLC formation, and light rainfall. To investigate the role of evapotranspiration on the diurnal cycle of mountain precipitation further, range-scale modeling studies were conducted in the Central Andes. Specifically, high resolution WRF simulations for realistic and quasi-idealized ET withdrawal case-studies show that evapotranspiration fluxes modulated by landform govern convective activity in the lower troposphere, including cloud formation and precipitation processes that account for daily precipitation amounts as high as 50-70% depending on synoptic conditions and season. These studies suggest multiscale vegetation controls of orographic precipitation processes via atmospheric instability on the one hand, and low level super-saturation and local microphysics on the other. A conceptual model of multiscale interactions among vegetation, landform and moist processes over complex

  8. Effectiveness of coagulation and acid precipitation processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, S

    2010-08-15

    The effectiveness of coagulation (using aluminium-based chemicals and ferrous sulfate) and acid precipitation (using H(2)SO(4)) processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor obtained from a pulp and paper mill is reported. Commercial alum was found to be the most economical among all the aluminium and ferrous salts used as a coagulant. A maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (ca. 63%) and colour reduction (ca. 90%) from the wastewater (COD = 7000 mg l(-1)) at pH 5.0 was obtained with alum. During the acid precipitation process, at pH < 5.0, significant COD reductions (up to 64%) were observed. Solid residue obtained from the alum treatment at a temperature of 95 degrees C showed much better (3 times) settling rate than that for the residue obtained after treatment with the same coagulant at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The settling curves had three parts, namely, hindered, transition and compression zones. Tory plots were used to determine the critical height of suspension-supernatant interface that is used in the design of a clarifier-thickener unit. High heating values and large biomass fraction of the solid residues can encourage the fuel users to use this waste derived sludge as a potential renewable energy source. PMID:20430523

  9. Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil- CHUVA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, C. F.; Sakuragi, J.; Vila, D. A.; Carvalho, I.; Schneebeli, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project CHUVA (Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM) is been carrying and its main goal is understand the physical processes involved on the precipitating systems which occur over Brazil. The project plans the setting up of a series of instruments in different parts of Brazil and so far many instruments had been deployed over the three field campaigns. Among the instruments, a dual polarization X band radar, two micro rain radars, a multi-channel ground radiometer, disdrometers, pluviometers are the more important equipments used to collect rainfall information from both: warn and cold clouds. Preliminary results show evident differences in some cloud microphysics observed in different rain events during the campaigns. Besides, rainfall maps produced by the radar data were compared to those similar maps produced by satellite. The X band radar radome, when wet, imposed some attenuation on the radar reflectivities values and an algorithm to compensate such attenuation had been developed based on data observed by disdrometers and micro rain radars. The preliminary results will be shown during the conference and it is expected that the community could discuss and evaluate them under the light of the GPM purposes.

  10. New, Improved Goddard Bulk-Microphysical Schemes for Studying Precipitation Processes in WRF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    An improved bulk microphysical parameterization is implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting ()VRF) model. This bulk microphysical scheme has three different options, 2ICE (cloud ice & snow), 3ICE-graupel (cloud ice, snow & graupel) and 3ICE-hail (cloud ice, snow & hail). High-resolution model simulations are conducted to examine the impact of microphysical schemes on two different weather events (a midlatitude linear convective system and an Atlantic hurricane). The results suggest that microphysics has a major impact on the organization and precipitation processes associated with a summer midlatitude convective line system. The Goddard 3ICE scheme with a cloud ice-snow-hail configuration agreed better with observations in terms of rainfall intensity and a narrow convective line than did simulations with a cloud ice-snow-graupel or cloud ice-snow (i.e., 2ICE) configuration. This is because the 3ICE-hail scheme includes dense ice precipitating (hail) particle with very fast fall speed (over 10 in For an Atlantic hurricane case, the Goddard microphysical schemes had no significant impact on the track forecast but did affect the intensity slightly. The improved Goddard schemes are also compared with WRF's three other 3ICE bulk microphysical schemes: WSM6, Purdue-Lin and Thompson. For the summer midlatitude convective line system, all of the schemes resulted in simulated precipitation events that were elongated in the southwest-northeast direction in qualitative agreement with the observed feature. However, the Goddard 3ICE scheme with the hail option and the Thompson scheme agree better with observations in terms of rainfall intensity, expect that the Goddard scheme simulated more heavy rainfall (over 48 mm/h). For the Atlantic hurricane case, none of the schemes had a significant impact on the track forecast; however, the simulated intensity using the Purdue-Lin scheme was much stronger than the other schemes. The vertical distributions of model

  11. Studying Precipitation Processes in WRF with Goddard Bulk Microphysics in Comparison with Other Microphysical Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.K.; Shi, J.J.; Braun, S.; Simpson, J.; Chen, S.S.; Lang, S.; Hong, S.Y.; Thompson, G.; Peters-Lidard, C.

    2009-01-01

    A Goddard bulk microphysical parameterization is implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This bulk microphysical scheme has three different options, 2ICE (cloud ice & snow), 3ICE-graupel (cloud ice, snow & graupel) and 3ICE-hail (cloud ice, snow & hail). High-resolution model simulations are conducted to examine the impact of microphysical schemes on different weather events: a midlatitude linear convective system and an Atlantic hurricane. The results suggest that microphysics has a major impact on the organization and precipitation processes associated with a summer midlatitude convective line system. The Goddard 3ICE scheme with the cloud ice-snow-hail configuration agreed better with observations ill of rainfall intensity and having a narrow convective line than did simulations with the cloud ice-snow-graupel and cloud ice-snow (i.e., 2ICE) configurations. This is because the Goddard 3ICE-hail configuration has denser precipitating ice particles (hail) with very fast fall speeds (over 10 m/s) For an Atlantic hurricane case, the Goddard microphysical scheme (with 3ICE-hail, 3ICE-graupel and 2ICE configurations) had no significant impact on the track forecast but did affect the intensity slightly. The Goddard scheme is also compared with WRF's three other 3ICE bulk microphysical schemes: WSM6, Purdue-Lin and Thompson. For the summer midlatitude convective line system, all of the schemes resulted in simulated precipitation events that were elongated in southwest-northeast direction in qualitative agreement with the observed feature. However, the Goddard 3ICE-hail and Thompson schemes were closest to the observed rainfall intensities although the Goddard scheme simulated more heavy rainfall (over 48 mm/h). For the Atlantic hurricane case, none of the schemes had a significant impact on the track forecast; however, the simulated intensity using the Purdue-Lin scheme was much stronger than the other schemes. The vertical distributions of

  12. The relationship between latent heating, vertical velocity, and precipitation processes: The impact of aerosols on precipitation in organized deep convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen

    2016-06-01

    A high-resolution, two-dimensional cloud-resolving model with spectral-bin microphysics is used to study the impact of aerosols on precipitation processes in both a tropical oceanic and a midlatitude continental squall line with regard to three processes: latent heating (LH), cold pool dynamics, and ice microphysics. Evaporative cooling in the lower troposphere is found to enhance rainfall in low cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration scenarios in the developing stages of a midlatitude convective precipitation system. In contrast, the tropical case produced more rainfall under high CCN concentrations. Both cold pools and low-level convergence are stronger for those configurations having enhanced rainfall. Nevertheless, latent heat release is stronger (especially after initial precipitation) in the scenarios having more rainfall in both the tropical and midlatitude environment. Sensitivity tests are performed to examine the impact of ice and evaporative cooling on the relationship between aerosols, LH, and precipitation processes. The results show that evaporative cooling is important for cold pool strength and rain enhancement in both cases. However, ice microphysics play a larger role in the midlatitude case compared to the tropics. Detailed analysis of the vertical velocity-governing equation shows that temperature buoyancy can enhance updrafts/downdrafts in the middle/lower troposphere in the convective core region; however, the vertical pressure gradient force (PGF) is of the same order and acts in the opposite direction. Water loading is small but of the same order as the net PGF-temperature buoyancy forcing. The balance among these terms determines the intensity of convection.

  13. Strong and Biostable Hyaluronic Acid-Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite Hydrogel via in Situ Precipitation Process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seol-Ha; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Suk-Wha; Park, Ji-Ung; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha

    2016-03-14

    Hyaluronic acid (HAc) hydrogel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, but it has limited biomedical application due to its poor biomechanical properties as well as too-fast enzymatic degradation. In this study, we have developed an in situ precipitation process for the fabrication of a HAc-calcium phosphate nanocomposite hydrogel, after the formation of the glycidyl methacrylate-conjugated HAc (GMHA) hydrogels via photo-cross-linking, to improve the mechanical and biological properties under physiological conditions. In particular, our process facilitates the rapid incorporation of calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles of uniform size and with minimal agglomeration into a polymer matrix, homogeneously. Compared with pure HAc, the nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit improved mechanical behavior. Specifically, the shear modulus is improved by a factor of 4. The biostability of the nanocomposite hydrogel was also significantly improved compared with that of pure HAc hydrogels under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:26878437

  14. Process Optimization of Seed Precipitation Tank with Multiple Impellers Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-Liang; Lv, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ting-An

    2015-07-01

    The complex fluid flow in a large-scale tank stirred with multiple Ekato Intermig impellers used in the seed precipitation process was numerically analyzed by the computational fluid dynamics method. The flow field, liquid-solid mixing, and power consumption were simulated by adopting the Eulerian granular multiphase model and standard k- ɛ turbulence model. A steady multiple reference frame approach was used to represent impeller rotation. The simulated results showed that the five-stage multiple Intermig impeller coupled with sloped baffles could generate circulation loops in axial, which is good for solid uniform mixing. The fluid is overmixed under the current industrial condition. Compared with the current process conditions, a three-stage impeller with L/ D of 1.25 not only could meet the industrial requirements, but also more than 20% power could be saved. The results have important implications for reliable design and optimal performance for industry.

  15. Development and Demonstration of a Sulfate Precipitation Process for Hanford Waste Tank 241-AN-107

    SciTech Connect

    SK Fiskum; DE Kurath; BM Rapko

    2000-08-16

    A series of precipitation experiments were conducted on Hanford waste tank 241-AN-107 samples in an effort to remove sulfate from the matrix. Calcium nitrate was added directly to AN-107 sub-samples to yield several combinations of Ca:CO{sub 3} mole ratios spanning a range of 0:1 to 3:1 to remove carbonate as insoluble CaCO{sub 3}. Similarly barium nitrate was added directly to the AN-107 aliquots, or to the calcium pretreated AN-107 aliquots, giving of Ba:SO{sub 4} mole ratios spanning a range of 1:1 to 5:1 to precipitate sulfate as BaSO{sub 4}. Initial bulk carbonate removal was required for successful follow-on barium sulfate precipitation. A {ge} 1:1 mole ratio of Ca:CO{sub 3} was found to lower the carbonate concentration such that Ba would react preferentially with the sulfate. A follow-on 1:1 mole ratio of Ba:SO{sub 4} resulted in 70% sulfate removal. The experiment was scaled up with a 735-mL aliquot of AN-107 for more complete testing. Calcium carbonate and barium sulfate settling rates were determined and fates of selected cations, anions, and radionuclides were followed through the various process steps. Seventy percent of the sulfate was removed in the scale-up test while recovering 63% of the filtrate volume. Surprisingly, during the scale-up test a sub-sample of the CaCO{sub 3}/241-AN-107 slurry was found to lose fluidity upon standing for {le} 2 days. Metathesis with BaCO{sub 3} at ambient temperature was also evaluated using batch contacts at various BaCO{sub 3}:SO{sub 4} mole ratios with no measurable success.

  16. Describing the catchment-averaged precipitation as a stochastic process improves parameter and input estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, Dario; Albert, Carlo; Rieckermann, Jörg; Reichert, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall input uncertainty is one of the major concerns in hydrological modeling. Unfortunately, during inference, input errors are usually neglected, which can lead to biased parameters and implausible predictions. Rainfall multipliers can reduce this problem but still fail when the observed input (precipitation) has a different temporal pattern from the true one or if the true nonzero input is not detected. In this study, we propose an improved input error model which is able to overcome these challenges and to assess and reduce input uncertainty. We formulate the average precipitation over the watershed as a stochastic input process (SIP) and, together with a model of the hydrosystem, include it in the likelihood function. During statistical inference, we use "noisy" input (rainfall) and output (runoff) data to learn about the "true" rainfall, model parameters, and runoff. We test the methodology with the rainfall-discharge dynamics of a small urban catchment. To assess its advantages, we compare SIP with simpler methods of describing uncertainty within statistical inference: (i) standard least squares (LS), (ii) bias description (BD), and (iii) rainfall multipliers (RM). We also compare two scenarios: accurate versus inaccurate forcing data. Results show that when inferring the input with SIP and using inaccurate forcing data, the whole-catchment precipitation can still be realistically estimated and thus physical parameters can be "protected" from the corrupting impact of input errors. While correcting the output rather than the input, BD inferred similarly unbiased parameters. This is not the case with LS and RM. During validation, SIP also delivers realistic uncertainty intervals for both rainfall and runoff. Thus, the technique presented is a significant step toward better quantifying input uncertainty in hydrological inference. As a next step, SIP will have to be combined with a technique addressing model structure uncertainty.

  17. Aerosol-radiation-cloud and precipitation processes during dust events (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallos, G. B.; Solomos, S.; Kushta, J.; Mitsakou, C.; Athanasiadis, P.; Spyrou, C.; Tremback, C.

    2010-12-01

    In places like the Mediterranean region where anthropogenic aerosols coexist with desert dust the aerosol-radiation-cloud processes are rather complicated. The mixture of different age of air pollutants of anthropogenic origin with Saharan dust and sea salt may lead to the formation of other particles with different characteristics. The mixture of the aerosols and gases from anthropogenic and natural origin (desert dust and sea salt) results in the formation of new types of PM with different physico-chemical properties and especially hygroscopicity (e.g. inside clouds or within the marine boundary layer) through heterogeneous processes. The new particle formation has different characteristics and therefore they have different impacts on cloud formation and precipitation. In an attempt to better understand links and feedbacks between air pollution and climate the new Integrated Community Limited Area Modeling System - ICLAMS has been developed. ICLAMS is an enhanced version of RAMS.v6 modeling system. It includes sub-models for the dust and sea salt cycles, gas and aqueous phase chemistry, gas to particle conversion and heterogeneous chemistry processes. All these processes are directly coupled with meteorology. RAMS has an explicit cloud microphysical scheme with eight categories of hydrometeors. The cloud droplets spectrum is explicitly calculated from model meteorology and prognostic CCN and IN properties (total number concentration, size distribution properties and chemical composition). Sulphate coated dust particles are efficient CCN because of their increased hygroscopicity while uncoated dust particles are efficient IN. The photochemical processes are directly linked to the RAMS radiative transfer scheme, which in the new model is RRTM. Absorption of short wave solar radiation from airborne dust leads to heating of the dust layer which can also affect the cloud processes. Mid and low tropospheric warming by dust is one of the new features that the model can

  18. Figure-Background Perception and Cerebral Dominance: Hypothesized Integrated Process of Hemispheric Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Vezio; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis was that the two hemispheres have different functions in normal vision, the dominant one analyzing the "figure," and the nondominant the "background." The investigation examined responses of 41 female psychology students. Results were consistent with the hypothesis. (Author/RD)

  19. Deuterium and oxygen 18 in precipitation: Isotropic model, including mixed cloud processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ciais, P.; Jouzel, J.

    1994-08-01

    Modeling the isotropic ratios of precipitation in cold regions meets the problem of `switching` from the vapor-liquid transition to the vapor-ice transition at the oneset of snow formation. The one-dimensional model (mixed cloud isotopic model (MCIM)) described in this paper focuses on the fractionation of water isotopes in mixed clouds, where both liquid droplets and ice crystals can coexist for a given range of temperatures. This feature is linked to the existence of specific saturation conditions within the cloud, allowing droplets to evaporate while the water vapor condensates onto ice crystals. The isotopic composition of the different airborne phases and the precipitation is calculated throughout the condensation history of an isolated air mass moving over the Antarctic ice sheet. The results of the MCIM are compared to surface snow data both for the isotopic ratios and the deuterium excesses. The sensitivity of the model is compared to previous one-dimensional models. Our main result is that accounting specifically for the microphysics of mixed stratiform clouds (Bergeron-Findesein process) does not invalidate the results of earlier modeling studies.

  20. An innovative antisolvent precipitation process as a promising technique to prepare ultrafine rifampicin particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viçosa, Alessandra; Letourneau, Jean-Jacques; Espitalier, Fabienne; Inês Ré, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Many existing and new drugs fail to be fully utilized because of their limited bioavailability due to poor solubility in aqueous media (BCS drug classes II and IV). In this work, for accelerating dissolution of this kind of poorly water-soluble drugs, an antisolvent precipitation method that does not require the use of conventional volatile organic solvents is proposed. To demonstrate this technique, ultrafine particles of rifampicin were prepared using a room temperature ionic liquid (1-ethyl 3- methyl imidazolium methyl-phosphonate) as an alternative solvent and a phosphate buffer as an antisolvent. Rifampicin solubility was measured in various solvents (1-ethyl 3-methyl imidazolium methylphosphonate, water and phosphate buffer), showing the RTIL good solvency for the model drug: rifampicin solubility was found to be higher than 90 mg/g in RTIL at 30 °C and lower than 1 mg/g in water at 25 °C. Additionally, it was demonstrated that introduction of rifampicin solution in 1-ethyl 3- methyl imidazolium methyl-phosphonate into the aqueous solution antisolvent can produce particles in the submicron range with or without hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as the stabilizer. The ultrafine particles (280-360 nm) are amorphous with enhanced solubility and faster dissolution rate. To our knowledge, this is the first published work examining the suitability of using RTILs for ultrafine drug nanoparticles preparation by an antisolvent precipitation process.

  1. Quantifying dominance of intra-storm phase of interception process by small isolated canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerk, Walter; Montalto, Franco

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation interception by vegetation canopies has long been recognized as a major component of the hydrologic cycle; however, historically most research has been dedicated to closed or sparse canopy forests. The goal of our research was to quantify rainfall partitioning by small isolated canopies in an urban setting. The field experiment involved small forms of four shrub species (Prunus laurocerasus, Cornus sericea, Itea virginica and Hydrangea quercifolia) with crown heights 40 - 80 cm and diameters 35 - 60 cm. Each plant had ten rain gauges to measure throughfall with a sampling frequency of 5 seconds. An on-site automated weather station provided meteorological data. Leaf area index (LAI) was measured by manual counting. We estimated the canopy storage capacities of all four species to be less than 0.5 mm. The obtained data showed statistically significant differences in interception properties among all four species, except between Cornus and Itea. Cumulative interception loss for the period of August-December 2013 was 10% for Cornus, 16% for Itea, 29% for Hydrangea, and 49% for Prunus. The observations revealed a weak relationship between interception abilities and LAI for all four species. Throughfall and precipitation intensities (mm/hr) expressed very strong linear relationship (adjusted coefficients of determination were from 0.80 to 0.95) for the entire range of observed rainfall intensities. For Cornus the ratio of throughfall to precipitation intensity was close to 0.93:1, for Itea it was 0.82:1. The ratios were lesser for Hydrangea (0.65:1), and especially for Prunus (0.48:1). Therefore we show that reduced by the canopy, throughfall intensity results in the bulk of precipitation depth intercepted during the rain events. In contrast, the amount of water stored on the canopy and evaporated between and after rain events contributes minimally to interception. Simulations of potential evaporation based on the Penman-Monteith method showed a large

  2. Temperature controls on sediment production in the Oregon Coast Range - abiotic frost-cracking processes vs. biotic-dominated processes over the last 40 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Roering, J. J.; Praskievicz, S. J.; Hales, T. C.; Gavin, D. G.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Oregon Coast Range (OCR) is a mid-latitude soil-mantled landscape wherein measured uplift rates are broadly consistent with long-term measured erosion rates. The OCR was unglaciated during the last glacial period (~ 26 to 13 ka) and therefore is considered an ideal steady-state landscape to study and model geomorphic processes. However, previously published paleoclimate data inferred from a 42 ka paleolake fossil archive in the OCR Little Lake watershed (3 km2) strongly suggest that temperatures in the OCR during the last glacial were well within the frost cracking temperature window of -3 to -8 °C. Therefore, we suggest that while present-day OCR sediment production is dominated by biota, specifically trees, frost-driven abiotic processes may have played a significant role in modulating erosion rates and landscape evolution during the last glacial interval. A new sediment core from the Little Lake basin at the lake's edge, centered proximal to hillslopes, spans ~ 50 ka to 20 ka. We observe a fourfold increase in sediment accumulation rates from the non-glacial interval (~50 ka to ~ 26 ka) to the last glacial interval (~ 26 ka to ~ 20 ka), including > 12 m of sediment from the last glacial maximum, dated at 23,062 - 23,581 cal yr B.P. The decreased inferred temperatures and increased sedimentation rates suggest increased sediment production and transport via frost processes during the last glacial interval, in contrast to sediment production and erosion rates controlled by biotic processes in the non-glacial intervals. We present a climate-time series scenario of likely frost-cracking intensity across the entire Oregon Coast Range from the non-glacial interval (at least 3 °C cooler than present-day temperatures) through the glacial interval (7 to 14 °C cooler) and into the Holocene (January temperatures ~ 5 °C). We use the PRISM dataset, which consists of monthly temperature and precipitation for the contiguous United States, to calculate local monthly

  3. PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF URANIUM AND VANADIUM FROM CARBONATE SOLUTIONS BY REDUCTION-PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, D.A.; Lindblom, R.O.

    1957-09-24

    A process employing carbonate leaching of ores and an advantageous methcd of recovering the uranium and vanadium from the leach solution is described. The uranium and vanadium can be precipitated from carbonate leach solutions by reaction with sodium amalgam leaving the leach solution in such a condition that it is economical to replenish for recycling. Such a carbonate leach solution is treated with a dilute sodium amalgam having a sodium concentration within a range of about 0.01 to 0.5% of sodium. Efficiency of the treatment is dependent on at least three additional factors, intimacy of contact of the amalgam with the leach solution, rate of addition of the amalgam and exclusion of oxygen (air).

  4. Process parameters and morphology in puerarin, phospholipids and their complex microparticles generation by supercritical antisolvent precipitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Yang, Da-Jian; Chen, Shi-Lin; Chen, Si-Bao; Chan, Albert Sun-Chi

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a new method for the production of puerarin phospholipids complex (PPC) microparticles. The advanced particle formation method, solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS), was used for the preparation of puerarin (Pur), phospholipids (PC) and their complex particles for the first time. Evaluation of the processing variables on PPC particle characteristics was also conducted. The processing variables included temperature, pressure, solution concentration, the flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and the relative flow rate of drug solution to CO2. The morphology, particle size and size distribution of the particles were determined. Meanwhile Pur and phospholipids were separately prepared by gas antisolvent precipitation (GAS) method and solid characterization of particles by the two supercritical methods was also compared. Pur formed by GAS was more orderly, purer crystal, whereas amorphous Pur particles between 0.5 and 1microm were formed by SEDS. The complex was successfully obtained by SEDS exhibiting amorphous, partially agglomerated spheres comprised of particles sized only about 1microm. SEDS method may be useful for the processing of other pharmaceutical preparations besides phospholipids complex particles. Furthermore adopting a GAS process to recrystallize pharmaceuticals will provide a highly versatile methodology to generate new polymorphs of drugs in addition to conventional techniques. PMID:18440736

  5. Using Multi-scale Modeling Systems to Study the Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    Numerical cloud models, which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Because cloud-scale dynamics are treated explicitly, uncertainties stemming from convection that have to be parameterized in (hydrostatic) large-scale models are obviated, or at least mitigated, in cloud models. Global models will use the non-hydrostatic framework when their horizontal resolution becomes about 10 km, the theoretical limit for the hydrostatic approximation. This juncture will be reached one to two decades from now. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (CRM), (2) a regional scale model, (3) a coupled CRM and global model, and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloudland surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols will be presented.

  6. Barotropic processes associated with the development of the Mei-yu precipitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tingting; Li, Xiaofan

    2016-05-01

    The barotropic processes associated with the development of a precipitation system are investigated through analysis of cloud-resolving model simulations of Mei-yu torrential rainfall events over eastern China in mid-June 2011. During the model integration period, there were three major heavy rainfall events: 9-12, 13-16 and 16-20 June. The kinetic energy is converted from perturbation to mean circulations in the first and second period, whereas it is converted from mean to perturbation circulations in the third period. Further analysis shows that kinetic energy conversion is determined by vertical transport of zonal momentum. Thus, the prognostic equation of vertical transport of zonal momentum is derived, in which its tendency is associated with dynamic, pressure gradient and buoyancy processes. The kinetic energy conversion from perturbation to mean circulations in the first period is mainly associated with the dynamic processes. The kinetic energy conversion from mean to perturbation circulations in the third period is generally related to the pressure gradient processes.

  7. The mechanism underlying calcium phosphate precipitation on titanium via ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared laser-assisted biomimetic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, Moumita; Nakamura, Maki; Pyatenko, Alexander; Sakamaki, Ikuko; Koga, Kenji; Oyane, Ayako

    2016-08-01

    We recently developed a rapid single-step calcium phosphate (CaP) precipitation technique on several substrates using a laser-assisted biomimetic process (LAB process). In this process, ultraviolet (UV, λ  =  355 nm) pulsed laser irradiation has been applied to a substrate that is immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution. In the present study, the LAB process for CaP precipitation on a titanium substrate was successfully expanded to include not only UV but also visible (VIS, λ  =  532 nm) and near infrared (NIR, λ  =  1064 nm) lasers. Surface heating and plasma-mediated surface reactions (micro-deformation, oxidization, photoexcitation, and wetting) generated by UV, VIS, or NIR lasers are considered to be involved in the CaP precipitation on the titanium surface in the LAB process. The kinetics of these reactions and consequently of CaP precipitation were dependent on the laser wavelength and fluence. The higher laser fluence did not always accelerate CaP precipitation on the substrate; rather, it was found that an optimal range of fluence exists for each laser wavelength. These results suggest that for efficient CaP precipitation, a suitable laser wavelength should be selected according to the optical absorption properties of the substrate material and the laser fluence should also be adjusted to induce surface heating and plasma-mediated surface reactions that are favorable for CaP precipitation.

  8. Off-shell suppressions and two body radiative processes in a vector dominance model

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, A.; Bagchi, B.; Gautam, V.P.; Nandy, A.

    1980-08-01

    The radiative decays of rho,K*, omega and phi are studied in a one-parameter vector dominance model by introducing corrections for the off-shell vector meson-photon coupling constants. It is found that off-shell values rho and omega are suppressed by 1/1.5 while off-shell phi is suppressed by 1/1.9 compared with their on-shell values. In addition, we have also considered P ..-->.. ..gamma.. ..gamma.. decays and sigma/sub tot/ (VP), and found generally good agreement with the available data.

  9. Linear Friction Welding Process Model for Carpenter Custom 465 Precipitation-Hardened Martensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Yavari, R.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2014-06-01

    An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-element analysis is combined with thermo-mechanical material constitutive models for Carpenter Custom 465 precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel to develop a linear friction welding (LFW) process model for this material. The main effort was directed toward developing reliable material constitutive models for Carpenter Custom 465 and toward improving functional relations and parameterization of the workpiece/workpiece contact-interaction models. The LFW process model is then used to predict thermo-mechanical response of Carpenter Custom 465 during LFW. Specifically, temporal evolutions and spatial distribution of temperature within, and expulsion of the workpiece material from, the weld region are examined as a function of the basic LFW process parameters, i.e., (a) contact-pressure history, (b) reciprocation frequency, and (c) reciprocation amplitude. Examination of the results obtained clearly revealed the presence of three zones within the weld, i.e., (a) Contact-interface region, (b) Thermo-mechanically affected zone, and (c) heat-affected zone. While there are no publicly available reports related to Carpenter Custom 465 LFW behavior, to allow an experiment/computation comparison, these findings are consistent with the results of our ongoing companion experimental investigation.

  10. Design of a continuous process setup for precipitated calcium carbonate production from steel converter slag.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2014-03-01

    A mineral carbonation process "slag2PCC" for carbon capture, utilization, and storage is discussed. Ca is extracted from steel slag by an ammonium salt solvent and carbonated with gaseous CO2 after the separation of the residual slag. The solvent is reused after regeneration. The effects of slag properties such as the content of free lime, fractions of Ca, Si, Fe, and V, particle size, and slag storage on the Ca extraction efficiency are studied. Small particles with a high free-lime content and minor fractions of Si and V are the most suitable. To limit the amount of impurities in the process, the slag-to-liquid ratio should remain below a certain value, which depends on the slag composition. Also, the design of a continuous test setup (total volume ∼75 L) is described, which enables quick process variations needed to adapt the system to the varying slag quality. Different precipitated calcium carbonate crystals (calcite and vaterite) are generated in different parts of the setup. PMID:24578147

  11. Measurements of temporal and spatial sequences of events in periodic precipitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Shoichi; Müller, Stefan C.; Ross, John

    1982-02-01

    A series of new experiments on Liesegang ring (or band) formation is presented which is concerned with the temporal and spatial evolution of the process of structure formation. We have chosen NH4OH and MgSO4 to form rings of Mg(OH)2 precipitate in a gelatin gel, as well as KI and Pb(NO3)2 for periodic precipitation of PbI2 in an agar gel. A temporal sequence of events during the entire period from the start of a Liesegang experiment in a test tube to the completion of the final ring pattern has been determined at many locations in the tube by visual observations and by measurements of transmitted light, of scattered light, of deflection of the transmitted light beam, and of gravity effects. After diffusion of one electrolyte into the gel medium containing the second electrolyte results in an ion product larger than three times the solubility product, at any and all points in space, we observe the onset of homogeneous nucleation of colloidal particles by a steplike increase of the index of refraction. The colloid concentration and the particle number density at the nucleation site are estimated to be 10-2 mol/l and 1015 to 1016 cm-3, respectively. Nucleation is followed by the growth of colloidal particles which gives rise to distinct light scattering (turbidity). Both nucleation and colloid formation take place in space continuously; the fronts of these phenomena move through the system and obey a simple diffusion law. A substantial time interval after their passage, there arises a localized gradient of the index of refraction at the prospective ring positions which indicates onset of structure formation by means of a focusing mechanism. While the localized gradient becomes more pronounced and narrower in space, the turbidity in the regions on either side of the ring location decreases, which indicates a depletion in colloidal material in the neighboring zones. Eventually, a sharp band of visible precipitate appears, which is clearly separated from the preceding

  12. NEXRAD quantitative precipitation estimates, data acquisition, and processing for the DuPage County, Illinois, streamflow-simulation modeling system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortel, Terry W.; Spies, Ryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) has become an integral component in the estimation of precipitation (Kitzmiller and others, 2013). The high spatial and temporal resolution of NEXRAD has revolutionized the ability to estimate precipitation across vast regions, which is especially beneficial in areas without a dense rain-gage network. With the improved precipitation estimates, hydrologic models can produce reliable streamflow forecasts for areas across the United States. NEXRAD data from the National Weather Service (NWS) has been an invaluable tool used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for numerous projects and studies; NEXRAD data processing techniques similar to those discussed in this Fact Sheet have been developed within the USGS, including the NWS Quantitative Precipitation Estimates archive developed by Blodgett (2013).

  13. A continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H

    2010-02-15

    Rapid and homogeneous mixing of the solvent and antisolvent is critical to achieve submicron drug particles by antisolvent precipitation technique. This work aims to develop a continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs with spironolactone as a model drug. Continuous antisolvent production of drug nanoparticles was carried out with a SMV DN25 static mixer comprising 6-18 mixing elements. The total flow rate ranged from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min while the flow rate ratio of solvent to antisolvent was maintained at 1:9. It is found that only 6 mixing elements were sufficient to precipitate the particles in the submicron range. Increasing the number of elements would further reduce the precipitated particle size. Increasing flow rate from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min did not further reduce the particle size, while higher drug concentrations led to particle size increase. XRD and SEM results demonstrated that the freshly precipitated drug nanoparticles are in the amorphous state, which would, in presence of the mixture of solvent and antisolvent, change to crystalline form in short time. The lyophilized spironolactone nanoparticles with lactose as lyoprotectant possessed good redispersibility and showed 6.6 and 3.3 times faster dissolution rate than that of lyophilized raw drug formulation in 5 and 10 min, respectively. The developed static mixing process exhibits high potential for continuous and large-scale antisolvent precipitation of submicron drug particles. PMID:19922777

  14. Effects of acid precipitation and natural processes on cation leaching from four diverse forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Van Miegroet, H.; Cole, D.W.; Richter, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Four forest ecosystems (two in eastern Tennessee and two in western Washington) with a history of intensive nutrient cycling research were selected for studies on the effects of acid precipitation and natural acid production processes on cation leaching rates. At the Tennessee sites, atmospheric acid input in bulk precipitation equaled or exceeded natural leaching by carbonic acid. At the less polluted Washington sites, natural leaching by carbonic acid was slightly larger than atmospheric acid input in the Douglas-fir soil. In the red alder soil, natural nitric acid formation far exceeded atmospheric acid inputs and appeared to have caused significant acidification of both soil and soil solution. The mobility of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ in these four soils was a major factor in their relative susceptibilities to leaching by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ entering from the atmosphere. In two of the sites (chestnut oak in Tennessee and red alder in Washington), SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ adsorption reduced the potential for sulfate-mediated leaching by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ by as much as one-half. Biological immobilization of NO/sub 3//sup -/ prevented leaching in all but the N-fixing red alder site. Both field and laboratory soil column studies involving artificial additions of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ verified the concept that cation leaching is controlled by the mobility of the associated anion.

  15. Visualization of GPM Standard Products at the Precipitation Processing System (PPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, O.

    2010-12-01

    Many of the standard data products for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites will be generated at and distributed by the Precipitation Processing System (PPS) at NASA Goddard. PPS will provide several means to visualize these data products. These visualization tools will be used internally by PPS analysts to investigate potential anomalies in the data files, and these tools will also be made available to researchers. Currently, a free data viewer called THOR, the Tool for High-resolution Observation Review, can be downloaded and installed on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems. THOR can display swath and grid products, and to a limited degree, the low-level data packets that the satellite itself transmits to the ground system. Observations collected since the 1997 launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite can be downloaded from the PPS FTP archive, and in the future, many of the GPM standard products will also be available from this FTP site. To provide easy access to this 80 terabyte and growing archive, PPS currently operates an on-line ordering tool called STORM that provides geographic and time searches, browse-image display, and the ability to order user-specified subsets of standard data files. Prior to the anticipated 2013 launch of the GPM core satellite, PPS will expand its visualization tools by integrating an on-line version of THOR within STORM to provide on-the-fly image creation of any portion of an archived data file at a user-specified degree of magnification. PPS will also provide OpenDAP access to the data archive and OGC WMS image creation of both swath and gridded data products. During the GPM era, PPS will continue to provide realtime globally-gridded 3-hour rainfall estimates to the public in a compact binary format (3B42RT) and in a GIS format (2-byte TIFF images + ESRI WorldFiles).

  16. Mission Operations Center (MOC) - Precipitation Processing System (PPS) Interface Software System (MPISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, Jeffrey; Calk, William; Atwell, William; Tsui, Tina

    2013-01-01

    MPISS is an automatic file transfer system that implements a combination of standard and mission-unique transfer protocols required by the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) Precipitation Processing System (PPS) to control the flow of data between the MOC and the PPS. The primary features of MPISS are file transfers (both with and without PPS specific protocols), logging of file transfer and system events to local files and a standard messaging bus, short term storage of data files to facilitate retransmissions, and generation of file transfer accounting reports. The system includes a graphical user interface (GUI) to control the system, allow manual operations, and to display events in real time. The PPS specific protocols are an enhanced version of those that were developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). All file transfers between the MOC and the PPS use the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). For reports and data files generated within the MOC, no additional protocols are used when transferring files to the PPS. For observatory data files, an additional handshaking protocol of data notices and data receipts is used. MPISS generates and sends to the PPS data notices containing data start and stop times along with a checksum for the file for each observatory data file transmitted. MPISS retrieves the PPS generated data receipts that indicate the success or failure of the PPS to ingest the data file and/or notice. MPISS retransmits the appropriate files as indicated in the receipt when required. MPISS also automatically retrieves files from the PPS. The unique feature of this software is the use of both standard and PPS specific protocols in parallel. The advantage of this capability is that it supports users that require the PPS protocol as well as those that do not require it. The system is highly configurable to accommodate the needs of future users.

  17. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1960-04-01

    A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

  18. Modeling wildfire impact on hydrologic processes using the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, R. J.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    As large magnitude wildfires persist across the western United States, understanding their impact on hydrologic behavior and predicting regional streamflow response is increasingly important. Sediment and debris flows, as well as elevated flood levels in burned watersheds are often addressed, but wildfires also alter the timing and overall volume of both short and long-term runoff, making the prediction of post-fire streamflow critical for water resources management. Watershed models are a powerful tool for both representing wildfire runoff response and discerning the processes that induce that response. In the current study, selected wildfire-impacted basins across the western United States are modeled using the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) in order to develop a generalized approach. This distributed-parameter, physical process based watershed model allows us to target specific processes, while still having the flexibility to account for uncertainty and complex physical interactions that are not explicitly represented in model parameterization. Two change detection modeling approaches are considered. First, models calibrated using pre-fire data are applied to the post-fire period and residuals between simulated and observed flow are examined to quantify the response in each specific watershed. Here an analysis of the model's ability to detect long-term response is also presented. Second, the post-fire conditions are modeled by adjusting appropriate parameters, and the parameter differences are used to guide process learning. In this latter method, parameters are specifically tailored to represent processes affected by wildfire, and scenarios with different parameter interactions are statistically compared. The results of these analyses are synthesized to provide a framework for predicting wildfire runoff response using PRMS, which will ultimately empower water resource decisions.

  19. A novel electrochemical process for the recovery and recycling of ferric chloride from precipitation sludge.

    PubMed

    Mejia Likosova, E; Keller, J; Poussade, Y; Freguia, S

    2014-03-15

    During wastewater treatment and drinking water production, significant amounts of ferric sludge (comprising ferric oxy-hydroxides and FePO4) are generated that require disposal. This practice has a major impact on the overall treatment cost as a result of both chemical addition and the disposal of the generated chemical sludge. Iron sulfide (FeS) precipitation via sulfide addition to ferric phosphate (FePO4) sludge has been proven as an effective process for phosphate recovery. In turn, iron and sulfide could potentially be recovered from the FeS sludge, and recycled back to the process. In this work, a novel process was investigated at lab scale for the recovery of soluble iron and sulfide from FeS sludge. Soluble iron is regenerated electrochemically at a graphite anode, while sulfide is recovered at the cathode of the same electrochemical cell. Up to 60 ± 18% soluble Fe and 46 ± 11% sulfide were recovered on graphite granules for up-stream reuse. Peak current densities of 9.5 ± 4.2 A m(-2) and minimum power requirements of 2.4 ± 0.5 kWh kg Fe(-1) were reached with real full strength FeS suspensions. Multiple consecutive runs of the electrochemical process were performed, leading to the successful demonstration of an integrated process, comprising FeS formation/separation and ferric/sulfide electrochemical regeneration. PMID:24397913

  20. Intraspecific variation of a dominant grass and local adaptation in reciprocal garden communities along a US Great Plains' precipitation gradient: implications for grassland restoration with climate change.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Loretta C; Olsen, Jacob T; Tetreault, Hannah; DeLaCruz, Angel; Bryant, Johnny; Morgan, Theodore J; Knapp, Mary; Bello, Nora M; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R

    2015-08-01

    Identifying suitable genetic stock for restoration often employs a 'best guess' approach. Without adaptive variation studies, restoration may be misguided. We test the extent to which climate in central US grasslands exerts selection pressure on a foundation grass big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), widely used in restorations, and resulting in local adaptation. We seeded three regional ecotypes of A. gerardii in reciprocal transplant garden communities across 1150 km precipitation gradient. We measured ecological responses over several timescales (instantaneous gas exchange, medium-term chlorophyll absorbance, and long-term responses of establishment and cover) in response to climate and biotic factors and tested if ecotypes could expand range. The ecotype from the driest region exhibited greatest cover under low rainfall, suggesting local adaptation under abiotic stress. Unexpectedly, no evidence for cover differences between ecotypes exists at mesic sites where establishment and cover of all ecotypes were low, perhaps due to strong biotic pressures. Expression of adaptive differences is strongly environment specific. Given observed adaptive variation, the most conservative restoration strategy would be to plant the local ecotype, especially in drier locations. With superior performance of the most xeric ecotype under dry conditions and predicted drought, this ecotype may migrate eastward, naturally or with assistance in restorations. PMID:26240607

  1. Intraspecific variation of a dominant grass and local adaptation in reciprocal garden communities along a US Great Plains’ precipitation gradient: implications for grassland restoration with climate change

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Loretta C; Olsen, Jacob T; Tetreault, Hannah; DeLaCruz, Angel; Bryant, Johnny; Morgan, Theodore J; Knapp, Mary; Bello, Nora M; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Identifying suitable genetic stock for restoration often employs a ‘best guess’ approach. Without adaptive variation studies, restoration may be misguided. We test the extent to which climate in central US grasslands exerts selection pressure on a foundation grass big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), widely used in restorations, and resulting in local adaptation. We seeded three regional ecotypes of A. gerardii in reciprocal transplant garden communities across 1150 km precipitation gradient. We measured ecological responses over several timescales (instantaneous gas exchange, medium-term chlorophyll absorbance, and long-term responses of establishment and cover) in response to climate and biotic factors and tested if ecotypes could expand range. The ecotype from the driest region exhibited greatest cover under low rainfall, suggesting local adaptation under abiotic stress. Unexpectedly, no evidence for cover differences between ecotypes exists at mesic sites where establishment and cover of all ecotypes were low, perhaps due to strong biotic pressures. Expression of adaptive differences is strongly environment specific. Given observed adaptive variation, the most conservative restoration strategy would be to plant the local ecotype, especially in drier locations. With superior performance of the most xeric ecotype under dry conditions and predicted drought, this ecotype may migrate eastward, naturally or with assistance in restorations. PMID:26240607

  2. Gravity-flow processes and deposits in a tidally dominated coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidam, E.; Ogston, A. S.; Nittrouer, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs) are characterized by episodic sediment delivery to marine environments, and have been recognized as a source of sediment gravity flows along storm-dominated coasts. These important modes of cross-shelf sediment transport are largely dependent on suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), bottom slope, and energy supplied by waves and currents. The mechanics and deposits of gravity flows are relatively unstudied on tidally dominated coasts receiving episodic SMR sediment discharge. Data collected during and after a March 2014 sediment delivery event from the small mountainous Elwha River (WA, USA) demonstrates the challenges of forming and preserving gravity-flow deposits in a persistently energetic tidal system. The river discharges to a narrow strait; near the river mouth, maximum boundary-layer tidal currents (50 cm above bed) reach 80-100 cm/s during spring tides and 30-60 cm/s during neap tides. Since 2011, the deconstruction of two dams has generated fluvial SSCs from 3 g/L to >9 g/L (max. monitoring value) during rainstorms and freshets. Instruments stationed near the river mouth since 2011 have shown that tidal currents advect this fine-grained sediment for days to weeks after delivery, and ultimately disperse it away from the river mouth. In March 2014, fluvial SSC reached ≥9 g/L during the largest river discharge since dam removal began. One day later, boundary-layer SSCs reached 2 g/L and 1 g/L at 23 and 102 cmab, respectively, and 5-8 days later, the bed under the instrument system aggraded by ~30 cm. Currents subsequently eroded the deposit, and within 3 weeks the bed elevation returned to its pre-event level. This is consistent with evidence of little to no grain-size change of the sand/gravel seabed in 10-60 m water depth up to 5 km from the river mouth since the dam removal began. To date, the only measurable accumulation of new sediment is in an embayment adjacent to the river mouth where currents weaken. These

  3. Development of observed precipitation and meteorological database to understand the wet deposition and dispersion processes in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Watanabe, Akira; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishihara, Hirohiko; Takara, Kaoru

    2014-05-01

    The transport and diffusion of the radioactive pollutants from the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP inthe atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Further, precipitation type and its amount affect the various transport process of the radioactive nuclides. Hence, this study first examine the qualitative precipitation pattern and timing in March 2011 using X-band radar data from Fukushima University and three dimensional C-band radar data network of Japan Meteorological Agency. Second, by collecting rain-gauge network and other surface meteorological data, we estimate quantitative precipitation and its type (rain/snow) according to the same method used to create APHRODITE daily grid precipitation (Yatagai et al., 2012) and judge of rain/snow (Yasutomi et al., 2011). For example, the data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northeast, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima

  4. Weathering processes and pickeringite formation in a sulfidic schist: a consideration in acid precipitation neutralization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, R.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Extremely low abrasion pH values (2.8-3.3) characterize the weathering products of the Partridge Formation, a Middle-Ordovician metamorphosed, black, sulfidic shale. The local occurrence is observed of two sulfates that are rare in the Northeast: pickeringite and jarosite. X-ray diffraction studies of the weathering residues and the sulfate efflorescences have also identified dioctahedral and trioctahedral illite, kaolinite, vermiculite, and an 11-12 Angstrom phase, thought to be a type of randomly-interstratified biotite-vermiculite. From the mineralogical studies, qualitative weathering processes for the schist are formulated. A probable mechanism for the intense chemical weathering of the schist appears to be oxidation of iron sulfides to form iron oxide-hydroxides, sulfates, and sulfuric acid. This natural weathering process is proposed as an analog to anthropogenic low pH rock weathering resulting from acid precipitation. In the Northeast, natural weathering rates, may, in places, significantly affect the water chemistry and mineralogy used to quantify total (natural plus anthropogenic) weathering and leaching rates. 27 references, 4 figures.

  5. Processing, Microstructures and Properties of a Dual Phase Precipitation-Hardening PM Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, Christopher

    To improve the mechanical properties of PM stainless steels in comparison with their wrought counterparts, a PM stainless steel alloy was developed which combines a dual-phase microstructure with precipitation-hardening. The use of a mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite results in an alloy with a combination of the optimum properties of each phase, namely strength and ductility. The use of precipitation hardening via the addition of copper results in additional strength and hardness. A range of compositions was studied in combination with various sintering conditions to determine the optimal thermal processing to achieve the desired microstructure. The microstructure could be varied from predominately ferrite to one containing a high percentage of martensite by additions of copper and a variation of the sintering temperature before rapid cooling. Mechanical properties (transverse rupture strength (TRS), yield strength, tensile strength, ductility and impact toughness) were measured as a function of the v/o ferrite in the microstructure. A dual phase alloy with the optimal combination of properties served as the base for introducing precipitation hardening. Copper was added to the base alloy at various levels and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties was quantified. Processing at various sintering temperatures led to a range of microstructures; dilatometry was used utilized to monitor and understand the transformations and the formation of the two phases. The aging process was studied as a function of temperature and time by measuring TRS, yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, impact toughness and apparent hardness. It was determined that optimum aging was achieved at 538°C for 1h. Aging at slightly lower temperatures led to the formation of carbides, which contributed to reduced hardness and tensile strength. As expected, at the peak aging temperature, an increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength as well as

  6. Precipitation process for the removal of technetium values from nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.D.; Ebra, M.A.

    1985-11-21

    High efficiency removal of techetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  7. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  8. Tensions and Burdens in Employment Interviewing Processes: Perspectives of Non-Dominant Group Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on communicative processes in employment interviewing and on cultural diversity. Discusses communication processes aligned with nondominant group membership. Presents a picture of the performance burdens that members of traditionally underrepresented groups may experience when attempting to meet traditional expectations…

  9. PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONOUS PEROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Manion, J.P.

    1961-08-15

    A precipitation process for recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution is described. In the process for precipitating plutonium as plutonous peroxide, hydroxylamine or hydrazine is added to the plutoniumcontaining solution prior to the addition of peroxide to precipitate plutonium. The addition of hydroxylamine or hydrazine increases the amount of plutonium precipitated as plutonous peroxide. (AEC)

  10. Remote Sensing of Precipitation Using Multiparameter Radar: Statistics, Processing Algorithms and Analysis Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li.

    With the advent of the multiparameter weather radar, i.e., dual-polarization, dual-frequency, Doppler radar, radar meteorologists have been able to study physical processes in precipitation in more detail, and the quantitative measurement of rainfall as well as the identification of different types of hydrometeors have become possible. However, the effects of propagation through the rain medium must be carefully considered whenever dual-polarization techniques are considered. The correction of propagation effects such as attenuation, differential attenuation and differential propagation phase in precipitation are very important for quantitative interpretation of echo powers at high frequencies. In this dissertation, a simplified scattering matrix with propagation effects is described. A number of parameters are derived based on the covariance matrix of the scattering element array. The processing techniques for estimating some specific parameters, such as K_{dp }, A_{x} and intrinsic LDR using the CSU-CHILL and CP-2 radar measurements, are discussed. Recent research has suggested that the copolar correlation coefficient termed rho_ {hv}(0) can be used to identify large hail and improve polarization estimates of rainfall. The typical measured values of rho_{hv }(0) at S-band vary between 0.8-1.0. For applications to hail identification the required accuracy should be within +/-0.01 while for rainfall improvement a higher accuracy is necessary, e.g., within +/-0.001. We discuss the statistics of several estimators of rho_{hv }(0) using the Gaussian spectrum approximation from both an analytical approach and via simulations. The standard deviation and bias in rho _{hv}(0) are computed as a function of number of samples, Doppler spectral width and mean rho_{hv}(0). The effect of finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and phase noise are also studied via simulations. Time series data collected with the CSU-CHILL radar are analyzed and compared with the simulations. Antenna

  11. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  12. North American monsoon precipitation and its precursors: Processes at the seasonal and diurnal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynor, Nicole June Schiffer

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at 100 km, 25 km, and 10 km resolution for the 2000 and 2004 monsoon seasons (July-September), a dry year and a wet year. These years were chosen to represent contrasting precipitation outcomes to assure that results were robust across different monsoon conditions. Model precipitation was compared to precipitation from the Modern-Era Retrospective Reanalysis (MERRA), the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Then WRF, MERRA, and NARR were used to investigate the relationships between precipitation and the other moisture budget variables, the large-scale flow, and atmospheric stability on the seasonal and diurnal scales. On both the seasonal and diurnal scale, flow was key to the location and intensity of precipitation. In 2004, the subtropical high over the south-central United States was about 300 km west of its location in 2000 at 700 hPa. The shift was also evident in vertically-integrated moisture flux, which then changed the pattern and intensity of moisture flux convergence (MFC), convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN), and precipitation over Mexico and the Gulf of California. Over Arizona and New Mexico, transient disturbances, like tropical waves, were more important than the diurnal cycle to precipitation. Despite similar spatial distributions of precipitation, WRF, NARR, MERRA, and TRMM showed very different frequencies of light and heavy rain. Such uncertainty in the character of rainfall can impact a variety of stakeholders and decision makers across the NAM region. The WRF model tended to produce heavier precipitation across the NAM region compared to MERRA, NARR, and TRMM as a result of stronger MFC and higher CAPE, especially over the Gulf of California. Beyond the resolution needed to adequately reproduce the Baja California and Gulf of California, higher model resolution tended to increase and localize

  13. Synthesis and photocatalytic performances of BiVO 4 by ammonia co-precipitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yan; Kudo, Akihiko

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports the preparation and photocatalytic performance of Bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4) by a facile and inexpensive approach. An amorphous BiVO 4 was first prepared by a co-precipitation process from aqueous solutions of Bi(NO 3) 3 and NH 4VO 3 using ammonia. Followed by heating treatment at various temperatures, the amorphous phase converted to crystalline BiVO 4 with a structure between monoclinic and tetragonal scheelite. The crystallization of BiVO 4 occurred at about 523 K, while the nanocrystalline BiVO 4 were formed with a heat-treatment of lower than 673 K. However, when the heat-treatment was carried out at 773 K, the accumulation of nanocrystals to bulk particles was observed. The photocatalytic performances of the materials were investigated by O 2 evolution under visible-light, and MB decomposition under solar simulator. The results demonstrated that the crystalline structure is still the vital factor for the activities of both reactions. However, the crystallinity of BiVO 4 gives a major influence on the activity of O 2 evolution, whereas the surface area, plays an important role for photocatalytic MB decomposition.

  14. Classical nucleation theory for solute precipitation amended with diffusion and reaction processes near the interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    During the processes of nucleation and growth of a precipitate cluster from a supersaturated solution, the diffusion flux between the cluster and the solution changes the solute concentration near the cluster-solution interface from its average bulk value. This feature affects the rates of attachment and detachment of solute atoms at the interface, and, therefore, the entire nucleation-growth kinetics is altered. Unless quite obvious, this effect has been ignored in classical nucleation theory. To illustrate the results of this approach, for the case of homogeneous nucleation, we calculate the total solubility and the nucleation rate as functions of two parameters of the model (the reduced interface energy and the inverse second Damköhler number), and we compare these results to the classical ones. One can conclude that discrepancies with classical nucleation theory are great in the diffusion-limited regime, when the rate of bulk diffusion is small compared to the rate of interface reactions, while in the opposite interface-limited case they vanish.

  15. A novel chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) process for efficient remediation of boron wastewater at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Liu, Chia-Hsun; Lan, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2014-09-01

    Chemical oxo-precipitation (COP), which combines treatment with an oxidant and precipitation using metal salts, was developed for treating boron-containing water under milder conditions (room temperature, pH 10) than those of conventional coagulation processes. The concentration of boron compounds was 1000mg-BL(-1). They included boric acid (H3BO3) and perborate (NaBO3). Precipitation using calcium chloride eliminated 80% of the boron from the perborate solution, but was unable to treat boric acid. COP uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to pretreat boric acid, substantially increasing the removal of boron from boric acid solution by chemical precipitation from less than 5% to 80%. Furthermore, of alkaline earth metals, barium ions are the most efficient precipitant, and can increase the 80% boron removal to 98.5% at [H2O2]/[B] and [Ba]/[B] molar ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. The residual boron in the end water of COP contained 15ppm-B: this value cannot be achieved using conventional coagulation processes. PMID:24997923

  16. Destructive processing by asparagine endopeptidase limits presentation of a dominant T cell epitope in MBP.

    PubMed

    Manoury, Bénédicte; Mazzeo, Daniela; Fugger, Lars; Viner, Nick; Ponsford, Mary; Streeter, Heather; Mazza, Graziella; Wraith, David C; Watts, Colin

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about the processing of putative human autoantigens and why tolerance is established to some T cell epitopes but not others. Here we show that a principal human HLA-DR2-restricted epitope--amino acids 85-99 of myelin basic protein, MBP(85-99)--contains a processing site for the cysteine protease asparagine endopeptidase (AEP). Presentation of this epitope by human antigen-presenting cells is inversely proportional to the amount of cellular AEP activity: inhibition of AEP in living cells greatly enhances presentation of the MBP(85-99) epitope, whereas overexpression of AEP diminishes presentation. These results indicate that central tolerance to this encephalitogenic MBP epitope may not be established because destructive processing limits its display in the thymus. Consistent with this hypothesis, AEP is expressed abundantly in thymic antigen-presenting cells. PMID:11812994

  17. Cloud Modeling Using Field Project Data for the Study of Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Shie, C.-H.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of cloud-resolving models (CRMs) in the study of precipitation process and their relation to the large-scale environment can be generally categorized into two approaches. The first approach is so called "cloud ensemble modeling". In this approach, many clouds of different size in various stages of their lifecycles can be present at any model simulation time. Large-scale effects are derived from observations and imposed into the model as the main forcing. The advantage of this approach is that the modeled convection will be forced to have the same intensity, thermodynamic budget and organization as the obserations.This approach will also allow CRMs to perform multi-day or multi-week time integrations. The second approach usually requires initial temperature and water vapor profiles that have a medium to large CAPE, and open lateral boundary conditions are used. The modeled clouds could be termed "self-forced convection". Model improvements, such as in the microphysics, are achieved using the second approach. In cloud ensemble modeling, accurate large-scale advective tendencies for temperature and water vapor are the main forcing for the CRMs. We found that the large-scale advective terms for temperature and water vapor are not always consistent, For example, large-scale forcing could indicate strong drying which would produce cooling in the model through evaporation but not contain large-scale advective heating to compensate. This discrepancy in forcing would cause differences between the observed and modeled latent heating profiles. Good measurements of other quantities (i.e., surface fluxes and radiation) are also required to perform variational objective analysis that computes and minimizes a "cost function" that constrains the difference between the large-scale advective forcing in temperature and water vapor. With self-forced convection, accurate vertical distributions of temperature, moisture (water vapor), and horizontal winds are required. The timing

  18. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  19. Process-based management approaches for salt desert shrublands dominated by downy brome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy brome grass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion has severely altered key ecological processes such as disturbance regimes, soil nutrient cycling, community assembly, and successional pathways in semi-arid Great Basin salt desert shrublands. Restoring the structure and function of these severly alte...

  20. Diurnal variation of dominant nitrate retention processes in an agricultural headwater stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Ryabenko, Evgenia; Stumpp, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Nitrate and ammonium are introduced by agricultural practice into the environment and are transformed and retained on their pathway through aquatic environments. In particular, biological transformation processes (i.e. microbial denitrification or ammonium oxidation and assimilation) are responsible for the largest part of nitrate removal, which are also crucial processes in headwater streams. It is well known, that most of the biological processes are influenced by available (solar) energy fluxes, temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations, which vary with time and space. However, looking at biogeochemical hot spots in the landscapes` hydrological interface, the stream and river network (e.g. stream sections with a high biological activity), the temporal variability of biological processes can be an important control on total nitrate export. In this study, we therefore identified most important diurnal time periods for nitrate retention in a 75 m impervious section of an agricultural headwater stream using oxygen saturation dynamics and nitrate isotopes. We regularly measured discharge, hydro-geochemical and climate parameters, as well as nitrate and water isotopes in grab samples at three locations along the reach. On average, we observed a decrease of 10% in nitrate concentration from up- to downstream, which was only caused by biological processes and not by dilution. Nitrate isotope analysis indicated distinct trends along the reach and with time of the day. Both nitrate assimilation and nitrification caused significant changes in nitrate isotope distribution in the early day. To explain the distinct observed process dynamics from the morning to the afternoon, we simulated net primary production (NEP) and respiration using the river metabolism model RIVERMETC with observed oxygen concentrations and water temperatures. Comparing the results with the observed nitrate dynamics, the short time period when NEP occurs (~10:30 -12:30) seems to be crucial for

  1. The Role of Aerosols on Precipitation Processes: Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, X.; Matsui, T.

    2012-01-01

    identify the impact of ice processes, radiation and large-scale influence on cloud-aerosol interactive processes, especially regarding surface rainfall amounts and characteristics (i.e., heavy or convective versus light or stratiform types). In addition, an inert tracer was included to follow the vertical redistribution of aerosols by cloud processes. We will also give a brief review from observational evidence on the role of aerosol on precipitation processes.

  2. Interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation processes during acidic weathering of multicomponent minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; King, Helen E.; Patiño-López, Luis D.; Putnis, Christine V.; Geisler, Thorsten; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos M.; Putnis, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The chemical weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals on the Earth's surface controls important geochemical processes such as erosion rates and soil formation, ore genesis or climate evolution. The dissolution of most of these minerals is typically incongruent, and results in the formation of surface coatings (altered layers, also known as leached layers). These coatings may significantly affect mineral dissolution rates over geological timescales, and therefore a great deal of research has been conducted on them. However, the mechanism of leached layer formation is a matter of vigorous debate. Here we report on an in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and real-time Mach-Zehnder phase-shift interferometry (PSI) study of the dissolution of wollastonite, CaSiO3, and dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, as an example of surface coating formation during acidic weathering of multicomponent minerals. Our in situ results provide clear direct experimental evidence that leached layers are formed in a tight interface-coupled two-step process: stoichiometric dissolution of the pristine mineral surfaces and subsequent precipitation of a secondary phase (silica in the case of wollastonite, or hydrated magnesium carbonate in the case of dolomite) from a supersaturated boundary layer of fluid in contact with the mineral surface. This occurs despite the bulk solution remaining undersaturated with respect to the secondary phase. The validation of such a mechanism given by the results reported here completely changes the conceptual framework concerning the mechanism of chemical weathering, and differs significantly from the concept of preferential leaching of cations postulated by most currently accepted incongruent dissolution models.

  3. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  4. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  5. Influence of oxalic acid on the agglomeration process and total soda content in precipitated Al(OH) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, I.; Blec̆ić, D.; Blagojević, N.; Radmilović, V.; Kovac̆ević, K.

    2003-05-01

    Decomposition of caustic soda solutions is an important part of Bayer process for alumina production. The physico-chemical properties of precipitated Al(OH) 3 are dependent on several processes that take place simultaneously during the decomposition process and they are: nucleation, agglomeration and Al(OH) 3 crystals. An important industrial requirement is increase of Al(OH) 3 crystal grain size, and hence agglomeration and growth of Al(OH) 3 crystals become important processes and they enable increase of particle size. The influence of oxalic acid concentration on the agglomeration process and total soda content in precipitated Al(OH) 3 at different temperatures and caustic soda concentrations has been investigated. The results have shown that the agglomeration process is increased with increase of temperature and decrease of caustic soda concentration. Total soda content in precipitated Al(OH) 3 is changed in the same way. Besides, agglomeration process of Al(OH) 3 particles is favored in the presence of oxalic acid.

  6. Investigation of Carbide Precipitation Process and Chromium Depletion during Thermal Treatment of Alloy 690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, S. Y.; Zhang, M. C.; Zheng, L.; Dong, J. X.

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the effect of heat treatment on carbide morphology and chromium concentration distribution, which are critical to the resistance of alloy 690 to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a series of thermal treatments was performed. A model taking into account the intercorrelated dynamic process between the carbide precipitation and chemical diffusion of the chromium atom from matrix to grain boundary (GB) was constructed on the basis of classical nucleation theory, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami law, and diffusion theory. The validity of this model was evaluated by comparing the simulated results of the carbide average size and chromium concentration near the GB with the corresponding measured results. A discontinuous factor was introduced based on the relation linking the interdistance between the carbides and the carbide average size; thus, the carbide morphology and chromium concentration could be predicted by this model. According to the results of the experiments and simulations, a carbide discontinuous factor smaller than 2.2 together with the chromium concentration at the GB higher than a critical value (21 wt pct) were essential for the corrosion resistance ability of the alloy, and then some proper heat-treatment conditions were obtained through predicting the value of the two variables. In addition, the effects of the grain size and composition variation on the carbide discontinuous factor and chromium concentration profile were simulated. The results indicated that an intermediate grain size of approximately 31.8 to ~63.5 μm was beneficial for effectively improving the resistance of the alloy to SCC. Simultaneously, the carbon content should be adjusted near 0.02 pct, and the chromium content should be the highest possible in its chemical composition scale.

  7. Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-12-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  8. Convective and Stratiform Precipitation Processes and their Relationship to Latent Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Steve; Zeng, Xiping; Shige, Shoichi; Takayabu, Yukari

    2009-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of its formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the Tropics. Associated with this rainfall is a vast amount of heat, which is known as latent heat. It arises mainly due to the phase change of water vapor condensing into liquid droplets; three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere comes from tropical rainfall. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. An improved convective -stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm has been developed to obtain the 3D structure of cloud heating over the Tropics based on two sources of information: 1) rainfall information, namely its amount and the fraction due to light rain intensity, observed directly from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the TRMM satellite and 2) synthetic cloud physics information obtained from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of cloud systems. The cloud simulations provide details on cloud processes, specifically latent heating, eddy heat flux convergence and radiative heating/cooling, that. are not directly observable by satellite. The new CSH algorithm-derived heating has a noticeably different heating structure over both ocean and land regions compared to the previous CSH algorithm. One of the major differences between new and old algorithms is that the level of maximum cloud heating occurs 1 to 1.5 km lower in the atmosphere in the new algorithm. This can effect the structure of the implied air currents associated with the general circulation of the atmosphere in the Tropics. The new CSH algorithm will be used provide retrieved heating data to other heating algorithms to supplement their performance.

  9. Atmospheric processes sustaining a multidecadal variation in reconstructed and model-simulated Indian monsoon precipitation during the past half millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianru

    Analyses of recently reconstructed and model-simulated Indian May-September precipitation disclose a statistically significant multidecadal variation at the frequency of 40-50 year per cycle during the last half millennium. To understand the mechanism of this variation, we examined the energy and dynamic processes in the atmosphere, and the potential forcings from the sea surface temperature (SST) variations around the globe. Comparisons of paleo-SST and the paleo-precipitation simulations suggest that the SST is not a significant forcing of the multidecadal variation found in the Indian monsoon precipitation. Instead, analyses suggest that atmospheric processes characterized by phase differences between the meridional enthalpy gradient and poleward eddy enthalpy transport are important to sustain this variation. In this phase relationship, the meridional enthalpy gradient is strengthened by radiative loss in high latitudes. Driven by this enlarged gradient and associated changes in baroclinicity in the mid-latitude atmosphere, more energy is generated in the tropical and subtropical (monsoon) regions and transported poleward. The monsoon is strengthened to allow more energy being transported poleward. The increased enthalpy transport, in turn, weakens the meridional enthalpy gradient and, subsequently, softens the demand for energy production in the monsoon region. The monsoon weakens and the transport decreases. The variation in monsoon precipitation lags that in the meridional enthalpy gradient, but leads that in the poleward heat transport. This phase relationship and underlining chasing process by the heat transport to the gradient sustain this variation at the multidecadal timescale. This mechanism suggests that atmospheric circulation processes can contribute to multidecadal timescale variations in the Indian monsoon precipitation.

  10. Uncertainty of simulated catchment runoff response in the presence of threshold processes: Role of initial soil moisture and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Erwin; Becker, Rolf; Bárdossy, András; Plate, Erich

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines the effect of spatially variable initial soil moisture and spatially variable precipitation on predictive uncertainty of simulated catchment scale runoff response in the presence of threshold processes. The underlying philosophy is to use a physically based hydrological model named CATFLOW as a virtual landscape, assuming perfect knowledge of the processes. The model, which in particular conceptualizes preferential flow as threshold process, was developed based on intensive process and parameter studies and has already been successfully applied to simulate flow and transport at different scales and catchments. Study area is the intensively investigated Weiherbach catchment. Numerous replicas of spatially variable initial soil moisture or spatially variable precipitation with the same geostatistical properties are conditioned to observed soil moisture and precipitation data and serve as initial and boundary conditions for the model during repeated simulations. The effect of spatially soil moisture on modeling catchment runoff response was found to depend strongly on average saturation of the catchment. Different realizations of initial soil moisture yielded strongly different hydrographs for intermediate initial soil moisture as well as in dry catchment conditions; in other states the effect was found to be much lower. This is clearly because of the threshold nature of preferential flow as well as the threshold nature of Hortonian production of overland flow. It was shown furthermore that the spatial pattern of a key parameter (macroporosity) that determined threshold behavior is of vast importance for the model response. The estimation of these patterns, which is mostly done based on sparse observations and expert knowledge, is a major source for predictive model uncertainty. Finally, it was shown that the usage of biased, i.e. spatially homogenized precipitation, input during parameter estimation yields a biased model structure, which gives

  11. "Physically-based" numerical experiment to determine the dominant hillslope processes during floods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Eric; Esclaffer, Thomas; Dangla, Patrick; Payrastre, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    To study the dynamics of hillslope responses during flood event, a fully coupled "physically-based" model for the combined numerical simulation of surface runoff and underground flows has been developed. A particular attention has been given to the selection of appropriate numerical schemes for the modelling of both processes and of their coupling. Surprisingly, the most difficult question to solve, from a numerical point of view, was not related to the coupling of two processes with contrasted kinetics such as surface and underground flows, but to the high gradient infiltration fronts appearing in soils, source of numerical diffusion, instabilities and sometimes divergence. The model being elaborated, it has been successfully tested against results of high quality experiments conducted on a laboratory sandy slope in the early eighties, which is still considered as a reference hillslope experimental setting (Abdul & Guilham). The model appeared able to accurately simulate the pore pressure distributions observed in this 1.5 meter deep and wide laboratory hillslope, as well as its outflow hydrograph shapes and the measured respective contributions of direct runoff and groundwater to these outflow hydrographs. Based on this great success, the same model has been used to simulate the response of a theoretical 100-meter wide and 10% sloped hillslope, with a 2 meter deep pervious soil and impervious bedrock. Three rain events have been tested: a 100 millimeter rainfall event over 10 days, over 1 day or over one hour. The simulated responses are hydrologically not realistic and especially the fast component of the response, that is generally observed in the real-world and explains flood events, is almost absent of the simulated response. Thinking a little about the whole problem, the simulation results appears totally logical according to the proposed model. The simulated response, in fact a recession hydrograph, corresponds to a piston flow of a relatively uniformly

  12. Comparison of precipitate behaviors in ultra-low carbon, titanium-stabilized interstitial free steel sheets under different annealing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Wang, X.

    1999-12-01

    Ultra-low carbon, titanium-stabilized interstitial free (ULC Ti-IF) steel sheets are widely used in the automobile industry because of excellent deep drawability. The annealing process is critical to their final property, and there are two different annealing processes used in industrial production of interstitial free (IF) steel sheets, namely batch annealing and continuous annealing. In this study, precipitation behaviors of titanium IF steels, that is, TiN, TiS, Ti{sub 4}(CS){sub 2}, and TiC, the size and dispersion of TiN, TiS, and Ti{sub 4}(CS){sub 2} remained almost unchanged after either annealing process. Conversely, the average size of a TiC particle increased substantially after both annealing processes, while TiC after continuous annealing was larger than that after batch annealing due to the higher heating temperature of continuous annealing. Two new particles, FeTiP and (Ti, Mn)S, were also observed in the batch annealing process but not in continuous annealing. The structure of FeTiP and (Ti, Mn)S were studied, and furthermore the evolution of FeTiP precipitation was found to be closely related to recrystallization in batch annealing. Finally, the interrelation among processing parameters, precipitation behaviors, and final property was studied.

  13. A Mechanistic Treatment of the Dominant Soil Nitrogen Cycling Processes: Model Development, Testing, and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, William; Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Venterea, R.T.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Steefel, C.; Miller, N.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2008-05-01

    The development and initial application of a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) designed to characterize soil nitrogen (N) cycling and losses are described. The model couples advective and diffusive nutrient transport, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, and equilibrium and kinetic chemical reactions. TOUGHREACT-N was calibrated and tested against field measurements to assess pathways of N loss as either gas emission or solute leachate following fertilization and irrigation in a Central Valley, California, agricultural field as functions of fertilizer application rate and depth, and irrigation water volume. Our results, relative to the period before plants emerge, show that an increase in fertilizer rate produced a nonlinear response in terms of N losses. An increase of irrigation volume produced NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching, whereas an increase in fertilization depth mainly increased leaching of all N solutes. In addition, nitrifying bacteria largely increased in mass with increasing fertilizer rate. Increases in water application caused nitrifiers and denitrifiers to decrease and increase their mass, respectively, while nitrifiers and denitrifiers reversed their spatial stratification when fertilizer was applied below 15 cm depth. Coupling aqueous advection and diffusion, and gaseous diffusion with biological processes, closely captured actual conditions and, in the system explored here, significantly clarified interpretation of field measurements.

  14. The dominant processes responsible for subsidence of coastal wetlands in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Kuecher, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    Wetland loss in coastal areas of Terrebonne and Lafourche Parishes, Louisiana, largely results from two subsurface processes: (1) consolidation of recently deposited Holocene deltaic sediments and (2) active growth faulting. Locally, settlement is high where the thickness of valley fill is great and in broad interdistributary basins where the thickness of consolidation-prone, peaty soils is great. The delta cycle is identified as the fundamental sedimentologic unit that constitutes the lower delta plain. Peaty soils from the waning phase of the delta cycle are identified as the deltaic facies most subject to consolidation settlement. Data indicate direct relationships between the thickness of deltaic sediments in individual delta cycles, and the thickness of peaty soils capping these cycles, with present patterns of coastal tract land loss. In addition, active growth faulting is correlated with new areas of interior tract wetland loss. Consolidation and faulting largely explain the curious nature of wetland loss patterns in south Louisiana. Subsidence in The Netherlands has been attributed to similar causes, i.e. thick deposits of consolidation-prone sediments that accumulate on the downthrown sides of basin margin faults.

  15. A mechanistic treatment of the dominant soil nitrogen cycling processes: Model development, testing, and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Riley, W. J.; Hornberger, G. M.; Venterea, R. T.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Steefel, C.; Miller, N. L.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2008-06-01

    The development and initial application of a mechanistic model (TOUGHREACT-N) designed to characterize soil nitrogen (N) cycling and losses are described. The model couples advective and diffusive nutrient transport, multiple microbial biomass dynamics, and equilibrium and kinetic chemical reactions. TOUGHREACT-N was calibrated and tested against field measurements to assess pathways of N loss as either gas emission or solute leachate following fertilization and irrigation in a Central Valley, California, agricultural field as functions of fertilizer application rate and depth, and irrigation water volume. Our results, relative to the period before plants emerge, show that an increase in fertilizer rate produced a nonlinear response in terms of N losses. An increase of irrigation volume produced NO2- and NO3- leaching, whereas an increase in fertilization depth mainly increased leaching of all N solutes. In addition, nitrifying bacteria largely increased in mass with increasing fertilizer rate. Increases in water application caused nitrifiers and denitrifiers to decrease and increase their mass, respectively, while nitrifiers and denitrifiers reversed their spatial stratification when fertilizer was applied below 15 cm depth. Coupling aqueous advection and diffusion, and gaseous diffusion with biological processes, closely captured actual conditions and, in the system explored here, significantly clarified interpretation of field measurements.

  16. Electrification of precipitating systems over the Amazon: Physical processes of thunderstorm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos A.; Silva Dias, Maria A. F.

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the physical processes involved in the development of thunderstorms over southwestern Amazon by hypothesizing causalities for the observed cloud-to-ground lightning variability and the local environmental characteristics. Southwestern Amazon experiences every year a large variety of environmental factors, such as the gradual increase in atmospheric moisture, extremely high pollution due to biomass burning, and intense deforestation, which directly affects cloud development by differential surface energy partition. In the end of the dry period it was observed higher percentages of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning due to a relative increase in +CG dominated thunderstorms (positive thunderstorms). Positive (negative) thunderstorms initiated preferentially over deforested (forest) areas with higher (lower) cloud base heights, shallower (deeper) warm cloud depths, and higher (lower) convective potential available energy. These features characterized the positive (negative) thunderstorms as deeper (relatively shallower) clouds, stronger (relatively weaker) updrafts with enhanced (decreased) mixed and cold vertically integrated liquid. No significant difference between thunderstorms (negative and positive) and nonthunderstorms were observed in terms of atmospheric pollution, once the atmosphere was overwhelmed by pollution leading to an updraft-limited regime. However, in the wet season both negative and positive thunderstorms occurred during periods of relatively higher aerosol concentration and differentiated size distributions, suggesting an aerosol-limited regime where cloud electrification could be dependent on the aerosol concentration to suppress the warm and enhance the ice phase. The suggested causalities are consistent with the invoked hypotheses, but they are not observed facts; they are just hypotheses based on plausible physical mechanisms.

  17. Precipitation and microphysical processes observed by three polarimetric X-band radars and ground-based instrumentation during HOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinxin; Evaristo, Raquel; Simmer, Clemens; Handwerker, Jan; Trömel, Silke

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a first analysis of precipitation and related microphysical processes observed by three polarimetric X-band Doppler radars (BoXPol, JuXPol and KiXPol) in conjunction with a ground-based network of disdrometers, rain gauges and vertically pointing micro rain radars (MRRs) during the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) during April and May 2013 in Germany. While JuXPol and KiXPol were continuously observing the central HOPE area near Forschungszentrum Jülich at a close distance, BoXPol observed the area from a distance of about 48.5 km. MRRs were deployed in the central HOPE area and one MRR close to BoXPol in Bonn, Germany. Seven disdrometers and three rain gauges providing point precipitation observations were deployed at five locations within a 5 km × 5 km region, while three other disdrometers were collocated with the MRR in Bonn. The daily rainfall accumulation at each rain gauge/disdrometer location estimated from the three X-band polarimetric radar observations showed very good agreement. Accompanying microphysical processes during the evolution of precipitation systems were well captured by the polarimetric X-band radars and corroborated by independent observations from the other ground-based instruments.

  18. Use NU-WRF and GCE Model to Simulate the Precipitation Processes During MC3E Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Di; Matsui, Toshi; Li, Xiaowen; Zeng, Xiping; Peter-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    One of major CRM approaches to studying precipitation processes is sometimes referred to as "cloud ensemble modeling". This approach allows many clouds of various sizes and stages of their lifecycles to be present at any given simulation time. Large-scale effects derived from observations are imposed into CRMs as forcing, and cyclic lateral boundaries are used. The advantage of this approach is that model results in terms of rainfall and QI and Q2 usually are in good agreement with observations. In addition, the model results provide cloud statistics that represent different types of clouds/cloud systems during their lifetime (life cycle). The large-scale forcing derived from MC3EI will be used to drive GCE model simulations. The model-simulated results will be compared with observations from MC3E. These GCE model-simulated datasets are especially valuable for LH algorithm developers. In addition, the regional scale model with very high-resolution, NASA Unified WRF is also used to real time forecast during the MC3E campaign to ensure that the precipitation and other meteorological forecasts are available to the flight planning team and to interpret the forecast results in terms of proposed flight scenarios. Post Mission simulations are conducted to examine the sensitivity of initial and lateral boundary conditions to cloud and precipitation processes and rainfall. We will compare model results in terms of precipitation and surface rainfall using GCE model and NU-WRF

  19. Technical and economical assessment of formic acid to recycle phosphorus from pig slurry by a combined acidification-precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Daumer, M-L; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, P; Dabert, P

    2010-08-15

    Dissolution by acidification followed by a liquid/solid separation and precipitation of phosphorus from the liquid phase is one possibility to recycle phosphorus from livestock effluents. To avoid increase of effluent salinity by using mineral acids in the recycling process, the efficiency of two organic acids, formic and acetic acid, in dissolving the mineral phosphorus from piggery wastewater was compared. The amount of formic acid needed to dissolve the phosphorus was reduced three fold, compared to acetic acid. The amount of magnesium oxide needed for further precipitation was decreased by two with formic acid. Neither the carbon load nor the effluent salinity was significantly increased by using formic acid. An economical comparison was performed for the chemical recycling process (mineral fertilizer) vs. centrifugation (organic fertilizer) considering the centrifugation and the mineral fertilizers sold in the market. After optimisation of the process, the product could be economically competitive with mineral fertilizer as superphosphate in less than 10 years. PMID:20471746

  20. Dissolution-precipitation processes governing the carbonation and silicification of the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Marc; Muñoz, Manuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Cathelineau, Michel; Picard, Christian; Quesnel, Benoit; Boulvais, Philippe; Couteau, Clément

    2014-01-01

    The weathering of mantle peridotite tectonically exposed to the atmosphere leads commonly to natural carbonation processes. Extensive cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and stock-work are widespread in the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite. Silica is systematically associated with magnesite. It is commonly admitted that Mg and Si are released during the laterization of overlying peridotites. Thus, the occurrence of these veins is generally attributed to a per descensum mechanism that involves the infiltration of meteoric waters enriched in dissolved atmospheric CO2. In this study, we investigate serpentinite carbonation processes, and related silicification, based on a detailed petrographic and crystal chemical study of serpentinites. The relationships between serpentine and alteration products are described using an original method for the analysis of micro-X-ray fluorescence images performed at the centimeter scale. Our investigations highlight a carbonation mechanism, together with precipitation of amorphous silica and sepiolite, based on a dissolution-precipitation process. In contrast with the per descensum Mg/Si-enrichment model that is mainly concentrated in rock fractures, dissolution-precipitation process is much more pervasive. Thus, although the texture of rocks remains relatively preserved, this process extends more widely into the rock and may represent a major part of total carbonation of the ophiolite.

  1. Dissolution-precipitation processes governing the carbonation and silicification of the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, M.; Munoz, M.; Guillot, S.; Cathelineau, M.; Picard, C.; Quesnel, B.; Boulvais, P.; Couteau, C.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering of mantle peridotite tectonically exposed to the atmosphere leads commonly to natural carbonation processes. Extensive cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and stock-work are widespread in the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite. Silica is systematically associated with magnesite. It is commonly admitted that Mg and Si are released during the laterization of overlying peridotites. Thus, the occurrence of these veins is generally attributed to a per descensum mechanism that involves the infiltration of meteoric waters enriched in dissolved atmospheric CO2. In this study, we investigate serpentinite carbonation processes, and related silicification, based on a detailed petrographic and crystal chemical study of serpentinites. The relationships between serpentine and alteration products are described using an original method for the analysis of micro-X-ray fluorescence images performed at the centimeter scale. Our investigations highlight a carbonation mechanism, together with precipitation of amorphous silica and sepiolite, based on a dissolution-precipitation process. In contrast with the per descensum Mg/Si-enrichment model that is mainly concentrated in rock fractures, dissolution-precipitation process is much more pervasive. Thus, although the texture of rocks remains relatively preserved, this process extends more widely into the rock and may represent a major part of total carbonation of the ophiolite.

  2. Analysis of Copper in the In-Tank Precipitation Process Caustic Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tovo, L.L.; Boyce, W.T.

    1996-12-12

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) procedures for measuring Cu in In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) caustic samples have been tested and implemented in the Analytical Development Section at the Savannah River Technology Center.

  3. Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Lien-Mow; Kilpatrick, Lester L.

    1984-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

  4. Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates

    DOEpatents

    Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1982-05-19

    High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

  5. Heavy Oil Process Monitor: Automated On-Column Asphaltene Precipitation and Re-Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2007-03-31

    An automated separation technique was developed that provides a new approach to measuring the distribution profiles of the most polar, or asphaltenic components of an oil, using a continuous flow system to precipitate and re-dissolve asphaltenes from the oil. Methods of analysis based on this new technique were explored. One method based on the new technique involves precipitation of a portion of residua sample in heptane on a polytetrafluoroethylene-packed (PTFE) column. The precipitated material is re-dissolved in three steps using solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, toluene, and methylene chloride. The amount of asphaltenes that dissolve in cyclohexane is a useful diagnostic of the thermal history of oil, and its proximity to coke formation. For example, about 40 % (w/w) of the heptane asphaltenes from unpyrolyzed residua dissolves in cyclohexane. As pyrolysis progresses, this number decrease to below 15% as coke and toluene insoluble pre-coke materials appear. Currently, the procedure for the isolation of heptane asphaltenes and the determination of the amount of asphaltenes soluble in cyclohexane spans three days. The automated procedure takes one hour. Another method uses a single solvent, methylene chloride, to re-dissolve the material that precipitates on heptane on the PTFE-packed column. The area of this second peak can be used to calculate a value which correlates with gravimetric asphaltene content. Currently the gravimetric procedure to determine asphaltenes takes about 24 hours. The automated procedure takes 30 minutes. Results for four series of original and pyrolyzed residua were compared with data from the gravimetric methods. Methods based on the new on-column precipitation and re-dissolution technique provide significantly more detail about the polar constituent's oils than the gravimetric determination of asphaltenes.

  6. Precipitation Measurements from Space: The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2007-01-01

    Water is fundamental to the life on Earth and its phase transition between the gaseous, liquid, and solid states dominates the behavior of the weather/climate/ecological system. Precipitation, which converts atmospheric water vapor into rain and snow, is central to the global water cycle. It regulates the global energy balance through interactions with clouds and water vapor (the primary greenhouse gas), and also shapes global winds and dynamic transport through latent heat release. Surface precipitation affects soil moisture, ocean salinity, and land hydrology, thus linking fast atmospheric processes to the slower components of the climate system. Precipitation is also the primary source of freshwater in the world, which is facing an emerging freshwater crisis in many regions. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the behavior of the global water cycle, improving freshwater management, and advancing predictive capabilities of high-impact weather events such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and landslides. With limited rainfall networks on land and the impracticality of making extensive rainfall measurements over oceans, a comprehensive description of the space and time variability of global precipitation can only be achieved from the vantage point of space. This presentation will examine current capabilities in space-borne rainfall measurements, highlight scientific and practical benefits derived from these observations to date, and provide an overview of the multi-national Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission scheduled to bc launched in the early next decade.

  7. The role of negative buoyancy and urbanization in warm season precipitation processes over the U. S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshan, Manisha

    This thesis investigates some important processes for better understanding and modeling warm season rainfall characteristics over the US. In the first part, the causes for commonly observed biases in the simulation of the diurnal cycle of warm season rainfall are explored. Model sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify potential deficiencies in two popular cumulus parameterization schemes, viz. Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Kain-Fritsch (KF) schemes, considered suitable for use in mesoscale simulations. A novel approach using remote sensing observations to better understand the relevant trigger processes for convection is demonstrated. The convective trigger in both schemes is found to include weak, implicit constraints above the lifting condensation level (LCL), which may contribute to premature, light rain. In order to adjust for this behavior, a simple modification is made to the KF scheme to allow moist convection to begin only from the level of free convection (LFC). Even with the seemingly strict constraint, the scheme performs adequately in a mesoscale seasonal simulation producing an improvement in the nocturnal phase propagation of rainfall in the Central Plains region. The resolvable processes in the mesoscale model are able to overcome the negative buoyancy below the LFC, thereby reducing biases caused by sensitivity of the scheme's trigger to the grid-scale forcing at the LCL. In the future, such a modified scheme will be tested in regional and global simulations, to evaluate its robustness in varying convective regimes. In the second part of this thesis, a multi-city analysis using high-resolution surface observations over the US, investigates the impact of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) on warm season precipitation. Statistical methods are employed to study the rainfall anomalies associated with propagating and non-propagating storms. A strong variability is observed in the UHI-influence on rainfall based on geographical setting and diurnal

  8. Precipitation of iron, sodium, and potassium impurities from synthetic solutions modeling spent acid streams from a chemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.A.; Richardson, R.G.; Markuszewski, R. ); Levine, A.D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents experiments on treating model spent acid streams from a chemical coal cleaning process by double salt precipitation which indicated that simple heating of solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}), and precipitate yields were higher than when Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was the only alkali sulfate present. Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2 {minus}} could be precipitated at 95{degrees}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simply heating Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution up to 95{degrees}C for {lt}12 hours did not produce adequate precipitate yields. When Na was the only alkali metal present, the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid formation of undesirable iron compounds.

  9. Synthesis of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared using co-precipitation method and microemulsion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drmota, A.; Žnidaršič, A.; Košak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanoparticles have been prepared with co-precipitation in aqueous solutions and precipitation in microemulsion system water/SDS/n-butanol/cyclohexane, using iron and strontium nitrates in different molar rations as a starting materials. The mixed Sr2+, Fe3+ hydroxide precursors obtained during the reaction between corresponding metal nitrates and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), which served as a precipitating reagent, were calcined in a wide temperature range, from 350 °C to 1000 °C in a static air atmosphere. The influence of the Sr2+/Fe3+ molar ratio and the calcination temperature to the chemistry of the product formation, its crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties were investigated. It was found that the formation of single phase SrFe12O19 with relatively high specific magnetization (54 Am2/kg) was achieved at the Sr2+/Fe3+ molar ration of 6.4 and calcination at 800 °C for 3h with heating/cooling rate 5 °C/min. The prepared powders were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and specific surface area measurements (BET). The specific magnetization (DSM-10, magneto-susceptometer) of the prepared samples was measured.

  10. Processing of High Resolution, Multiparametric Radar Data for the Airborne Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar APR-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Meagher, Jonathan P.; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood

    2004-01-01

    Following the successful Precipitation Radar (PR) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, a new airborne, 14/35 GHz rain profiling radar, known as Airborne Precipitation Radar - 2 (APR-2), has been developed as a prototype for an advanced, dual-frequency spaceborne radar for a future spaceborne precipitation measurement mission. . This airborne instrument is capable of making simultaneous measurements of rainfall parameters, including co-pol and cross-pol rain reflectivities and vertical Doppler velocities, at 14 and 35 GHz. furthermore, it also features several advanced technologies for performance improvement, including real-time data processing, low-sidelobe dual-frequency pulse compression, and dual-frequency scanning antenna. Since August 2001, APR-2 has been deployed on the NASA P3 and DC8 aircrafts in four experiments including CAMEX-4 and the Wakasa Bay Experiment. Raw radar data are first processed to obtain reflectivity, LDR (linear depolarization ratio), and Doppler velocity measurements. The dataset is then processed iteratively to accurately estimate the true aircraft navigation parameters and to classify the surface return. These intermediate products are then used to refine reflectivity and LDR calibrations (by analyzing clear air ocean surface returns), and to correct Doppler measurements for the aircraft motion. Finally, the the melting layer of precipitation is detected and its boundaries and characteristics are identifIed at the APR-2 range resolution of 30m. The resulting 3D dataset will be used for validation of other airborne and spaceborne instruments, development of multiparametric rain/snow retrieval algorithms and melting layer characterization and statistics.