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Sample records for dong quai angelica

  1. Dong quai

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin of the penis in combination with other herbs. The other herbs are Panax ginseng root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, ... Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clottingDong quai might slow blood clotting. Using dong quai along ...

  2. Donges Receives 2013 Donald L. Turcotte Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Jonathan F. Donges was awarded the 2013 Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Donges's Ph.D. thesis is entitled "Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics." He gave an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting, held 9-13 December in San Francisco, Calif.

  3. Angelica Gets the Spirit Out: Improvisation, Epiphany and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignato, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article presents excerpts from a case study describing Angelica Dawson, a New York State music educator. Angelica makes improvisation a central part of her curricula in ways that transcend traditional offerings prevalent in American public schools. Qualitative research methods were used to document Angelica's work over the course of an…

  4. Assessment of Young Dong tributary and Imgok Creek impacted by Young Dong coal mine, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Ranville, James F; Wildeman, Thomas R; Jang, Min; Shim, Yon Sik; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2012-01-01

    An initial reclamation of the Young Dong coal mine site, located in northeastern South Korea, was completed in 1995. Despite the filling of the adit with limestone, acid rock drainage (ARD) enters Young Dong tributary and is then discharged to Imgok Creek. This ARD carries an average of 500 mg CaCO(3)/l of mineral acidity, primarily as Fe(II) and Al. Before spring runoff, the flow of Imgok Creek is 3.3-4 times greater than that of the tributary and has an alkalinity of 100 mg CaCO(3)/l, which is sufficient to eliminate the mineral acidity and raise the pH to about 6.5. From April through September 2008, there were at least two periods of high surface flow that affects the flow of ARD from the adit. Flow of ARD reaches 2.8 m(3)/min during spring runoff. This raised the concentrations of Fe and Al in the confluence with Imgok Creek. However, by 2 km downstream the pH of the Imgok Creek is 6.5 and only dissolved Fe is above the Korean drinking water criteria (0.30 mg/l). This suggests only a minor impact of Young Dong Creek water on Imgok Creek. Acid digestion of the sediments in Imgok Creek and Young Dong Tributary reveals considerable abundances of heavy metals, which could have a long-term impact on water quality. However, several water-based leaching tests, which better simulate the bioavailable metals pool, released only Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn at concentrations exceeding the criteria for drinking water or aquatic life. PMID:21818559

  5. Manufacturer identification and storage time determination of "Dong'e Ejiao" using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Long; Han, Hai-Fan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a set of chemometric methods to address two critical issues in quality control of a precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Dong'e Ejiao (DEEJ). Based on near infrared (NIR) spectra of multiple samples, the genuine manufacturer of DEEJ, e.g. Dong'e Ejiao Co., Ltd., was accurately identified among 21 suppliers by the fingerprint method using Hotelling T(2), distance to Model X (DModX), and similarity match value (SMV) as discriminate criteria. Soft independent modeling of the class analogy algorithm led to a misjudgment ratio of 6.2%, suggesting that the fingerprint method is more suitable for manufacturer identification. For another important feature related to clinical efficacy of DEEJ, storage time, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method was applied with a satisfactory misjudgment ratio (15.6%) and individual prediction error around 1 year. Our results demonstrate that NIR spectra comprehensively reflect the essential quality information of DEEJ, and with the aid of proper chemometric algorithms, it is able to identify genuine manufacturer and determine accurate storage time. The overall results indicate the promising potential of NIR spectroscopy as an effective quality control tool for DEEJ and other precious TCM products. PMID:27143266

  6. Ethnobotany of dye plants in Dong communities of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to document the ethnobotany of dye plants in indigenous communities towards their conservation and potential commercialization as a sustainable means of supporting local development initiatives. Methods Semi-structured surveys on plants used for coloring agents and associated traditional knowledge were conducted in fifteen Dong villages of Tongdao County in Hunan Province of South Central China during 2011–2012. Transect walks were carried out with key informants identified from semi-structured surveys to collect samples and voucher specimens for each documented plant species for taxonomic identification. Results Dong households at the study sites utilize the flowers, bark, stems, tubers and roots of 13 plant species from 9 families as dyes to color their customary clothing and food. Out of the documented plants, a total of 7 are used for coloring food, 3 for coloring clothing and 3 for both food and clothing. Documented plants consist of 3 species that yield black pigments, 3 for brownish red/russet pigments, 3 for red pigments, 2 for dark blue pigments and 2 for yellow pigments. In addition to dyes, the plants have multiple uses including medicinal, ornamental, sacrificial, edible, and for timber. Conclusions The use of dyes derived from plants persists at the study sites for their important role in expressing Dong cultural identity through customary clothing and food. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety of dye plants, their efficacy in enhancing food items and their commercial potential. Conservation policies and management plans are called for to preserve these ethnobotanical resources in a sustainable manner that supports local livelihoods while maintaining cultural practices. PMID:24552267

  7. The essential oil from Angelica gigas NAKAI suppresses nicotine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong Jie; Koo, Byung Soo; Kim, Geun Woo; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Jong Rok; Kim, Mi Ryeo; Kim, Sang Chan; Kwon, Young Kyu; Kim, Kwang Joong; Huh, Tae-lin; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Shim, Insop; Yang, Chae Ha

    2005-12-01

    Behavioral sensitization, as evidenced by the progressive enhanced locomotor response to a subsequent injection of the drug, is the major behavioral outcome produced by repeated injections of nicotine, and a model for studying drug addiction. It is putatively regarded that the alteration of extracellular dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is closely associated with nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of the essential oil from Angelica gigas NAKAI (on fragrance inhalation) on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor activity and extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats using in vivo microdialysis. Rats were given repeated injections of saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg s.c., twice a day for 7 d), followed by one challenge injection on the 4th day after the last daily injection. Systemic challenge with nicotine (0.4 mg/kg s.c.) produced a larger increase in locomotor activity in nicotine-pretreated rats than in saline-pretreated rats. A direct local challenge of 3 mM nicotine via a microdialysis probe also induced a larger increase in dopamine release in nicotine-pretreated rats than in saline-pretreated rats. Most importantly, our results showed that inhalation of the essential oils from Angelica gigas NAKAI significantly decreased both dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and locomotor activity induced by a nicotine challenge. These results suggest that the essential oils from Angelica gigas NAKAI inhibit nicotine-induced behavioral and neurochemical sensitization, and imply that the essential oil from Angelica gigas NAKAI may be effective in treating nicotine addiction, possibly by modulating dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:16327174

  8. Polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis alleviate neuronal cell injury caused by oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Tao; Li, Haifeng; Fang, Zhen; Lin, Junbin; Wang, Shanshan; Xiao, Lingyun; Yang, Fan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Junjian; Huang, Zebo; Liao, Weijing

    2014-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis. In a preliminary experiment, Angelica sinensis polysaccharides not only protected PC12 neuronal cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, but also reduced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and increased the mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2 treatment. In a rat model of local cerebral ischemia, we further demonstrated that Angelica sinensis polysaccharides enhanced the antioxidant activity in cerebral cortical neurons, increased the number of microvessels, and improved blood flow after ischemia. Our findings highlight the protective role of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis against nerve cell injury and impairment caused by oxidative stress. PMID:25206810

  9. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from different angelica roots by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui Hei; Zhang, Wendy L; Lau, Chung-Ho; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Keun, Hector C; Tsim, Karl W K; Lam, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites. PMID:24658570

  10. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents. PMID:26727903

  11. Bioavailability of plant pigment phytochemicals in Angelica keiskei in older adults: A pilot absorption kinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Camila R; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Aldini, Giancarlo; Rasmussen, Helen; Ronchi, Carlos F; Berchieri-Ronchi, Carolina; Cho, Soo-Muk; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Angelica keiskei is a green leafy vegetable rich in plant pigment phytochemicals such as flavonoids and carotenoids. This study examined bioavailability of flavonoids and carotenoids in Angelica keiskei and the alteration of the antioxidant performance in vivo. SUBJECTS AND MATERIALS Absorption kinetics of phytochemicals in Angelica keiskei were determined in healthy older adults (> 60 y, n = 5) and subjects with metabolic syndrome (n = 5). Subjects consumed 5 g dry Angelica keiskei powder encapsulated in gelatin capsules with a low flavonoid and carotenoid liquid meal. Plasma samples were collected at baseline, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 h. Samples were analyzed for flavonoids and carotenoids using HPLC systems with electrochemical and UV detection, respectively, and for total antioxidant performance by fluorometry. RESULTS After ingestion of Angelica keiskei increases in plasma quercetin concentrations were observed at 1-3 and 6-8 hr in the healthy group and at all time points in the metabolic syndrome group compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Plasma lutein concentrations were significantly elevated in both the healthy and metabolic syndrome groups at 8 hr (P < 0.05). Significant increases in total antioxidant performance were also observed in both the healthy and the metabolic syndrome groups compared to baseline (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Findings of this study clearly demonstrate the bioavailability of phytonutrients of Angelica keiskei and their ability to increase antioxidant status in humans. PMID:25324936

  12. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Aneelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides and Colletotrichum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water distilled essential oils from the roots of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis were investigated for their antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides as well as insecticidal activity against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes ...

  13. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation and GC/MS Fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica Root Components for Antifungal and Mosquito Deterrent Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica sinensis and A. archangelica belong to the Umbelliferae and both are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gynecological and intestinal disorders. In this study, oils from three different A. sinensis collections and one A. archangelica root were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The domin...

  14. Identification and characterization of a new virus in the genus Potyvirus from wild populations of Angelica lucida L. and A. genuflexa Nutt., family Apiacea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel potyvirus was discovered in Angelica livida L. (wild celery) and Angelica genuflexa Nutt. (kneeling Angelica) (family Apiaceae) in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska. The experimental plant host range of the virus included species in three families: Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium amaranticolo...

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Angelica Polysaccharide on Activation of Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wei-An; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Jing-Yi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Jie; Rahman, Khalid; Ye, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Angelica polysaccharide (AP) on activation of mast cells and its possible molecular mechanism. In our study, we determined the proinflammatory cytokines and allergic mediators in anti-DNP IgE stimulated RBL-2H3 cells and found that AP (50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) significantly decreased the release of histamine, β-hexosaminidase, leukotrienes C4 (LTC4), IL-1, IL-4, TNF-α, IL-6, and human monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) (p < 0.05). In addition, Ca2+ entry was inhibited by treatment with AP. AP also downregulated the protein expressions of p-Fyn, p-Akt, p-P38, IL-4, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in both Fyn gene upregulated and normal RBL-2H3 cells (p < 0.05). Collectively, our results showed that AP could inhibit the activation of mast cells via suppressing the releases of proinflammatory cytokines allergic mediators, Gab2/PI3-K/Akt and Fyn/Syk pathways. PMID:27200102

  16. In vitro neuroprotective activities of compounds from Angelica shikokiana Makino.

    PubMed

    Mira, Amira; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Katakura, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Angelica shikokiana is widely marketed in Japan as a dietary food supplement. With a focus on neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, the aerial part was extracted and through bio-guided fractionation, fifteen compounds [α-glutinol, β-amyrin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, methyl chlorogenate, chlorogenic acid, hyuganin E, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, adenosine (isolated for the first time from A. shikokiana), isoepoxypteryxin and isopteryxin] were isolated. Isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro neuroprotection using acetylcholine esterase inhibitory, protection against hydrogen peroxide and amyloid β peptide (Aβ25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells, scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species and thioflavin T assays. Quercetin showed the strongest AChE inhibition (IC50 value = 35.5 µM) through binding to His-440 and Tyr-70 residues at the catalytic and anionic sites of acetylcholine esterase, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, its methyl ester, quercetin and luteolin could significantly protect neuro-2A cells against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity and scavenge hydroxyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoiside, hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin significantly decreased Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity and Th-T fluorescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about neuroprotection of hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25786165

  17. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of angelica sinensis (Oliv.) diels dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (“Danggui” in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases. There are a lo...

  18. Bio-pesticidal and anti-microbial coumarins from Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica dahurica is an important traditional Chinese herb which is widely used in curing acne, ulcers, carbuncles, rheumatism, headaches and toothaches. A systematic antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from A. dahurica led to the isolation of six coumarins, namely...

  19. GC-MS fingerprints for discrimination of Ligusticum chuanxiong from Angelica.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baijuan; Chen, Junhui; Lee, Frank Sen-Chun; Wang, Xiaoru

    2008-10-01

    A GC-MS fingerprinting technique based on the essential oil components has been developed for the discrimination of chuanxiong against Chinese Angelica (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels) or other herbs with similar compositions. The analytical performance of four different extraction methods for the separation of essential oil components have been compared and these include: ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet extraction (SHE) and hydro-distillation extraction (HDE). The results showed that UAE was the most effective extraction method, and the operational parameters of UAE were optimized. 3-Butylphthalide, Z-butylidenephthalide, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, E-butylidenephthalide, senkyunolide A, neocnidilide, Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide were tentatively identified in chromatograms of chuanxiong based on their GC-EI-MS data. Similarity coefficient calculations based on correlation methods have been performed on the GC-MS fingerprints. Using an authentic standard Chuanxiong as the reference, the similarity coefficients between the standard and all other chuanxiong samples ranged from 0.90 to 1.0 (with 1.0 being the perfect match), which as a group can be readily separated from the Angelica samples for which the similarity index against the chuanxiong standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.77. Conversely, when an authentic Angelica standard was used as the reference, the respective similarity coefficients fall in the range of 0.70-0.75 and 0.98-1.00 for the chuanxiong and Angelica sample groups. Our results thus demonstrate that the fingerprinting technique developed in the study can indeed discriminate the two herbs with high reliability. PMID:18773421

  20. Ultrafine Angelica gigas Powder Normalizes Ovarian Hormone Levels and Has Antiosteoporosis Properties in Ovariectomized Rats: Particle Size Effect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake. PMID:23039111

  1. Source identification and mass balance studies of mercury in Lake An-dong, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Byeon, M.; Yoon, J.; Park, J.; Lee, M.; Huh, I.; Na, E.; Chung, D.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, mercury and methylmercury were measured in atmospheric, tributary, open-lake water column, sediment, planktons and fish samples in the catchments area of Lake An-dong, S. Korea. Lake An-dong, an artificial freshwater lake is located on the upstream of River Nak-dong. It has 51.5 km2 of open surface water and 1.33 year of hydraulic residence time. It is a source of drinking water for 0.3 million S. Koreans. Recently, the possibilities of its mercury contamination became an issue since current studies showed that the lake had much higher mercury level in sediment and certain freshwater fish species than any other lakes in S. Korea. This catchments area has the possibilities of historical mercury pollution by the location of more than 50 abandoned gold mines and Young-poong zinc smelter. The objective of this study was to develop a mercury mass balance and identify possible mercury sources in the lake. The results of this study are thus expected to offer valuable insights for the sources of mercury loading through the watershed. In order to estimate the mercury flux, TGM, RGM and particulate mercury were measured using TEKRAN 2537 at the five sites surrounding Lake An-dong from May, 2009 with wet and dry deposition. The fate and transport of mercury in water body were predicted by using EFDC (Environmental Dynamic Fluid Code) and Mercury module in WASP7 (Water quality analysis program) after subsequent distribution into water body, sediments, followed by bioaccumulation and ultimate uptake by humans. The mercury mass balance in Young-poong zinc smelter was also pre-estimated by measuring mercury content in zinc ores, emission gases, sludge, wastewater and products.

  2. [Weibull distribution for modeling drying of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and its application in moisture dynamics].

    PubMed

    Sha, Xiu-xiu; Zhu, Shao-qing; Duan, Jin-ao; Guo, Sheng; Lu, Xue-jun; Gao, Zhen-jiang; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-06-01

    To establish the water dynamics model for drying process of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, the Weibull distribution model was applied to study the moisture ratio variation curves, and compared the drying rate and drying activation energy with the drying methods of temperature controllable air drying, infrared drying under different temperatures (50, 60, 70 degrees C). The Weibull distribution model could well describe the drying curves, for the moisture ratio vs. drying time profiled of the model showed high correlation (R2 = 0. 994-0. 999). The result proved that the drying process of Angelicae Sinensis Radix belonged to falling-rate drying period. For the drying process, the scale parameter (a) was related to the drying temperature, and decreased as the temperature increases. The shape parameter (β) for the same drying method, drying temperature had little impact on the shape parameter. The moisture diffusion coefficient increase along with temperature increasing from 0.425 x 10(-9) m2 x s(-1) to 2.260 x 10(-9) m2 x s(-1). The activation energy for moisture diffusion was 68.82, 29.60 kJ x mol(-1) by temperature controllable air drying and infrared drying, respectively. Therefore, the Weibull distribution model can be used to predict the moisture removal of Angelicae Sinensis Radix in the drying process, which is great significance for the drying process of prediction, control and process optimization. The results provide the technical basis for the use of modern drying technology for industrial drying of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. PMID:26552166

  3. Characterization of the Anticoagulative Constituents of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Their Metabolites in Rats by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Huang, Shuai; Chen, Bing; Zang, Xin-Yu; Su, Dan; Liang, Jing; Xu, Feng; Liu, Guang-Xue; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Angelicae Sinensis Radix is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies show that Angelicae Sinensis Radix has clear anticoagulant activity. Therefore, in this study, the anticoagulant activity of crude Angelicae Sinensis Radix extracts was investigated by measuring the thrombin times of the extracts. The results revealed that the petroleum ether-soluble fraction of Angelicae Sinensis Radix exhibited significant anticoagulant activity in vitro, and 26 compounds were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry. In addition, 5 prototype constituents, 24 in vivo metabolites in rat urine and 7 prototype constituents, and 9 in vitro metabolites in the rat hepatic S9 incubation system of the petroleum ether-soluble fraction were tentatively identified. All metabolites were found from Angelicae Sinensis Radix for the first time. Among them, 13 (three ferulic acid-related constituents, six senkyunolide D-related constituents, and four senkyunolide F-related constituents) were identified as new metabolites (new compounds). This study is the first to qualitatively characterize the chemical constituents of the potent anticoagulative extract of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and to explore its metabolism. The result is a notable improvement in the discovery of Angelicae Sinensis Radix metabolites, and it provides the chemical basis for the effective forms and pharmacodynamic substances (prototypes, metabolites, or both) of the anticoagulant activity of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. PMID:26829520

  4. Polyphenols, Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity in Different Varieties of Angelica keiskei (Angels plant) and Glycine max (Black soybeans)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant content and activity as well as the stability of different varieties of Angelica keiskei (n = 3), and Glycine max (n = 5) were determined. Angelica keiskei, a dark green leafy vegetable, was lyophilized; and Glycine max, black soybeans, were roasted at 125 deg C for 2 min, milled to ...

  5. Long-term trend of climate variables in the upper Dong Nai river basin in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Nguyen Cung Que; Nguyen, Hong Quan; Kondoh, Akihiko

    2015-04-01

    Dong Nai river and Mekong delta downstream are located in and supplied the major water resources to the whole Southern of Vietnam. In the state of continuous changes in water resources due to climate changes, there are several controversy about the potential impact of sediment transport and river flows downstream due to either the cascade hydroelectric power plant system or dam construction in the upper of Mekong delta. Therefore, management and planning for efficient use of Dong Nai river water resource is very important. Furthermore, that it is necessary to consider the hydrological regime change by the effects of climate variable. On the other hand, solving the problems of water shortage in the dry season and flood control in rainy season are also important for issues of water management at Dong Nai river basin. In this study we evaluated changes in two main factors of the water balance equation (both rainfall and evapotranspiration) to assess long-term change in the hydrological regime in the upper area of Dong Nai river basin. This key theme was divided into the following two sub-goals. The first goal was to analyze long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends. The second goal was to analyze the long-term trend of meteorological factors determining evapotranspiration such as air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation and sunshine duration. The results were used to assess their impact to evapotranspiration. The meteorological and hydrological data of the basin for the last 20 years (from 1993 to 2012) were analyzed based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. The EMD method has been pioneered by Huang et al. (1998) for adaptively representing nonstationary time-series data as sum of zero-mean amplitude modulation-frequency modulation (AM-FM) components by iteratively conducting the sifting process. These components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) allow the calculation of a meaningful multi-component instantaneous frequency. The results show temperature slightly increased of 2% in all areas and rainfall in rainy season increased of 10% in highland, 15% in midland and 5% in lowland. Whereas we have found the downtrend in all meteorological factors, while the reduction of wind speed were greatly with 15% but they are very small in related humidity (0.3%) and sunrise duration (1%). Solar radiation was slightly decreased of 8% and discharge was increased of 8% steadily. EMD is not only the quantitative results as above but it also shows shape of trend curves, from which we can verify change in climate variables in analyzed period. EMD could be widely used to detect trend over time of meteorological time series data.

  6. Application of mid-infrared spectroscopy in analyzing different segmented production of Angelica by AB-8 macroporous resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yizhen; Wang, Jingjuan; Lu, Lina; Sun, Suqin; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Yao; Qin, Youwen; Xiao, Lijuan; Wen, Haoran; Qu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As complicated mixture systems, chemical components of Angelica are very difficult to identify and discriminate, so as not to control its quality effectively. In recent years, Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been innovatively employed to identify and assess the quality of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. In this paper, the macroscopic IR fingerprint method including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR), are applied to study and identify Angelica raw material, the decoction and different segmented production of AB-8 macroporous resin. FT-IR spectrum indicates that Angelica raw material is rich in sucrose and the correlation coefficient is 0.8465. The decoction of Angelica contains varieties of polysaccharides components and the content is gradually decreased with increasing concentration of ethanol. In addition, the decoction of Angelica contains a certain amount of protein components and 50% ethanol eluate has more protein than other eluates. Their second derivative spectra amplify the differences and reveal the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands, then we conclude that the decoction of Angelica contains a certain amount of ferulic acid and ligustilide. And 30% ethanol eluate, 50% ethanol eluate and 70% ethanol eluate are similar to ligustilide. Further, 2D-IR spectra enhance the spectral resolution and obtain much new information for discriminating the similar complicated samples. It is demonstrated that the above three-step infrared spectroscopy could be applicable for effective, visual and accurate analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems of traditional Chinese medicines.

  7. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, and Colletotrichum species.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Zengping; Demirci, Betul; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Sampson, Blair J; Werle, Chris; Bernier, Ulrich R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis root essential oils were investigated as pest management perspectives, and root samples were also analyzed genetically using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a DNA barcode marker. A. pubescentis root essential oil demonstrated weak antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. dahurica root essential oil did not show antifungal activity. Conversely, A. dahurica root essential oil demonstrated better biting deterrent and insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides, than A. pubescentis root oil. The major compounds in the A. dahurica oil were found as α-pinene (46.3%), sabinene (9.3%), myrcene (5.5%), 1-dodecanol (5.2%), and terpinen-4-ol (4.9%). α-Pinene (37.6%), p-cymene (11.6%), limonene (8.7%), and cryptone (6.7%) were the major compounds found in the A. pubescentis oil. In mosquito bioassays, 1-dodecanol and 1-tridecanol showed antibiting deterrent activity similar to the positive control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, whereas only 1-tridecanol showed repellent activity in human-based cloth patch bioassay with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.086 ± 0.089 mg/cm(2) (DEET = 0.007 ± 0.003 mg/cm(2)). In larval bioassays, 1-tridecanol was more toxic with an LC50 value of 2.1 ppm than 1-dodecanol having an LC50 value of 5.2 ppm against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol could be useful for the natural mosquito control agents. PMID:25133520

  8. Enhancement of pheochromocytoma nerve cell growth by consecutive fractionization of Angelica gigas Nakai extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Myoung Hoon; Kim, Ji Seon; Zou, Yunyun; Yoon, Chang Soon; Lim, Hye Won; Ahn, Juhee

    2010-01-01

    This work was to investigate the effect of flavonoids from Angelica gigas Nakai on the proliferation and differentiation of PC12 cells. Several solvents including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water consecutively partitioned. We determined the ethanol crude extract of Angelica gigas Nakai. The hexane fraction was shown to contain the highest number of flavonoids as follows; 21.48 mg/g and the composition of the flavonoids was as follows: 12.24 mg/g of quercetin, 4.39 mg/g of myricetin and 2.58 mg/g of catechin. In addition, this hexane fraction greatly increased both cell growth and outgrowth of the neurite, and whose effects were three times higher than those of the other fractions. The length of the neurites was measured as ca. 110 μm in adding 50 μg/mL of the hexane fraction, which was about the same as the case of adding 50 ng/mL of NGF as a positive control. This result indicates that the differentiation of PC12 cells by the addition of the hexane fraction was comparable to the case of adding NGF. The hexane fraction was also determined to prevent apoptosis of PC12 cells by suppressing DNA fragmentation. It is interesting that the mixture of three major flavonoids, quercetin, myricetin and catechin showed stronger activity on, both PC12 cell growth and neuritis outgrowth, than when adding each flavonoid alone. We believe this was due to the synergistic effects of the three flavonoids. The activities of these flavonoids from Angelica gigas Nakai are reported for the first time in this study. PMID:20936343

  9. [Professor DONG Gui-rong's experience for the treatment of peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lian-Ying; Shen, Te-Li; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Si-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Professor DONG Gui-rong's theoretical principle and manipulation points for peripheral facial paralysis were introduced in details from the angels of syndrome differentiation, timing, acupoint prescription and needling methods. For the syndrome differentiation and timing, the professor emphasized to check the treatment timing and follow the symptoms, which should be treated by stages, besides, it was necessary to find and distinguish the reason and nature of diseases to have a combined treatment of tendons and muscles. For the acupoint prescription and needling methods, he has proposed that the acupoints selection should be compatible of distal and lacal, and made a best of Baihui (GV 20) to regulate the whole yang qi, also he has paid much attention to the needling methods and staging treatment. Under the consideration of late stage of peripheral facial paralysis, based on syndrome differentiation Back-shu points have been selected to regulate zang-fu function, should achieve much better therapeutic effect. PMID:22650134

  10. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the upstrean Hing-she station raise vivestok Sing-She stations are that ammonia on a upward trend, BOD5 no significant change in trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, river pollution index (RPI) a slight downward trend. Dong-gang River Basin , but the progress of sewer construction in slow. To reduce pollation in this river effort shoul be made regulatory reform on livestock waste control and acceleration of sewer construction. Keywords: quantile regression analysis, BOD5, RPI

  11. Chemical composition of Angelica pancicii essential oil determined by liquid and headspace GC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Simonovi?, Strahinja R; Stankov-Jovanovi?, Vesna P; Miti?, Violeta D; Ili?, Marija D; Petrovi?, Goran M; Stojanovi?, Gordana S

    2014-02-01

    The essential oil of the Balkan endemic species, Angelica pancicii, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, applying the liquid injection mode. These results were compared with the chemical composition of volatiles achieved by the "headspace" injection mode, followed by GC and GC-MS (HS-GC-MS). A total of 40 compounds were identified in the essential oil (98.8% of the total oil) and 44 by HS-GC-MS (99.8% of the total oil). The most abundant class of compounds in both cases was monoterpenoids, which formed 92.7% of the essential oil (97.7% by HS-GC-MS) of total identified compounds. The major components in both cases were beta-phellandrene (54.9% and 60.1%, respectively), alpha-pinene (14.5% and 20.1%, respectively) and alpha-phellandrene (4.5% and 4.3%, respectively). PMID:24689308

  12. Fluorescence enhancement of radix angelica dahurica by binding to single silver sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ru; Shi, Qiang; Li, Shu-Hong; Wang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the influence of a single silver sphere on the fluorescence of radix angelica dahurica, which is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. The enhancement factors of the excitation and the relaxation processes are deduced. The excitation can be enhanced more than 100 times at 315 nm. The enhancement factor of the emission can reach up to 9 at a center wavelength of 400 nm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405085 and 61275147), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Liaocheng University, China, the Key Project of Science and Technology of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. 2010GGX10127), and the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. ZR2013EML006 and ZR2012AL11).

  13. Anti-diabetic and anti-Alzheimer's disease activities of Angelica decursiva.

    PubMed

    Yousof Ali, Md; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitute two global health issues. DM is an ever-increasing epidemic affecting millions of elderly people worldwide, causing major repercussions on patients' daily lives, mostly due to chronic complications. Complications from DM can affect the brain, thereby characterizing DM as a risk factor for AD. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of different parts of 12 Angelica species against α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The methanol extract of Angelica decursiva exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, PTP1B, AChE, and BChE and so was selected for further investigation. Repeated column chromatography based on bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded seven compounds (1-7). Among these compounds, nodakenin (1), nodakenetin (2), umbelliferone (3), cis-3'-acetyl-4'-angeloylkhellactone (4), 3'(R)-O-acetyl-4'(S)-O-tigloylkhellactone (5), isorutarine (6), and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) exhibited potent inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, PTP1B, rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), AChE, BChE, and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Our results clearly indicate the potential inhibition of α-glucosidase, PTP1B, RLAR, AChE, BChE, and BACE1 by A. decursiva as well as its isolated constituents, which could be further explored to develop therapeutic modalities for the treatment of DM and AD. PMID:26152875

  14. Geochemistry and origin of metal, olivine clasts, and matrix in the Dong Ujimqin Qi mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ping; Su, Wen; Li, Xianhua; Spettel, Bernhard; Palme, Herbert; Tao, Kejie

    2008-03-01

    The Dong Ujimqin Qi mesosiderite is the first recorded fall of a stony-iron meteorite in China. According to silicate textures and metal composition, this meteorite is classified as a member of subgroup IB. Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) of metals show that the matrix metal has lower concentrations of Os, Ir, Re, and Pt, but higher concentrations of Ni and Au than the 7.5 cm metal nodule present in the meteorite. We attribute these compositional differences to fractional crystallization of molten metal. Studies of olivine clasts show that FeO contents are uniform in individual olivine crystals but are variable for different olivine clasts. Although concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) change within olivine clasts, they all exhibit a vee-shaped pattern relative to CI chondrites. The relatively high concentrations of REEs in olivine and the shape of REE patterns require a liquid high in REEs and especially in light REEs. As such a liquid was absent from the region where basaltic and gabbroic clasts formed, mesosiderite olivine must have formed in a part of the differentiated asteroid that is different from the location where other mesosiderite silicate clasts formed.

  15. Identification of medicinal species and antifungal property of a Dong ethnic drug

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhirong; Du, Yuan; Cheng, Lili; Zhu, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the medicinal species in the Zi Hua Di Ding (ZHDD) prescription commonly used by the Dong ethnic people, and investigate the potential mechanism involved with the anti-fungal properties on Trichophyton rubrum. Methods: DNA barcode technique was used to identify the species in the ZHDD prescription. In vitro study was performed to investigate the antifungal properties of the identified Viola philippica on the T. rubrum. Microscopy was used to observe the growth of the T. rubrum. Results: The ZHDD prescription is a mixture of V. philippica and V. inconspicua, and its antifungal properties was superior to the single component. V. philippica could affect the surface and flexibility of hypha, and contribute to the generation of branches. In addition, it could damage the biofilm. Conclusions: Using the DNA barcode technique, we identify the ZHDD prescription is a mixture of V. philippica and V. inconspicua, and its antifungal properties was superior to the single component. V. philippica could affect the growth and biofilm formation of T. rubrum. PMID:25663999

  16. Systems biology in a commercial quality study of the Japanese Angelica radix: toward an understanding of traditional medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Akira; Fukuda, Shinzo; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hayasaki, Tomoyuki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Komura, Hajime; Nomoto, Kyosuke; Shojo, Masayuki; Takeno, Kanokwan Jumtee

    2011-01-01

    The commercial quality of Japanese Angelica radices -- Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Yamato-toki) and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyama Hikino (Hokkai-toki) -- used in Kampo traditional herbal medicines, was studied by use of omics technologies. Complementary and alternative medical providers have observed in their clinical experience that differences in radix commercial quality reflect the differences in pharmacological responses; however, there has been little scientific examination of this phenomenon. The approach of omics, including metabolomics, transcriptomics, genomics, and informatics revealed a distinction between the radix-quality grades based on their metabolites, gene expression in human subjects, and plant genome sequences. Systems biology, constructing a network of omics data used to analyze this complex system, is expected to be a powerful tool for enhancing the study of radix quality and furthering a comprehensive understanding of all medicinal plants. PMID:21721155

  17. Angelica sinensis isolate SBD.4: composition, gene expression profiling, mechanism of action and effect on wounds, in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Deneau, Joel; Che, Ginny O L; Li, Shang; Vagnini, Frederic; Azadi, Parastoo; Sonon, Roberto; Ramjit, Ravi; Lee, Simon M Y; Bojanowski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    This report characterizes an aqueous isolate (SBD.4) of one of the most broadly used Chinese medicinal herbs, Angelica sinensis, from the perspective of its application in skin and wound care. SBD.4 has been chemically defined and was found to increase the strength of healed wounds in retired breeder (older) rats. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of this Angelica sinensis isolate was tested in the zebrafish angiogenesis model, and in human skin substitutes by DNA microarray, revealing a bioactivity profile consistent with skin repair and regeneration. When combined with several types of wound dressings, SBD.4 increased type I collagen production in human dermal fibroblasts, and when formulated in nanosilver hydrocolloid dressing, it was found effective in chronic ulcer management in humans, demonstrating that botanical high-tech wound dressings can be successfully developed to improve the treatment of chronic lesions in humans. PMID:22146555

  18. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehyung; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Namil; Chae, Younbyoung

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam's acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods. PMID:25574179

  19. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taehyung; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Namil; Chae, Younbyoung

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam's acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods. PMID:25574179

  20. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Cultivated and Wild Angelica gigas Nakai Extracts Prepared Using Different Extraction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Bo-Young; Lee, Hye-Jin; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological activities of cultivated Angelica gigas Nakai (CAG) and wild Angelica gigas Nakai (WAG) extracts prepared by extraction with water, 30% ethanol, 60% ethanol, or 90% ethanol. The electron donating ability of the WAG extracts was higher than that of the CAG extracts and 0.1% and 1.0% solutions of the comparative substance, L-ascorbic acid. The superoxide dismutase-like activity of the CAG extracts was higher than that of WAG extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity was highest (33.95%) in the CAG water extract. The total polyphenol content was highest in the 60% ethanol extracts of WAG. The nitrite scavenging ability of the CAG and WAG extracts was highest at a pH of 1.2. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect was highest (43.72%) in the water extract of WAG. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity was highest (83.84%) in the 60% ethanol extract of WAG. The results of the present study will be useful for understanding the antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of Angelica gigas Nakai extracts. PMID:25580391

  1. An Experimental Novel Study: Angelica sinensis Prevents Epidural Fibrosis in Laminectomy Rats via Downregulation of Hydroxyproline, IL-6, and TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaohong; Zhao, Xuechao; Zhou, Xianhu; Su, Yanhua; Sharma, Hari S.; Feng, Shiqing

    2013-01-01

    With laminectomy being widely accepted as the treatment for lumbar disorders, epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication for both the patients and the surgeons alike. Currently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy or after discectomy. Angelica sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine which has shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica sinensis on the prevention of post-laminectomy EF formation in a rat model. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in sixty healthy adult Wistar rats that underwent laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups according to the treatment method, with 20 in each group: (1) Angelica sinensis treatment group, (2) saline treatment group, and (3) sham group (laminectomy without treatment). All rats were euthanized humanely 4 weeks after laminectomy. The hydroxyproline content, Rydell score, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, inflammatory cells density, and inflammatory factors expressions all suggested better results in Angelica sinensis group than the other two groups. Topical application of Angelica sinensis could inhibit fibroblasts proliferation and TGF-β1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural scar adhesion in postlaminectomy rat model. PMID:24069047

  2. Polysaccharide isolated from Angelica sinensis inhibits hepcidin expression in rats with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Zeng, Fang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A novel polysaccharide named Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was obtained from the powdered and defatted roots of A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. The molecular weight of ASP was determined to be 78 kDa and was 95.0% sugars consisting of mostly arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1:5.68:3.91. A previous study indicated that ASP may increase plasma iron levels by suppressing the expression of hepcidin, a negative regulator of body iron metabolism, in the liver. The present study aims to clarify the inhibitory effect of ASP on hepcidin expression in rat models of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and clarify the mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that ASP significantly reduced hepcidin expression by inhibiting the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4) in liver and stimulating the secretion of erythropoietin, which further downregulated hepcidin by repressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5. The results indicate that ASP can suppress the expression of hepcidin in rats with IDA, and may be useful for the treatment of IDA. PMID:22985399

  3. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-10-01

    Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells. PMID:26336081

  4. An ethanolic extract of Angelica gigas improves atherosclerosis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja Young; Kim, Jihyun; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Park, Sung Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an ethanolic extract of Angelica gigas (EAG) on the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were investigated. Rat aortic VSMCs were stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (25 ng/mL) for the induction of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. EAG (1-10 µg/mL) significantly inhibited both the thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male New Zealand white rabbits with 0.5% cholesterol in diet for 10 weeks, during which EAG (1% in diet) was given for the final 8 weeks after 2-week induction of hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited great increases in serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, and finally severe atheromatous plaque formation covering 28.4% of the arterial walls. EAG significantly increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL), slightly decreased LDL, and potentially reduced the atheroma area to 16.6%. The results indicate that EAG attenuates atherosclerosis not only by inhibiting VASC proliferation, but also by increasing blood HDL levels. Therefore, it is suggested that EAG could be an alternative or an adjunct therapy for the improvement of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:24999363

  5. Chalcones isolated from Angelica keiskei inhibit cysteine proteases of SARS-CoV.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young; Ko, Jin-A; Kim, Dae Wook; Kim, Young Min; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Woo Song; Ryu, Young Bae

    2016-01-01

    Two viral proteases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL(pro)) and a papain-like protease (PL(pro)) are attractive targets for the development of anti-SARS drugs. In this study, nine alkylated chalcones (1-9) and four coumarins (10-13) were isolated from Angelica keiskei, and the inhibitory activities of these constituents against SARS-CoV proteases (3CL(pro) and PL(pro)) were determined (cell-free/based). Of the isolated alkylated chalcones, chalcone 6, containing the perhydroxyl group, exhibited the most potent 3CL(pro) and PL(pro) inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 11.4 and 1.2 µM. Our detailed protein-inhibitor mechanistic analysis of these species indicated that the chalcones exhibited competitive inhibition characteristics to the SARS-CoV 3CL(pro), whereas noncompetitive inhibition was observed with the SARS-CoV PL(pro). PMID:25683083

  6. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  7. Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of an acidic polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Hongjing; Cui, Zheng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Kai-Ping

    2016-08-20

    A water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from the roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, which is a traditional Chinese medicine herb, was fractioned and purified by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography. The structural characterization and antitumor activities of the purified polysaccharide fraction, named as ASP, were evaluated in the present study. ASP, which molecular weight was determined to be 80kDa by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography, is an acidic heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucuronic acid, glucose, arabinose and galactose in ratio of 1.00:1.70:1.85:5.02. It has a backbone composed of (1→3)-linked Galp, (1→6)-linked Galp and 2-OMe-(1→6)-linked Galp with three branches attached to O-3 of 2-OMe-(1→6)-linked Galp and terminated with GlcpA and Araf, and all of Araf and the majority of Glcp are distributed in branches. Moreover, all of GlcpA were presented as (1→)-linked GlcpA in branches. In in vitro antitumor assays, ASP displayed cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells (34.32±3.50% at the concentration of 1mg/mL) and MCF-7 cells (28.90±1.50% at the concentration of 1mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner, and ASP also showed mild inhibitory activity against A549 cells. PMID:27178946

  8. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids incorporated colloidal systems for the delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Yoon, In-Soo; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fish oil-enriched colloidal systems were developed for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) extract (ext). By constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, the composition of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion (ME) systems based on ω-3 (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), and water was determined. AGN ext was dissolved into the ME system and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was added to the ME formulation in order to enhance the mucosal absorption of the pharmacologically active ingredients in the AGN ext. The droplet size of AGN-loaded MEs was 205-277nm and their morphology was spherical. The release of major components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), from ME formulations in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that from the AGN suspension group. The pharmacokinetic properties of AGN-loaded MEs in rats were evaluated by measuring decursinol (DOH) concentrations in plasma after oral administration. TPGS-included ME (F2) resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) systemic exposure of DOH than that with ME without TPGS (F1), AGN ext+TPGS, and AGN in suspension. Severe toxicity of F1 and F2 on the intestinal epithelium was not observed by histological staining. The colloidal carriers described herein are promising delivery systems for oral administration of AGN ext. PMID:26764107

  10. Decursin from Angelica gigas suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Ting; Kang, Ju-Hee; Li, Hua; Cho, Hyewon; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Yim, Mijung

    2016-03-01

    Osteoclasts are the only cells capable of breaking down bone matrix, and excessive activation of osteoclasts is responsible for bone-destructive diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of decursin from extract of Angelica gigas root on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Decursin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation without cytotoxicity. In particular, decursin maintains the characteristics of macrophages by blocking osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Furthermore, the RANKL-stimulated bone resorption was diminished by decursin. Mechanistically, decursin blocked the RANKL-triggered ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation, which results in suppression of c-Fos and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. In accordance with the in vitro study, decursin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in vivo. Therefore, decursin exerted an inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation and bone loss in vitro and in vivo. Decursin could be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption. PMID:26825541

  11. Quick and selective extraction of Z-ligustilide from Angelica sinensis using magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiong; Jia, Yan-Wei; Xu, Pei-Li; Xiao, Meng-Wei; Liu, Yi-Ming; Peng, Shu-Lin; Liao, Xun

    2015-12-01

    A facile and highly efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction method has been developed for Z-ligustilide, the major therapeutic agent in Angelica sinensis. The solid-phase adsorbent material used was prepared by conjugating carbon nanotubes with magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles via a hydrothermal reaction. The magnetic material showed a high affinity toward Z-ligustilide due to the π-π stacking interaction between the carbon nanotubes and Z-ligustilide, allowing a quick and selective exaction of Z-ligustilide from complex sample matrices. Factors influencing the magnetic solid-phase extraction such as the amount of the added adsorbent, adsorption and desorption time, and desorption solvent, were investigated. Due to its high extraction efficiency, this method was proved highly useful for sample cleanup/enrichment in quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The proposed method had a linear calibration curve (R(2) = 0.9983) over the concentration between 4 ng/mL and 200 μg/mL Z-ligustilide. The accuracy of the method was determined by the recovery, which was from 92.07 to 104.02%, with the relative standard deviations >4.51%. PMID:26496363

  12. Volatile compounds from roots, stems and leaves of Angelica acutiloba growing in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chun; Tsaia, Yi-; Linb, Li-Yun; Wu, Chin-Sheng; Tai, Shan-Pao; Chen, Yu-Chang; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2014-04-01

    The present study analyzed and compared the volatile compounds in fresh Angelica acutiloba roots, stems and leaves both qualitatively and quantitatively. The volatile compounds were isolated by either steam distillation (SD) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). A total of 61 compounds were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All 61 compounds were verified by SD, with 3n-butyl phthalide, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene and cis-beta-ocimene as the main compounds. Thirty-three compounds were verified by HS-SPME, with gamma-terpinene and p-cymene as the main compounds. The leaf samples contained the highest essential oil content. Compared with SD, HS-SPME sampling resulted in relatively higher amounts of highly volatile monoterpenes and lower amounts of less volatile compounds such as 3n-butyl phthalide. These findings demonstrate that A. acutiloba roots, stems and leaves have high 3n-butyl phthalide contents; thus, all parts of A. acutiloba may be used for further application and development. PMID:24868890

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  14. Protection of Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels against hepatotoxicity induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L. and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chengwei; Wang, Junming; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-10-01

    Dioscorea bulbifera L., a traditionally used medicinal plant in China, is reported to induce hepatotoxicity. The present study is designed to investigate the protection of an ethanol extract of Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels (AE) against an ethyl acetate fraction of D. bulbifera (EF)-induced liver injury and its engaged mechanism. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the amount of diosbulbin B in EF was 16.03% and ferulic acid in AE was 0.18%. EF (350 mg/kg) increased serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin (TB) amount, while AE inhibited such an increase. Liver histological evaluation showed that AE prevented development of severe hepatic lesions induced by EF. Further results showed that EF decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and induced the cleaved activation of caspase-9 and -3, and all those effects were reversed by AE. AE also reversed EF-induced decreased expression of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Taken together, our results demonstrate that AE can prevent EF-induced hepatotoxicity via preventing apoptosis, meanwhile IκB, SOD, and GPx may be involved in such protection. PMID:25382441

  15. Structural analysis and immunoregulation activity comparison of five polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmin; Ge, Beilei; Li, Zihong; Guan, Fangxia; Li, Feifei

    2016-04-20

    Four fractional polysaccharides (CAPS30, CAPS50, CAPS70 and CAPS80) and total polysaccharides (CAPSt) were obtained from Angelica sinensis. Their structures were identified by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), molecular weights were evaluated by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Their immunoregulation activities were further compared in vitro. The results showed that they displayed different structural features and immuno-enhancement activities. They all could cause the proliferation of the lymphocyte, up-regulate stimulate the productions of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion in the peripheral lymphocytes. Further experiments showed that CAPS50 and CAPS70 could increase the ratio of CD3(+)CD56(+) cells to some extent. These indicated that five CAPSs displayed different activities which were associated with their different structural characteristics and CAPS70, with the molecular weights of 20.82kDa and consisting of mannose and glucose in the molar ratio of 1.20:1.01, possessed the strongest immuno-enhancement activity. PMID:26876821

  16. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Junghyun; Shin, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. PMID:25197308

  17. Angelica sinensis improves exercise performance and protects against physical fatigue in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known medicinal herb and food material with antioxidative and multifunctional pharmacological activities. However, we lack evidence of the effect of AS on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of AS on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions after physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); (3) exercise training with AS treatment at 0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1); and (4) 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5); both the vehicle and AS were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. Trend analysis revealed that AS treatments significantly increased endurance swimming time and blood glucose level, and decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels. Liver and muscle glycogen contents were higher for Ex-AS1 and Ex-AS5 groups than the exercise control. Therefore, AS supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue properties in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24691065

  18. Extraction of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides using ultrasound-assisted way and its bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yongyong; Yang, Huixin; Mao, Lijuan

    2016-07-01

    In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as ultrasound power (140-180W), the ratio of liquid to solid (5-7), extraction time (40-50min) and extraction temperature (80-100°C) and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). Based on contour plots and variance analysis, optimum operational conditions for maximizing polysaccharides yield were found to be 180w, 7, 45min and 90°C. Under the optimum operating conditions determined, 6.96% polysaccharides were achieved. In addition, the results showed that A. sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) could increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease the MDA levels in the skeletal muscle of exhaustive exercise rats. This study provides strong evidence that A. sinensis polysaccharides supplementation possessed protective effects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26845475

  19. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiuying; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Li, Haibing; Li, Xiaoyue; Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Weijie; Fan, Wenbo

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a fraction (AAP-2A) of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus (AAP) were investigated. Characteriztion assay showed that AAP-2A had molecular weight (Mw), root-mean square (RMS) radius and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of 2.252×10(3)kDa, 28.4nm and 1.038, respectively. There were infrared characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides in FT-IR spectroscopy. AAP-2A was composed of rhamnose (Rha), galactose (Gal), arabinose (Ara) and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 1:2.13:3.22:6.18 in GC analysis. Methylation analysis combined with NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that a preliminary structure of AAP-2A was proposed as follows: 1,3-linked Rhap, 1,3-linked Galp, 1,3-linked Araf, 1,5-linked Araf, 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Glcp and 1,4,6-linked Glcp interspersed with terminal Glcp. AAP-2A exhibited a surface with a sheet-like appearance in scanning electron microscope and stronger antioxidant capacity compared with AAP. PMID:26686116

  20. Effects of ferulic acid on antioxidant activity in Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Yan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Min; Tao, Wei-Wei; Li, Wei-Xia; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at exploring different roles of the same compound in different environment, using preparative HPLC, and the significance to investigating bio-active constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the basis of holism. In this study, the depletion of target component ferulic acid (FA) by using preparative HPLC followed by antioxidant activity testing was applied to investigate the roles of FA in Angelicae Sinensis Radix (DG), Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CX) and their combination (GX). The antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity testing. FA was successfully and exclusively depleted from DG, CX, and GX, respectively. By comparing the effects of the samples, it was found that FA was one of the main antioxidant constituents in DG, CX and GX, and the roles of FA were DG > CX > GX. Furthermore, the effects of FA varied at different doses in these herbs. This study provided a reliable and effective approach to clarifying the contribution of same compound in different TCMs to their bio-activities. The role of a constituent in different TCMs might be different, and a component with the same content might have different effects in different chemical environments. Furthermore, this study also suggested the potential utilization of preparative HPLC in the characterization of the roles of multi-ingredients in TCM. PMID:26073335

  1. Identification of species and materia medica within Angelica L. (Umbelliferae) based on phylogeny inferred from DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, QING-JUN; ZHANG, BIN; JIANG, DAN; ZHANG, WEN-JING; LIN, TSAI-YUN; WANG, NIAN-HE; CHIOU, SHU-JIAU; HUANG, LU-QI

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcodes have been increasingly used in authentication of medicinal plants, while their wide application in materia medica is limited in their accuracy due to incomplete sampling of species and absence of identification for materia medica. In this study, 95 leaf accessions of 23 species (including one variety) and materia medica of three Pharmacopoeia-recorded species of Angelica in China were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of four DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and ITS). Our results showed that ITS provided the best discriminatory power by resolving 17 species as monophyletic lineages without shared alleles and exhibited the largest barcoding gap among the four single barcodes. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS showed that Levisticum officinale and Angelica sinensis were sister taxa, which indicates that L. officinale should be considered as a species of Angelica. The combination of ITS + rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA performed slight better discriminatory power than ITS, recovering 23 species without shared alleles and 19 species as monophyletic clades in ML tree. Authentication of materia medica using ITS revealed that the decoction pieces of A. sinensis and A. biserrata were partially adulterated with those of L. officinale, and the temperature around 80 °C processing A. dahurica decoction pieces obviously reduced the efficiency of PCR and sequencing. The examination of two cultivated varieties of A. dahurica from different localities indicated that the four DNA barcodes are inefficient for discriminating geographical authenticity of conspecific materia medica. This study provides an empirical paradigm in identification of medicinal plants and their materia medica using DNA barcodes. PMID:24961287

  2. Angelica sinensis polysaccharides promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via CREB-regulated caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Zhuang; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Song, Cai-Juan

    2015-11-20

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) is purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS). This traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years for treating gynecological diseases and used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. The antitumor activity of ASP is related to its biological activities, because it suppresses a variety of pro-proliferative or anti-apoptotic factors that are dramatically expressed in cancer cells of given types. In this study, we show that angelica sinensis polysaccharide induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells of T47D over-expressing the Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), inducing apoptosis-related signaling pathway activity. The result also found that ASP caused cell death was linked to caspase activity, accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. We found that ASP significantly affected the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and apoptotic protease activating facter-1 (Apaf1) protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DAPI staining and Flow cytometry were used to analyze apoptosis. The nude mice xenograft model was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of ASP in vivo. ASP has profound antitumor effect on T47D cells, probably by inducing apoptosis through CREB signaling pathway. Thus, these results suggest that ASP would be a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:26431878

  3. Geomorphological diversity of Dong-Sha Atoll based on spectrum and texture analysis in high resolution remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyu; Mao, Zhihua; He, Xianqiang

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs are complex marine ecosystems that are constructed and maintained by biological communities that thrive in tropical oceans. The Dong-Sha Atoll is located at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. It has being abused by destructive activity of human being and natural event during recent decades. Remote sensing offers a powerful tool for studying coral reef geomorphology and is the most cost-effective approach for large-scale reef survey. In this paper, the high-resolution Quickbird2 imageries which covered the full atoll are used to categorize the current distribution of coral reefs geomorphological structure therein with the auxiliary SPOT5 and ASTER imageries. Spectral and texture analysis are used to distinguish the geomorphological diversity during data processing. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices is adopted for texture feature extraction and atoll geomorphology mapping in the high-resolution pan-color image of Quickbird2. Quickbird2 is considered as the most appropriate image source for coral reefs studies. In the Dong-Sha Atoll, various dynamical geomorphologic units are developed according to wave energy zones. There the reef frame types are classified to 3 different types according as its diversity at the image. The radial structure system is the most characteristic and from high resolution imagery we can distinguish the discrepancy between them.

  4. Geomorphological diversity of Dong-Sha Atoll based on spectrum and texture analysis in high resolution remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyu; Mao, Zhihua; He, Xianqiang

    2008-12-01

    Coral reefs are complex marine ecosystems that are constructed and maintained by biological communities that thrive in tropical oceans. The Dong-Sha Atoll is located at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. It has being abused by destructive activity of human being and natural event during recent decades. Remote sensing offers a powerful tool for studying coral reef geomorphology and is the most cost-effective approach for large-scale reef survey. In this paper, the high-resolution Quickbird2 imageries which covered the full atoll are used to categorize the current distribution of coral reefs geomorphological structure therein with the auxiliary SPOT5 and ASTER imageries. Spectral and texture analysis are used to distinguish the geomorphological diversity during data processing. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices is adopted for texture feature extraction and atoll geomorphology mapping in the high-resolution pan-color image of Quickbird2. Quickbird2 is considered as the most appropriate image source for coral reefs studies. In the Dong-Sha Atoll, various dynamical geomorphologic units are developed according to wave energy zones. There the reef frame types are classified to 3 different types according as its diversity at the image. The radial structure system is the most characteristic and from high resolution imagery we can distinguish the discrepancy between them.

  5. Chalcones from Angelica keiskei: Evaluation of Their Heat Shock Protein Inducing Activities.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Choi, Seul-Ki; Lee, Yun-Sil; Jafari, Mahtab; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-10-23

    Five new chalcones, 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E,5E)-7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienyl]chalcone (1), (±)-4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2-octenyl]chalcone (2), 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E)-3-methyl-5-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-pentenyl]chalcone (3), 2',3'-furano-4-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (4), and (±)-4-hydroxy-2',3'-(2,3-dihydro-2-methoxyfurano)-4'-methoxychalcone (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi together with eight known chalcones, 6-13, which were identified as (±)-4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(6E)-2-hydroxy-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octenyl]chalcone (6), xanthoangelol (7), xanthoangelol F (8), xanthoangelol G (9), 4-hydroxyderricin (10), xanthoangelol D (11), xanthoangelol E (12), and xanthoangelol H (13), respectively. Chalcones 1-13 were evaluated for their promoter activity on heat shock protein 25 (hsp25, murine form of human hsp27). Compounds 1 and 6 activated the hsp25 promoter by 21.9- and 29.2-fold of untreated control at 10 μM, respectively. Further protein expression patterns of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), HSP70, and HSP27 by 1 and 6 were examined. Compound 6 increased the expression of HSF1, HSP70, and HSP27 by 4.3-, 1.5-, and 4.6-fold of untreated control, respectively, without any significant cellular cytotoxicities, whereas 1 did not induce any expression of these proteins. As a result, 6 seems to be a prospective HSP inducer. PMID:26431394

  6. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit α-glucosidase activity and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Yousof; Jannat, Susoma; Jung, Hyun Ah; Jeong, Hyong Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-05-25

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of six natural coumarins, 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (1), 4'-methoxy Pd-C-I (2), decursinol (3), decursidin (4), umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid (5), and 2'-isopropyl psoralene (6) isolated from Angelica decursiva and evaluated their inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α-glucosidase, and ONOO(-)-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. Coumarins 1-6 showed potent PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with ranges of IC50 values of 5.39-58.90 μM and 65.29-172.10 μM, respectively. In the kinetic study for PTP1B enzyme inhibition, compounds 1, 5, and 6 were competitive, whereas 2 and 4 showed mixed type, and 3 displayed noncompetitive type inhibition. For α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good mixed-type, while 2, 5, and 6 showed noncompetitive and 4 displayed competitive type inhibition. Furthermore, these coumarins also effectively suppressed ONOO(-)-mediated tyrosine nitration in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate PTP1B inhibition, we generated a 3D structure of PTP1B using Autodock 4.2 and simulated the binding of compounds 1-6. Docking simulations showed that different residues of PTP1B interacted with different functional groups of compounds 1-6 through hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, the binding energies of compounds 1-6 were negative, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may stabilize the open form of the enzyme and potentiate tight binding of the active site of PTP1B, thereby resulting in more effective PTP1B inhibition. These results demonstrate that the whole plant of A. decursiva and its coumarins are useful as potential functional food ingredients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27085377

  7. Efficacy and Safety Assessment of T. Angelica Herbal Tonic, a Phytomedicinal Product Popularly Used in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Esimone, Charles O.; Akah, Peter A.; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S.

    2011-01-01

    T. Angelica Herbal Tonic (TAHT) is a herbal product indicated for indigestion and constipation and highly patronized in Nigeria. In this study, the efficacy and safety of the herbal tonic in relation to the label claims were assessed. The effect on peristalsis in mice was evaluated by the charcoal meal model and in vitro using guinea pig ileum. The effects of TAHT on behavior, fertility, birth and organ weights were also determined. Teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity were studied in pregnant rats. Acute toxicity studies showed that at doses above 5000 mg kg−1, the herbal tonic did not cause lethality and produced no signs of intoxication in mice. The study did not show any gross behavioral changes in mice treated with 1000 mg kg−1 of TAHT as compared with the negative control treatment. TAHT (400 mg kg−1) exhibited a dose-dependent enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract motility in mice when compared with the negative control. At concentrations up to 300 μg mL−1, TAHT did not cause any significant effect on acetylcholine, histamine and nicotine-evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum preparation. It took an average of 31.25 ± 4.52 days for the TAHT-treated animals to litter, which is significantly (P < .05) different from the 55 ± 4.51 days recorded for the control treatment group. TAHT exhibited a modest fertility-promoting effect and showed lack of abortifacient and teratogenic properties in the study. Generally, the results of this study showed some favorable pharmacological effects of TAHT in animals which may authenticate some of the label claims. PMID:19812180

  8. In vitro Cytotoxic Activities and Molecular Mechanisms of Angelica shikokiana Extract and its Isolated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Amira; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Angelica shikokiana is a Japanese medicinal herb that is included among food and drug preparations protecting against cancer; however, there is no previous report about the cytotoxicity of A. shikokiana or its bioactive compounds. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of A. shikokiana methanol extract (AME) and its isolated compounds and to identify the molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity and selectivity was investigated by measuring the IC50 values on five cancer cell lines; human hepatocellular carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (RD), colorectal carcinoma, human epithelioma and human breast adenocarcinoma and one normal cell line; human lung fibroblasts. The effects on tubulin polymerization and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), were examined to determine the mechanism of cytotoxicity. Docking study was designed to examine the binding affinity to the target molecules. Results: Methanol extract and some of its isolated coumarins and flavonoids showed potent, selective cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. AME and all isolated compounds inhibited tubulin polymerization. Angelicin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were the most active compounds. Phenolic compounds and furanocoumarins showed binding affinity to colchicine binding site rather than the vinblastine binding site of tubulin microtubules. On the other side, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, chlorogenic acid, and methyl chlorogenate exhibited the strongest activity against HDAC8 and the highest affinity to trichostatin A binding site. Conclusion: These findings provide the first scientific evidence of the cytotoxicity of AME through inhibition of tubulin polymerization and HDAC8 activity through its coumarin and flavonoid content. SUMMARY The present study provides for the first time a clue for the cytotoxic activities of the AME. Our results indicate that the cytotoxic activities are partially related to the ability of AME to inhibit tubulin polymerization and HDAC8 activity. Isolated compounds; Angelicin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside showed the strongest inhibition of tubulin polymerization through binding to colchicine binding domain of tubulin microtubules. Phenolic compounds; quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid and methyl chlorogenate exhibited a strong inhibition of HDAC8 through binding to TSA binding site. This, however, further detailed pharmacological and in vivo studies should be the next step in evaluating the cytotoxic activities of AME and its active compounds that are currently ongoing. Abbreviations used: AME: Methanol extract of the aerial part of A. shikokiana, HDACs: Histone deacetylases,HDAC8: Histone deacetylase 8 PMID:27013795

  9. Association of APOE Genotype with Bone Mineral Density in Men and Women: The Dong-gu and Namwon Studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Song, Hye-Rim; Oh, Su-Hyun; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated relationships between APOE genotype and bone mineral density (BMD). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. Few studies have been carried out in Asian populations. We studied the relationship of the APOE gene polymorphism and BMD in two large population-based studies. The datasets included the Dong-gu Study (3575 men and 5335 women) and the Namwon Study (2310 men, 3512 women). Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. APOE genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The APOE genotypes were classified into APOE E2 (E2/E2 and E2/E3), APOE E3 (E3/E3), and APOE E4 (E3/E4 and E4/E4). The genotype distribution of the study population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no significant differences among APOE genotype groups in lumbar and femoral neck BMD in either cohort. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with BMD. PMID:26866001

  10. Association of APOE Genotype with Bone Mineral Density in Men and Women: The Dong-gu and Namwon Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Song, Hye-Rim; Oh, Su-hyun; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated relationships between APOE genotype and bone mineral density (BMD). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. Few studies have been carried out in Asian populations. We studied the relationship of the APOE gene polymorphism and BMD in two large population-based studies. The datasets included the Dong-gu Study (3575 men and 5335 women) and the Namwon Study (2310 men, 3512 women). Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. APOE genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. The APOE genotypes were classified into APOE E2 (E2/E2 and E2/E3), APOE E3 (E3/E3), and APOE E4 (E3/E4 and E4/E4). The genotype distribution of the study population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no significant differences among APOE genotype groups in lumbar and femoral neck BMD in either cohort. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with BMD. PMID:26866001

  11. In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Radix angelicae pubescentis, Fructus bruceae, Caulis spatholobi, Semen aesculi, and Semen pharbitidis against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Liu, You-Tao; Wang, Fan; Wang, Gao-Xue; Han, Jing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2010-04-01

    In search of a natural antiparasitic, in vivo anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Angelica pubescens roots (Radix angelicae pubescentis), Brucea javanica fruits (Fructus bruceae), Spatholobus suberectus stems (Caulis spatholobi), Aesculus chinensis Bge. seeds (Semen aesculi), and Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt seeds (Semen pharbitidis) were tested against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Among the extracts tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of S. aesculi were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts with EC(50) and EC(90) values of 5.23 and 7.33 mg/L and 6.48 and 12.29 mg/L after 48 h, respectively, followed by methanolic extracts of Fructus bruceae, Radix angelicae pubescentis, Caulis spatholobi, and Semen pharbitidis with EC(50) 49.96, 57.45, 64.92, and 309.47 mg/L. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of S. aesculi exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural antiparasitic for the control of D. intermedius. PMID:20191290

  12. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki

    2016-01-01

    Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT), herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Angelica sinensis (AS) at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs) were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS. PMID:27051450

  13. Tracing metal sources in core sediments of the artificial lake An-Dong, Korea: Concentration and metal association.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mansik; Park, Jongkyu; Cho, Dongjin; Jang, Dongjun; Kim, Miseon; Choi, Jongwoo

    2015-09-15

    The concentration and source of trace metals in the artificial lake An-Dong, which has widespread abandoned mines and a Zn smelter upstream of the drainage basin, were investigated. Soils (18ea), stream waters (15ea) and sediments (15ea) in the main channel and five tributaries downstream of the Zn smelter towards the lake (~ 50 km downstream) were collected. And two core sediments were also taken from the middle of the lake. All samples were analyzed for trace metals in bulk and in a 1N HCl-leached fraction. Although the soil and stream sediments consisted mostly of sand-sized grains, concentrations of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were very high in all samples, including soils, stream waters and sediments at sites near the Zn smelter. However the metal concentrations decreased rapidly downstream, suggesting that the area of impact of the smelter lies within 5 km. Highly enriched metal concentrations were also found in dated core sediments from the lake; while the highest concentrations of Co, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were detected in the bottom of the sediment core (dated 1980) they decreased towards 2000, and only Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations increased again in present-day samples. Since the temporal variation in metal concentrations appeared consistent with historical variation in ore mining and Zn smelter production rates, a model combining the production rates of each was developed, which estimated 3%, 12% and 7% contributions from Zn smelter compared to ore mining production rate to levels of Cu, Cd and Zn, respectively, suggesting the different pathways by different sources. In addition, analysis of Cd/Zn and Cu/Zn ratios showed that contamination from ore mining decreased from 1980 to 2000, and smelting processes were most likely responsible for metal enrichment (Cu, Cd and Zn) from 2000 to the present. PMID:25981937

  14. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; 沙參麥冬湯 shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; 中草藥 zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  15. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  16. The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wen-Lin; Harn, Horng-jyh; Hung, Pei-Hsiu; Hsieh, Ming-Chang; Chang, Kai-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Fan; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Lee, Ming-Shih; Tsai, Nu-Man

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer. PMID:24319475

  17. Polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis protects chondrocytes from H2O2-induced apoptosis through its antioxidant effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Chao; Xu, Nan-Wei; Gao, Gong-Ming; Ni, Su; Miao, Kai-Song; Li, Chen-Kai; Wang, Li-Ming; Xie, Hong-Guang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the protective effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) on rat chondrocyte injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Rat chondrocytes were cultured and treated with different concentrations of ASP alone or in combination with H2O2, and they were measured with cell viability, apoptosis, release of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) production, respectively. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the relative expression levels of osteoarthritis (OA)-associated genes, such as collagen type II (Col2a1), aggrecan, SOX9, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -9, as well as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, respectively. Results indicated that ASP protected chondrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell injury through its antioxidant, antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Our study suggests that ASP could become a therapeutic supplementation for the treatment of OA. PMID:26893055

  18. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U. Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility. PMID:27034737

  19. Metabolic study of Angelica dahurica extracts using a reusable liver microsomal nanobioreactor by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Li; Jia, Yan-Wei; Peng, Shu-Lin; Liao, Xun; Ding, Li-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Highly active and recoverable nanobioreactors prepared by immobilizing rat liver microsomes on magnetic nanoparticles (LMMNPs) were utilized in metabolic study of Angelica dahurica extracts. Five metabolites were detected in the incubation solution of the extracts and LMMNPs, which were identified by means of HPLC-MS as trans-imperatorin hydroxylate (M1), cis-imperatorin hydroxylate (M2), imperatorin epoxide (M3), trans-isoimperatorin hydroxylate (M1') and cis-isoimperatorin hydroxylate (speculated M2'). Compared with the metabolisms of imperatorin and isoimperatorin, it was found that the five metabolites were all transformed from these two major compounds present in the plant. Since no study on isoimperatorin metabolism by liver microsomal enzyme system has been reported so far, its metabolites (M1' and M3') were isolated by preparative HPLC for structure elucidation by (1) H-NMR and MS(2) analysis. M3' was identified as isoimperatorin epoxide, which is a new compound as far as its chemical structure is concerned. However, interestingly, M3' was not detected in the metabolism of the whole plant extract. In addition, a study with known chemical inhibitors on individual isozymes of the microsomal enzyme family revealed that CYP1A2 is involved in metabolisms of both isoimperatorin and imperatorin, and CYP3A4 only in that of isoimperatorin. PMID:25753568

  20. Anti-Osteoporotic Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Extract on Ovariectomized Rats and Its Oral Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai

    2014-01-01

    Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis as well as toxicity of the extract after repeated oral administration. The OVX rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg i.p. once daily) or A. sinensis extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) for four weeks. The bone (femur) mineral density (BMD) of rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control, reaching BMD of the estradiol group. Markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis, serum alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, were significantly decreased in the extract group. The body and uterus weight and serum estradiol concentration were not affected, and no treatment-related toxicity was observed during extract administration in rats. The results obtained indicate that A. sinensis extract can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats via estrogen-independent mechanism. PMID:25325255

  1. Metabonomic analysis of the anti-inflammatory effects of volatile oils of Angelica sinensis on rat model of acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Quan; Hua, Yong-Li; Zhang, Man; Ji, Peng; Li, Jin-Xia; Zhang, Ling; Li, Peng-Ling; Wei, Yan-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Metabonomics based on GC-MS was used to study the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of volatile oils of Angelica sinensis (VOAS) in rats with acute inflammation. Acute inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan in rats. The levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), histamine (HIS) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the inflammatory fluid were detected. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis models were performed for pattern recognition analysis. After the administration of VOAS, the levels of PGE2 , HIS, and 5-HT returned to levels observed in normal group. According to GC-MS analysis, the intervention of VOAS in rats with acute inflammation induced substantial and characteristic changes in their metabolic profiles. Fourteen metabolite biomarkers, namely, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, trans-dehydroandrosterone, aldosterone, linoleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, pregnenolone, octadecenoic acid, myristic acid, l-histidine, octadecanoic acid, arachidonic acid (AA) and l-tryptophan, were detected in the inflammatory fluid. The levels of all biomarkers either increased or decreased significantly in model groups. VOAS possibly intervened in the metabolic process of inflammation by altering histidine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, AA metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism and energy metabolism. Metabonomics was used to reflect an organism's physiological and metabolic state comprehensively, and it is a potentially powerful tool that reveals the anti-acute-inflammatory mechanism of VOAS. PMID:25515821

  2. Urine metabonomic study for blood-replenishing mechanism of Angelica sinensis in a blood-deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Hong-Guo; Hua, Yong-Li; Li, Peng-Ling; Wei, Yan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed at determining the effects of Angelica sinensis (AS) on urinary metabolites in blood deficiency mice and exploring its replenishing blood mechanism. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to detect metabolites in the urine samples in different collection periods. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles among control group (CG), blood deficiency model group (MG), AS groups, and Colla Corii Asini group (CCAG). The potential biomarkers were identified based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP), T-test, and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and mass spectra library. The metabolites were analyzed using metabolomics pathway analysis (MetPA) to build the metabolic pathways. Our results indicated that, on the seventh day, the levels of glucose, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, alanine, acetoacetic acid, and citric acid changed significantly in blood deficiency mice. However, these metabolic deviations came to closer to normal levels after AS intervention. The reversing blood-deficiency mechanism of AS might involve regulating synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, Pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, and Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, metabonomics is a robust and promising means for the identification of biomarkers and elucidation of the mechanisms of a disease, thereby highlighting its importance in drug discovery. PMID:27025368

  3. Biochemical and physicochemical characterization of a mitogen obtained from an oriental crude drug, Tohki (Angelica actiloba Kitagawa).

    PubMed

    Ohno, N; Matsumoto, S; Suzuki, I; Miyazaki, T; Kumazawa, Y; Otsuka, Y; Yadomae, T

    1983-12-01

    Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of an immunomodulator, which is a non-dialyzable and acetone precipitable material(s) extracted with hot water from Angelica actiloba KITAGAWA (Yamato Tohki) (AIP), were investigated. AIP was composed of about 90% sugar and 10% protein. The major polysaccharide was identified as pectic substance(s) because its main component sugars were found to be arabinose, glucose, and galacturonic acid by gas liquid chromatographic analysis. The pectic substance(s) was not concerned with the mitogenicity of AIP since the activity was similar before and after pectinase(endo-polygalacturonase) treatment. More than half of the mitogenicity was destroyed by acid or alkali treatment. With pronase treatment, the activity was not affected, but the molecular weight of the mitogen was lowered. In addition, the mitogenic substance was partially purified from AIP by pectinase treatment and Westphal's phenol/water fractionation. The partially purified mitogenic substance(s) was rich in protein. These facts suggest that the mitogenicity of AIP was carried by a heat stable and protease resistant protein. PMID:6674476

  4. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels extract on ovariectomized rats and its oral toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai

    2014-10-01

    Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis as well as toxicity of the extract after repeated oral administration. The OVX rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg i.p. once daily) or A. sinensis extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) for four weeks. The bone (femur) mineral density (BMD) of rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control, reaching BMD of the estradiol group. Markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis, serum alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, were significantly decreased in the extract group. The body and uterus weight and serum estradiol concentration were not affected, and no treatment-related toxicity was observed during extract administration in rats. The results obtained indicate that A. sinensis extract can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats via estrogen-independent mechanism. PMID:25325255

  5. Pyranocoumarin Tissue Distribution, Plasma Metabolome and Prostate Transcriptome Impacts of Sub-Chronic Exposure to Korean Angelica Supplement in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Tang, Suni; Zhang, Yong; Markiewski, Maciej; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2016-04-01

    Herbal products containing Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract are marketed as dietary supplements for memory enhancement, pain killing, and female menopausal symptom relief. We have shown the anticancer activities of AGN supplements in mouse models. To facilitate human anticancer translational research, we characterized the tissue distribution of AGN marker pyranocoumarin compounds decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) ([Formula: see text]% in AGN) and their metabolite decursinol (DOH), assessed the safety of sub-chronic AGN dietary exposure in mice, and explored its impact on plasma aqueous metabolites and the prostate transcriptome. The data show that after a gavage dose, plasma contained readily detectable DOH, but little D and DA, mirroring patterns in the liver. Extra-hepatic tissues retained greater levels of DA and D than the liver did. For sub-chronic exposures, male mice were provided ad libitum AIN93M-pellet diets with 0.5 and 1% AGN for six weeks. No adverse effects were observed on the plasma biochemistry markers of liver and kidney integrity in spite of their enlargement. Histopathological examinations of the liver, kidney and other visceral organs did not reveal tissue abnormalities. Metabolomic assessment of plasma from mice fed the 1%-AGN diet suggested metabolic shifts of key amino acids especially in the methionine-cysteine cycle, purine cycle, and glycolysis-citrate cycle. Prostate transcriptomic profiling identified gene signature changes in the metabolisms of drugs, lipids and cellular energetics, neuro-muscular features, immunity and inflammation, and tumor suppressor/oncogene balance. The safety profile was corroborated with a daily [Formula: see text] injection of AGN extract (100-300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for four weeks, which resulted in much greater systemic pyranocoumarin exposure than the dietary route did. PMID:27080944

  6. Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Ataur; Bishayee, Kausik; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2016-02-29

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim root extract (APRE) is a popular herbal medicine used for treating stomachache, abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, and rheumatism; however the effect of APRE on cancer cells has not yet been explored. Here, we examined APRE cytotoxicity seen on target neuroblastoma cells (NB) using cell viability assays, DAPI visualization of fragmented DNA, and Western blotting analysis of candidate signaling pathways involved in proliferation and apoptosis. We demonstrated that APRE reduced cell viability in NB to a greater extent than in fibroblast cells. In addition, we found that APRE could inhibit the three classes of MAPK proteins and could also down-regulate the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β activity all being relevant for proliferation and survival. APRE could also up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. With APRE treatment, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 was demonstrated in the SH-SY5Y cells. We could not found increased activity of death receptor and caspase-8 as markers of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway for the APRE treated cells. In presence of a caspase-3 siRNA and a pan-caspase inhibitor, APRE could not reduce the viability of NB cells to a significant degree. So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the non-caspase autophagy pathway or ER stress-ROS mediated pathways were not involved. These findings demonstrate that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway mediates the apoptotic effects of APRE on SH-SY5Y cells, and that APRE shows promise as a novel agent for neuroblastoma therapy. PMID:26674967

  7. Effect of co-administration of Angelicae gigantis radix and Lithospermi radix on rat hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Lim, Se-Hyun; Cho, Su-In

    2015-01-01

    Background: Co-administration of Angelicae gigantis radix (AGR) and Lithospermi radix (LR) has been commonly applied to patients to treat cardiac and hepatic disorders. Individual bioactivities of these herbal medicines have been widely investigated, but the hepatoprotective effects of co-treatment of AGR and LR have yet to be clarified. Objective: The present study investigated the protective effects of extracts of AGR and LR on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, we measured the hepatoprotective activity of individual and co-treatment of the two herbal medicines on hepatic injury induced by CCl4 by measuring different biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT). Microarray technology also used to compare ontological difference with individual and co-treatment of these two. Results: Combined treatment with AGR and LR (AGR + LR) decreased AST and ALT level in serum which demonstrate hepatoprotective effect of the therapy. When the effect of AGR and LR according to treatment conditions was measured, co-treatment showed the most prominent effect on hepatic injury by CCl4 rather than individual treatment condition. We further defined gene set that could be the molecular target of herbal effect on hepatic injury by CCl4 using bioinformatical analysis of interaction network. Highly recovered genes by treating AGR + LR play significant roles in response to hepatic injury induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Combined treatment with AGR and LR showed synergistic protective effects on the CCl4-induced rat hepatic tissue injury. PMID:25829781

  8. Anti-inflammatory coumarins with short- and long-chain hydrophobic groups from roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The (1)H NMR-guided fractionation of a cyclohexane soluble portion of the 75% ethanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi led to the isolation of two coumarins, namely, 5-(3″-hydroxy-3″-methylbutyl)-8-hydroxyfuranocoumarin, and isobyakangelicin hydrate-3″-ethyl ether, and ten coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely, andafocoumarins A-J. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the C-2″ secondary alcohols in ten of these compounds were deduced via the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex, and oxidation reactions were utilized to determine location of the double bonds in the lipid chain of andafocoumarins H and I, respectively. The long-chain hydrophobic group of andafocoumarin J was determined by the method of chemical degradation and GC-MS analysis. It was the first time that coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups in this plant had been comprehensively investigated. All isolates were assayed for their inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, among which andafocoumarins A and B exhibited a potent inhibition on LPS-activated NO production with IC50 values of 19.7 and 13.9μM, respectively, indicating their stronger inhibitory activity than l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (IC50=23.7μM), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:26775737

  9. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishita, Ishrat Jahan; Nurul Islam, Md; Kim, Yeong Shik; Choi, Ran Joo; Sohn, Hee Sook; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    Angelica decursiva has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as an antitussive, analgesic, antipyretic, and cough remedy. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of 9 coumarin derivatives isolated from a 90 % methanol fraction was evaluated via inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested compounds, edulisin II (1) exhibited the most potent NO production inhibitory activity, followed by decursidin (2), Pd-C-III (3), 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (4), Pd-C-I (5), and Pd-C-II (6). In contrast, (+)-trans-decursidinol (7) did not exhibit NO suppressive effects on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Structure-activity relationships revealed that esterification of the hydroxyl at C-3' or C-4' of 7 with an angeloyl/senecioyl/acetyl group is essential for its inhibitory activity against NO production, while the number of angeloyl or senecioyl groups, and their positions greatly affect the potency of these coumarins. Coumarins 1-6 also inhibited TNF-α production and iNOS protein expression, while compounds 1-4 inhibited COX-2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that coumarins isolated from A. decursiva might be used as potential leads for the development of therapeutic agents for inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:26474585

  10. Supplementation with Angelica keiskei inhibits expression of inflammatory mediators in the gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aryoung; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric ulceration and carcinogenesis. The oxidant-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), regulates expression of inflammatory mediators such as interferon γ (IFN-γ), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These inflammatory mediators increased in gastric mucosal tissues from patients infected with H pylori. Angelica keiskei (AK), a green leafy vegetable, is rich in carotenoids and flavonoids and shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, we hypothesized that AK may protect the gastric mucosa of H pylori-infected mice against inflammation. We determined lipid peroxide abundance, myeloperoxidase activity, expression levels of inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, COX-2, and iNOS), NF-κB-DNA binding activity, and histologic changes in gastric mucosal tissues. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine served as the positive control treatment. Supplementation with AK suppressed increases in lipid peroxide abundance, myeloperoxidase activity, induction of inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, COX-2, and iNOS), activation of NF-κB, and degradation of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor α in gastric mucosal tissue from H pylori-infected mice. Inhibition of H pylori-induced alterations by AK was similar to that by N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, these results suggest that supplementation with AK may prevent H pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated induction of inflammatory mediators in the gastric mucosa of patients infected with H pylori. PMID:27101766

  11. Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Ataur; Bishayee, Kausik; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim root extract (APRE) is a popular herbal medicine used for treating stomachache, abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, and rheumatism; however the effect of APRE on cancer cells has not yet been explored. Here, we examined APRE cytotoxicity seen on target neuroblastoma cells (NB) using cell viability assays, DAPI visualization of fragmented DNA, and Western blotting analysis of candidate signaling pathways involved in proliferation and apoptosis. We demonstrated that APRE reduced cell viability in NB to a greater extent than in fibroblast cells. In addition, we found that APRE could inhibit the three classes of MAPK proteins and could also down-regulate the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β activity all being relevant for proliferation and survival. APRE could also up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. With APRE treatment, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 was demonstrated in the SH-SY5Y cells. We could not found increased activity of death receptor and caspase-8 as markers of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway for the APRE treated cells. In presence of a caspase-3 siRNA and a pan-caspase inhibitor, APRE could not reduce the viability of NB cells to a significant degree. So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the non-caspase autophagy pathway or ER stress-ROS mediated pathways were not involved. These findings demonstrate that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway mediates the apoptotic effects of APRE on SH-SY5Y cells, and that APRE shows promise as a novel agent for neuroblastoma therapy. PMID:26674967

  12. Chemopreventive Effects of Korean Angelica versus Its Major Pyranocoumarins on Two Lineages of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Su-Ni; Zhang, Jinhui; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Peixin; Puppala, Manohar; Zhang, Yong; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-09-01

    We showed previously that daily gavage of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanolic extract starting 8 weeks of age inhibited growth of prostate epithelium and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NE-Ca) in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Because decursin (D) and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are major pyranocoumarins in AGN extract, we tested the hypothesis that D/DA represented active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP carcinogenesis. Three groups of male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice were gavage treated daily with excipient vehicle, AGN (5 mg per mouse), or equimolar D/DA (3 mg per mouse) from 8 weeks to 16 or 28 weeks of age. Measurement of plasma and NE-Ca D, DA, and their common metabolite decursinol indicated similar retention from AGN versus D/DA dosing. The growth of TRAMP dorsolateral prostate (DLP) in AGN- and D/DA-treated mice was inhibited by 66% and 61% at 16 weeks and by 67% and 72% at 28 weeks, respectively. Survival of mice bearing NE-Ca to 28 weeks was improved by AGN, but not by D/DA. Nevertheless, AGN- and D/DA-treated mice had lower NE-Ca burden. Immunohistochemical and mRNA analyses of DLP showed that AGN and D/DA exerted similar inhibition of TRAMP epithelial lesion progression and key cell-cycle genes. Profiling of NE-Ca mRNA showed a greater scope of modulating angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion-metastasis, and inflammation genes by AGN than D/DA. The data therefore support D/DA as probable active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP epithelial lesions, and they cooperate with non-pyranocoumarin compounds to fully express AGN efficacy against NE-Ca. PMID:26116406

  13. Chemopreventive effect of Korean Angelica root extract on TRAMP carcinogenesis and integrative "omic" profiling of affected neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Li; Tang, Suni; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-12-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanol extract exerts anti-cancer activity in several allograft and xenograft models. Here we examined its chemopreventive efficacy through gavage administration against primary carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice and wild type littermates were given a daily gavage (5 mg/mouse, Monday-Friday) of AGN or vehicle, beginning at 8 wk of age (WOA). All mice were terminated at 24 WOA, unless earlier euthanasia was necessitated by large tumors. Whereas AGN-treated TRAMP mice decreased dorsolateral prostate lesion growth by 30% (P = 0.009), they developed fewer and smaller neuroendocrine-carcinomas (NE-Ca) (0.12 g/mouse) than vehicle-treated counterparts (0.81 g/mouse, P = 0.037). We analyzed the proteome and transcriptome of banked NE-Ca to gain molecular insights. Angiogenesis-antibody array detected a substantial reduction in AGN-treated NE-Ca of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), an angiogenesis stimulator. iTRAQ proteomics plus data mining suggested changes of genes upstream and downstream of FGF2 functionally consistent with AGN inhibiting FGF2/FGFR1 signaling at different levels of the transduction cascade. Moreover, AGN upregulated mRNA of genes related to immune responses, restored expression of many tumor suppressor genes, and prostate function and muscle differentiation genes. On the other hand, AGN down-regulated mRNA of genes related to neuron signaling, oncofetal antigens, inflammation, and mast cells, Wnt signaling, embryonic morphogenesis, biosynthesis, cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. These changes suggest not only multiple cancer cell targeting actions of AGN but also impact on the tumor microenvironments such as angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune surveillance. PMID:25307620

  14. The effects of polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis on tumor growth and iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yao; Zhou, Jiali; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kaiping; Zhang, Yu

    2016-02-17

    The crude polysaccharide was obtained from the root of Angelica sinensis (AS) to investigate its effect on tumor growth and iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice. In our study, we showed that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was mainly composed of arabinose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1 : 1.75, with a molecular weight of 80 900 Da and a sugar content of 88.0%. Animal experimental results revealed that three doses of ASP all had anti-tumor effects with inhibition ratios of 27.11%, 31.65% and 37.05%. With respect to iron metabolism, the mean levels of serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ferritin, transferrin (Tf), transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) in H22-bearing mice were promoted, and serum iron concentration decreased significantly. After treatment with ASP, these iron-related indicators recovered in different degrees. The findings suggested that the anti-tumor activity of ASP may be affected by its regulation on iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice. PMID:26757699

  15. Chronic administration of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide effectively improves fatty liver and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Wang, Hanxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Wang, Na; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an active component derived from a water extract of Angelica sinensis, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BALB/c mice. The potential mechanisms underlying the activity of this compound were also considered. Specifically, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated, and key proteins involved in the lipid/glucose metabolism were analyzed. Long-term feeding with a HFD induced severe fatty liver and hyperglycemia. Histological examination clearly showed that ASP reduced lipid accumulation in the liver and attenuated hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. In addition, ASP markedly alleviated serum and liver lipid disorders and fatty liver via the upregulation of PPARγ expression and the activation of adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK signaling. Furthermore, ASP also significantly relieved severe oxidative stress, demonstrating that ASP might attenuate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via a "two-hit" mechanism. In addition, ASP reduced blood glucose levels and ameliorated insulin resistance via the regulation of related metabolic enzymes and by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in HFD-fed mice. Our findings revealed that ASP might be used as an alternative dietary supplement or health care product to ameliorate metabolic syndrome in populations that consistently consume HFDs. PMID:27189109

  16. Transport properties of puerarin and effect of extract of Radix Angelicae dahuricae on puerarin intestinal absorption using in situ and in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Liang, Xin-Li; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Guan, Yong-Mei; Cao, Yun-Chao; Zhao, Li-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The root of Angelica dahurica (Radix Angelicae Dahuricae, RAD), which contains coumarins and volatile oil as its main classes of active components, is often given in conjunction with Pueraria root (Radix Puerariae, RP), which contains the phytoestrogen puerarin. The two herbs are considered to be compatible 'herb-pairs' in traditional Chinese medicine. The present investigation investigates the absorption of puerarin from RP and the effect of the total coumarins and volatile oil from RAD on its absorption. The everted gut sac and single-pass intestinal perfusion methods were used, respectively. The results showed that the absorption of puerarin in the jejunum was significantly increased in the presence of the coumarins and/or volatile oil. The absorption rate constant (K(a)) of puerarin increased gradually until the concentration reached 160 µg · mL(-1), after which its absorption became saturated and the apparent permeability (P(app)) values significantly decreased. The results showed that the intestinal absorption mechanisms of puerarin involved active transportation processes and that puerarin is likely to be a substrate of P-gp because verapamil significantly affected its P(app) and K(a). The absorption of puerarin significantly increased (p < 0.01) when combined with RAD extracts, as shown by the increase in concentration of puerarin in blood from the hepatic portal vein, supporting the concept of RAD and RP as a compatible herb-pair. PMID:24756954

  17. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide regulates glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in prediabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through the elevation of glycogen levels and reduction of inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Shui, Weizhi; Yang, Qiuxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), in prediabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. It was observed that fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in both models were reduced after a 4-week oral administration of ASP or metformin, and abnormal fasting serum insulin (FINS) concentrations were ameliorated as well. Moreover, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was decreased strikingly and body weight (BW) was reduced significantly in prediabetic mice after treatment with ASP. In addition, ASP also contributed to improving the dyslipidemia conditions. Elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) concentrations were reduced after treatment with ASP in prediabetic mice or STZ-induced diabetic mice. Meanwhile, hepatic glycogen (HG) and muscle glycogen (MG) concentrations were increased while insulin resistance (IR)-related inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological examination indicated that the impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues or adipose tissues were effectively restored in STZ-induced diabetic mice or prediabetic mice after the ASP treatment. Taken together, these results revealed that ASP efficiently exerted hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic benefits, and its potential effect was associated with the amelioration of IR. ASP can be applied in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. PMID:25630053

  18. Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3 μM, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

  19. Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae) with proven repellent properties against Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue fever vector in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Champakaew, D; Junkum, A; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Sanghong, R; Intirach, J; Muangmoon, R; Chansang, A; Tuetun, B; Pitasawat, B

    2015-06-01

    Botanical resources with great diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants are a rich and reliable source for finding insect repellents of plant origin, which are widely popular among today's consumers. Although some herbal-based repellents have been proven comparable to or even better than synthetics, commercially available natural repellents generally tend to be expensive, with short-lived effectiveness. This critical flaw leads to ongoing research for new and effective repellents, which provide longer protection against vector and nuisance-biting insects, while remaining safe, user friendly, and reasonably priced. This study aimed to evaluate the repellent activity of plant-derived products against the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, by following the human bait technique of World Health Organization guidelines. Preliminary laboratory screening tests for repellency of 33 plant species clearly demonstrated Angelica sinensis as the most effective repellent from each kind of extracted product, with its essential oil and ethanolic extract having median complete protection times of 7.0 h (6.0-7.5) and 2.5 h (2.0-2.5), respectively. Due to its low yield (0.02 %), pungent smell, and little cause of irritation, A. sinensis essential oil did not qualify as a candidate for further repellent assessment. However, subsequent extractions of A. sinensis with different organic solvents of increasing polarity provided four extractants with varying degrees of repellency against A. aegypti. The hexane extract of A. sinensis provided excellent repellency, with a median complete protection time of 7.5 h (6.5-8.5), which was longer than that of ethanol (2.5, 2.0-2.5 h), acetone (1.75, 0.5-2.5 h), and methanol extracts (0.5, 0-1.0 h). By being the most effective product, A. sinensis hexane extract gave significant protection comparable to that of its essential oil and the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET: 6.25, 5.0-6.5 h). Qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of phthalides and phthalates, including 3-N-butylphthalide, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and di-iso-octyl phthalate, as the principal constituents in A. sinensis products. The success of A. sinensis products, particularly that of hexane extract, has proved their potential as bioactive candidates in the next step for developing and producing alternative natural repellents with commercial aspirations. PMID:25773182

  20. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  1. Chinese Medicine Formula “Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction” Attenuates Tourette Syndrome via Downregulating the Expression of Dopamine Transporter in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dao-han; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiao-fang; Zhang, Jin-ming; Wang, Su-mei

    2013-01-01

    Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) is dedicated to the treatment for Tourette syndrome (TS) with the guidance of the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This study aims to investigate the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and stereotyped behavior of TS mice model by intervention of JPZDD. Mice were induced by 3,3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN, 350 mg kg−1 day−1, i.p.) for 7 days and divided into 4 groups (n = 20, each): control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups with Tiapride (Tia, 50 mg kg−1 day−1) and JPZDD (20 g kg−1 day−1), respectively. The results showed that the scores of stereotyped behavior in IDPN+JPZDD group were significantly reduced. A noticeably increased 11C-β-CFT binding at bilateral striatum was observed after administration of JPZDD versus that of IDPN or Tia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies manifested higher levels of DAT protein and mRNA in IDPN+JPZDD group. These findings not only demonstrated that JPZDD could effectively inhibit the abnormal behaviors of TS mice model, but also increase the level of DAT in striatum. Therefore, JPZDD could be one of potential treatments of patients with TS. PMID:23431337

  2. Perimenopause Amelioration of a TCM Recipe Composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii: An In Vivo Study on Natural Aging Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ji-Yan; Xie, Qing-Feng; Liu, Wei-Jin; Lai, Ping; Liu, Dan-Dan; Tang, Li-Hai; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Li, Kun-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively applied as preferable herbal remedy for menopausal symptoms. In the present work, the potential of a TCM recipe named RRF, composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii, was investigated on a natural aging rat model. After administration of RRF (141, 282, and 564?mg/kg/d), the circulated estradiol (E2) level increased accompanied by a reduction of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). But no significant impact on serum lutenizing hormone (LH) level was observed. As a result of the E2-FSH-LH adjustment, the histomorphology degenerations of ovary, uterus, and vagina of the 11.5-month female rats were alleviated. And lumbar vertebrae trabecular microstructure was also restored under RRF exposure by means of increasing the trabecular area and area rate. Moreover, levels of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) rallied significantly after RRF treatment. Results from our studies suggest that RRF possesses a positive regulation on the estrogen imbalance and neurotransmitter disorder, thereby restoring reproductive organ degeneration and skeleton deterioration. The above-mentioned benefits of RRF on the menopause syndromes recommend RRF as a potential candidate for the treatment of perimenopausal syndrome. PMID:24454513

  3. Transport of Twelve Coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix across a MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer-An in Vitro Model for Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Xu, Wei; Song, Wei; Ye, Min; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to have central nervous system activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier permeability of twelve coumarins from APR including umbelliferone (1), osthol (2), scopoletin (3), peucedanol (4), ulopterol (5), angepubebisin (6), psoralen (7), xanthotoxin (8), bergapten (9), isoimperatorin (10), columbianadin (11), and columbianetin acetate (12) with an in vitro model using a MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer. The cell monolayer was validated to be suitable for the permeation experiments. The samples' transports were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and their apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated. According to the Papp value, most coumarins could be characterized as well-absorbed compounds except for 4, 10 and 11 which were moderately absorbed ones, in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. The results of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor (verapamil) experiments showed that the transport of coumarin 4 was affected by the transport protein P-gp. Sigmoid functions between permeability log(Papp AP-BL*MW0.5) and log D (at pH 7.4) were established to analyze the structure-activity relationship of coumarins. The results provide useful information for discovering the substance basis for the central nervous system activities of APR, and predicting the permeability of other coumarins through BBB. PMID:26121397

  4. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment. PMID:25915423

  5. Quantitative analysis of phenolic metabolites from different parts of Angelica keiskei by HPLC-ESI MS/MS and their xanthine oxidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Yuk, Heung Joo; Wang, Yan; Song, Yeong Hun; Jeong, Seong Hun; Park, Ki Hun

    2014-06-15

    Angelica keiskei is used as popular functional food stuff. However, quantitative analysis of this plant's metabolites has not yet been disclosed. The principal phenolic compounds (1-16) within A. keiskei were isolated, enabling us to quantify the metabolites within different parts of the plant. The specific quantification of metabolites (1-16) was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a quadruple tandem mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were calculated as 0.4-44 μg/kg and 1.5-148 μg/kg, respectively. Abundance and composition of these metabolites varied significantly across different parts of plant. For example, the abundance of chalcones (12-16) decreased as follows: root bark (10.51 mg/g)>stems (8.52 mg/g)>leaves (2.63 mg/g)>root cores (1.44 mg/g). The chalcones were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition shown by this plant. The most potent inhibitor, xanthoangelol inhibited XO with an IC50 of 8.5 μM. Chalcones (12-16) exhibited mixed-type inhibition characteristics. PMID:24491695

  6. Separation and simultaneous quantification of nine furanocoumarins from Radix Angelicae dahuricae using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for bioavailability determination in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Jian, Yang; Wei, Ning; Yuan, Mei; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Li, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Radix Angelicae dahuricae is a well-known medicinal herb in a number of herb preparations for medical uses. In this study, a rapid and selective method using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the separation and simultaneous quantitation of nine furanocoumarins from Radix A. dahuricae, namely imperatorin, isoimperatorin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, bergapten, oxypeucedanin, xanthotoxol, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, and psoralen. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a CAPCELL PAK MG II C18 analytical column. Detection was performed using positive electrospray ion source in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was fully validated for analyzing these principles in rat plasma with a lower limit of quantification from 0.5 to 5 ng/mL. The intra- and interbatch precisions were less than 10%, and the accuracies ranged from -7.5 to 8.0%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was above 70% without a significant matrix effect. The method was used to determine the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profiles of these furanocoumarins after dosing with Radix A. dahurica extract. The bioavailability of these furanocoumarins ranged from 10.1 to 82.8%. These data provide critical information for a better understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms and herb-drug interaction potential of Radix A. dahurica. PMID:26496866

  7. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent

    PubMed Central

    Zierau, Oliver; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Vollmer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. PMID:25214874

  8. Assessing the applicability of assimilating MODIS data products into crop growth models: a case study in Yucheng, ShanDong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhan; Wang, Junbang; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2005-09-01

    Monitoring crop growth status and yields using remote sensing data have been a challenges both in estimating the growing parameters and quantifying the seasonal changes. Traditionally, NOAA AVHRR data was applied to estimate and predict crop yields with statistical correlation methods. However, its spatial resolution of 8-km is not satisfying in monitoring crop growth on the site level. The launch of TERRA with moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments onboard began a new era in remote sensing of the Earth system which is providing a series of products of unparalleled quality and sophistication for the observation and biophysical monitoring of the terrestrial environment. Crop growth models simulate biophysical processes in the soil-crop-atmospheric system provide a continuous description of crop growth and development. Combining a growth model with the input parameters derived from remote sensing data provides spatial integrity as well as a real-time "calibration" of model parameters. A field study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the 8-day MODIS leaf area index (LAI) data product in operational assessment of wheat growth condition and yields in the region of Yucheng, ShanDong Province, in China. The MODIS LAI product were used to compared with the DSSAT LAI--the output of crop simulation model (DSSAT) and the observed LAI. The MODIS LAI corresponded comparatively well with the DSSAT LAI in the early stage which have been tested well with the observed LAI, however in the later wheat growing stage, there are still some difference between the MODIS LAI and observed LAI. Limitations of this study and its conclusions are also discussed.

  9. Pyranocoumarin tissue distribution, and plasma metabolome and prostate transcriptome impacts of sub-chronic exposure to Korean Angelica supplement in mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Jinhui; LI, Li; TANG, Suni; ZHANG, Yong; MARKIEWSKI, Maciej; XING, Chengguo; JIANG, Cheng; LÜ, Junxuan

    2016-01-01

    Herbal products containing Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract are marketed as dietary supplements for memory enhancement, pain killing, and female menopausal symptom relief. We have shown anti-cancer activity of AGN supplement in mouse models. To facilitate human anti-cancer translational research, we characterized the tissue distribution of AGN marker pyranocoumarin compounds decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) (~50% in AGN) and their metabolite decursinol (DOH), assessed safety of sub-chronic AGN dietary exposure in mice, and explored the impacts on the plasma aqueous metabolites and prostate transcriptome. The data show that after a gavage dose, plasma contained readily detectable DOH, but little D and DA, mirroring patterns in the liver. Extra-hepatic tissues retained greater level of DA and D than liver. For sub-chronic exposures, male mice were provided ad libitum AIN93M-pellet diet with 0.5 and 1% AGN for 6 weeks. No adverse effect was observed on plasma biochemistry markers of liver and kidney integrity in spite of their enlargement. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and other visceral organs did not reveal tissue abnormalities. Metabolomic assessment of plasma from the mice fed 1%-AGN diet suggested metabolic shifts of key amino acids especially methionine-cysteine cycle, purine cycle and glycolysis-citrate cycle. Prostate transcriptomic profiling identified gene signature changes of metabolisms of drugs, lipids and cellular energetics, neuro-muscular features, immunity and inflammation, and tumor suppressor/oncogene balance. The safety profile was corroborated with daily i.p. injection of AGN extract (200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, which resulted in much greater systemic pyranocoumarin exposure than dietary route. PMID:27080944

  10. Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharides Stimulated UDP-Sugar Synthase Genes through Promoting Gene Expression of IGF-1 and IGF1R in Chondrocytes: Promoting Anti-Osteoarthritic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yinxian; Li, Jing; Tan, Yang; Qin, Jun; Xie, Xianfei; Wang, Linlong; Mei, Qibing; Wang, Hui; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joints disease characterized by progressive degeneration of articular cartilage due to the loss of cartilage matrix. Previously, we found, for the first time, that an acidic glycan from Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharides (APSs), namely the APS-3c, could protect rat cartilage from OA due to promoting glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis in chondrocytes. In the present work, we tried to further the understanding of ASP-3c’s anti-OA activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Human primary chondrocytes were treated with APS-3c or/and recombinant human interleukin 1β (IL-1β). It turned out that APS-3c promoted synthesis of UDP-xylose and GAG, as well as the gene expression of UDP-sugar synthases (USSs), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), and attenuated the degenerative phenotypes, suppressed biosynthesis of UDP-sugars and GAG, and inhibited the gene expression of USSs, IGF1 and IGF1R induced by IL-1β. Then, we induced a rat OA model with papain, and found that APS-3c also stimulated GAG synthesis and gene expression of USSs, IGF1 and IGF1R in vivo. Additionally, recombinant human IGF1 and IGF1R inhibitor NP-AEW541 were applied to figure out the correlation between stimulated gene expression of USSs, IGF1 and IGF1R induced by APS-3c. It tuned out that the promoted GAG synthesis and USSs gene expression induced by APS-3c was mediated by the stimulated IGF1 and IGF1R gene expression, but not through directly activation of IGF1R signaling pathway. Conclusions/Significances We demonstrated for the first time that APS-3c presented anti-OA activity through stimulating IGF-1 and IGF1R gene expression, but not directly activating the IGF1R signaling pathway, which consequently promoted UDP-sugars and GAG synthesis due to up-regulating gene expression of USSs. Our findings presented a better understanding of APS-3c’s anti-OA activity and suggested that APS-3c could potentially be a novel therapeutic agent for OA. PMID:25202993

  11. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat shock amelioration among 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through heat shock factor and proteins augmentation and enhanced adipogenic marker expression. PMID:26950875

  12. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L.; dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-01-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat shock amelioration among 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through heat shock factor and proteins augmentation and enhanced adipogenic marker expression. PMID:26950875

  13. Angelica sinensis and its Alkylphthalides Induce the Detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H: Quinone OxidoReductase 1 by Alkylating KEAP1

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Liu, Dongting; Hagos, Ghenet K.; Yao, Ping; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Pro, Samuel M.; Deng, Shixin; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2008-01-01

    The roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.), Diels (Dang Gui; Apiaceae) have a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy for women's disorders, and are often called “lady's ginseng”. Currently, extracts of A. sinensis are commonly included in numerous dietary supplements used for women's health and as anti-aging products. In the present study, we examined the potential chemopreventive activity of A. sinensis extracts by measuring the relative ability to induce the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The lipophilic partitions showed strong NQO1 induction with concentrations to double the enzyme activity (CD) of 5.5 ± 0.7 μg/mL (petroleum ether) and 3.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL (chloroform). Fractionation led to the isolation of phenolic esters and alkylphthalides, especially Z-ligustilide, the main lipophilic compound, which showed strong NQO1 inducing properties (CD = 6.9 ± 1.9 μM). Transcription of many detoxifying enzymes is regulated through the antioxidant response element (ARE) and its transcription factor Nrf2, which is repressed under basal conditions by Keap1. However, exposure to electrophilic inducers that alkylate Keap1 results in a higher concentrations of free Nrf2 and ARE activation. The ARE reporter activity was therefore analyzed in HepG2-ARE-C8 cells after incubation with lipophilic extracts of A. sinensis or ligustilide for 24 h. Under these conditions, both the extract and ligustilide increased ARE-luciferase reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of ligustilide with GSH and subsequent LC-MS-MS analysis revealed that ligustilide as well as oxidized ligustilide species covalently modified GSH. In addition, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and LC-MS-MS, it was demonstrated that the lipophilic extracts, ligustilide, and monooxygenated ligustilide alkylated important cysteine residues in human Keap1 protein, thus activating Nrf2 and transcription of ARE regulated genes. These observations suggest that A. sinensis dietary supplements standardized to ligustilide have potential as chemopreventive agents through induction of detoxification enzymes. PMID:18808158

  14. Comparison of two extraction methods for the determination of 135 pesticides in Corydalis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry. Application to the roots and rhizomes of Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Tong, Ling; Li, Dongxiang; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two simple pretreatment methods were comprehensively evaluated for the determination of 135 pesticide residues in roots and rhizomes of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs). The studied methodologies are (a) solid-phase extraction (SPE) and (b) Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS). For SPE, extraction solvents, SPE cartridges and types and volume of eluent were accessed and optimized. For QuEChERS, different versions, acetic acid concentration and dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent materials were tested. SPE and QuEChERS were estimated in recovery range, the number of pesticides that were recovered ranging from 90% to 110% and expenses in Corydalis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Sinensis Radix. QuEChERS method showed better performance than SPE. The method showed good linearity over the range assayed 0.9986-0.9999 (1-80ng/mL for 124 pesticides, 1-50ng/mL for 10 pesticides, 1-20ng/mL for satisfar). The matrix effect was compensated by matrix-based calibration curves with internal standard. The average recoveries of all pesticides were ranging from 70% to 120% at three levels of 10, 50 and 100ng/g with relative standard deviations less than 20%. The limits of quantification of the 135 pesticides in three matrices were 1-5ng/g, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European Union. The verified QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of 65 actual samples from eight different types of roots and rhizomes of CHMs. Angelicae Sinensis Radix was the most susceptible to pesticides among these samples, and the most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with levels below MRLs. Metalaxyl, phorate, atrazine, diniconazole, coumaphos and paclobutrazol were also detected in some samples. PMID:26990739

  15. Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Rescues PC12 Cells from Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity through Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Potential Roles of MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Du, Ji-kun; Zou, Li-yi; Wu, Tie; Lee, Yong-woo; Kim, Yong-ho

    2013-01-01

    Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed that D reduced Aβ25‒35-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Our study explored the underlying mechanisms by which D mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with D diminished intracellular generation of ROS in response to Aβ25‒35. Western blot revealed that D significantly increased the expression and activity of HO-1, which was correlated with its protection against Aβ25‒35-induced injury. Addition of ZnPP, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly attenuated its protective effect in Aβ25‒35-treated cells, indicating the vital role of HO-1 resistance to oxidative injury. Moreover, D induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the upstream of HO-1 expression. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for HO-1 induction, D activated ERK and dephosphorylated p38 in PC12 cells. Addition of U0126, a selective inhibitor of ERK, blocked D-induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction and meanwhile reversed the protection of D against Aβ25‒35-induced cell death. These findings suggest D augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through both intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of MAPK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction, thereby protecting the PC12 cells from Aβ25‒35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. PMID:23762139

  16. Improvement in antiproliferative activity of Angelica gigas Nakai by solid dispersion formation via hot-melt extrusion and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyao; Piao, Jingpei; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is one of the most popular herbal medicines and widely used as a functional food product. In this study, AGN was firstly processed by a low-temperature turbo mill and a hot melting extruder to reduce particle size and form solid dispersion (SD). Anticancer activity against HeLa cells was then examined. AGN-SD based on Soluplus was formed via hot-melt extrusion (HME) and showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells. In addition, the possible mechanism of cell death induced by AGN-SD on HeLa cells was also investigated. AGN-SD decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, increased the production of reactive oxygen species, regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and induced G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells. This study suggested that AGN-SD based on Soluplus and the method to improve antiproliferative effect by SD formation via HME may be suitable for application in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26057458

  17. Development of pressurized hot water extraction followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of ligustilides in Ligusticum chuanxiong and Angelica sinensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chunhui; Ji, Jie; Wang, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2005-07-01

    In this work, a simple, rapid, solvent-free, and low-cost method was developed for the determination of ligustilides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which was based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The two bioactive compounds Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide in two common TCMs, viz. Ligusticum chuanxiong and Angelica sinensis, were extracted by water at 150 degrees C and 40 bar, followed by concentration with HS-SPME and detection by GC-MS. PHWE and HS-SPME parameters were investigated and method validation (precision and recovery) was studied. It has been shown that the proposed method provides a powerful approach for quantitative analysis of ligustilides in TCMs. The method was applied to determination of ligustildes in the TCMs from different growing areas. The results indicate that PHWE-HS-SPME-GC-MS is a potential tool for TCM quality assessment. PMID:16117002

  18. Construction and analysis of correlation networks based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabonomics data for lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and intervention with volatile oil from Angelica sinensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yong-li; Ji, Peng; Xue, Zi-yu; Wei, Yan-ming

    2015-11-01

    Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known important traditional Chinese medicine that yields a volatile oil with anti-inflammatory effects. However, the holistic therapeutic effects and the mechanism underlying such effects of the volatile oil of A. sinensis (VOAS) are not yet well understood. Here, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomic study was conducted to explore the significantly altered metabolites for better understanding of VOAS and to assess the integral efficacy of VOAS on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation rat model. Principal component analysis was used to investigate the global metabonomic alterations and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of VOAS in rats. Clear separations were observed in the comparison of the metabolite profiles of the normal control (NC) group, the LPS-stimulated group (MI), the VOAS group, and the dexamethasone (Dex) group. VOAS exerted therapeutic effects on the LPS-stimulated group, which were in accordance with the results of cytokine analyses and blood physiobiochemical assay. Furthermore, a total of 20, 17, and 22 metabolites distributed in 27 metabolic pathways were respectively identified in plasma, liver, and lung samples as significantly altered metabolites of MI, VOAS, Dex, and NC of the same background. Network analysis revealed that glycine, glutamate, malic acid, succinate, arachidonic acid, glycerol, galactose, and glucose were hub metabolites of the inflammation correlation network. Results indicated that VOAS exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect by adjusting the Krebs cycle, improving the glucose content, and restoring the fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26399193

  19. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang, Prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by A High-Fructose Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, I-Min; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii

    2011-01-01

    Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction contains Radix Angelicae sinensis (Danggui) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi) at a ratio of 1 : 5, is used commonly for treating women's ailments. This study was conducted to explore the effects of this preparation on insulin resistance in rats fed with 6-week diet containing 60% fructose. Similar to the action of rosiglitazone (4 mg kg−1 per day by an oral administration), repeated oral administration of DBT (2.5 g kg−1 per day) for 14 days was found to significantly alleviate the hyperglycemia but made no influence on plasma lipid profiles nor weight gain in fructose chow-fed rats. Also, the higher degree of insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance in fructose chow-fed rats was significantly decreased by repeated DBT treatment. DBT displays the characteristic of rosiglitazone by increasing the whole-body insulin sensitivity in fructose chow-fed rats after 2-week treatment, as evidenced by the marked elevation of composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index during the oral glucose tolerance test. DBT improves insulin sensitivity through increased post-receptor insulin signaling mediated by enhancements in insulin receptor substrate-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase step and glucose transporter subtype 4 translocation in soleus muscles of animals exhibiting insulin resistance. DBT is therefore proposed as potentially useful adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance and/or the patients who wish to increase insulin sensitivity. PMID:19233878

  20. Herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-01

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:10675182

  1. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin.

    PubMed

    Heck, A M; DeWitt, B A; Lukes, A L

    2000-07-01

    Potential and documented interactions between alternative therapy agents and warfarin are discussed. An estimated one third of adults in the United States use alternative therapies, including herbs. A major safety concern is potential interactions of alternative medicine products with prescription medications. This issue is especially important with respect to drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes, such as warfarin. Herbal products that may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy include angelica root, arnica flower, anise, asafoetida, bogbean, borage seed oil, bromelain, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger ginkgo, horse chestnut, licorice root, lovage root, meadowsweet, onion, parsley, passionflower herb, poplar, quassia, red clover, rue, sweet clover, turmeric, and willow bark. Products that have been associated with documented reports of potential interactions with warfarin include coenzyme Q10, danshen, devil's claw, dong quai, ginseng, green tea, papain, and vitamin E. Interpretation of the available information on herb-warfarin interactions is difficult because nearly all of it is based on in vitro data, animal studies, or individual case reports. More study is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions. There is evidence that a wide range of alternative therapy products have the potential to interact with warfarin. Pharmacists and other health care professionals should question all patients about use of alternative therapies and report documented interactions to FDA's MedWatch program. PMID:10902065

  2. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Xu, H; Gu, C; van Breemen, R B; Bhat, K P; Booth, N; Constantinou, A I; Pezzuto, J M; Fong, H H; Farnsworth, N R; Bolton, J L

    2001-05-01

    Eight botanical preparations that are commonly used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms were tested for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus L.), and hops (Humulus lupulus L.) showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta). With cultured Ishikawa (endometrial) cells, red clover and hops exhibited estrogenic activity as indicated by induction of alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and up-regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA. Chasteberry also stimulated PR expression, but no induction of AP activity was observed. In S30 breast cancer cells, pS2 (presenelin-2), another estrogen-inducible gene, was up-regulated in the presence of red clover, hops, and chasteberry. Interestingly, extracts of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) induced pS2 mRNA expression in S30 cells, but no significant ER binding affinity, AP induction, or PR expression was noted in Ishikawa cells. Dong quai [Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels] and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) showed only weak ER binding and PR and pS2 mRNA induction. Black cohosh [Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.] showed no activity in any of the above in vitro assays. Bioassay-guided isolation utilizing ER competitive binding as a monitor and screening using ultrafiltration LC-MS revealed that genistein was the most active component of red clover. Consistent with this observation, genistein was found to be the most effective of four red clover isoflavones tested in the above in vitro assays. Therefore, estrogenic components of plant extracts can be identified using assays for estrogenic activity along with screening and identification of the active components using ultrafiltration LC-MS. These data suggest a potential use for some dietary supplements, ingested by human beings, in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. PMID:11368622

  3. Narrated Landscape as Counterweight to Perception of Placelessness in Contemporary Urban Landscape: Re-Visioning Place in Gwangbok-Dong and Nampo-Dong, Busan, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sungkyung

    2009-01-01

    Although the contemporary commercial urban landscape is often assessed as placeless, this research proposes that even these seemingly anonymous places are repositories of thriving community values and meanings. Seeking a more complex reading, this research extends the scope of analysis from physical space to human use in order to reveal the…

  4. Narrated Landscape as Counterweight to Perception of Placelessness in Contemporary Urban Landscape: Re-Visioning Place in Gwangbok-Dong and Nampo-Dong, Busan, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sungkyung

    2009-01-01

    Although the contemporary commercial urban landscape is often assessed as placeless, this research proposes that even these seemingly anonymous places are repositories of thriving community values and meanings. Seeking a more complex reading, this research extends the scope of analysis from physical space to human use in order to reveal the

  5. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Su-yin; Lee, Pei-yi; Lai, Ming-tsung; Shen, Li-ching; Chung, Wen-sheng; Huang, Hui-fen; Wu, Kuen-yuh; Wu, Hsiu-ching

    2011-12-24

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) is a reactive electrophilic metabolite of the hepatocarcinogen safrole, the main component of sassafras oil. Safrole occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including the commonly used Chinese medicine Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis). SAFO is the most mutagenic metabolite of safrole tested in the Ames test. However, little or no data are available on the genotoxicity of SAFO in mammalian systems. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SAFO in human HepG2 cells and male FVB mice. Using MTT assay, SAFO exhibited a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells with TC(50) values of 361.9μM and 193.2μM after 24 and 48h exposure, respectively. In addition, treatment with SAFO at doses of 125μM and higher for 24h in HepG2 cells resulted in a 5.1-79.6-fold increase in mean Comet tail moment by the alkaline Comet assay and a 2.6-7.8-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Furthermore, repeated intraperitoneal administration of SAFO (15, 30, 45, and 60mg/kg) to mice every other day for a total of twelve doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean Comet tail moment in peripheral blood leukocytes (13.3-43.4-fold) and in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (1.5-5.8-fold). Repeated administration of SAFO (60mg/kg) to mice caused liver lesions manifested as a rim of ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes immediately surrounding the central vein. Our data clearly demonstrate that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity. PMID:21986196

  6. Antitumor and Antibacterial Derivatives of Oridonin: A Main Composition of Dong-Ling-Cao.

    PubMed

    Li, Dahong; Han, Tong; Xu, Shengtao; Zhou, Tingting; Tian, Kangtao; Hu, Xu; Cheng, Keguang; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming; Xu, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rubescens has been used as a traditional green tea for more than 1000 years and many medicinal functions of I. rubescens are also very useful, such as its well-known antitumor and antibacterial activities. Oridonin, a bioactive ent-kaurane diterpenoid, is the major ingredient of this medicinal tea. Herein, 22 novel oridonin derivatives were designed and synthesized. The antibacterial activity was evaluated for the first time. Compound 12 was the most promising one with MIC of 2.0 μg/mL against B. subtilis, which was nearly 3-fold stronger than positive control chloromycetin. The antiproliferative property was also assayed and compound 19 showed stronger activity than taxol. The apoptosis-inducing ability, cell cycle arrest effect at S phase and influence of mitochondrial membrane potential by 19 in CaEs-17 cancer cells were first disclosed. Based on the above results, the cell apoptosis induced by compound 19 in CaEs-17 cells was most probably involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:27144553

  7. Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

  8. SheJi HuoDong JiaoFa (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic…

  9. How to Continue the Beauty of Traditional Architecture of Dong Village ------the exploration of cultural protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fan; Xiaohua, Zhu

    Based on architectural culture of ethnic minority and folk customs, keep multiple characteristics of traditional architecture, inject new connotation, meet people's new demand of living condition. Explore a feasible approach to inherit traditional dwellings and diversify architecture. Ensure the healthy development of traditional architecture.

  10. Two Objects Not the Same = Liang ge dong xi bu yi yang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John

    1997-01-01

    Studies how Singaporean children differentiate in drawing between a sphere and an elongated, straight-sided ovoid. Tests Piaget's and Inhelder's beliefs that very young children are unable to differentiate in their drawings between differently contoured shapes. Finds that children are able to show the difference in drawings between the two shapes.…

  11. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia. PMID:11419135

  12. Application of 3S Techniques in the Study of Wetland Environment of Dong Ting Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Baicheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Shuai, Xiqiang; Luo, Boliang

    Wetland is a multifunctional ecosystem in the earth, wetlands possess irreplaceable and enormous ecological functions and serve as an essential life supporting system. how to apply the new and high technology to the study of wetland has become the key point in wetland study area in our country. RS, GIS and GPS technology provide a new method for resource and ecological environment monitor. In this paper, the problem and development trend of 3S technology are discussed. Application of 3S technique in the study of wetland environment of Dongting Lake are described. The wetland monitor ways and technique route are introduced. The beach and water area information were gained.the dynamic changes of water were evaluated objective and quantitative. Finally, we point out the difficulties of wetland monitor of Dongting Lake.

  13. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Ambrette (seed) Hibiscus moschatus Moench. Angelica root Angelica archangelica L. Angelica seed Do. Angelica stem Do. Angostura (cusparia bark) Galipea officinalis Hancock.... Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. Caraway Carum carvi L. Cardamom seed...

  14. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Angelica sinensis Essential Oil Against Three Colletotrichum Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical fungicides are an important component in disease management for most crops. As part of a program to discover natural product-based fungicides, several sensitive assay systems have been developed for the evaluation of naturally occurring antifungal agents. In this study, we focused on the di...

  15. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the…

  16. Governing "Suzhi" and Curriculum Reform in Rural Ethnic China: Viewpoints from the Miao and Dong Communities in Qiandongnan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinting

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the uptake of "suzhi"--roughly glossed as "quality"--in China's recent curriculum reform called "suzhi jiaoyu" (Education for Quality) in the rural ethnic context of Qiandongnan. It engages with three layers of analysis. First is a brief etymological overview of "suzhi" to map out its cultural politics in contemporary China.

  17. Korean Confucianism's Mindful Learning Model of Moral Internalization as Manifested in the Cheonghak-Dong Hermit Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Si Ha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand an unknown educational approach in Korean Confucianism's ethical education characterized as moral internalization, based on the study participants. A prevailed understanding of moral internalization of Confucianism is a strong imposed learning process, which is a well known Asian learning…

  18. Educational and Social Development in Doi Ang Khang: A Comparative Study of the Khob Dong and Nor Lae Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Timothy; Gray, Lauren; Lake, John; Roy, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Northern Thailand is home to many hill tribes, who have lived for hundreds of years as subsistence farmers or nomadic hunters. In the 1940s, communist insurgencies drove many hill tribes from China, Burma, and other nations south into northern Thailand. Uprooted from their native lands, the hill tribes left behind ties to economic resources and,…

  19. Governing "Suzhi" and Curriculum Reform in Rural Ethnic China: Viewpoints from the Miao and Dong Communities in Qiandongnan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinting

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the uptake of "suzhi"--roughly glossed as "quality"--in China's recent curriculum reform called "suzhi jiaoyu" (Education for Quality) in the rural ethnic context of Qiandongnan. It engages with three layers of analysis. First is a brief etymological overview of "suzhi" to map out its cultural politics in contemporary China.…

  20. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the

  1. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  2. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  3. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  4. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  5. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  6. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura (cusparia bark) Galipea officinalis Hancock....

  7. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section 409 of the Act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  8. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  9. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed Medicago sativa L. Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Ambrette seed Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica Angelica archangelica L. or other spp. of Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura...

  10. Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) extract prevents adiposity in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianshun; Yamashita, Yoko; Yasuda, Michiko; Yamamoto, Norio; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Two main chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, from Ashitaba, which is a food ingredient and a folk medicine in Asia, have been demonstrated to modulate lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ashitaba extract on adiposity in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on adipose tissue and hepatic lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal or HF diet supplemented with Ashitaba extract (0.01% and 0.1%, w/w) for 16 weeks. Ashitaba extract suppressed the HF diet-induced body weight gain and fat deposition in white adipose tissue, reduced plasma cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels, increased the adiponectin level, lowered triglyceride and the liver cholesterol content, increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipose tissue and liver, inhibited lipogenesis in adipose tissue by down-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), inhibited lipogenesis in the liver by down-expression of SREBP1 and its target enzyme fatty acid synthase, and promoted fatty acid oxidation by up-expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A and PPAR?. In conclusion, Ashitaba extract can possibly prevent adiposity through modulating lipid metabolism through phosphorylation of AMPK in adipose tissue and liver. PMID:25406632

  11. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L. or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Ambrette (seed) Hibiscus moschatus Moench. Angelica root Angelica archangelica L. Angelica seed Do. Angelica stem Do. Angostura... Carum carvi L. Cardamom seed (cardamon) Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua...

  12. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L. or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Ambrette (seed) Hibiscus moschatus Moench. Angelica root Angelica archangelica L. Angelica seed Do. Angelica stem Do. Angostura... Carum carvi L. Cardamom seed (cardamon) Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua...

  13. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L. or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Ambrette (seed) Hibiscus moschatus Moench. Angelica root Angelica archangelica L. Angelica seed Do. Angelica stem Do. Angostura... Carum carvi L. Cardamom seed (cardamon) Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua...

  14. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L., or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Ambrette (seed) Hibiscus moschatus Moench. Angelica root Angelica archangelica L. Angelica seed Do. Angelica stem Do. Angostura... Carum carvi L. Cardamom seed (cardamon) Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua...

  15. Anti-tumor effects of various furocoumarins isolated from the roots, seeds and fruits of Angelica and Cnidium species under ultraviolet A irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Sakanaka, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Baba, Kimiye; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects on cell proliferation of 10 methoxyfurocoumarins and 7 dihydrofurocumarins isolated from Umbelliferae medicinal plants, and their mechanisms of action against B16F10 melanoma cells or in melanin-possessing hairless mice implanted with B16F10 melanoma cells, under UVA irradiation. Furocoumarins having a methoxy group, such as bergapten (1), xanthotoxin (2), phellopterin (4), byakangelicin (6), neobyakangelicin (8), isobergapten (9) and sphondin (10), showed anti-proliferative activity and caused G2/M arrest at concentrations of 0.05-15.0 μM. The 7 dihydrofurocoumarins had no effect. UVA plus 1, 2, 4, 6 and sec-O-acetylbyakagelicin (7), having one methoxy group at the C-5 position and a linear-type conformation, reduced tumor growth and final tumor weight in B16F10-bearing mice at 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection). UVA plus 1 and 2 increased Chk1 phosphorylation and decreased cdc2 (Thr 161) phosphorylation in the melanoma cells. The anti-tumor actions of UVA plus furocoumarins having a methoxy group might be due to the arrest of the cell cycle at G2/M through an increase in phospho-Chk1 and reduction in phospho-cdc2. PMID:23649674

  16. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography couple...

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shou, Chong; Li, Justin; Liu, Zitao

    2011-12-01

    A large number of women will pass through menopause each year. Women in menopausal transition experience a variety of menopausal symptoms. Although hormonal therapy remains the most effective treatment, side effects have been reported by several large studies. An increased number of women seek the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treating menopausal symptoms. This review analyzes the evidence from systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and epidemiological studies of using herbal medicine (Black cohosh, Dong quai, St John's wart, Hops, Wild yam, Ginseng, and evening primrose oil) and acupuncture for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of most CAM for relief of menopausal symptoms are limited. Future larger and better controlled studies testing the effectiveness of these treatments are needed. PMID:22139538

  18. Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Abundances in Sharp-Lined A-Type Stars Takeda, Yoichi; Kang, Dong-Il; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Kang-Min; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ohishi, Naoko;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    The abundances of alkali elements (Li, Na, and K) were determined from the Li I 6708, Na I 5682/5688, and K I 7699 lines by taking into account the non-LTE effect for 24 sharp-lined A-type stars (ve sin i ≲ 50 km s-1, 7000 K &lesssim Teff &lessim 10000 K, many showing Am peculiarities to different degrees), based on high-dispersion and high-S/N spectral data secured at BOAO (Korea) and OAO (Japan). We found a significant trend that A(Na) tightly scales with A(Fe) irrespective of Teff, which means that Na becomes enriched similarly to Fe in accordance with the degree of Am peculiarity. Regarding lithium, A(Li) mostly ranges between ˜ 3 and ˜ 3.5 (i.e., almost the same as or slightly less than the solar system abundance of 3.3) with a weak decreasing tendency with a lowering of Teff at Teff &lesssim 8000 K, though several stars exceptionally show distinctly larger depletion. The abundances of potassium also revealed an apparent Teff-dependence in the sense that A(K) in late-A stars tends to be mildly subsolar [possibly with a weak anti-correlation with A(Fe)] systematically decreasing from ˜ 5.0 (Teff ˜ 8500 K) to ˜ 4.6 (Teff ˜ 7500 K), while those for early-A stars remain near-solar around ˜ 5.0-5.2. These observational facts may serve as important constraints for any theory aiming to explain chemical anomalies of A-type stars.

  19. 76 FR 56796 - In the Matter of Certain Devices for Improving Uniformity Used in a Backlight Module and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., 20 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-721, South Korea; LG Electronics, Inc., LG Twin Towers, 20 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721, South Korea; ] LG Electronics, U.S.A., Inc.,...

  20. GENERA OF THE DIAPORTHALES: DIAPORTHOPSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diaporthopsis was described for species that are similar to Diaporthe but have non-septate ascospores. The type species of Diaporthopsis is D. angelicae, an earlier name for D. nigrella. Molecular analysis of the large subunit of the ribosomal nuclear DNA places D. angelicae within a gro...

  1. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: mechanisms of action?

    PubMed

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

    2013-05-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats, which can affect quality of life. Although it has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, hormone therapy has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief have been controversial, and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report a reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 ligands or inhibit serotonin reuptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women's health could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  2. Reprint of The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design.

    PubMed

    Newton, Katherine M; Reed, Susan D; Grothaus, Lou; Ehrlich, Kelly; Guiltinan, Jane; Ludman, Evette; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2008-01-01

    We designed a randomized double-blind randomized trial to examine the short and long-term effects of alternative approaches commonly used to manage menopause symptoms. Women were randomly assigned to: (1) black cohosh 160 mg daily; (2) multibotanical (50 mg black cohosh, alfalfa, chaste tree, dong quai, false unicorn, licorice, oats, pomegranate, Siberian ginseng, boron) four capsules daily; (3) multibotanical plus telephone counseling to increase dietary soy; (4) conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg +/- 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate; or (5) placebo. Working with a skilled CAM provider helped us choose interventions that reflected naturopathic practices worthy of study. Mass mailing, with careful tracking and rapid responses to recruitment rates, was an effective and cost-effective recruitment strategy. Creativity was necessary to construct methods for blinding capsules and the dietary soy intervention. Independent testing of herbal products was vital to confirming their constituents. The Data and Safety and Monitoring Committee, and project officers at the funding agency, were critical partners in designing responses to unanticipated Women's Health Initiative findings published during the HALT trial. Careful monitoring of adverse events may provide much needed information about side effects of herbal products and supplements. Despite inherent challenges, the study of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms is a rewarding and important area deserving of further inquiry. PMID:19434890

  3. The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design.

    PubMed

    Newton, Katherine M; Reed, Susan D; Grothaus, Lou; Ehrlich, Kelly; Guiltinan, Jane; Ludman, Evette; Lacroix, Andrea Z

    2005-10-16

    We designed a randomized double-blind randomized trial to examine the short and long-term effects of alternative approaches commonly used to manage menopause symptoms. Women were randomly assigned to: (1) black cohosh 160 mg daily; (2) multibotanical (50 mg black cohosh, alfalfa, chaste tree, dong quai, false unicorn, licorice, oats, pomegranate, Siberian ginseng, boron) four capsules daily; (3) multibotanical plus telephone counseling to increase dietary soy; (4) conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg +/- 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate; or (5) placebo. Working with a skilled CAM provider helped us choose interventions that reflected naturopathic practices worthy of study. Mass mailing, with careful tracking and rapid responses to recruitment rates, was an effective and cost-effective recruitment strategy. Creativity was necessary to construct methods for blinding capsules and the dietary soy intervention. Independent testing of herbal products was vital to confirming their constituents. The Data and Safety and Monitoring Committee, and project officers at the funding agency, were critical partners in designing responses to unanticipated Women's Health Initiative findings published during the HALT trial. Careful monitoring of adverse events may provide much needed information about side effects of herbal products and supplements. Despite inherent challenges, the study of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms is a rewarding and important area deserving of further inquiry. PMID:16186076

  4. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    PubMed Central

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  5. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results. PMID:25839871

  6. [Extraction and anti-tumor activity study of polysaccharide in several traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai-dan; Fang, Yan-xiong; Chen, Min-min; Huang, Jing-ping; Zhang, Kun

    2007-02-01

    Polysaccharides in Several traditional Chinese medicine compounds of Dioscorea bulbifera L, Dioscorea bulbifera L and Chinese Angelica compounds (3: 2 by mass ratio), Hedyotis diffusa Willd and Scutellrla barbata D. Don compounds (3: 2 by mass ratio) were extracted by ultrasound and the content of polysaccharides were determined by the colorimetry. Dioscorea bulbifera L and Chinese Angelica compounds contained the biggest polysaccharide, 16. 509%. All of these three kinds of polysaccharide had anti-tumor activity. The anti-tumor activity was Dioscorea bulbifera L and Chinese Angelica compounds > Hedyotis diffusa Willd and Scutellrla barbata D. Don compounds > Dioscorea bubifera L. PMID:17571768

  7. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Abebe W

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and treatment. Dental hygienists should inform themselves about herbal supplements in order to offer appropriate oral health care to individuals who take these substances.

  8. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and treatment. Dental hygienists should inform themselves about herbal supplements in order to offer appropriate oral health care to individuals who take these substances. PMID:12704968

  9. 77 FR 2758 - Certain Portable Communication Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ..., 20, Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul, 157-721, South Korea. LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc., 1000 Sylvan.... Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 1320-10, Seocho 2-dong Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-857, South Korea. Samsung..., 1451- 34, Seocho-Go, Seoul 137-070, South Korea. Pantech Wireless, Inc., 5607 Glenridge Drive...

  10. 77 FR 24462 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...: Final Results and Final Rescission of the Second Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 12556....; (13) Kyung Dong Corp.; (14) Nanjing Dayu Pneumatic Gun Nails Co., Ltd.; (15) Rizhao Handuck...

  11. A Review of Potential Harmful Interactions between Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Lu, Ying-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Mahady, Gail B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions. Methodology and Findings Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric. Conclusions/Significance Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly used single entity CHMs. For those patients who are taking conventional anti-clotting medications with CHMs for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, the potential risks of increased bleeding due to drug-CHM interactions should not be ignored. PMID:23671711

  12. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of their breastfed infants. Conclusions The use of herbal medicines is common amongst breastfeeding women, while information supporting their safety and efficacy is lacking. This study has demonstrated the need for further research into commonly used herbal medicines. Evidence-based information should be available to breastfeeding women who wish to consider use of all medicines, including complementary medicines, to avoid unnecessary cessation of breastfeeding or compromising of pharmacotherapy. PMID:24219150

  13. Comparison of two kinds of magnetic nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liu; Zhang, Yu; Li, Shijun; Wang, Yujuan; Wang, Kaiping

    2012-06-01

    This study compared a new type of polysaccharide-coated magnetic nanoparticles (in which the polysaccharide is derived from Angelica sinensis) with the dextran magnetic nanoparticles in terms of preparation, biocompatibility and tissue distribution in vivo and in vitro in order to examine the potential application of Angelica polysaccharide as a novel carrier in magnetic drug targeting (MDT). Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation. Their physical and chemical properties were determined by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser particle size analyzer (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and their purity and structure by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The atomic absorption spectrometric method was performed for quantification of the iron content in different tissues. Histological sections were stained by Prussian blue staining to observe the disposition of magnetic nanoparticles in the liver and kidney. The results showed that both kinds of magnetic nanoparticles possessed small particle size, good dispersion and good magnetic properties. XRD showed the main component of the two magnetic nanoparticles was Fe(3)O(4) crystals, and FTIR proved Fe(3)O(4) was successfully coated by each polysaccharide, respectively. In vivo, Fe(3)O(4)-dextran accumulated in the liver, spleen and lung and Fe(3)O(4)-Angelica polysaccharide only in the spleen and lung. It was concluded that Angelica polysaccharide may be applied as a novel carrier in the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22684573

  14. "Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would

  15. 76 FR 9542 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 2332 (January 13, 2011) (S4 from Mexico 2008-2009 Final Results). On... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). This clarification will apply to...: Patrick Edwards, Brian Davis, or Angelica Mendoza, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import...

  16. 75 FR 17690 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... the period of July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR 42875 (August 25, 2009). The current deadline for the preliminary results of this... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Patrick Edwards, Brian Davis, or Angelica Mendoza, AD/CVD...

  17. 75 FR 76396 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 47780 (August 9, 2010) (Preliminary Results). In the Preliminary Results, we invited... INFORMATION CONTACT: Patrick Edwards, Brian Davis, or Angelica Mendoza, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import... steel sheet and strip in coils (S4 in coils) from Mexico for the period July 1, 2008, through June...

  18. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese" (Maria Cecilia…

  19. "Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would…

  20. 76 FR 1154 - Operating Industries, Inc., Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... & Supply, Inc., Air System Components, Inc. (fka Lau Industries, Inc.) and Ruskin Company, Lau Division...., Allan Aircraft Supply Co., LLC, Allegiance Corporation, Allen Telecom, Inc., Angelica Corporation... Corporation, Aviall, Inc., Axis Petroleum Company, B-J Management, Inc., Baker Hughes Incorporated,...

  1. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Order, 75 FR 60084 (September 29, 2010). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dena Crossland or Angelica...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010) (Notice of... Carboxymethylcellulose From the Netherlands; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR...

  2. Contributions to the knowledge of subterranean trechine beetles in southern China’s karsts: five new genera (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334

  3. ANALYSIS OF A HEAT-FLUX DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY INSTRUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Porter, Wallace D

    2007-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to estimate the fractional latent heat release during phase changes. There are temperature lags inherent to the instruments due to the temperature measurement at a different location than that of the sample and reference materials. Recently, Dong and Hunt[1] showed that significant improvement in estimating the fractional latent heat can be obtained when detailed simulations of the heat transfer within the instrument are performed. The Netzsch DSC 404C instrument, with a high accuracy heat capacity sensor, is considered in this study. This instrument had a different configuration than that studied by Dong and Hunt[1]. The applicability of Dong and Hunt's approach to this instrument is investigated. It was found that the DSC instrument could be described by numerous parameters but that model parameters were difficult to estimate. Numerical simulation results are presented and compared with experimental results for the fractional latent heat of a commercial A356 aluminum alloy.

  4. Cloning and Characterization of ifitm1 and ifitm3 Expression During Early Zebrafish Development - CORRIGENDUM.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei-Wei; Wang, Huan-Nan; Wang, Zhi-Meng; Qiu, Meng-Xi; Che, Jing; Deng, Feng-Jiao; Liu, Jiang-Dong

    2016-02-01

    The authors apologise for errors in the corresponding authors details given on page 1 of the article. Below is the correct information of the corresponding author and email address : 1) Wei-Wei Xue, Huan-Nan Wang, Zhi-Meng Wang, Meng-Xi Qiu, Jing Che, Feng-Jiao Deng* and Jiang-Dong Liu* 2) *All correspondence to: Feng-Jiao Deng and Jiang-Dong Liu. e-mail: fish4@whu.edu.cn 3) All authors are from the same one laboratory. The second laboratory was superfluous and should be deleted. PMID:26194805

  5. [Discussion on efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine "Zi-hua Qianhu" in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition)].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Hao, Jin-da; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the origin and application development of the traditional Chinese medicine " Zi-hua Qianhu" and " Qianhu", the medicinal literatures of past dynasties and modern researches were analysed. The plant Angelica decursivum was used as a substitute for traditional Chinese medicine "Angelica sinensis Radix" for a long historical period, it is used incorrectly for traditional Chinese medicine "Qianhu" due to origin research in modern times. The plant origin of "Qianhu" is Peucedanum praeruptorum. There are significant differences in clinical applications and chemical composition of the two drugs. The same efficacy description of "Zi-huaQianhu" and "Qianhu" could not stop "Zi-huaQianhu" used as "Qianhu" in practical application. Therefore, we need to further research for the plant A. decursivum, delimit its medicinal attribution. PMID:26591544

  6. Irritant Contact Dermatitis Risk of Common Topical Traditional Chinese Medicines Used for Skin-Lightening: A Pilot Clinical Trial with 30 Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kao-Sung; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Wu, Meng-Tse; Shen, Jui-Lung; Mao, Ming-Ya; Chen, Huey-Yi; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Topical traditional Chinese medicine- (TTCM-) related contact dermatitis is not uncommon but ignored. Patch and photopatch tests using 6 individual herbal ingredients and Bai-Zhi-Kao (BZK; 白芷膏), a skin-lightening TTCM preparation, were conducted on 30 participants. Twenty-five subjects showed at least 1 positive reaction, including 6 (20.0%) participants who reacted to BZK. The majority reacted to Radix Ampelopsis japonica (Bai-Lian; 白蘞) (60.0%), whereas few reacted to Rhizoma Bletilla striata (Bai-Ji; 白芨) (16.7%), Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae (Bai-Zhu; 白朮) (10.0%), Radix Angelicae dahuricae (Bai-Zhi; 白芷) (3.3%), and Herba asari (Xi-Xin; 細辛) (3.3%). In the photopatch test, 3 participants (10.0%) reacted positively to BZK and 10 to ≥1 constituent; however, all reacted to Radix Angelicae dahuricae (26.7%), Radix Ampelopsis japonica (13.3%), and Rhizoma Bletilla striata (3.3%). In contrast, no subjects showed positive reactions to Sclerotium Poria cocos (Bai-Fu-Ling; 白茯苓). Thus, BZK and its constituents might present potential latent risk of contact dermatitis owing to the possible presence of Radix Ampelopsis japonica and Radix Angelicae dahuricae. Furthermore, TTCMs, particularly cosmetic products, must be used carefully, with ample warning of potential contact dermatitis risk. PMID:24817899

  7. Hemopoietic effect of extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang on phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Hyojun; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2014-01-01

    Samul-tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), a kind of herbal medicines, has been used for the hemato-deficient disease for hundreds of years. In this work, investigate the anti-anemia activity of the H2O extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang in an anemia model induced by intravenous infection of phenylhydrazine-HCL (PHZ) at 10 mg/kg for 4 days. After PHZ injection, female Sparague-Dawley rats were administrated extracts from constituent herbal medicines of SMT (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) daily for 1 week. Results showed that sever hemolysis was induced by PHZ. For Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) H2O extract treated groups, the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells number increased much more significantly than PHZ-treated group. Moreover, Angelica gigas (AG), Angelica. acutiloba (AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) extract administration significantly improved serum erythropoietin concentration. The activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydrates (ALDL) in liver homegenate was increased in Angelica gigas(AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) treated group. PMID:25337267

  8. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Catalogue of Tape Archive No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

    The aboriginal studies listed in this catalogue are indexed according to language/tribe and subject (linguistic studies, myths and stories, songs and dances, dongs and music, and speech). Entries are listed alphabetically under the depositor's name. Language/tribe headings are from the Institute's Preliminary Tribal Index. Summaries are brief but…

  9. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show

  10. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  11. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  12. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... transactions during the POR: Amanda Food (Vietnam) Ltd., Anvifish Joint Stock Company, Bien Dong Seafood Co... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review, 77...

  13. 76 FR 47149 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). On September... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation, 75 FR 60076, (September 29, 2010). Based...) NTSF Seafoods Joint Stock Company (aka NTSF); (18) QVD Food Company, Ltd.(``QVD''); (19) QVD Dong...

  14. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  15. Comment on flux creep with logarithmic U(j) dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, J.; Schnack, H.G.; van der Beek, C.J.

    1994-02-01

    The numerical calculation by Wang and Dong [Phys. Rev. B 49, 698 (1994)] of flux density profiles across a slab sample exposes a possible misunderstanding of the solution given earlier by vinokur, Feigel`man and Geshkenbein, but also predicts a kink in the magnetization relaxation curve which Schnack and Griessen have already shown to be erroneous.

  16. NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero.
    HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2
    1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  17. Taking a Cultural-Response Approach to Teaching Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu Ren Dong

    2005-01-01

    Yu Ren Dong presents several activities that can give teachers confidence to explore the cultural differences in diverse texts and provide ways to help their students discuss these differences and enhance cross-cultural understanding. The use of cultural-response approach is highlighted.

  18. Complete Genome Characterization of Two Wild-Type Measles Viruses from Vietnamese Infants during the 2014 Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Oude Munnink, Bas B; Phan, My V T; Kellam, Paul; Cotten, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    A large measles virus outbreak occurred across Vietnam in 2014. We identified and obtained complete measles virus genomes in stool samples collected from two diarrheal pediatric patients in Dong Thap Province. These are the first complete genome sequences of circulating measles viruses in Vietnam during the 2014 measles outbreak. PMID:27081130

  19. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  20. Information Technology in Education and Training (IT@EDU98). Proceedings, Session 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The first session of IT@EDU98 consisted of four papers and was chaired by Dong Thi Bich Thuy (University of Natural Sciences, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Technology for Learning: The Present and Future in the United States" (Thomas Owens, Carolyn Cohen) focuses on how technology is changing learning, looks at the most promising opportunities as…

  1. 75 FR 6705 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... violation of section 337, and are the parties upon which the complaint is to be served: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., 416 maetan-dong, Youngtong-gu, Suwon, Kyunggi-Do, Korea 443-742. Samsung Electronics America, Inc., 105 Challenger Road, Ridgefield Park, NJ 07660. Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., 3655...

  2. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, Melissa, Ed.; Choi, Dong-Ik, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Papers in this volume include the following: "Evidence for Foot Structure in Hausa" (Ousseina Alidou); "Korean 'Tense' Consonants as Geminates" (Dong-Ik Choi); "Gemination Processes: Motivation, Form, and Constraints" (Mamadou Niang); "Syllable 'Sonority' Hierarchy and Pulaar Stress: A Metrical Approach" (Mamadou Niang); "On the Condition of…

  3. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2000 Berdyshev EV, Schmid PC, Dong Z, & Schmid HH. Stress-induced generation of N- acylethanolamines in mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells. Biochem J 346 Pt 2: 369-74, 2000.  Abstract  Full Text    Borowski P, Resch K, Schmitz H, & Heiland M. A s

  4. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2008 Zheng D, Cho YY, Lau AT, Zhang J, Ma WY, Bode AM, & Dong Z. Cyclin-dependent kinase 3-mediated activating transcription factor 1 phosphorylation enhances cell transformation. Cancer Res 68(18): 7650-60, 2008. Abstract Full Text Lee KW,

  5. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 1998 Cmarik JL, Li Y, Ogram SA, Reeves R & Colburn NH. Tumor promoter induces high mobility group HMG-Y protein expression in transformation-sensitive but not resistant cells. Oncogene 16: 3387-3396, 1998.  Abstract  Dong Z, Huang C, Ma WY,

  6. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2001 Berdyshev EV, Schmid PC, Krebsbach RJ, Hillard CJ, Huang C, Chen N, Dong Z, Schmid HH. Cannabinoid-receptor-independent cell signaling by N-acylethanolamines. Biochem J 360: 67-75, 2001.  Abstract  Full Text    Chung JY, Park JO, Phyu

  7. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 1995 Chang PL, Yang WC, Prince CW. Effects of okadaic acid on calcitriol- and phorbol ester-induced expression and phosphorylation of osteopontin in mouse JB6 epidermal cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 760: 24-34, 1995.  Pub Med link    Dong Z, Lavro

  8. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  9. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  10. 77 FR 18815 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Logistics Corporation (NVO), 327 Elizabeth Avenue, Apt. A, Monterey Park, CA 91755-2044. Officers: Chao Sun...: Dong Ho Lee, President/Secretary/Treasurer (Qualifying Individual). Application Type: QI Change and... Shipping Agency, LLC (NVO), 7710 Brooklyn Boulevard North, 211, Brooklyn Park, MN 55443. Officers: George...

  11. 76 FR 30360 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...), 182-16 147th Avenue, Jamaica, NY 11413. Officer: Kwang Y. Choi, President/Secretary/Director... Road, Suite, 1 Jamaica, NY 11434. Officer: Wei-Dong Lu, President/VP/Secretary/Treasurer (Qualifying... F1, Jamaica, NY 11434. Officers: James Kwok, Secretary (Qualifying Individual), Kit Hui,...

  12. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in

  13. New Horizons in Education, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This journal, written in English and Chinese, includes the following papers: "Values for Creativity: A Study among Undergraduates in Hong Kong and Guangzhou" (Xia Dong Yue and Kok Leung); "The Present Situation of Family Education at the Turn of the Century: An Investigation in Three South-Eastern Provinces in China" (Feng Luo); "Philosophers…

  14. Swift observations of ASASSN-15ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, S.

    2015-07-01

    Swift observed ASASSN-15ni (Dong et al. 2015, Atel #7850) starting on 2015-07-29 01:13:07.00 UT for 2.0 ks. The XRT detected one source coincident with the optical position of ASASSN-15ni at a rate of (1.4+/-0.3) x 10^-2 counts s^-1.

  15. Complete Genome Characterization of Two Wild-Type Measles Viruses from Vietnamese Infants during the 2014 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Oude Munnink, Bas B.; Phan, My V. T.; Kellam, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A large measles virus outbreak occurred across Vietnam in 2014. We identified and obtained complete measles virus genomes in stool samples collected from two diarrheal pediatric patients in Dong Thap Province. These are the first complete genome sequences of circulating measles viruses in Vietnam during the 2014 measles outbreak. PMID:27081130

  16. Diphthongization, Syllable Structure, and the Feature [high] in Hmu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Carl; Strecker, David

    The syllabic structure in the Hmongic language, Hmu (spoken by nearly one million people), is examined, based on the dialect of Hmu spoken in the town of Yanghao in the Southeast Guizhou Miao-Dong Autonomous District of southern China. The discussion is based entirely on data presented by Wang (1979). From the examination, two rules with the…

  17. 76 FR 20010 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-DVD Copy Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Act on August 3, 2001 (66 FR 40727). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 9..., 2011 (76 FR 1460). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE M ...; Dongguan ChuDong Electronic Technology Co., Ltd., Dongguan City, Guangdong, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA;...

  18. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students

  19. Genetics Home Reference: dentinogenesis imperfecta

    MedlinePlus

    ... imperfecta type II. Hum Genet. 2004 Aug;115(3):248-54. Epub 2004 Jul 6. MacDougall M, Dong J, Acevedo AC. Molecular basis of human dentin diseases. Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Dec 1;140(23):2536-46. Review. Malmgren B, Lindskog S, Elgadi ...

  20. 77 FR 1725 - Certain Blu-Ray Disc Players, Components Thereof and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ..., Bupyeong-Gu, Incheon, 4.3-853, South Korea. LG Electronics, Inc., LG Twin Towers, 20 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721, South Korea. LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc., 1000 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs..., Seoul 137-857, South Korea. Samsung Electronics America, Inc., 105 Challenger Road, Ridgefield Park,...

  1. Are Modern Concepts of Complex Systems Science Useful for Earth Sciences? (Lewis Fry Richardson Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The application of methods of complex systems science has a rich tradition in Earth sciences and has enabled substantially new insights into various complex processes there. However, some approaches and findings have been controversially discussed over the last decades. One reason is that they are often basing on strong restrictions and their violation may lead to pitfalls and misinterpretations. Here, we discuss three general concepts of complex systems science: synchronization, recurrence and complex networks and explain that they are indeed useful for better understanding phenomena as recent and past monsoon or El Nino, to detect paleoclimate-variability transitions which are related to human evolution and to identify teleconnections. References Marwan, N., Romano, M., Thiel, M., Kurths, J., Physics Reports 438, 237-329 (2007). Arenas, A., Diaz-Guilera, A., Kurths, J., Moreno, Y., Zhou, C., Physics Reports 469, 93-153 (2008). Marwan, N., Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Donner, R. and Kurths, J., Phys. Lett. A 373, 4246 (2009). Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J. Europhys. Lett. 87, 48007 (2009). Donner, R., Zou, Y., Donges, J.F., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J., Phys. Rev. E 81, 015101(R) (2010). Mokhov, I. I., D. A. Smirnov, P. I. Nakonechny, S. S. Kozlenko, E. P. Seleznev, and J. Kurths, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L00F04 (2011). Donges, J., H. Schultz, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, J. Kurths, Eur. J. Phys. B 84, 635-651 (2011). Donges, J., R. Donner, M. Trauth, N. Marwan, H.J. Schellnhuber, and J. Kurths, PNAS 108, 20422-20427 (2011). Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Climate Dynamics 39, 971 (2012). Runge, J. , J. Heitzig, V. Petoukhov, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 258701 (2012). Menck, P., J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, J. Kurths, Nature Physics (2013).

  2. Temporal and spatial analysis of vegetation coverage changes in Ordos area based on time series GIMMS-NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruimei; Zou, Youfeng; Ma, Chao; Liu, Pei

    2014-11-01

    Ordos area is the desert-wind erosion desertification steppe transition zone and the complex ecological zone. As the research area, Ordos City has the similar natural geographic environment to ShenDong coalfield. To research its ecological patterns and natural evolution law, it has instructive to reveal temporal and spatial changes of ecological environment with artificial disturbance in western mining. In this paper, a time series of AVHRR-NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data was used to monitor the change of vegetation temporal and spatial dynamics from 1981 to 2006 in Ordos City and ShenDong coalfield, where were as the research area. The MVC (Maximum Value Composites) method, average operation, linear regression, and gradation for NDVI change trend were used to obtained some results, as follows: ¬vegetation coverage had obvious characteristics with periodic change in research area for 26 years, and vegetation growth peak appeared on August, while the lowest appeared on January. The extreme values in Ordos City were 0.2351 and 0.1176, while they were 0.2657 and 0.1272 in ShenDong coalfield. The NDVI value fluctuation was a modest rise trend overall in research area. The extreme values were 0.3071 and 0.1861 in Ordos City, while they were 0.3454 and 0.1904 in ShenDong coalfield. In spatial distribution, slight improvement area and slight degradation area were accounting for 42.49% and 8.37% in Ordos City, while slight improvement area moderate improvement area were accounting for 70.59% and 29.41% in ShenDong coalfield. Above of results indicated there was less vegetation coverage in research area, which reflected the characteristics of fragile natural geographical environment. In addition, vegetation coverage was with a modest rise on the whole, which reflected the natural environment change.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of Buyang Huanwu decoction on cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal damage

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Qingchun; Liu, Pengfei; Hu, Xitong; Gao, Haijun; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Among the various treatment methods for stroke, increasing attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicines. Buyang Huanwu decoction is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of stroke. This paper summarizes the active components of the Chinese herb, which is composed of Huangqi (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari), Danggui (Radix Angelica sinensis), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Honghua (Flos Carthami), Taoren (Semen Persicae) and Dilong (Pheretima), and identifies the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanisms that contribute to the neuroprotective properties of Buyang Huanwu decoction. PMID:25368650

  4. [Trading of crude drugs between China and Russia as recorded in 3 Chinese versions of Russian works].

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaoping; Wang, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Trading of crude drugs between China and Russia appeared before the 19(th) century. By then, exports of Chinese crude drugs to Russia were mainly plants, with Radix et Rhizoma Rhei as the most exported one, followed by both dietary and medicinal aromatic plants, such as fennel, cinnamon bark, pepper, ginger, and Radix Angelica sinensis, and quinine. Imports of Russian drugs were mainly of animal ones, especially those valuable animals like musk sac. In 1854, the importation of a large amount of such sac, numbering as many as 70 000, was very remarkable. Other drugs included stag antler, tender horn of deer, demonstrating typically the regional and productive characteristics of Russia. PMID:24774893

  5. Biological properties and molecular targets of umbelliprenin--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    7-Prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites found mainly in plants belonging to the families Rutaceae and Apiaceae. Auraptene, umbelliprenin (UM), and 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin are some examples of prenylated coumarins. UM occurs in various edible plant species including celery, coriander, angelica, lemon, and particularly, Ferula species. Although UM was isolated more than 50 years ago, its biological activities have been studied since the last two decades. Besides anticancer activities, biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antileishmanial activities have been reported from this natural compound. The present mini-review deals with the biological activities and mechanism of actions reported for UM. PMID:24852499

  6. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  7. Identification of the plant origin of propolis from Jeju Island, Korea, by observation of honeybee behavior and phytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Inui, Saori; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kurosawa, Miho; Nakamura, Jun; Choi, Su-Jin; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Propolis collected on Jeju Island, Korea, contains characteristic components not present in propolis from other regions. Hence, the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island can be expected to be a novel plant. To identify the plant origin of this propolis, first we observed honeybee behavior, and found them collecting the resin from Angelica keiskei. Then comparative analyses of chemical and biological properties of the resin from the plant and propolis from hives of nearby apiaries were performed. Alcoholic extracts showed entirely identical HPLC profiles and closely similar antioxidant activities. These results indicate that A. keiskei is the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island, Korea. PMID:23132582

  8. High grain, low noise organic and nanoelectronic photodetectors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    The dramatically reduction of cost of photodetectors without comprising their performance will enable new applications in many fields. In this talk, I will brief our progress in the development of sensitive photodetectors/photon counters using low-cost solution processable organic and nano-electronic materials. Four types of device structures will be compared in terms of device gain, noise, sensitivity, response speed and linear dynamic range: 1) traditional diode structure, 2) a structure combine the photodiode and photoconductor through the interface trap triggered secondary charge injection, 3) an organic phototransistor that has combined photoconductive gain and photovoltaic gain, and 4) quantum dots modulated transistor channel conductance. Broad response spectrum from UV to NIR will be demonstrated, and active material limited performance will be discussed. Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Super-Float-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor as Un-cooled Ultraviolet and Infrared Photon Counter Yongbo Yuan, Qingfeng Dong, Bin Yang, Fawen Guo, Qi Zhang, Ming Han, and Jinsong Huang*, Scientific Reports, 3, 2707 (2013) A nanocomposite ultraviolet photodetector enabled by interfacial trap-controlled charge injection Fawen Guo, Bin Yang, Yongbo Yuan, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong, Yu Bi, and Jinsong Huang*, Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 798-802, (2012) Large Gain, Low Noise Nanocomposite Ultraviolet Photodetectors with a Linear Dynamic Range of 120 dB Yanjun Fang, Fawen Guo,Zhengguo Xiao, Jinsong Huang*, Advanced Optical Materials, 348-353 (2014) High Gain and Low-Driving-Voltage Photodetectors Based on Organolead Triiodide Perovskites Rui Dong, Yanjun Fang, Jungseok Chae, Jun Dai, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong,Yongbo Yuan, Andrea Centrone,Xiao Cheng Zeng , Jinsong Huang*. ,Advanced Materials, 2015

  9. Bulk-Boundary Duality, Gauge Invariance, and Quantum Error Corrections.

    PubMed

    Mintun, Eric; Polchinski, Joseph; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    Recently, Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow have argued that the localization of bulk information in a boundary dual should be understood in terms of quantum error correction. We show that this structure appears naturally when the gauge invariance of the boundary theory is incorporated. This provides a new understanding of the nonuniqueness of the bulk fields (precursors). It suggests a close connection between gauge invariance and the emergence of spacetime. PMID:26550715

  10. Building neural choice points for love and war.

    PubMed

    Simerly, Richard

    2005-05-19

    The molecular specification of central circuits that coordinate expression of innate behaviors in response to specific sensory cues from the environment remains a puzzle. In this issue of Neuron, Choi, Dong, and colleagues used expression profiling and genetic axonal tracing to visualize a hypothalamic point of convergence for defensive and reproductive olfactory cues that may function as a gating mechanism for sensory activation of defensive responses over reproduction. PMID:15944120

  11. Conservation priorities and optimum allocation of conservation funds for Vietnamese local chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuc, N T K; Weigend, S; Tieu, H V; Simianer, H

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate conservation potential of Vietnamese local breeds and to investigate optimal allocation of conservation funds to maximize genetic diversity conserved between these breeds. Twenty-nine microsatellites were genotyped in 353 individuals from nine Vietnamese local chicken breeds and two chicken breeds of Chinese origin. The Vietnamese chicken breeds were sampled from the northern and southern parts of Vietnam while the two Chinese breeds have been kept as conservation flocks at the National Institute of Animal Sciences, Hanoi. The Weitzman approach was used to assess alternative strategies for conserving genetic diversity between breeds. Three different models, which reflect the range of possible functions in typical conservation situations, were applied. An average extinction probability of 48.5% was estimated for all Vietnamese chicken breeds. The highest conservation potential was found in the Te, Dong Tao and Ac chicken breeds, whereas the lowest corresponding values were observed in the Ri and Mia chicken breeds. The conservation funds were mainly allocated to the same three breeds (Te, Dong Tao and Ac) under all three models. This study suggests that conservation potential of the Vietnamese chicken breeds varies considerably. Population priorities for allocation of conservation funds in this study do not depend on the cost model used. The three breeds (Te, Dong Tao and Ac) with the highest conservation potential should be the prime candidates to be allocated conservation funds if the conservation budgets are limited. PMID:21749475

  12. Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

  13. A combinational effect of acetaminophen and oriental herbs on the regulation of inflammatory mediators in microglia cell line, BV2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemin; Bae, Seyeon; Kwon, Kil-Young; Hwang, Young-Il; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism of Western medicine that is commonly used for pain relief is well-known. However, very little is known for oriental herbs, and even less is known for mixture of the two. We investigated the combinational effect of 3 kinds of oriental herbs, usually used for the control of headache, and acetaminophen to relieve headache in microglia cell line, BV2. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced to produce nitrite and increased the expression of inflammation-related factors like inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine microglia cell line, BV2. Oriental herbs such as Angelica tenuissima, Angelica dahurica, and Scutellaria baicalensis reduced the production of nitric oxide and the expression of COX-2. Moreover, a treatment of acetaminophen combined with oriental herbs was more decreased the COX-2 expression, and its product, prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 cells. Therefore, a combined treatment of oriental herbs such as A. tenuissima, A. dahurica, and S. baicalensis and Western medicine like acetaminophen has a synergistic effect on the decrease of LPS-induced inflammation in microglia. PMID:26770874

  14. Auraptenol attenuates vincristine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfei; Cao, Shu-e; Tian, Jianmin; Liu, Guozhe; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Pingfa

    2013-01-01

    Common chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine often cause neuropathic pain during cancer treatment in patients. Such neuropathic pain is refractory to common analgesics and represents a challenging clinical issue. Angelicae dahuricae radix is an old traditional Chinese medicine with demonstrated analgesic efficacy in humans. However, the active component(s) that attribute to the analgesic action have not been identified. This work described the anti-hyperalgesic effect of one coumarin component, auraptenol, in a mouse model of chemotherapeutic agent vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. We reported that auraptenol dose-dependently reverted the mechanical hyperalgesia in mice within the dose range of 0.05–0.8 mg/kg. In addition, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of auraptenol was significantly blocked by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). Within the dose range studied, auraptenol did not significantly alter the general locomotor activity in mice. Taken together, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust analgesic efficacy in mice. These data support further studies to assess the potential of auraptenol as a novel analgesic for the management of neuropathic pain. PMID:24287473

  15. Antidepressant-like effects of auraptenol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosu; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Cai-Yi; Du, Chenchen; Shen, Lihua; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Jiansheng; Liu, Chunfeng; Ke, Kaifu

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a major psychiatric disorder affecting nearly 21% of the world population and imposes a substantial health burden on society. Current available antidepressants are not adequate to meet the clinical needs. Here we report that auraptenol, an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine, angelicae dahuricae radix, had antidepressant-like effects in mice models of depression. In mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test, two validated models of depression, auraptenol dose-dependently decreased the immobility duration within the dose range of 0.05–0.4 mg/kg. In addition, the antidepressant-like effects of auraptenol was significantly averted by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). These doses that affected the immobile response did not affect locomotor activity. In summary, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust antidepressant-like efficacy in mice. These data support further exploration for the possibility of developing auraptenol as a novel antidepressant agent in the treatment of major depression disorders. PMID:24658501

  16. Auraptenol attenuates vincristine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through serotonin 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunfei; Cao, Shu-e; Tian, Jianmin; Liu, Guozhe; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Pingfa

    2013-01-01

    Common chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine often cause neuropathic pain during cancer treatment in patients. Such neuropathic pain is refractory to common analgesics and represents a challenging clinical issue. Angelicae dahuricae radix is an old traditional Chinese medicine with demonstrated analgesic efficacy in humans. However, the active component(s) that attribute to the analgesic action have not been identified. This work described the anti-hyperalgesic effect of one coumarin component, auraptenol, in a mouse model of chemotherapeutic agent vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. We reported that auraptenol dose-dependently reverted the mechanical hyperalgesia in mice within the dose range of 0.05-0.8 mg/kg. In addition, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of auraptenol was significantly blocked by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). Within the dose range studied, auraptenol did not significantly alter the general locomotor activity in mice. Taken together, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust analgesic efficacy in mice. These data support further studies to assess the potential of auraptenol as a novel analgesic for the management of neuropathic pain. PMID:24287473

  17. A combinational effect of acetaminophen and oriental herbs on the regulation of inflammatory mediators in microglia cell line, BV2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemin; Bae, Seyeon; Kwon, Kil-Young; Hwang, Young-il; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of Western medicine that is commonly used for pain relief is well-known. However, very little is known for oriental herbs, and even less is known for mixture of the two. We investigated the combinational effect of 3 kinds of oriental herbs, usually used for the control of headache, and acetaminophen to relieve headache in microglia cell line, BV2. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced to produce nitrite and increased the expression of inflammation-related factors like inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine microglia cell line, BV2. Oriental herbs such as Angelica tenuissima, Angelica dahurica, and Scutellaria baicalensis reduced the production of nitric oxide and the expression of COX-2. Moreover, a treatment of acetaminophen combined with oriental herbs was more decreased the COX-2 expression, and its product, prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 cells. Therefore, a combined treatment of oriental herbs such as A. tenuissima, A. dahurica, and S. baicalensis and Western medicine like acetaminophen has a synergistic effect on the decrease of LPS-induced inflammation in microglia. PMID:26770874

  18. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea. PMID:26457698

  19. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10−8 M ~5.29 × 10−5 M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10−8 M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

  20. [Analysis on formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-guang; Tang, Shi-huan; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Fan-yun

    2014-11-01

    In this article we built formula database of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (V2.0). And on this basis, use data mining method such as association rules of the software, to analyze commonly used formula raw materials or materials combination of formula containing Gardeniae Fructus and raw material application having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury. The result shows that of the 71 health food formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus, most used materials are Gardeniae Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Angelica Sinensis Radix, Poria and so on. Commonly used materials combination mostly are Gardeniae Fructus and Lycii Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus and Angelica Sinensis Radix, Gardeniae Fructus and Poria, Gardeniae Fructus and Paeonia. There are nearly 18 healthcare functions of the health food containing Gardeniae Fructus, and most of these are assisted functions to protect chemical liver injury, and then immune modulating function. Of 23 formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury, Gardeniae Fructus usually combined with traditional Chinese medicine which nourishs blood and liver such as Pueraria, Lycii Fructus, Hawthorn, Paeonia and Turnjujube. Analyzing formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus contributes a lot to the further development and utilization. PMID:25850287

  1. Internal Wave Study in the South China Sea Using SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-Kuang; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the internal wave distribution maps in the China Seas have been compiled from hundreds of ERS-1/2, RADARSAT, and Space Shuttle SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images from 1993 to 1999. Based on internal wave distribution map, most of internal waves in the northeast part of South China Sea were propagating westward. The wave crest can be as long as 200 km with amplitude of 100 m due to strong current from the Kuroshio branching out into the South China Sea. Based on the observations from drilling rigs near DongSha Island by Amoco Production Co., the solitons may be generated in a 4 km wide channel between Batan and Sabtang islands in Luzon Strait. The proposed generation mechanism is similar to the lee wave formation from a shallow topography. Both depression and elevation internal waves have been observed in the same RADARSAT ScanSAR image on May 4, 1998 near DongSha Island. Furthermore, depression and elevation internal waves have also been observed by SAR at the same location on the shelf in April and June, 1993 (in different seasons) respectively. Numerical models have been used to interpret their generation mechanism and evolution processes. Based on the SAR images, near DongSha Island, the westward propagating huge internal solitons are often encountered and diffracted/broken by the coral reefs on the shelf. After passing the island, the diffracted waves will re-merge or interact with each other. It has been observed that after the nonlinear wave-wave interaction, the phase of wave packet is shifted and wavelength is also changed. Examples of mesoscale features observed in SAR images, such as fronts, raincells, bathymetry, ship wakes, and oil spills will be presented. Recent mooring measurements in April 1999 near Dongsha Island, future field test ASIAEX (Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment) planned for April 2001, and some pretest survey data will be discussed in this paper.

  2. Reports on Astronomy 2006-2009 (IAU XXVIIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel A.

    2009-04-01

    Preface; Division I. Fundamental Astronomy Jan Vondrák; Division II. Sun and Heliosphere Donald B. Melrose; Division III. Planetary Systems Sciences Edward L. G. Bowell; Division IV. Stars Monique Spite; Division V. Variable Stars Alvaro Giménez; Division VI. Interstellar Matter Thomas J. Miller; Division VII. Galactic System Ortwin Gerhard; Division VIII. Galaxies and the Universe Sadanori Okamura; Division IX. Optical and Infrared Techniques Andreas Quirrenbach; Division X. Radio Astronomy Ren-Dong Nan; Division XI. Space and High-Energy Astrophysics Günther Hasinger; Division XII. Union-wide Activities Malcolm G. Smith; EC Service. Press Office Lars Lindberg Christensen; Author index.

  3. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  4. A Second Law for higher curvature gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2015-10-01

    The Second Law of black hole thermodynamics is shown to hold for arbitrarily complicated theories of higher curvature gravity, so long as we allow only linearized perturbations to stationary black holes. Some ambiguities in Wald’s Noether charge method are resolved. The increasing quantity turns out to be the same as the holographic entanglement entropy calculated by Dong. It is suggested that only the linearization of the higher curvature Second Law is important, when consistently truncating a UV-complete quantum gravity theory.

  5. Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Park, Young Sook; Lee, Eun Ok; Yun, Soon Nyung

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests from a feminist perspective. Twenty Korean women working in Dong-Dae-Moon Market in Seoul, South Korea were recruited using a convenience sampling method. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guideline that was developed for the study. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. The themes emerged from the analysis process included: "importance of breasts to women", "fearful, but not related to me", "bad previous experience", and "no need for a breast exam." Based on the findings, implications for nursing practice are proposed. PMID:15240081

  6. Experimental demonstration of laser to x-ray conversion enhancements with low density gold targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shang, Wanli; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Zhichao; Deng, Bo; Dong, Yunsong; Zhu, Tuo; Huang, Chengwu; Zhan, Xiayu; Mei, Yu; et al

    2016-02-12

    The enhancement of laser to x-ray conversion efficiencies using low density gold targets [W. L. Shang, J. M. Yang, and Y. S. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 094105 (2013)] is demonstrated. Laser to x-ray conversion efficiencies with 6.3% and 12% increases are achieved with target densities of 1 and 0.25 g/cm3, when compared with that of a solid gold target (19.3 g/cm3). Experimental data and numerical simulations are in good agreement. Lastly, the enhancement is caused by larger x-ray emission zone lengths formed in low density targets, which is in agreement with the simulation results.

  7. [Exploration into rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Dan-ni; Chen, Wen-yu; Xiao, Ying

    2010-03-01

    In order to explore the rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility, the study was carried out by searching relative primary documents from databases and 26 articles (dealing with 5865 cases) were screened out. Excel was used to perform the frequency analysis on the Western drugs and 27 Chinese recipes emerging in the documents separately. It was discovered that the combined use of Chinese and Western medicines has its superiority. Low dose glucocorticoids together with vitamine is the main Western treatment used, and dexamethasone is the most frequently used preparation of glucocorticoids. Among the 72 Chinese drugs presented in the 27 Chinese recipes, 13 appeared for more than 1800 times, they were Angelica sinensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Radix Astragali, Poria, Carthamus tinctorius, Phellodendron amurense, Scutellaria baicalensis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cuscuta chinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Glycyrrhiza. PMID:20535936

  8. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. PMID:25467854

  9. Target profiling of 4-hydroxyderricin in S. aureus reveals seryl-tRNA synthetase binding and inhibition by covalent modification.

    PubMed

    Battenberg, Oliver A; Yang, Yinliang; Verhelst, Steven H L; Sieber, Stephan A

    2013-03-01

    4-Hydroxyderricin is a heat labile bioactive chalcone isolated from the plant Angelica keiskei. It received attention due to its antibiotic potency against several strains of bacteria including pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Despite these promising pharmacological properties, the exact mode of action or the biological targets are still unknown. Here we report the synthesis and the application of a 4-hydroxyderricin probe for activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) in S. aureus. Due to the heat sensitivity of the natural product we utilize a chemical tool for the mild and selective enrichment of labile probe-protein conjugates and report seryl-tRNA synthetase (STS) to be covalently modified by our probe. This modification results in inhibition of the amino acylation of tRNAs catalyzed by S. aureus STS which is an essential enzymatic pathway for bacterial viability. PMID:23295910

  10. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID:17486680

  11. Anti-acne effects of Oriental herb extracts: a novel screening method to select anti-acne agents.

    PubMed

    Nam, C; Kim, S; Sim, Y; Chang, I

    2003-01-01

    The acne-therapeutic effects of Oriental herb extracts were investigated in terms of antichemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear leucocytes, antilipogenic actions, antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and resistance induction potency in the bacteria. The ethanol extract (0.01%) of Angelica dahurica markedly suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis, comparable to the effect of erythromycin (0.01%), whereas a strong antilipogenic effect was obtained with rhizoma coptidis (Coptis chinensis) extract (0.01%), leading to a higher efficacy than that of retinoic acid (0.01%). Interestingly, only Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a remarkable antibacterial activity against P. acnes, resulting in negligible induction of resistance, in comparison with a marked development of resistance in the bacteria treated with erythromycin. We suggest that an appropriate formulation containing A. dahurica, rhizoma coptidis and G. glabra could be helpful for the prevention and treatment of acne lesions. PMID:12637783

  12. Osthole: A Review on Its Bioactivities, Pharmacological Properties, and Potential as Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-Rong; Leung, Wing Nang; Cheung, Ho Yee; Chan, Chun Wai

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest understanding of biological and pharmacological properties of osthole (7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one), a natural product found in several medicinal plants such as Cnidium monnieri and Angelica pubescens. In vitro and in vivo experimental results have revealed that osthole demonstrates multiple pharmacological actions including neuroprotective, osteogenic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, and antimicrobial activities. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies showed osthole uptake and utilization are fast and efficient in body. Moreover, the mechanisms of multiple pharmacological activities of osthole are very likely related to the modulatory effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cGMP) level, though some mechanisms remain unclear. This review aims to summarize the pharmacological properties of osthole and give an overview of the underlying mechanisms, which showcase its potential as a multitarget alternative medicine. PMID:26246843

  13. Recent advances in studies on traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica.

    PubMed

    Chen, K; Li, C

    1993-09-01

    Presented in this paper is a report of our studies on 386 traditional effective anti-aging medications, the effects of which on cell generation, survival time, immunomodulation, improvement of visceral and metabolic functions, and anti-infection, and their trace element contents were further summarized and analysed. This suggests that the investigations of traditional anti-aging materia medica in China are now well under way and some effective drugs and compound prescriptions have been explored, such as Ginseng, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Herba Epimedii, Cordyceps, Ganoderma Lucidum seu Japonicum, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi, Rhizoma Polygonati, Fructus Lycii, and Poria. However, all of these preliminary results remain to be further investigated. PMID:8246603

  14. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Satar, Serdar; Satar, Gül; Karacaoğlu, Mehmet; Uygun, Nedim; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-01-01

    The aphids, aphid parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids found in citrus orchards, the parasitoids' and hyperparasitoids' seasonal abundance, and the plant-aphid-parasitoid relationships in Hatay, Osmaniye, Adana, and Mersin provinces of the east Mediterranean region of Turkey are presented in the present 2-yr study. Aphidius colemani Viereck, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday), and Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were encountered as the most common parasitoids among 10 identified aphidiine and aphelinid taxa on different citrus species. Hyperparasitoids belonging to the genera Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis, Asaphes, Pachyneuron, Syrphophagus, and Dendrocerus are reported for the first time emerging from aphids feeding on citrus in Turkey. Among them, Asaphes spp., Pachyneuron spp., and Syrphophagus spp. were recorded as the most common ones. Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. were recorded as main hosts for the aphid parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids. PMID:25480969

  15. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ≥2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. PMID:25022682

  16. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating agents: Batch and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Do Gee, Eun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ram Lee, Woo; Park, Young-Tae

    2013-04-01

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO42-) production in the presence of KMnO4 (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased SO42- production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1, respectively to <0.05 mg L-1 (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites.

  17. Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dong-Xiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Jiangnan University Collaboration

    In this talk, we present our studies on broadband properties of acoustic waves through metal gratings. We have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing and new acoustic devices. References: [1] Dong-Xiang Qi, Yu-Qiang Deng, Di-Hu Xu, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Ze-Guo Chen, Ming-Hui Lu, X. R. Huang and Mu Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011906 (2015); [2] Dong-Xiang Qi, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Ming-Hui Lu, Xu Ni, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, Applied Physics Letters 101, 061912 (2012).

  18. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS)

    PubMed Central

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Tue, Ngo T.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; An, Nguyen N.; Hien, Vo B.; Lao, Pham V.; Tu, Nguyen C.; Chuyen, Nguyen K.; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Tan, Dinh V.; Duong, Hoang Van V.; Toan, Tran K.; Chi, Nguyen T.Y.; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A.; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based ‘high-risk sentinel cohort’ (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks. PMID:26659094

  19. A comparative study of insertion/deletion polymorphisms applied among Southwest, South and Northwest Chinese populations using Investigator() DIPplex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Lv, Meili; Zaumsegel, Daniel; Zhang, Lushun; Liu, Fengji; Xiang, Jihua; Li, Jun; Schneider, Peter M; Liang, Weibo; Zhang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The low mutation rates, short amplicon sizes and length variation characteristics of biallelic insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) are features that allow combining advantages of both STR and SNP markers for genetic analysis. The Qiagen Investigator DIPplex kit contains 30 biallelic autosomal INDELs plus Amelogenin for forensic personal identification and parentage testing. This study compares general performances, forensic and population data collected in 7 Chinese ethnic populations (Han, Tibetan, Yi, Zhuang, Dong, Miao and Uyghur) from three areas (Southwest, South and Northwest) of China by DIPplex kit. There were no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of the 30 markers in all the tested populations after Bonferroni correction. The combined matching probabilities ranged from 1.427310(-10) for the Dong minority to 1.281710(-12) for the Uyghur minority. The combined power of paternity exclusion was from 0.9854 to 0.9968. All pairwise genetic differences (FST) between the seven ethnic groups were less than 0.05, and the results of STRUCTURE analysis did not indicate the presence of substructures suggesting genetic similarity among the populations in these three areas. The DIPplex kit can be used as a good additional tool for forensic personal identification in these three areas of China. PMID:26656953

  20. [The history of Korean traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Kee, C K

    1999-01-01

    Records of ethnic medicine in the Kokuryo, Baekjae and Shilla dynasties can be found in foreign literature, and evidence that a medicine unique to Korean was being developed in the Koryo dynasty can be found in Korean historical records. With the founding of Chosun, Hyang-yak medicine was established, and a medicine purely and uniquely Korean took root. The Chosun dynasty saw the development of a new form of medicine called Dong-Ui medicine, and an independent system emphasizing practicality was established as the new tradition of Korean medicine. Korean medicine continued in the Chosun dynasty without significant changes from the Koryo dynasty. However, tides of enlightenment brought Western medicine onto the shores of the Korean peninsula. Western medicine began to gain the recognition and trust of part of the royal court. Nonetheless, ordinary people still preferred Dong-Ui, Korean medicine, and they did not have a full understanding of Western medicine. As Chosun began to adopt enlightenment policies in the footsteps of Japan through the Kabo (1894) Revolution, Japan drove the Ching rulers out of the Korean peninsula and openly started interfering in Chosun's internal affairs. After repelling Russia, Japan's intervention in the Korean peninsula became even more aggressive, taking over Chosun's politics, diplomacy and military. Its encroachment on Chosun's sovereignty was at times even more cruel than during Japan's Meiji period. PMID:11624460

  1. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS).

    PubMed

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Tue, Ngo T; Bryant, Juliet E; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V; Hoa, Ngo T; An, Nguyen N; Hien, Vo B; Lao, Pham V; Tu, Nguyen C; Chuyen, Nguyen K; Chuc, Nguyen T K; Tan, Dinh V; Duong, Hoang Van V; Toan, Tran K; Chi, Nguyen T Y; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based 'high-risk sentinel cohort' (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks. PMID:26659094

  2. Planet Masses from Disk Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Young, forming planets can generate immense spiral structures within their protoplanetary disks. A recent study has shown that observations of these spiral structures may allow astronomers to measure the mass of the planets that create them.Spirals From WavesSnapshots of the surface density of a protoplanetary disk in a 2D simulation, 3D simulation, and synthesized scattered-light image. Click for a closer look! [Fung Dong, 2015]Recent studies have shown that a single planet, if it is massive enough, can excite multiple density waves within a protoplanetary disk as it orbits. These density waves can then interfere to produce a multiple-armed spiral structure in the disk inside of the planets orbit a structure which can potentially be observed in scattered-light images of the disk.But what do these arms look like, and what factors determine their structure? In a recently published study, Jeffrey Fung and Ruobing Dong, two researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, have modeled the spiral arms in an effort to answer these questions.Arms Provide AnswersA useful parameter for describing the structure is the azimuthal separation (sep) between the primary and secondary spiral arms. If you draw a circle within the disk and measure the angle between the two points where the primary and secondary arms cross it, thats sep.Azimuthal separation of the primary and secondary spiral arms, as a function of the planet-to-star mass ratio q. The different curves represent different disk aspect ratios. [Fung Dong, 2015]The authors find thatsep stays roughly constant for different radii, but its strongly dependent on the planets mass: for larger planets, sep increases. They discover that sep scales as a power of the planet mass for companions between Neptune mass and 16 Jupiter masses, orbiting around a solar-mass star. For larger, brown-dwarf-size companions, sep is a constant 180.If this new theory is confirmed, it could have very interesting implications for observations of protoplanetary disks: this would give us the ability to measure the mass of a planet in a disk without ever needing to directly observe the planet itself!Modeling ObservationsFung and Dong confirm their models by additionally running 3D simulations, which yield very similar outcomes. From these simulation results, they then synthesize scattered-light images similar to what we would expect to be able to observe with telescopes like the VLT, Gemini, or Subaru. The authors demonstrate that from these scattered-light images, they can correctly retrieve the planets mass to within 30%.Finally, as a proof-of-concept, the authors apply this modeling to an actual system: SAO 206462, a nearly face-on protoplanetary disk with an observed two-armed spiral within it. From the measured azimuthal separation of the two arms, the authors estimate that it contains a planet of about 6 Jupiter masses.CitationJeffrey Fung () and Ruobing Dong () 2015 ApJ 815 L21. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L21

  3. Development of a Competitive Binding Assay System with Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Multiple Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the current study, we developed a new system using full-length recombinant baculovirus-expressed estrogen receptors which allows for direct comparison of binding across species. Estrogen receptors representing five vertebrate classes were compared: human (hERα), quai...

  4. The Impact of Hydrodynamics in Erosion - Deposition Process in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, South Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Luong, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve is always considered as a friendly green belt to protect and bring up the habitants. However, recently some mangrove areas in the Dong Tranh estuary are being eroded seriously. Based on the field measurements in SW and NE monsoons as well as data of topography changes in 10 years, it is proved that hydrodynamics of waves, tidal currents and riverine currents are the main reasons for erosion-deposition processes at the studied site. The erosion-deposition process changes due to monsoon. The analysed results show that high waves and tidal oscillation cause the increase of the erosion rate in NE monsoon. However, high sediment deposition occurs in SW monsoon due to weak waves and more alluvium from upstream. Many young mangrove trees grow up and develop in the SW monsoon. From the research, it is strongly emphasized the role of mangrove forests in soil retention and energy dissipation.

  5. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936

  6. A complete mitochondrial DNA genome derived from a Chinese population of the Bemisia afer species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Zhang, Zhen; Bing, Xiao-Li; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2016-09-01

    We report here the sequence of a complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a population of Bemisia afer species complex, which was collected from Abutilonaviecnnae gaerner at LinYi, Shan Dong province of China (hereafter B. afer_China_Ag) (GenBank accession number: KR819174). The mitogenome of B. afer_China_Ag is 15 300 bp and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 2 control regions. The content and arrangement of mitochondrial genes of B. afer_China_Ag exhibit remarkable differences from the mitogenome of a B. afer population collected from African cassava (KF734668). Phylogenetic analyses based on 13 protein-coding genes support the close relationship of the two sequenced B. afer mitogenomes and confirm the species status of our specimen. PMID:26218308

  7. Investigating Cultural Evolution Using Phylogenetic Analysis: The Origins and Descent of the Southeast Asian Tradition of Warp Ikat Weaving

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    The warp ikat method of making decorated textiles is one of the most geographically widespread in southeast Asia, being used by Austronesian peoples in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, and Daic peoples on the Asian mainland. In this study a dataset consisting of the decorative characters of 36 of these warp ikat weaving traditions is investigated using Bayesian and Neighbornet techniques, and the results are used to construct a phylogenetic tree and taxonomy for warp ikat weaving in southeast Asia. The results and analysis show that these diverse traditions have a common ancestor amongst neolithic cultures the Asian mainland, and parallels exist between the patterns of textile weaving descent and linguistic phylogeny for the Austronesian group. Ancestral state analysis is used to reconstruct some of the features of the ancestral weaving tradition. The widely held theory that weaving motifs originated in the late Bronze Age Dong-Son culture is shown to be inconsistent with the data. PMID:23272211

  8. Two-step melting of Na41+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamith, Sébastien; Labastie, Pierre; Chirot, Fabien; L'Hermite, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    The heat capacity of the mass selected Na41+ cluster has been measured using a differential nanocalorimetry method. A two-peak structure appears in the heat capacity curve of Na41+, whereas Schmidt and co-workers [M. Schmidt, J. Donges, Th. Hippler, and H. Haberland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103401 (2003)] observed, within their experimental accuracy, a smooth caloric curve. They concluded from the absence of any structure that there is a second order melting transition in Na41+ with no particular feature such as premelting. The observed difference with the latter results is attributed to the better accuracy of our method owing to its differential character. The two structures in the heat capacity are ascribed to melting and premelting of Na41+. The peak at lower temperature is likely due to an anti-Mackay to Mackay solid-solid transition.

  9. Structural and electronic properties of sodium nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Luis A.; Reyes-Nava, Juan A.; Garzon, Ignacio L.

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances on mass selection of sodium nanoclusters and their characterization by photoemission electron spectroscopy [1] have given useful data for a variety of clusters sizes. These data may lead to assignments of the relevant structures by comparing the measured photoelectron spectra (PES) with the electronic density of states (DOS) obtained from DFT calculations. In this work, the lowest energy structures modeled by the many-body Gupta potential, are obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations for Nan (n= 178, 204, 271, 298-300, 309). DFT calculations were then performed for neutral, positively- and negatively-charged Nan clusters. A comparison between the DOS of clusters of the same size but different charge will be presented, as well as between the available experimental PES and the theoretical obtained DOS.[1] H. Haberland, T. Hippler, J. Donges, O. Kostko, M. Schmidt, B. von Issendorff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035701 (2005).

  10. Two-step melting of Na(41)(+).

    PubMed

    Zamith, Sébastien; Labastie, Pierre; Chirot, Fabien; L'hermite, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-21

    The heat capacity of the mass selected Na(41) (+) cluster has been measured using a differential nanocalorimetry method. A two-peak structure appears in the heat capacity curve of Na(41) (+), whereas Schmidt and co-workers [M. Schmidt, J. Donges, Th. Hippler, and H. Haberland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103401 (2003)] observed, within their experimental accuracy, a smooth caloric curve. They concluded from the absence of any structure that there is a second order melting transition in Na(41) (+) with no particular feature such as premelting. The observed difference with the latter results is attributed to the better accuracy of our method owing to its differential character. The two structures in the heat capacity are ascribed to melting and premelting of Na(41) (+). The peak at lower temperature is likely due to an anti-Mackay to Mackay solid-solid transition. PMID:20969397

  11. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-08-28

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed. PMID:16504449

  12. [Analysis of Peng Zemin's medical letter].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Zheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mr. Peng Zemin, a senior leader of the Kuomintang leftist and patriotic overseas Chinese, had acknowledged the famous Guangdong modern TCM masters Chen Botan as his mentor in TCM for six years, and deeply affected by Chen Botan's way of prescribing large dose of classical recipes. Guang-dong Chinese Medicine Museum has collected a number of Mr. Peng Zernin' s letters, which were handwriting works written by Mr. Peng Zemin himself to his nephew Peng Bingtang who worked in the government of Guyang Wulanchabu League, Inner Mongolia. Among them, nine are related to medicine, reflecting Mr. Peng Zemin' s medical activities, medical ethics and medical practice experience, the way he prescribed after Chen Botan's characteristics of prescribing and applying materia medica. PMID:26268254

  13. Mobilization for HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services in Vietnam: Clients' Risk Behaviors, Attitudes and Willingness to Pay.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Nhung Phuong; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Bui, Trang Thu; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-04-01

    A multi-site survey was conducted on a sample of 365 clients to assess their willingness to pay for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services in Ha Noi and Nam Dinh province, two epicenters of Vietnam. By using contingent valuation technique, the results showed that most of respondents (95.1 %) were willing to pay averagely 155 (95 % CI 132-177) thousands Vietnam Dong (~US $7.75, 2013) for a VCT service. Clients who were female, had middle income level, and current opioid users were willing to pay less; meanwhile clients who had university level of education were willing to pay more for a VCT service. The results highlighted the high rate of willingness to pay for the service at a high amount by VCT clients. These findings contribute to the implementation of co-payment scheme for VCT services toward the financial sustainability of HIV/AIDS programs in Vietnam. PMID:26363790

  14. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Snelten, Courtney S; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women's health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  15. L-methionine decreases dendritic spine density in mouse frontal cortex [Spine density downregulation by L-methionine

    PubMed Central

    Tueting, Patricia; Davis, John M.; Veldic, Marin; Pibiri, Fabio; Kadriu, Bashkim; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia postmortem brain is characterized by GABAergic downregulation and by decreased dendritic spine density in frontal cortex. Protracted L-methionine treatment exacerbates schizophrenia symptoms, and our previous work (Tremolizzo et al. and Dong et al.) has shown that L-methionine decreases reelin and GAD67 transcription in mice which is prevented by co-administration of valproate. In this study, we observed a decrease in spine density following L-methionine treatment, which was prevented by co-administration of valproate. Together with our previous findings conducted under the same experimental conditions, we suggest that downregulation of spine density in L-methionine -treated mice may be due to decreased expression of reelin and that valproate may prevent spine downregulation by inhibiting the methylation induced decrease in reelin. PMID:20442623

  16. Gas breakdown and plasma impedance in split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskinson, Alan R.; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2016-02-01

    The appearance of resonant structures in metamaterials coupled to plasmas motivates the systematic investigation of gas breakdown and plasma impedance in split-ring resonators over a frequency range of 0.5-9 GHz. In co-planar electrode gaps of 100 μm, the breakdown voltage amplitude decreases from 280 V to 225 V over this frequency range in atmospheric argon. At the highest frequency, a microplasma can be sustained using only 2 mW of power. At 20 mW, we measure a central electron density of 2 × 1020 m-3. The plasma-electrode overlap plays a key role in the microplasma impedance and causes the sheath impedance to dominate the plasma resistance at very low power levels. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  17. Compilation of Published Estimates of Annual Geocenter Motions Using Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elosegui, P.

    2005-01-01

    The definition of the term "geocenter motion" depends on the adopted origin of the reference frame. Common reference frames used in Space Geodesy include: the center of mass of the whole Earth (CM), the center of mass of the Solid Earth without mass load (CE), and the center of figure of the outer surface of the Solid Earth (CF). There are two established definitions of the term geocenter: one, the vector offset of CF relative to CM and, two, the reverse, the vector offset of CM relative to CF. Obviously, their amplitude is the same and their phase differs by 180 deg. Following Dong et al. [2003], we label the first X(sub CF, sup CM) and the second X(sup CF, sup CM) (i.e., the superscript represents the frame, the subscript represents any point in the frame).

  18. Differential autumn migration of the aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    PubMed

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Jakubas, Dariusz; Foucher, Julien; Dziarska-Pałac, Joanna; Dugué, Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to sex differences in the migration of birds in autumn. We studied the autumn migration strategy of molecularly sexed males and females in the globally threatened aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. We captured 176 birds at a stopover site in the Loire estuary at Donges, France. The median date for the passage of adults was 8 days earlier in males than females, although the timing of migration in first-year males and females was similar. This indicates that males, who are without parental duties, can start their migration earlier than females and first-year birds. Adults were significantly heavier than immature birds but did not have higher fat scores. In both age categories, more males (two to three times more) were captured. However, various factors (including tape-luring) can affect observed sex ratio. PMID:24154543

  19. Differential autumn migration of the aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Jakubas, Dariusz; Foucher, Julien; Dziarska-Pałac, Joanna; Dugué, Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to sex differences in the migration of birds in autumn. We studied the autumn migration strategy of molecularly sexed males and females in the globally threatened aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. We captured 176 birds at a stopover site in the Loire estuary at Donges, France. The median date for the passage of adults was 8 days earlier in males than females, although the timing of migration in first-year males and females was similar. This indicates that males, who are without parental duties, can start their migration earlier than females and first-year birds. Adults were significantly heavier than immature birds but did not have higher fat scores. In both age categories, more males (two to three times more) were captured. However, various factors (including tape-luring) can affect observed sex ratio.

  20. Response to ''Comment on 'Heating of ions by low-frequency Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas''' [Phys. Plasmas 18, 084703 (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Chuanfei; Paty, Carol S.

    2011-08-15

    The calculation of temperature in a plasma system that is not in thermal equilibrium remains a topic of debate. In our article [Dong and Paty, Phys. Plasmas 18, 030702 (2011)] we use the average kinetic energy to calculate the ''kinetic temperature'' in a non-equilibrium system to quantify the heating of ions by low-frequency Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma (i.e., where collisions with neutrals can not be ignored). We implement a method previously used by Wang, Wu and Yoon [Wang, Wu and Yoon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125001 (2006)] and several others studying the effects of low frequency Alfven waves in collisionless plasmas. This method is appropriate for several reasons discussed in this response. Most notably, we implement it to investigate heating of the plasma population since the bulk velocity of the particle ensemble perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field remains zero during the numerical experiment.

  1. Diffuse mesangial and endocapillary cell proliferative glomerulonephritis with persistent hypocomplementemia in a child

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Mei; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy was admitted to Peoples Hospital of Dong E with anasarca. The laboratory findings revealed proteinuria, hematuria, hypocomplementemia. Renal biopsy specimen revealed diffuse mesangial and endocapillary cell proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopic (LM) examination. On immunofluorescence (IF) examination, deposition of IgG, IgA, C3, C1q and F to capillary wall and subendothelial were observed. By means of electron microscopy (EM), subendothelial electron-dense deposits and segmental fusion of epithelial cell foot process were recognized. He was treated by only some supportive drugs, no ACEI/ARB, without glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. About one month later, complete remission of proteinuria occurred. During next 62-weeks follow up, urinary analysis always showed microscopic hematuria. However, it is interesting to note that the serum complement C3 and C4 levels remained persistently low. PMID:26629229

  2. Preface to the Eighth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibao; Huang, Ning

    2015-12-01

    The papers in this special issue of Aeolian Research arise from the Eighth International Conference on Aeolian Research (ICAR8), held on July 21-25, 2014 at Lanzhou University, China. The conference was sponsored by the International Society for Aeolian Research, convened by Zhibao Dong and Ning Huang, and supported by several institutions from China. The conference was well attended by 284 participants from 20 nations. 138 oral presentations, 142 posters and 296 abstracts were organized into six sessions. The 13 papers that appear in this special issue are drawn from the post-conference submissions, which were successfully reviewed by peers, revised and accepted. Those papers that have not completed review will become regular submissions to Aeolian Research and published (if accepted) when they pass review process.

  3. AMS applications to the paleoclimate changing study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.; Chen, T.M.; Yuan, D.X.

    1995-12-01

    To study the paleoclimates changing in China, a high-resolution AMS radio-carbon dating of a loess profile at Weinan, Shaanxi Province, has been carried out and an age of 10,300 BP has been assigned to be the beginning of the HOLOCENE in the studied areas. In the south of China, a stalagmite of 1.2-m high taken from Panlong-dong cave, Guilin, Guangxi Province, has also been studied. The dating with micro-stratification sampling shows that the climate in HOLOCENE was generally damp and warm, but there was a short cola period during 10-11 Ka BP. The resolution of AMS carbon dating of stalagmite is 100 years for the warm and damp period and 500 years for the dry and cold period.

  4. The French Atlantic littoral and the Massif Armoricain, part 1. [Island of Jersey, Fromentine, Loire Estuary, and Mont Saint-Michel Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Monget, J. M.; Guerin, O.; Poisson, R. M.; Thomas, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For interpretation of Isle of Jersey imagery, two types of taxons were defined according to their variability in time. On the whole, taxons with a similar spectral signature were opposed to those with strongly varying spectral signature. The taxon types were low diachronic variations and strong diachronic variation. Imagery interpretation was restricted to the landward part of the Fromentine area, including the sand beaches which were often difficult to spectrally separate from the barren coastal dunes in the southern part of Noirmoutier Island as well as along the Breton marsh. From 1972 to 1976, sandbanks reduced in area. Two high river discharge images showed over a two year period an identical outline for the Bilho bank to seaward, whereas upstream, the bank has receeded in the same time to a line joining Paimboeuf to Montoir. The Brillantes bank has receeded at both ends, partly due to dredging operations in the access channel to Donges harbor.

  5. Modeling petroleum generation and migration in the Dongying Basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W. ); Shenbiao Yang )

    1996-01-01

    This display presents results of an ongoing project to develop procedures for testing geologic models by computer simulation of petroleum migration and entrapment. Geologic data from the Dong Ying Basin in eastern China were provided for use in the project. The unit investigated as a carrier bed/reservoir rock is a thin, extensive sandstone of Eocene age in the lower Shahejie Formation. The units above and below the sandstone are source rocks. Commercially available software was used to develop data for constructing oil and gas source data. These maps plus eight others and some miscellaneous information on geologic parameters allowed definition of stratigraphic and structural traps, oil and gas migration paths, trap volumes, and trap spillage.

  6. Modeling petroleum generation and migration in the Dongying Basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Shenbiao Yang

    1996-12-31

    This display presents results of an ongoing project to develop procedures for testing geologic models by computer simulation of petroleum migration and entrapment. Geologic data from the Dong Ying Basin in eastern China were provided for use in the project. The unit investigated as a carrier bed/reservoir rock is a thin, extensive sandstone of Eocene age in the lower Shahejie Formation. The units above and below the sandstone are source rocks. Commercially available software was used to develop data for constructing oil and gas source data. These maps plus eight others and some miscellaneous information on geologic parameters allowed definition of stratigraphic and structural traps, oil and gas migration paths, trap volumes, and trap spillage.

  7. Retraction note: The effects of dexamethasone on the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells induced by paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Publisher and Editor regretfully retract this article ( Hou W, Guan J, Lu H, Dong Q, Han Y, Zhang R. The effects of dexamethasone on the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells induced by paclitaxel. J Ovarian Res. 2014;7:89) because the peer-review process was inappropriately influenced and compromised. As a result, the scientific integrity of the article cannot be guaranteed. A systematic and detailed investigation suggests that a third party was involved in supplying fabricated details of potential peer reviewers for a large number of manuscripts submitted to different journals. In accordance with recommendations from COPE we have retracted all affected published articles, including this one. It was not possible to determine beyond doubt that the authors of this particular article were aware of any third party attempts to manipulate peer review of their manuscript. PMID:25880650

  8. Structure formation of atmospheric pressure discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexey E.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper it is shown, by analyzing the results of experimental studies, that the outer boundary of the atmospheric pressure discharge pinch is determined by the condition of equality of plasma flows based on the thermal and electric field energy. In most cases, the number of charged particles coming from near-electrode zones is sufficient to compensate for losses in the discharge bulk. At large currents and enhanced heating, plasma is in the diffusion mode of losses, with recombination of charged particles at the pinch boundary. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  9. The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, X.-P.; Bengtson, S.; Gostling, N.J.; Cunningham, J.A.; Harvey, T.H.P.; Kouchinsky, A.; Val'Kov, A.K.; Repetski, J.E.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Donoghue, P.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to provide an improved taxonomic framework for material assigned to Markuelia. Five species are recognized: M. secunda Val'kov, M. hunanensis Dong and Donoghue, M. lauriei Haug et al., M. spinulifera sp. nov. and M. waloszeki sp. nov. Finally, the preservation of Markuelia is evaluated in the light of both the taphonomy of the fossil embryos themselves and the experimental taphonomy of the priapulid Priapulus caudatus, which has been proposed as both a close relative and an anatomical analogue of Markuelia. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  10. Improved method of laser photovaporization for endometrium cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, En-ju; Lu, Hua; Chen, En-ling; Wan, Hong-yue

    1995-03-01

    Endometrium was destroyed by Nd-YAG laser under B ultrasonic monitoring through direct application of a fibrous catheter specially designed by Dong-lin Lee (an optical engineer). Of the 12 patients 11 cases had dysfunctional uterine bleeding and one case had postmenopausal uterine bleeding. The mean time of laser treatment was 5' 45', the mean volume of irrigating solution was 850 ml, and the mean estimated blood loss was less than 9 ml. All patients showed neither evidence of infection nor uterine perforation. Follow-up examination for 3 - 16 months showed amenorrhea in 4 cases, spotting in 4 cases, and obviously reduced menstrual flow in 3 cases. One patient, partly treated, had normal menstruation.

  11. Evogliptin: First Global Approval.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    Evogliptin (Suganon) is an orally bioavailable, selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4; CD26 antigen) inhibitor being developed by Dong-A ST for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. DPP-4 inhibitors control glucose levels by preventing the breakdown of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which stimulate insulin secretion in response to the increased levels of glucose in the period following meals. In October 2015, evogliptin received its first global approval in South Korea for blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of evogliptin leading to this first approval for type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26541763

  12. A new Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khanh Hoa Province, southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nicole; Phung, Trung My; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from southern Vietnam, based on morphological and molecular datasets. Cyrtodactylus cucdongensis sp. nov. is described on the basis of seven specimens collected from Cuc Dong Cape, Khanh Hoa Province. The new species can be distinguished from the remaining bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL 65.9 mm; 16-19 dorsal tubercle rows; 41-44 ventral scales at midbody; 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males, 4-6 pitted precloacal scales in females; no femoral pores; 6-13 enlarged precloacal scales; 5-9 enlarged femoral scales; no transversally enlarged subcaudals; dorsal pattern consisting of irregular dark bands. This is the 33rd species of Cyrtodactylus known from Vietnam. PMID:24872243

  13. The Research on the Impact of Management Level’s Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level’s charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level’s charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936

  14. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis results showed that 38 farmers fertilizer "zhuanggenling" content of 6 kinds of plant growth retardant. It is regarded that fertilizer "zhuanggenling" was dominant in medicinal plant cultivation, and that the plant growth retardant is added widespreadly in farm fertilizer "zhuanggenling". All evidence proves conclusively that "zhuanggenling" have been used in the proper way, whereas some others have been misused or even abused in the use regarding to type, number, use frequency. The root or rhizoma are increased to 20%-200%. But there is lack of evaluation to appraise the quality of medicinal materials from the aspects of research or industry. "zhuanggenling" has become a important Chemical control material besides fertilizer, insecticidal sterilization of pesticide PMID:26084162

  15. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are needed to evaluate the efficacy and the combination pattern of these Chinese herbs. The mechanism of the combination pattern of these prescriptions should also be investigated whether additive, synergistic or antagonistic effect exist using in vitro or in vivo models. PMID:25172790

  16. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82.05%) and rose aqueous (73.86%). Conclusion From a panel of twenty three plant extracts, some one dozen exhibit high or satisfactory anti-collagenase or anti-elastase activities, with nine having inhibitory activity against both enzymes. These included white tea which was found to have very high phenolic content, along with high TEAC and SOD activities. PMID:19653897

  17. Community-based IEC campaign. TFR has dropped to 2.15 in Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Ngoc Lich

    1995-01-01

    Binh Thanh District of Ho Chin Minh City in 1989 had a crude birth rate (CBR) of 20.3 per 1000 population and an average of 5.5 persons per household. The rate of total fertility (TFR) in the district was one of the highest among the city's 18 districts in 1990. Concerned about these demographics, the Binh Thanh District Committee for Population and Family Planning reviewed the family planning program with the goal of developing a special information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign. The following incentive scheme for sterilization was developed: each poor entrepreneur in need of seed money for new business ventures who allows himself to be sterilized receives dong 120,000 (US$11) from the National Committee for Population and Family Planning and dong 220,000 from the District Committee for Population and Family Planning to buy medicine and supplementary food. An IEC room was established in each commune health center to disseminate the relevant information. The results of the campaign have been positive, with 910 people requesting sterilization in 1994, 34% of whom were male. Over the period January-April 1995, the proportion of male sterilization increased dramatically, such that men accounted for 68% of the 153 people who underwent sterilization. The district now ranks the lowest among the 18 districts with regard to the percentage of couples with three children, the CBR is 15.3/1000, TFR is 2.15, the contraceptive prevalence rate is 68%, and sterilization is the fourth most popular method of contraception (13%) behind the IUD (37%), condom (30%), and oral pill (18.5%). PMID:12320321

  18. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  19. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Patrick W. C.; Liang, Yan; Lau, Erica Y.; Choi, Choung-Rak; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Shin, Myung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (category range: 0 to 10) were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii). Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min) from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min) from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute) from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50%) for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:25872015

  20. The oldest flora of the South China Block, and the stratigraphic bearings of the plant remains from the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonez, Paul; Nguyên Huu, Hung; Ta Hoa, Phuong; Clément, Gaël; Janvier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Several outcrops of the Late Silurian and Devonian of the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam, yielded plant remains. The Late Silurian localities delivered the earliest known flora of the South China block. Although the fossils are fragmentary, they complement our knowledge about the global composition of the flora. The major components of the flora are plants with dichotomous habit and terminal bivalvate sporangia, which are close relatives to zosterophylls, and zosterophylls. Plants with possible euphyllophyte affinities and bryophytes are occasionally present. This floral composition is similar to that of the rich, younger South China block assemblages from the Posongchong and Xujiachong Formations of China, considered Pragian in age. The South China block flora is therefore likely to have been dominated by zosterophylls and pre-zosterophylls at least from the Late Silurian to the Pragian (i.e. a 20 million years long period). It also strengthens the hypothesis that more derived plants were present on eastern Gondwana earlier that elsewhere, in the first steps of tracheophyte evolution. The Devonian localities of the Ngoc Vung Series delivered a thick fibrous stem fragment and a basal euphyllophyte. These latter plant remains provide some stratigraphic data. The large stem fragment is consistent with an Eifelian age for the Duong Dong Formation (part of the Ngoc Vung Series), as suggested by the brachiopod fauna. The accompanying basal euphyllophyte displays a combination of characters (axes 3-4 mm wide and lateral branchings) that is also consistent with an Eifelian age, but possibly more characteristic of the Emsian flora. It is therefore suggested that the stratigraphic range of the Duong Dong Formation might be extended down to the Emsian.

  1. Prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses from retail markets in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ta, Yen T; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; To, Phuong Bich; Pham, Da Xuan; Le, Hao Thi Hong; Alali, Walid Q; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption. PMID:23043836

  2. Quality Control of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction, by 1H-NMR Metabolic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendy L.; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is one of the simplest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoctions, first described in China in 1247 AD. DBT is composed of 2 herbs, Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), boiled together in a 5 : 1 ratio. Clinically, DBT is prescribed to women as a remedy for menopausal symptoms. Here, H-NMR metabolic profiling was conducted for DBT and the water extracts of AR or ASR, to evaluate the potential of this chemical profiling method for quality control of the herbal decoction. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that DBT could be readily distinguished from the water extracts of its constituent herbs by the metabolic profiles. More interestingly, the metabolic profile of DBT was not a simple sum of that of AR and ASR. Asparagine was found at significantly higher concentration in DBT than that in either AR or ASR extract, contributing mainly to the discrimination of DBT sample. In addition, we employed the same method to profile a commercial DBT powder, verifying its authenticity as compared to our prepared DBT. This study is the first to employ H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine decoctions. PMID:24826194

  3. Leafy vegetable mix supplementation improves lipid profiles and antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Min Hee; Son, ChanWok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Cho, YongSik; Chun, HyeKyung; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-08-01

    Daily consumption of an antioxidant-rich leafy vegetable mix (LVM) was assessed for beneficial effects on plasma lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA damage in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet (20% fat and 1% cholesterol, wt/wt) for 4 weeks. The LVM contained beet leaf, angelica, red leaf lettuce, dandelion, green cos lettuce, lollo rosso, romaine lettuce (12.5%, respectively), scotch kale, and red kale (6.25%, respectively). The mice (n = 16) were randomly divided into either the control (high fat and cholesterol diet without LVM) or the LVM (high fat and cholesterol diet with 8% LVM supplement) groups after a 1-week acclimation. Lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the plasma, liver, heart, and kidney was significantly lower. Antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) were improved in mice fed LVM diet. In the comet assay, tail extent moment, olive tail moment, and tail length were significantly less in the hepatocyte and lymphocyte DNA of the LVM group, indicating the beneficial effect of LVM on the resistance of hepatocytes and lymphocytes DNA to oxidative damage. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with LVM may be useful for protecting cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. PMID:19735190

  4. The Dynamic Nature of the Ligustilide Complex

    PubMed Central

    Schinkovitz, Andreas; Pro, Samuel M.; Main, Matthew; Chen, Shao-Nong; Jaki, Birgit U.; Lankin, David C.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2008-01-01

    Monomeric phthalides like Z-ligustilide (1) and Z-butylidenephthalide (2) are major constituents of medicinal plants of the Apiaceae family. While 1 has been associated with a variety of observed biological effects, it is also known for its instability and rapid chemical degradation. For the purpose of isolating pure 1 and 2, a gentle and rapid 2-step countercurrent isolation procedure was developed. From a supercritical CO2 fluid extract of Angelica sinensis roots, the phthalides were isolated with high GC-MS purities of 99.4 % for 1 and 98.9 % for 2, and consistently lower qHNMR purities of 98.1 % and 96.4 %, respectively. Taking advantage of molarity-based qHNMR methodology, a time-resolved study of the dynamic changes and residual complexity of pure 1 was conducted. GC-MS and (qH)NMR analysis of artificially degraded 1 provided evidence for the phthalide degradation pathways and optimized storing conditions. Parallel qHNMR analysis led to the recognition of variations in time- and process-dependant sample purity, and has impact on the overall assessment of time dependent changes in complex natural products systems. The study underscores the importance of independent quantitative monitoring as a prerequisite for the biological evaluation of labile natural products such as monomeric phthalides. PMID:18781813

  5. Decursin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by downregulating NFATc1 and blocking fusion of pre-osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Jin; Yeon, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Sik-Won; Moon, Seong-Hee; Ryu, Byung Jun; Yu, Ri; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Son, Young-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Bone sustains its structure through dynamic interaction between osteoblastic cells and osteoclastic cells. But imbalance may lead to osteoporosis caused by overactivated osteoclast cells that have bone-resorbing function. Recently, herbs have been researched as major sources of medicines in many countries. In vitro and in vivo anti-osteoclastogenic activity of Angelica gigas NAKAI have been reported, but the biological activity of decursin, its major component in osteoclast differentiation is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we explored whether decursin could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. The results showed that decursin efficiently inhibited RANKL-activated osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting transcriptional and translational expression of NFATc1, a major factor in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, decursin decreased fusion and migration of pre-osteoclasts by downregulating mRNA expression levels of DC-STAMP and β3 integrin, respectively. In addition, decursin prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone erosion in vivo. In summary, decursin could prevent osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone loss via blockage of NFATc1 activity and fusion and migration of pre-osteoclasts, and it could be developed as a potent phytochemical candidate for treating pathologies of bone diseases. PMID:26208796

  6. Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

  7. Caging a Beast in the Inflammation Arena: Use of Chinese Medicinal Herbs to Inhibit a Late Mediator of Lethal Sepsis, HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianhua; Sama, Andrew E.; Wang, Haichao

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection, which kills > 225,000 people annually in the U.S. alone. The high mortality of sepsis is partly mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF) and late (e.g., HMGB1) pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although early proinflammatory cytokines may be protective against infection, excessive accumulation of late-acting proinflammatory mediators (such as HMGB1) may sustain a potentially injurious inflammatory response. Agents capable of inhibiting HMGB1 activities (e.g., neutralizing antibodies) or release [e.g., Chinese herbs, Danggui (Angelica sinensis), Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Green tea (Camellia sinensis)] rescue mice from lethal sepsis even when given 24 hours after onset of the disease. Here we review emerging evidence that support a critical role for extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis, and several commonly used Chinese herbs (Danggui, Danshen and Green tea) as potential HMGB1- targeting therapeutic agents in experimental sepsis. PMID:19079688

  8. Statistical quality control of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals contained in the component medicinal herbs of "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donggyu; Kim, Bogsoon; Yun, Eunsun; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Park, Seungkook

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the current quality control status of raw materials in "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula effective for fatigue recovery in Korea, 1024 samples of 9 herbs available in Seoul area markets were collected, and the contents of quality inspection items such as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg) were examined. Medicinal herbs requiring quality control, which may not meet the specifications and standards set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration, were selected using robust z-scores, a random variable. Among the quality control items, control of total ash content was required for the Ssanghwatang raw materials Cinnamomi Cortex, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, Zingiberis Rhizoma, and Zizyphi Fructus; loss on drying for Cinnamomi Cortex; and heavy metal (Cd) for Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Additionally, acid-insoluble ash content revealed how many fine soil and sand particles are present in commercial medicinal herbs, which were correlated with heavy metals such as Pb (r = 0.528) and As (r = 0.342) in Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (p < 0.01). PMID:22418854

  9. Characterization and comparison of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum in China using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Deng, Yong; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Wei, Feng; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Long, Ze-Rong; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-10

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that β-1,3-glucosidic, α-1,4-galactosiduronic and α-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides. PMID:26428094

  10. Identification of multiple ingredients for a Traditional Chinese Medicine preparation (bu-yang-huan-wu-tang) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is a popular Traditional Chinese Medicine formula consisting of seven herbal medicines (Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Carthamus tinctorius, Amygdalus persica and Pheretima aspergillum), that has been used in China for centuries to overcome stroke-induced disability. To ensure the consistency of quality, a reliable analytical method is required, therefore, we developed a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of the major constituents in BYHWT. The herbal ingredients consisting of the cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides of astragaloside I, astragaloside II and astragaloside IV; isoflavones of formononetin, ononin calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside; ligustilide and paeoniflorin were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v). This study was performed by a mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) with positive ionization ions monitored in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were validated for this quantification method, and the sensitivity, reliability and reproducibility were all confirmed. The experiments provided a good method for analyzing BYHWT extracts. This study also quantitated the active components in various brands of commercially available products. The results indicated that the pharmaceutical industrial products of BYHWT exhibited considerable variation in their contents of the herbal compounds. PMID:24036516

  11. Ligustilide treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Weidong; Yu, Aixi; Liu, Danli; Shen, Jun; Xu, Zhigao

    2015-01-01

    Ligustilide from traditional Chinese medicine extract, angelica sinensis is one of the main active components, and has many pharmacological activities related to the effectiveness. This study sought to determine whether neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) via preventing ROS production. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced using operation for model SCI. Furthermore, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and footprint analysis of gait was used to assess the neuro-protection of ligustilide on SCI. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production levels were measured by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay kit. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expressions were detected using Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blot analyses, respectively. Interestingly, treatment with ligustilide significantly increased BBB scale and reduced recovery of coordination in SCI rats. After SCI, the iROS, PGE(2), IL-1β, TNF-α production levels and iNOS gene expression were significantly suppressed in SCI rats. These results suggest that the neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production. PMID:26722386

  12. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  13. The Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang Inhibits Angiogenesis in a Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jing; Zhao, Zhimin; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Yang, Li; Fan, Tai-Ping; Liu, Chenghai

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of the Chinese herbal decoction Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT; Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis in 5?:?1 ratio) in a rat model of liver fibrosis, in order to elucidate its mechanisms of action against liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced with CCl4 and high-fat food for 6 weeks, and the rats were treated with oral doses of DBT (6?g raw herbs/kg/d) and N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 0.1?g/kg/d). The results showed that both DBT and NAC attenuated liver fibrosis and neo-angiogenesis. Furthermore, DBT and NAC improved SOD activity but decreased MDA content and 8-OH-dG in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective than NAC. DBT decreased the expression of VEGF, Ang1 and TGF-?1 and their signaling mediators, whereas NAC had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR2 expression. Both DBT and NAC reduced HIF-1? gene and protein expression in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective. These data clearly demonstrate that the anti-fibrotic properties of DBT are related to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis and its anti-angiogenic mechanisms are associated with improving oxidative stress, regulating the expression and signaling of angiogenic factors, and especially modulating HIF-1? in fibrotic livers. PMID:22927877

  14. Treatment with the herbal medicine, naoxintong improves the protective effect of high-density lipoproteins on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    LV, PU; TONG, XUNLIANG; PENG, QING; LIU, YUANYUAN; JIN, HAIQIANG; LIU, RAN; SUN, WEI; PAN, BING; ZHENG, LEMIN; HUANG, YINING

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on endothelial function is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which may result in atherosclerotic complications. Naoxintong (NXT) is a compound preparation that includes Radix Astragali, Angelicae sinensis, Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Ligusticum wallichii. It is widely administered in China to prevent atherosclerotic complications. In the present study, NXT was administered to 69 patients with T2DM. HDLs were isolated from patient blood samples prior to and following the intervention. In vitro endothelial functions of HDL, including proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis were investigated by bromodeoxyuridine, wound healing, Transwell and Matrigel tube formation assays on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results from the present study demonstrated that HUVECs treated with HDL isolated from diabetic patients following NXT therapy exhibited increased proliferative effects (10–27%; P<0.05), and improved migration ability (15–35%; P<0.05), anti-apoptotic function (23–34%; P<0.05) and angiogenesis (30–54%; P<0.001). Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of Akt (26–36%; P<0.01) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (16–80%; P<0.01) were increased following NXT therapy. The present in vitro study demonstrates that the protective effect of HDL on endothelial function is markedly impaired in diabetic patients who tend to develop atherosclerosis, and the impaired function may be partly abrogated by NXT. PMID:26781332

  15. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.

  16. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-08-14

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection. PMID:26176198

  17. Antiproliferative activity of Korean wild vegetables on different human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Heo, Buk-Gu; Chon, Sang-Uk; Park, Yun-Jum; Bae, Jong-Hyang; Park, Su-Min; Park, Yong-Seo; Jang, Hong-Gi; Gorinstein, Shela

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antiproliferative activity of 24 Korean wild vegetables. The methanol extracts of these wild vegetables were used against lung, breast, colon and gastric cancer cells, and the results were assessed by MTT assay. It was found that at the extract concentration of 400 mgL(-1) 14 plants exercised antiproliferative activity over 80% against the lung cancer cells, one plant among six--against breast cancer cells, and two plants among six--against colon cancer cells, respectively. Eighteen wild vegetables had the hyperplasia inhibition activity against gastric cancer cells over 23.6% at all extract concentrations, however, only six plants had the antiproliferative activity over 80% in 600 mgL(-1). It was found that the extracts from Youngia sonchifolia, Synurus deltoides, Syneilesis palmata, and Cephalonoplos segetum, in concentration of 400 mgL(-1) inhibited the hyperplasia of lung cancer cells over 95% and Angelica gigas-both lung and colon cancer cells over 95%. In conclusion, the studied wild vegetables' methanol extracts possess dose dependent antiproliferative properties, based on their bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols, but some of them as Hypericum ascyron against lung cancer are not effective and even course harm. PMID:19890716

  18. Protective effects of osthole against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Yue; Dong, Wen-Peng; Bi, Sheng-Hui; Pan, Zhi-Guo; Yu, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Ma, Tao; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Wei-Da

    2013-08-01

    Osthole, a bioactive simple coumarin derivative extracted from a number of medicinal plants, such as Cnidium monnieri and Angelica pubescens, has been shown to exert a variety of pharmacological activities and is considered to have potential therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of osthole against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups: the sham-oeprated control group (control), the vehicle group (vehicle), and 3 treatment groups, which were treated with osthole at the concentration of 1, 10 or 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally), respectively, upon the initiation of myocardial ischemia. Treatment with osthole suppressed the formation of lipid peroxidation products, enhanced the capacities of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines following myocardial I/R injury. Moreover, treatment with osthole reduced high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and phosphorylated nuclear factor (NF)-?B expression in ischemic myocardial tissue. These results demonstrate the protective effects of osthole against myocardial I/R injury in rats and suggest that these effects may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23695269

  19. Immunostimulatory effects of artificial feed supplemented with a Chinese herbal mixture on Oreochromis niloticus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jufen; Cai, Jia; Liu, Ran; Wang, Jiamin; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of a Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) composed of astragalus, angelica, hawthorn, Licorice root and honeysuckle on immune responses and disease resistant of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain) were investigated in present study. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% CHM (w/w) for 4 weeks. And series of immune parameters including lysozyme, cytokine genes TNF-α and IL-1β, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured during test period. After four weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Nile tilapia with CHM-supplementation diet stimulated lysozyme activity, SOD activity and POD activity in serum, induced TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression in head kidney and spleen, but decreased serum MDA content. All CHM-supplemental groups showed reduced mortalities following A. hydrophila infection compared with the group fed the control diet. These results suggested that this CHM can be applied as a tilapia feed supplement to elevate fish immunity and disease resistance against A. hydrophila. PMID:24925761

  20. Treatment of Mild Gastrointestinal Disorders with a Herbal Combination: Results of a Non-interventional Study with Gastritol(®) Liquid.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Tankred; Heimueller, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A combination of extracts from chamomile, silverweed, licorice, angelica, blessed thistle and wormwood, Gastritol(®) Liquid, is registered for the use of indigestion and gastrointestinal spasmodic complaints. To gain data on the experience in practice, a non-interventional open study was conducted in ambulatory patients including diabetics which were treated for 2 weeks. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by medical examination and evaluation of typical symptoms by patients. A total of 149 patients was enrolled, 90 without and 59 with diabetes. The treatment led to relevant improvements in all symptoms in both study groups. The most notable improvements were seen for the symptoms vomiting (-66.7%; diabetics: -63.9%) and retching (-52.2%; diabetics: -53.6%). An overall improvement was rated by about 90% in both study groups. In seven patients adverse events had been reported (5 times temporary nausea after intake, one time gastric spasm and one time oral burning sensation), all of them of mild nature. The global tolerability was assessed as good or very good in more than 80% by practitioners and patients. Under the conditions of this open study method Gastritol(®) Liquid had been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of mild gastrointestinal disorders, including diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26522087

  1. Columbianadin Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Necroptosis in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji In; Hong, Ji-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Sang Kook

    2016-05-01

    Columbianadin (CBN), a natural coumarin from Angelica decursiva (Umbelliferae), is known to have various biological activities including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, the anti-proliferative mechanism of actions mediated by CBN was investigated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. CBN effectively suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells. Low concentration (up to 25 µM) of CBN induced apoptosis, and high concentration (50 µM) of CBN induced necroptosis. The induction of apoptosis by CBN was correlated with the modulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, Bim and Bid, and the induction of necroptosis was related with RIP-3, and caspase-8. In addition, CBN induced the accumulation of ROS and imbalance in the intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD-1, SOD-2, catalase and GPx-1. These findings demonstrate that CBN has the potential to be a candidate in the development of anti-cancer agent derived from natural products. PMID:27098859

  2. Using Complementary and Alternative Medicines to Target the Host Response during Severe Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Charles; Clark, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    It is now accepted that an overwhelming inflammatory response is the cause of human deaths from avian H5N1 influenza infection. With this in mind we sought to examine the literature for examples of complementary and alternative medicines that reduce inflammation, and to place the results of this search in the context of our own work in a mouse model of influenza disease, using a pharmaceutical agent with anti-inflammatory properties. Two Chinese herbs, Angelica sinensis (Dang Gui) and Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), have been recently shown to protect mice during lethal experimental sepsis via inhibition of the novel inflammatory cytokine High Mobility Group Box 1 protein (HMGB1). Biochanin A, a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) alpha and gamma and the active isoflavone in Trifolium pratense (red clover), has anti-inflammatory properties, and thus could be used as an influenza treatment. This is of great interest since we have recently shown that gemfibrozil, a drug used to treat hyperlipidemia in humans and a synthetic ligand of PPAR alpha, significantly reduces the mortality associated with influenza infections in mice. The inflammation-modulating abilities of these natural agents should be considered in light of what is now known about the mechanisms of fatal influenza, and tested as potential candidates for influenza treatments in their own right, or as adjunct treatments to antivirals. PMID:19779008

  3. Review: Evidence-based Clinical Research of Anti-obesity Supplements in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yasueda, Asuka; Ito, Toshinori; Maeda, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically throughout the world, and weight reduction through lifestyle management is urgently warranted. At present, numerous supplements advertised for their anti-overweight property are available in the Japanese market, but most of these lack proper evidence. Thus, we investigated dietary supplements that have been tested in clinical trials. Search Strategy: We researched anti-obesity supplements in the Japanese market using the google search engine in Japanese with the key terms “anti-obesity supplements,” ”diet supplements,” and “weight reduction supplements.” Results: We listed 49 companies that supply anti-obesity supplements. Of these, 11 had published clinical evidence of the anti-obesity efficacy of their supplements. These products contain the following active ingredients: Angelica keiskei, bofu-tsusho-san, capsaishin, DHA/EPA, forskohlii, garcinia cambogia, lactoferrin, L-carnitine, oligonol, tea catechin, and yeast hydrolysate. Conclusion: We obtained 11 supplements for which clinical evidence was published in medical journals in English. We also found 10 products for which clinical or animal evidence was published in Japanese. We expect that many companies will produce evidence of the efficacy of their products in the near future, thereby validating the use of dietary anti-obesity supplements in Japan. PMID:26005506

  4. Vegetational response to human colonisation of the coastal and volcanic environments of Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Edwards, Kevin J.; Buckland, Paul C.

    2009-09-01

    Tephra-dated, high-resolution pollen profiles from Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland, indicate a largely unwooded pre-settlement environment, a probable consequence of the exposed coastal location. The degree of change associated with the Norse landnám is more limited than in many Icelandic pollen diagrams. There are three main periods of change in the post-settlement vegetational development of the area. Firstly, Norse settlement affected the hydrology of the bog, resulting in the near-disappearance of Sphagnum and agricultural activity led to a reduction of some species (e.g. Angelica spp. and, Salix). Secondly, the establishment of probable permanent settlement in the mid-11th century AD initiated expansion of such apophytic taxa as Plantago spp. Lactuceae, Ranunculus spp. and Pteridophytes. Thirdly, the ≥ 10 cm thick Katla tephra, deposited in AD 1357, enhanced drainage of the bog surface, favouring dryland taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Galium and Lactuceae). The tephra deposit and the associated drainage probably caused or contributed to the local extinction of the wetland beetle Hydraena britteni. The study has enabled a series of natural and humanly-related issues to be addressed including tephra-vegetation relationships, the anthropogenic reduction in plant diversity, and comparisons between historical and environmental settlement records.

  5. Development of an analytical method coupling cell membrane chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via microextraction by packed sorbent and its application in the screening of volatile active compounds in natural products.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2015-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important sources of lead compounds in modern drug discovery. To facilitate the screening of volatile active compounds in NPs, we have developed a new biochromatography method that uses rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which are rich in L-type calcium channels (LCC), to prepare the stationary phase. This integrated method, which couples cell membrane chromatography (CMC) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) via microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technology, has been termed VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS. Methodological validation confirmed its specificity, reliability and convenience. Screening results for Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Fructus Cnidii obtained using VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS were consistent with those obtained using VSMC/CMC-offline-GC-MS. MEPS connection plays as simplified solid-phase extraction and replaces the uncontrollable evaporation operation in reported offline connections, so our new method is supposed to be more efficient and reliable than the offline ones, especially for compounds that are volatile, thermally unstable or difficult to purify. In application, senkyunolide A and ligustilide were preliminary identified as the volatile active components in Rhizoma Chuanxiong. We have thus confirmed the suitability of VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS for volatile active compounds screening in NP. PMID:25463192

  6. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. PMID:17705143

  7. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4+ T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4+ T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ+ cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4+ cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23844220

  8. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:25045390

  9. HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated γ-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee

    2012-05-01

    Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated γ-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to γ rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

  10. HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-02-01

    Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

  11. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23844220

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapy by patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Terri S; Gilbert, Mark R

    2008-05-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing. CAM includes mind-body interventions, biologically based therapies, energy therapies, and body-based methods. Primary brain tumors arise within the brain and have a poor prognosis when malignant. Even patients with benign tumors suffer neurologic and systemic symptoms as a result of the tumor or its treatment. CAM is used by 30% of brain tumor patients, who often do not report its use to their physician. Herbal medicines may affect the metabolism of prescribed medications or produce adverse effects that may be attributed to other causes. In patients with systemic cancer, mind-body modalities such as meditation and relaxation therapy have been shown to be helpful in reducing anxiety and pain; acupuncture and hypnotherapy may also reduce both pain and nausea. Recent preclinical studies have reported that ginseng, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Angelica sinensis may promote apoptosis of tumor cells or exercise antiangiogenic effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of CAM on symptom control or tumor growth in this vulnerable patient population. PMID:18541122

  13. N-butylidenephthalide attenuates Alzheimer's disease-like cytopathy in Down syndrome induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lu, Huai-En; Lai, Syu-Ming; Lai, Ping-Shan; Shen, Po-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Shen, Ching-I; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients with early-onset dementia share similar neurodegenerative features with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To recapitulate the AD cell model, DS induced pluripotent stem cells (DS-iPSCs), reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 (D10) of differentiation. Accumulated amyloid deposits, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and Tau intracellular redistribution emerged rapidly in DS neurons within 45 days but not in normal embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. N-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a major phthalide ingredient of Angelica sinensis, was emulsified by pluronic F127 to reduce its cellular toxicity and promote canonical Wnt signaling. Interestingly, we found that F127-Bdph showed significant therapeutic effects in reducing secreted Aβ40 deposits, the total Tau level and the hyperphosphorylated status of Tau in DS neurons. Taken together, DS-iPSC derived neural cells can serve as an ideal cellular model of DS and AD and have potential for high-throughput screening of candidate drugs. We also suggest that Bdph may benefit DS or AD treatment by scavenging Aβ aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:25735452

  14. Screening of 20 Commonly Used Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants Against Urease

    PubMed Central

    Biglar, Mahmood; Sufi, Hessameddin; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Amanlou, Massoud; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pyloriis the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers. About more than 80 % of people are infected with H. pylori in developing countries. H. pylori uses urease enzyme product “ammonia” in order to neutralize and protect itself from the stomach acidic condition and urease enzyme activity has been shown to be essential to the colonization of H. pylori. Inhibitory activity of 20 traditional medicinal plants were examined and evaluated against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction to obtains natural sources of urease inhibitors. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol, then tested its IC50 value was determined. Eight of the whole 20 studied plants crude extracts were found the most effective with IC50 values of less than 100 μg/mL including Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Angelica archangelica, Acorus calamus, Allium sativum,Curcuma longa, and Citrus aurantium extracts, from which most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Zingiber officinale, Laurus nobilis, and Nigella sativa with IC50 values of 48.54, 48.69 and 59.10 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24711846

  15. Two chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, stimulate GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Fujinami, Aya; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Amano, Akiko; Ishigami, Akihito; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Sawada, Morio; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG) are major components of n-hexane/ethyl acetate (5:1) extract of the yellow-colored stem juice of Angelica keiskei. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG have been reported to increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism by which 4HD and XAG increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both 4HD and XAG increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG also stimulated the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which acts upstream of AMPK, was also increased by 4HD and XAG treatment. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LKB1 attenuated 4HD- and XAG-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and suppressed glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that 4HD and XAG can increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26077869

  16. Uncovering potential 'herbal probiotics' in Juzen-taiho-to through the study of associated bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Diego; Kalpana, Kriti; Chrissian, Christine; Sharma, Ashutosh; Takaoka, Anna; Iacovidou, Maria; Soll, Clifford E; Aminova, Olga; Heguy, Adriana; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven; Kawamura, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) is an immune-boosting formulation of ten medicinal herbs. It is used clinically in East Asia to boost the human immune functions. The active factors in JTT have not been clarified. But, existing evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like factors contribute to the activity. To examine this possibility, JTT was subjected to a series of analyses, including high resolution mass spectrometry, which suggested the presence of structural variants of LPS. This finding opened a possibility that JTT contains immune-boosting bacteria. As the first step to characterize the bacteria in JTT, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was carried out for Angelica sinensis (dried root), one of the most potent immunostimulatory herbs in JTT. The sequencing revealed a total of 519 bacteria genera in A. sinensis. The most abundant genus was Rahnella, which is widely distributed in water and plants. The abundance of Rahnella appeared to correlate with the immunostimulatory activity of A. sinensis. In conclusion, the current study provided new pieces of evidence supporting the emerging theory of bacterial contribution in immune-boosting herbs. PMID:25547935

  17. The Effect of Tou Nong San on Transplanted Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Liang-Hua; Wang, Rui-Ping; Hu, Shou-You; Teng, Yu-Hao; Xie, Wei-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Tou Nong San (TNS) is a traditional Chinese medicinal decoction used to treat sores and carbuncles. It contains four herbal drugs and one animal medicine: Radix Astragaliseu Seu Hedysari, Angelica sinensis, Ligustici Chuanxiong, Spina Gleditsiae, and stir-baked Squama Manis. Previous studies have shown that it has anticancer effects. This report validates in vivo antitumor properties of TNS. The compounds contained in TNSE were confirmed by liquid chromatographmass spectrometer (LC-MS) analysis. The in vivo antitumor activity of TNS extract (TNSE) was tested by feeding it to athymic mice harboring a human colonic tumor subcutaneous xenograft. Toxicity was monitored by recording behavior and weight parameters. Seven compounds were detected in TNSE by LC-MS. TNSE was fed to athymic mice for 2 weeks. No adverse reactions were reported. Compared to the control group, administration of TNSE to tumor bearing mice significantly reduced both tumor weight and volume. The expressions of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k1, VEGF, and CD31 were significantly reduced, the expression levels of cleaved Caspase-9 and cleaved Caspase-3 were significantly increased in the TNSE groups compared to the control group as determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. TNSE produced anticolonic cancer effects and the underlying mechanisms involved inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, inhibition of angiogenesis, and promotion of apoptotic proteins. PMID:25788964

  18. New, rare and remarkable records of microfungi from the Slovakian Republic.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2005-01-01

    During an excursion to the Slovakian Republic (lower and upper Tatra) of the Botanical Institute of the University of Essen in 2004 we were able to collect about 150 species of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on cultivated crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for the entire world and a few of them are new for the Slovakian Republic, e.g: Ramularia liliicola N. Ale-Agha, U. Braun & G.B. Feige on Lilium martagon L.; Septoria aegopodii DESM. Ex Kickx. F. on Aegopodium podagaria L.; Puccinia asarina Kunze on Asarum europaeum L.; Puccinia polygoni ALB. & SCHW. and Puccinia polygoni-amphibii PERS. on Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Du Mont.; Ramularia chamaenerii Rostr. and Mycosphaerella chamaenerii Saville on Epilobium angustifolium L.; Plasmopara pusilla (de By.) Schroet on Geranium sylvaticum L.; Cercosporidium depressum (Berk. & Br.) Deighta on Angelica sylvestris L. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:16637188

  19. The difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs of Danggui-Shaoyao San in theory of TCM, based on serum pharmacochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunlai; Li, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Yin, Dengke; Tao, Chunlei; Han, Lan; Yue, Xiaoli; Pan, Yongfu; Yao, Yao; Peng, Daiyin; Xu, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao San (DSS) is a famous Chinese formula for activating blood circulation and promoting urination. This study was to investigate the difference of material basis between a blood-associated herbs group and a water-associated herbs group. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the formula can be divided into a blood-associated herbs group (Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora and Ligusticum chuanxiong) and a water-associated herbs group (Atractylodes macrocephala, Alisma orientale and Poria cocos). The HPLC fingerprint of the formula was established for quality control. Serum samples from rats, orally administrated DSS, and the decomposed recipes of DSS, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and the transitional blood components of DSS were identified. Twenty-one common peaks were identified in the fingerprint of DSS. Contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid and alisol B 23-acetate in co-decoction were significantly higher than those in individual decoction. Eleven peaks belonged to the blood-associated herbs group (four metabolites and seven prototype components; paeoniflorin and ferulic acid appeared in prototype components), whereas six peaks belonged to the water-associated herbs group (three metabolites and three prototype components). It was concluded that the serum pharmacochemistry is a meaningful approach for clarifying the difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs in chemical composition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26270156

  20. Position of the Upper Devonian Frasnian--Famennian boundary in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, T.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Biostratigraphic analysis of eight Upper Devonian sections in VA and WV reveals that the section at Huttonsville, Randolph County, WV, is a key locality for determining the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. The Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville indicates a higher stratigraphic placement of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary than has been generally assumed. Conodonts are not known within that section, so placement of the boundary uses the last occurrence of tentaculitids and the last and first occurrences of several species of brachiopods. It is believed that the Frasnian-Famennian boundary can be identified independently of the atrypoid brachiopods. Stratigraphic ranges of the cricoconarid Tentaculites discusses and the brachiopod Tropidoleptus carinatus, both considered Frasnian marker fossils, indicate that the Frasnian extends well into the Red Lick Member of the Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville, with T. carinatus occurring up to 70% of the stratigraphic thickness of the Red Lick. The Famennian marker fossils A. angelica and C. sulcifer are both found at Huttonsville above the last recorded occurrence of all the Frasnian marker fossils. To the northeast of Huttonsville the Frasnian-Famennian series boundary has been placed by other workers within or at the top of the Pound Member of the Foreknobs Formation. This discrepancy implies that either the Pound Member is diachronous or that to the northeast paleoecologic factors caused local disappearances of critical fossils before their extinction at Huttonsville.

  1. Houshiheisan compound prescription protects neurovascular units after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haizheng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Qiuxia

    2014-04-01

    Houshiheisan is composed of wind-dispelling (chrysanthemun flower, divaricate saposhnikovia root, Manchurian wild ginger, cassia twig, Szechwan lovage rhizome, and platycodon root) and deficiency-nourishing (ginseng, Chinese angelica, large-head atractylodes rhizome, Indian bread, and zingiber) drugs. In this study, we assumed these drugs have protective effects against cerebral ischemia, on neurovascular units. Houshiheisan was intragastrically administered in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot assays showed that Houshiheisan reduced pathological injury to the ischemic penumbra, protected neurovascular units, visibly up-regulated neuronal nuclear antigen expression, and down-regulated amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-β 42 expression. Wind-dispelling and deficiency-nourishing drugs maintained NeuN expression to varying degrees, but did not affect amyloid precursor protein or amyloid-β 42 expression in the ischemic penumbra. Our results suggest that the compound prescription Houshiheisan effectively suppresses abnormal amyloid precursor protein accumulation, reduces amyloid substance deposition, maintains stabilization of the internal environment of neurovascular units, and minimizes injury to neurovascular units in the ischemic penumbra. PMID:25206882

  2. Evaluating a Cumaean Sibyl: Domenichino or later? A multi analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Daniilia, Sister; Minopoulou, Elpida; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Kourouklis, Gerasimos A

    2008-03-24

    The purpose of this study is to clarify important details about a Cumaean Sibyl painting that is preserved in a private collection. This work, bearing neither signature nor date, has never undergone conservation. It was executed after Domenichino's Cumaean Sibyl, a work known to have been used as a model by many 18th century painters. Investigation of the anonymous artist's painting technique and identification of its constituent materials were facilitated by employing optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), FTIR and microRaman spectroscopies and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The painter's palette comprised lead white, yellow ochre, lead-antimonate yellow (Naples yellow), cinnabar, cochineal lake, madder lake, haematite, Prussian blue and carbon black. The detection of Prussian blue (synthesized in 1704 and widely used as artist's pigment after 1750) was decisive in establishing the work's authenticity for, as such, it cannot be attributed either to Domenico Zampieri (1581-1641) or to his apprentices. In addition, the identification of Naples yellow, which prevailed in the period from 1750 to 1850, supports this statement. Nevertheless, its elaborate painting technique strongly suggests an artist greatly influenced by the Renaissance masters. A comparison of its stylistic features with those of the Cumaean Sibyl of Angelica Kauffmann (1741-1807), a prolific 18th century artist known to have studied and to have copied Domenichino's Sibyl, reveals significant similarities between the two in composition and palette. The unsigned Sibyl, therefore, could well be by Kauffmann. PMID:18328327

  3. Uncovering potential “herbal probiotics” in Juzen-taiho-to through the study of associated bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Diego; Kalpana, Kriti; Chrissian, Christine; Sharma, Ashutosh; Takaoka, Anna; Iacovidou, Maria; Soll, Clifford E.; Aminova, Olga; Heguy, Adriana; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) is an immune-boosting formulation of ten medicinal herbs. It is used clinically in East Asia to boost the human immune functions. The active factors in JTT have not been clarified. But, existing evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like factors contribute to the activity. To examine this possibility, JTT was subjected to a series of analyses, including high resolution mass spectrometry, which suggested the presence of structural variants of LPS. This finding opened a possibility that JTT contains immune-boosting bacteria. As the first step to characterize the bacteria in JTT, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was carried out for Angelica sinensis (dried root), one of the most potent immunostimulatory herbs in JTT. The sequencing revealed a total of 519 bacteria genera in A. sinensis. The most abundant genus was Rahnella, which is widely distributed in water and plants. The abundance of Rahnella appeared to correlate with the immunostimulatory activity of A. sinensis. In conclusion, the current study provided new pieces of evidence supporting the emerging theory of bacterial contribution in immune-boosting herbs. PMID:25547935

  4. Anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the traditional herbal formula Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san via enhancement of heme oxygenase‑1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Ohn-Soon; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    Gwakhyangjeonggi‑san (GHJGS) is a mixture of herbal plants, including Agastache rugosa, Perilla frutescens, Angelica dahurica, Areca catechu, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Citrus reticulata, Pinellia ternata, Platycodon grandiflorum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Zingiber officinale. GHJGS has been used for treating diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GHJGS were investigated using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. GHJGS significantly reduced production of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6 and prostaglandin E2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated macrophages. GHJGS markedly suppressed LPS‑induced phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases, whereas it had no effect on nuclear factor‑κB activation. Furthermore, GHJGS enhanced expression of heme oxygenase‑1 and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species in RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that GHJGS is a viable therapeutic agent against inflammation and oxidative stress‑associated disorders. PMID:27052497

  5. Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of β-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of β-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of β-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of β-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and γ-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

  6. AB100. Recovery of spermatogenesis of KH-465 herbal extracts mixture for LHRH agonist induced male infertility in rat

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The development of new effective drug to stimulate the spermatogenesis on the patients with various causes of male infertility has been proposed in the clinical field. We studied the usefulness of the two herbal extract mixtures, KH-465, consisted of Epimedium Koreanum and Angelica Gigas as a spermatogenesis enhancer. Experimental spermatogenic failure was made by administrating leuprolide acetate (Leuprin®, Takeda Pharm.) 3.75 mg intramuscular injection in 12 weeks Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided to five groups of control group and experimental group I, II, III & IV with Leuprin only, Leuprin & depot testosterone 10.5 mg intramuscular injection, Leuprin & 4 weeks administration of KH-465 400 mg/kg, and Leuprin & 4 weeks administration of KH-465 600 mg/kg, respectively. The weight changes of testis and epididymis, serum hormone levels of FSH, LH, T and free T, sperm count and motility within epididymis and the level of oxidative stress with SOD and 8-OHdG were estimated. The weight changes of testis and epididymis were not significant among control and all experimental groups. T, free T and epididymal seminal parameters were significantly increased in group III & IV, but FSH and LH not changed. Oxidative stress markers were improved significantly only in group IV. The enhancing effect of KH-465 herbal extract on spermatogenesis was suggested from this result. Additionally, the separation of pure effective components from herbal extract in this study and the mechanism of its effect would be performed in the future.

  7. Application of an in vitro DDASS to evaluate oral absorption of two chemicals simultaneously: establishment of a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jipeng; He, Xin; Xu, Xuefang; Shi, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Changxiao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral absorption of two chemicals simultaneously using a drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS), and to establish a correlation between DDASS and in vivo absorption to clarify the prediction of this in vitro model. Ferulic acid (FA) and tetrahydropalmatine (THP), the components of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Corydalis Yanhusuo Rhizoma, respectively, were chosen as model compounds. Three groups including FA, THP, and FA and THP together (FA + THP) were studied in DDASS. The corresponding in vivo pharmacokinetics study was performed in rats. Then the correlation was analysed between DDASS permeation in vitro and rat absorption data in vivo. A strong level A correlation (r > 0.84) was obtained after a correlation coefficient test (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Moreover, when FA and THP were used together in DDASS, the cumulative permeation of FA increased by 38.5%, while THP permeation decreased by 25.8%. In rats, the area under the concentration-time curve from time to infinity for FA increased 2.6-fold, while THP decreased 19.6%. The changes in rat intestinal permeation modeled by the DDASS were consistent with the absorption changes in rats. We conclude that DDASS is a valid in vitro model to evaluate oral absorption of two drug components simultaneously and reflect the in vivo characteristics of drug absorption accurately. PMID:22296178

  8. Selective isolation of components from natural volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrins as selective reagent.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Lu, Mengxia; Chu, Chu; Yan, Jizhong; Huang, Juan; Ying, Yongfei

    2016-04-29

    Selective separation of chemical components from seven kinds of volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with three types of cyclodextrins as selective reagent was investigated in this work. Preparative separation of chemical components from volatile oil is generally quite challenging due to their extremely complexity of the composition. A biphasic solvent system n-hexane-0.10molL(-1) cyclodextrin (1:1, v/v) was selected for separation of components from volatile oil and three types of cyclodextrins were investigated, including β-cyclodexrin, methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin. All kinds of volatile oils are from seven kinds of traditional Chinese herb. Results showed that some chemical components could be well separated with high purity from each kind of volatile oil using different type of cyclodextrin as selective reagent. For example, germacrone and curcumenone could be selectively separated from volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma with methyl-β-cyclodexrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodexrin as selector respectively, and other five components were selectively separated from volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Myristicae Semen, Aucklandiae Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by countercurrent chromatography with different cyclodexrin as selective reagent. Separation mechanism for separation of components from volatile oil by countercurrent chromatography with cyclodextrin as selective reagent was proposed. Peak resolution of the present separation method could be greatly influenced by the chemical compositions of volatile oil. PMID:27036211

  9. Clinical and experimental study of effect of Raondix Salviae Militiorrhiza and other blood-activating and stasis-eliminating Chinese herbs on hemodynamics of portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xi-Xian; Cui, Dong-Lai; Sun, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao-Tian

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Radix Salviae Militiorrhiza (RSM), other blood-activating and stasis-eliminating Chinese herbs on hemodynamics of portal hypertension. METHODS: Portal pressure of cirrhotic dogs after chronic common bile duct ligation was measured directly; portal blood flow in patients with liver cirrhosis were detected by ultrasound Doppler. RESULTS: After administration of RSM and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) by intravenous infusion in cirrhosis dogs, the portal venous pressure (Ppv), wedge hepatic venous pressure (WHVP), hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), were significantly decreased (P < 0.05-0.01), but the mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the heart rate (HR) remained unchanged. When nifedipine was used, Ppv, WHVP, MAP and HR were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the MVPG unchanged (P < 0.05). After administration of RSM, RSM + nifedipine and RSM + Hirudin + Nifedpin for 10-12 weeks, the diameter of portal vein (Dpv), spleen vein (Dsv), the portal venous flow (Qpv) and splenic venous flow (Qsv) in patients with hepatic cirrhosis were significantly lowered (P < 0.05-0.01), and the effect of RAS was weaker. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of decreasing Ppv by Chinese herbs?RSM, RAS, etc. as compared with nifedipine, demonstrated that the Chinese herbs were slower in action than that of nifedipine, but more long-lasting and without side effects. Hence, long-term administration of Chinese herbs, would be more beneficial. PMID:11819341

  10. Identification of metabolites of Buyang Huanwu decoction in rat urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Liu, E-Hu; Yang, Jie; Li, Chang-Yin; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines. PMID:22591804

  11. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  12. Screening of 20 commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmood; Sufi, Hessameddin; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Amanlou, Massoud; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pyloriis the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers. About more than 80 % of people are infected with H. pylori in developing countries. H. pylori uses urease enzyme product "ammonia" in order to neutralize and protect itself from the stomach acidic condition and urease enzyme activity has been shown to be essential to the colonization of H. pylori. Inhibitory activity of 20 traditional medicinal plants were examined and evaluated against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction to obtains natural sources of urease inhibitors. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol, then tested its IC50 value was determined. Eight of the whole 20 studied plants crude extracts were found the most effective with IC50 values of less than 100 μg/mL including Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Angelica archangelica, Acorus calamus, Allium sativum,Curcuma longa, and Citrus aurantium extracts, from which most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Zingiber officinale, Laurus nobilis, and Nigella sativa with IC50 values of 48.54, 48.69 and 59.10 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24711846

  13. Identification of metabolites of Buyang Huanwu Decoction in rat urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Liu, E-Hu; Yang, Jie; Li, Chang-Yin; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-QTOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines. PMID:22591804

  14. Simultaneous determination of 11 major components in Palmul-tang by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bohyoung; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2014-07-01

    Palmul-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, is composed of eight herbs (Ginseng radix, Glycyrrhizae radix, Hoelen, Atractylodis rhizoma, Angelicae gigantis radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Paeoniae radix and Rehmanniae radix) and exhibits various bioactivities, including antiallergic and antitumor effects. In this study, an effective, reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 marker components in Palmul-tang: hydroxymethylfurfural, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, ginsenoside Rg1, decursinol, glycyrrhizin, 6-gingerol, ginsenoside Rg3 and decursin. All calibration curves of the 11 components indicated excellent linearity (correlation coefficient > 0.9997) within the test range. The limits of detection and quantification of each component were in the ranges of 0.08-1.03 and 0.23-3.11 µg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were within 1.65 and 2.71%, respectively. The mean recovery values were 94.49 to 101.10%. The established method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 11 major components in 12 commercial samples of Palmul-tang. The developed analytical method is simple and suitable for the quality control of Palmul-tang. PMID:23741048

  15. Protective effects of FBD--an experimental Chinese traditional medicinal formula on memory dysfunction in mice induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhihong; Yan, Yongqing; Zhu, Danni; Yu, Boyang; Wang, Qiujuan

    2005-03-21

    With regards to the applications of three Chinese herbs poria, rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, and radix angelicae sinensis to vascular dementia (VD), the work was performed to assess the nootropic action and explore neuroprotective mechanisms of three herbs combinations (FBD) on mice injured by cerebral repetitive ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Aqueous extracts from FBD (115-460 mg/kg) administered p.o. significantly improved cognitive function through elongating latency and reducing number of errors in step-through test. Aqueous extracts from FBD inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO), elevated activity in (Na+)-(K+)-ATPase and (Ca2+)-ATPase, reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) in cortical tissue after IR, and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) containing aqueous extracts from FBD (ACSF-FBD) (0.01-10 mg/L) protected also primary cortical cortex neurons (PCCN) from hypoxic and excitotoxic insult induced by sodium dithionite (1 mM) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) (0.5 mM) in vitro. Multiple anti-IR properties contributed probably FBD to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction shown in this murine model for VD. PMID:15740883

  16. Fast determination of Z-ligustilide in plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry following headspace single-drop microextraction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ling; Deng, Chunhui; Wang, Ben; Shen, Xizhong

    2007-06-01

    Angelica sinensis (danggui in Chinese) is a common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and its essential oil has been used for the treatment of many diseases such as hepatic fibrosis. Z-Ligustilide has been found to be an important active component in the TCM essential oil. In this work, for the first time, headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of Z-ligustilide in rabbit plasma after oral administration of essential oil of danggui. The extraction parameters of solvent selection, solvent volume, sample temperature, extraction time, stirring rate, and ion strength were systemically optimized. Furthermore, the method linearity, detection limit, and precision were also investigated. It was shown that the proposed method provided good linearity (0.02-20 microg/mL, R2 = 0.997), low detection limit (10 ng/mL), and good precision (RSD value less than 9%). Finally, HS-SDME followed by GC/MS was used for fast determination of Z-ligustilide in rabbit plasma at different time intervals after oral administration of danggui essential oil. The experimental results suggest that HS-SDME followed by GC/MS is a simple, sensitive, and low-cost method for the determination of Z-ligustilide in plasma, and a low-cost approach to pharmacokinetics studies of active components in TCMs. PMID:17623474

  17. Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT. PMID:20506431

  18. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Mili?, Natasa; Milosevi?, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozi?, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

  19. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  20. Columbianadin Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Necroptosis in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji In; Hong, Ji-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Sang Kook

    2016-01-01

    Columbianadin (CBN), a natural coumarin from Angelica decursiva (Umbelliferae), is known to have various biological activities including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, the anti-proliferative mechanism of actions mediated by CBN was investigated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. CBN effectively suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells. Low concentration (up to 25 μM) of CBN induced apoptosis, and high concentration (50 μM) of CBN induced necroptosis. The induction of apoptosis by CBN was correlated with the modulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, Bim and Bid, and the induction of necroptosis was related with RIP-3, and caspase-8. In addition, CBN induced the accumulation of ROS and imbalance in the intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD-1, SOD-2, catalase and GPx-1. These findings demonstrate that CBN has the potential to be a candidate in the development of anti-cancer agent derived from natural products. PMID:27098859

  1. Chinese herbs and their active ingredients for activating xue (blood) promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Some Chinese herbs are anti-thrombolysis, and anti-inflammatory, improves brain RNA content, promotes brain protein synthesis, enhances dopamine function, regulates brain hormones, and improves microcirculation in central nervous system that might improve, repair and rehabilitation from the stroke and brain injury. Specific Chinese herbs and their components, such as Acanthopanax, Angelica, could maintain the survival of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Ganoderma spore Polygala, Tetramethylpyrazine, Gardenia, Astragaloside and Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted proliferation of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Astragaloside promoted differentiation of neural stem cell into neuron and glia in vivo. Astragalus, Safflower, Musk, Baicalin, Geniposide, Ginkgolide B, Cili polysaccharide, Salidroside, Astragaloside, Antler polypeptides, Ginsenoside Rg1, Panax notoginseng saponins promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro. Salvia, Astragalus, Ginsenoside Rg1, P. notoginseng saponins, Musk polypeptide, Muscone and Ginkgolide B promoted neural-directed differentiation of MSCs into nerve cells. These findings are encouraging further research into the Chinese herbs for developing drugs in treating patients of stroke and brain injury. PMID:24716802

  2. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benny K H; Vanitha, J

    2004-06-01

    The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species (Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis to their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. While some of these herbaceous plants have a direct inhibitory effect on microbial organisms, we observe that each plant has at least one compound that selectively modulates cells of the immune system. The successful derivation of pure bioactive compounds from Ganoderma lucidum, ginseng and Zingiber officinale supports the traditional practice of using these plants to stimulate the immune system. As many modern drugs are often patterned after phytochemicals, studying the influence of each compound on immune cells as well as microbes can provide useful insights to the development of potentially useful new pharmacological agents. PMID:15180575

  3. Ex Vivo and In Situ Evaluation of 'Dispelling-Wind' Chinese Medicine Herb-Drugs on Intestinal Absorption of Chlorogenic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lixiang; Shi, Jun; Xu, Weitong; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Jianying; Deng, Wenji

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the additive or synergistic effects and mechanism of intestinal absorption of extracts from two commonly used 'dispelling-wind' TCM botanical drugs [roots of Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Franch. & Sav. (RAD) and Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. (RSD)] using chlorogenic acid as a marker substance. Ex vivo everted intestinal sac and in situ single pass perfusion methods using rats were employed to investigate the effects of two TCM botanical drugs extracts on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. Both the extracts of RAD and RSD showed synergistic properties on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. The verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) and intestinal dysbacteriosis model induced by norfloxacin increased the P(app) and K(a) of intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. These synergistic effects on intestinal absorption in a rat model can be correlated with the inhibition of P-gp and regulation of gut microbiota. This experimental approach has helped to better understand changes in the absorption of chlorogenic acid under different conditions. PMID:26514546

  4. Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California.

    PubMed

    Corlett, Jan L; Clegg, Michael S; Keen, Carl L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2002-03-01

    Since the end of the American-Vietnamese War in 1975, more than 1.5 million refugees from Southeast Asia have resettled in the United States. Included among these displaced persons were the Hmong from Laos, a subsistence-based, shifting-cultivation, agricultural society. Hmong who resettled in urban areas have viewed vacant lots adjacent to urban dwellings as potential garden sites for production of familiar herbs and vegetables. In the present study exotic culinary and medicinal herbs grown by Hmong refugees in Sacramento, California were identified and analyzed for mineral composition. The herbs grown in these urban gardens were significant ingredients of Hmong recipes, and herb leaves, or infusions of steamed herb leaves were widely consumed as a component of pregnancy and post-partum diets. Six common species, Acorus gramineus, aff. Angelica, Dendranthema indicum, Eupatorium lindleyana, Sedum aff. sarmentosum, and Sedum aff. spectabile, were used in combination to season chicken. Polygonum odoratum, also widely cultivated, was used to season fish. Exotic culinary-medicinal species with highest mineral profiles included: Basella alba (Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn); Houttuynia cordata (Fe, Mg, Mn); Justica gendarussa (Ca, Mg, Zn); and Polygonum odoratum (Ca, Mg, Mn). While vacant lots sometimes are heavy metal contamination sites, we found no detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, or lead in the samples analyzed. PMID:11939106

  5. Polyphenols and neuroprotection against ischemia and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, B

    2011-12-01

    Neuroprotection of polyphenols in medical plants is getting attention in the world. Scutellaria baicalensis, paeonia veitchii and paeonia suffruticosa have been extensively studied in the last 10 years and show multi-function. They are neuroprotectants, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antithrombic agents as well as vasoconstriction inhibitors and amyloid-peptide (Aβ) cleaners by means of their polyphenols: baicalin, baicalein, wogonin (in scutellaria), and paeonol, paeonoside, paeoniflorin (PF) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) (in paeonia veitchii and paeonia suffruticosa). Other 4 medical plants: astragali, ligusticum wallichii, angelica sinensis and carthamus tinctorius (saffron) have been the major medicines to treat ischemia for hundreds of years in China, Korea and Japan. Our recent experimental studies demonstrated the neuroprotective efficacy of the combination of these phyotmedicines on mitigating brain infarction and global ischemia as well as preventing the neurodegeneration following ischemia. Owing to their multi-function, including improving cerebral blood circulation, they therefore have the potential to alleviate the symptoms of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Pharmacology of the 7 herbs and their major relative polyphenols is depicted in the article. PMID:22070681

  6. Evidence for a palaeo-oil column and alteration of residual oil in a gas-condensate field: Integrated oil inclusion and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Burruss, Robert C.; Chou, I.-Ming; Kempton, Richard; Liu, Keyu; Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2014-10-01

    In the Phuong Dong gas condensate field, Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam, hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz trapped a variety of petroleum fluids in the gas zone. Based on the attributes of the oil inclusion assemblages (fluorescence colour of the oil, bubble size, presence of bitumen), the presence of a palaeo-oil column is inferred prior to migration of gas into the reservoir. When a palaeo-oil column is displaced by gas, a residual volume fraction of oil remains in pores. If the gas does not completely mix with the oil, molecular partitioning between the residual oil and the new gas charge may change the composition and properties of the residual oil (gas stripping or gas washing). To simulate this phenomenon in the laboratory, we sealed small amounts of crude oil (42 and 30 °API) and excess pure gas (methane, ethane, or propane) in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs), with and without water. These mixtures were characterized with the same methods used to characterize the fluid inclusions, heating and cooling stage microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature, mixtures of ethane and propane with the 30 °API oil formed a new immiscible fluorescent liquid phase with colour that is visually more blue than the initial oil. The fluorescence of the original oil phase shifted to yellow or disappeared with formation of semi-solid residues. The blue-shift of the fluorescence of the immiscible phases and strong CH stretching bands in FT-IR spectra are consistent with stripping of hydrocarbon molecules from the oil. In experiments in FSCCs with water solid residues are common. At elevated temperature, reproducing geologic reservoir conditions, the fluorescence changes and therefore the molecular fractionation are enhanced. However, the precipitation of solid residues is responsible of more complex changes. Mixing experiments with the 42 °API oil do not form a new immiscible hydrocarbon liquid although the fluorescence displays a similar yellow shift when gas is added. Solid residues rarely form in mixtures with 42 °API oil. FT-IR spectra suggest that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of the original oil at short wavelengths to be due to the partitioning of low molecular weight aromatic molecules into the vapour phase and/or the new immiscible liquid phase. The decrease of fluorescence intensity at long wavelengths appears to be due to loss of high molecular weight aromatics during precipitation of solid residues by desorption of aromatics and resins from asphaltenes. Desorption of low molecular weight aromatics and resins from asphaltenes during precipitation can also increase the fluorescence intensity at short wavelengths of the residual oil. Water clearly affects the precipitation of semi-solid residues from the oil phase of the lowest API gravity oil. The change of hydrocarbon phase(s) in UV-visible fluorescence and FT-IR enclosed within the FSCCs were compared with the fluorescence patterns of natural fluid inclusions at Phuong Dong gas condensate field. The experimental results support the concept of gas-washing of residual oil and are consistent with the oil inclusion attributes from the current gas zone at Phuong Dong field. The hydrocarbon charge history of the fractured granite reservoir is interpreted to result from the trapping of residual oil after drainage of a palaeo-oil column by gas.

  7. Challenges in analysing ambient noise to characterise seismic slope response in complex site conditions: the case of hillslopes in Qiaozhuang (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Wasowski, Janusz; Luo, Yonghong; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Yungsheng

    2015-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 12th, 2008 shattered and induced failures on slopes of hills surroundings the centre of the town of Qiaozhuang, located 300 Km NE of the mainshock epicentre. This motivated the initial investigations on the possible occurrence of topographic amplification phenomena, which were conducted through a temporary accelerometer monitoring carried out between April and October 2009 on Weigan hill and Mount Dong, located SW and NE of the Qiaozhuang centre, respectively. In both cases, the amplification factors were found higher at sites closer to the hilltop and lower near the foot of the slope (Luo et al., 2014). However, the general characteristics of slope response also revealed that resonance phenomena were controlled by the local geological setting characterised by Silurian phyllites with sub-vertical schistosity (at Weigan) and by fractured Precambrian limestones (at Dong). To further investigate local slope response, ambient noise recordings, based on the calculation of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVNR or Nakamura method), were also conducted on several sites in the peri-urban area, including those occupied by the accelerometer stations. The latter provided the possibility to validate the outcomes of ambient noise analysis. Data interpretation has been hampered by a contingent factor, i.e. the occurrence of environmental conditions characterised by a strong E-W oriented peak at low frequencies (below 1 Hz), and by the locally complex structural setting. For example, in the case of Weigan hill the sub-vertical schistosity appeared responsible for a considerable amplification of vertical ground motion. The former problem implies the need of a repetition of measurements under different environmental conditions to distinguish permanent, site-specific properties of noise related to slope dynamic response. By altering the H/V ratio, the presence of vertical amplification represents an obstacle for a routine data analysis and a straightforward interpretation of results. Therefore, further developments in advanced techniques of noise data analysis techniques appear necessary to facilitate the extraction of reliable information on seismic response of slopes in geologically complex conditions. Reference Luo Y., Del Gaudio V., Huang R., Wang Y. & Wasowski J., 2014: Evidence of hillslope directional amplification from accelerometer recordings at Qiaozhuang (Sichuan -- China). Engineering Geology, 183, 193-207, doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.10.015.

  8. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1 to below the detection limits, respectively. The experimental results suggested that the amendment of surface coating agents can be a promising alternative for inhibition of sulfide oxidation at AMD sites.

  9. Dongsha Area Gas-hydrate Petroleum System in northern Slope of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pibo, Su; Zhibin, Sha

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in addressing key issues on the formation, occurrence,and stability of gas hydrate in nature. The concept of a gas-hydrate petroleum system, similar to the system that guides current conventional oil and gas exploration,is gaining acceptance.A gas-hydrate petroleum systems model is a digital data model of a gas-hydrate petroleum system in which the interrelated processes and their results can be simulated by numerical modeling.A new module of gas-hydrate petroleum system simulating can predict the thickness of the gas hydrate stability field, the generation and migration of biogenic and thermogenic methane gas,and its accumulation as gas hydrates in gas hydrate stability field. Dongsha area is located to eastern part of the Pearl River Mouth basin, and is one of the key hydrate-exploration areas in China. However, the gas hydrate petroleum system and basin modeling in Dongsha area haven't been paid enough attention. In the paper,geological conditions for gas hydrate formation have been naturally prepared on the Dong sha area.The paper first analyzed the geological-tectonic conditions of gas hydrate formation in Dongsha area,and selected the typical sections in Dong sha uplift area and southwest taiwan basin.The geological models of gas hydrate reservoir in the two study area were constructed through the typical seismic image.The typical seismic lines are obtained from the two study area by Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey.In combination with physical,thermal and geochemical data,the match condition of gas hydrate formation was studied.by sedimentary basin simulation technique.The research results is as followed:1.In southwest taiwan basin Basin, thermal developing history is low in deep department stratum,Source of gas of hydrate come from shallower biogenic gas;2.In Dongsha uplift areas,the thickness of Cenozoic is thin and the Sediment is limited,so biogenic gas was scarce,Source of gas of hydrate come from a nearby depression;3.Comparatively speaking,southwest taiwan basin is a better area for gas hydrate formation.

  10. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Liu, Yi; Luo, X B; Isobe, M; Yuan, G L; Liu, Y Q; Hua, Y; Song, X Y; Yang, J W; Li, X; Chen, W; Li, Y; Yan, L W; Song, X M; Yang, Q W; Duan, X R

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported. PMID:24880364

  11. Study on Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (CMB) in Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Chang, C.; Wang, C. J.; Wang, B.

    2007-05-01

    The profiles of major Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sources including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, painting, asphalt, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biomass burning and petrochemical industry in Pearl River Delta were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken by using dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, laboratory simulation for biomass burning. The concentrations of 108 VOC species of sources were quantified by using canister with pre-concentration-GC/MS system, from which 52 PAMS hydrocarbons and one kind of chlorinated hydrocarbon were deployed to build the source profiles for source apportionment of VOCs. Based the measurement of source profiles, the possible tracers for various emission sources were identified, e.g 2-methylbutane and 1,3-butadiene were the tracers for motor vehicle exhaust, the characteristic compounds of architectural and furnishing coatings are aromatics such as toluene and m/p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and the nonane, decane and undecane are found to represent the asphalt emissions etc.. The CMB receptor model was applied to source apportionment of 58 hydrocarbons measured at seven sites during the PRD campaign, 2004. The 12 kinds of VOC sources include gasoline/diesel-powered vehicle exhaust, gasoline/diesel headspace vapor, vehicle evaporative emissions, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage, painting vapors, asphalt emission from paved road, biomass burning, coal burning, chemical industry and petroleum refinery. Vehicle exhaust was the largest sources contributing over half of the ambient VOCs at the three urban sites (GuangZhou, FoShan and ZhongShan). LPG leakage played an important role with the percentage of 8- 16% in most sites in PRD. Contributions from solvents usage were highest at DongGuan, an industrial site. At XinKen, the solvents and coatings had the largest percentage of 31% probably due to the influence of its upwind area of DongGuan. The local biomass burning was also found to be a noticeable source at XK.

  12. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Luo, X. B.; Isobe, M.; Yuan, G. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  13. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. P. Liu, Yi; Yuan, G. L.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Luo, X. B.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Isobe, M.

    2014-05-15

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team , Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  14. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Miao, Shui; Lehotay, Steven J; Li, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Heng; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Lu, Ji-Wei; Lan, Lan; Ji, Shen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, A. dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin and Lonicera japonica Thunb., was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background interference. For sample preparation, QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was applied. Due to the unique characteristics of TCMs, the clean-up step was optimised by adjusting amounts of primary secondary amine, C18, graphitised carbon black and silica sorbents. Validation was mainly performed by determining analyte recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 10, 50, 100 and 200 ng g(-1), with seven replicates at each concentration. Method trueness, precision, linearity of calibration curves, lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) and matrix effects were determined to demonstrate method and instrument performance. Among the 107 pesticides tested, approximately 80% gave recoveries from 80% to 110% and < 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). The LCLs for nearly all pesticides were 5 ng g(-1), and as low as 0.1 ng g(-1) for dichlofenthion, endosulfan sulphate, flumetralin, isofenphos-methyl, methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulphide and trifluralin. The results indicate that GC-NCI-MS/MS is an excellent technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of targeted GC-amenable pesticides at ultra-trace levels, especially in complex matrices such as TCMs. PMID:26125677

  15. Differentiation of five species of Danggui raw materials by FTIR combined with 2D-COS IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Rui; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Xu, Chang-Hua; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Qun; Lu, Guang-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Five herbs named as Chinese Danggui (CDG), Japanese Danggui (JDG), Korea Danggui (KDG), Lovage root (LR) and Angelica root (AR) are widely and confusedly used in eastern and western countries owing to their homonym. These herbs come from different plant species resulting in the variety of bioactive components and medical efficacy. A method combing tri-step IR macro-fingerprinting techniques with statistical pattern recognition was therefore employed discriminate the five herbs in order to assure their genuineness. A total of 26 samples were collected and identified by conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-COS IR) spectroscopy. CDG and KDG were easily differentiated from others herbs by FTIR and SD-IR spectra. The characteristic peaks of CDG were located at 1068, 1051, 990, 909 and 867 cm-1, whilst KDG contained the peaks located at 1628, 1565, 1392, 1232 and 1136 cm-1. By 2D-COS IR spectra, the bands in the range of 950-1110 cm-1 could be a characteristic range to identify the five herbs. There were six auto-peaks located at 978, 991, 1028 (strongest), 1061, 1071 and 1097 cm-1 for CDG, six auto-peaks at 975, 991, 1026, 1053, 1070 (strongest) and 1096 cm-1 for KDG, five auto-peaks at 970, 1009, 1037, 1070 and 1096 (strongest) cm-1 for JDG, five auto-peaks at 973 (strongest), 1009, 1033, 1072 and 1099 cm-1 for LR, and five auto-peaks at 974 (strongest), 1010, 1033, 1072 and 1099 cm-1 for AR. Classification analysis of FTIR showed that these species located in different clusters. The results indicate the tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combines with principle component analysis (PCA) is suitable to rapidly and nondestructively differentiate these herbs.

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Ligustilide-Stimulated Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Mouse Thromboembolic Stroke Model.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kang; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Huang, Pi-Chun; Lin, Po-Cheng; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a result of cerebral ischemia that triggers a cascade of both physiological and biochemical events. No effective treatment is available for stroke; however, stem cells have the potential to rescue tissue from the effects of stroke. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an abundant source of adult stem cells; therefore, ADSC therapy can be considered as a future strategy for regenerative medicine. However, more research is required to improve the effectiveness of transplanted ADSCs as a treatment for stroke in the mouse stroke model. Ligustilide, isolated from the herb Angelica sinensis, exhibits a protective effect on neurons and inhibits inflammation. We also demonstrated that ligustilide treatment increases the expression levels of homing factors such as SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of ADSC transplantation and ligustilide treatment in a mouse thromboembolic stroke model by behavioral tests, including beam walking, locomotor activity, and rotarod analysis. ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide were transplanted into the brains of stroke mice. The results showed that the therapeutic effect of ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide was better than that of ADSCs without ligustilide pretreatment. There was no difference between the recovery of mice treated by ADSC transplantation combined with subcutaneous ligustilide injection and that of mice treated only with ADSCs. The TUNEL assay showed fewer apoptotic cells in the brains of mice transplanted with ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide as well as in those without pretreatment. In summary, pretreatment of ADSCs with ligustilide improves the therapeutic efficacy of ADSC transplantation. The results of this study will help improve stem cell therapies being developed for future clinical applications. PMID:26787228

  17. A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 74 pesticides in Chinese material medica using modified QuEChERS sample preparation procedure and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Yun-Fei; Meng, Wen-Ting; Li, Dong-Xiang; Sun, Henry; Tong, Ling; Sun, Guo-Xiang

    2016-03-15

    The present study is focused on the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of seventy-four pesticides belonging to different chemical classes (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, dicarboximides, triazoles, etc.) in Chinese material medica. The samples were extracted according to the acetate QuEChERS protocol. To reduce the amount of co-extracted compounds, n-hexane instead of acetonitrile was employed as the extraction solvent. To improve the overall recoveries of problematic basic and base-sensitive compounds, sodium acetate was used to adjust the pH to a neutral condition, and florisil combined with octadecyl-modified silica (C18) were utilized in the cleanup step. The samples were analysed by GC-MS/MS, and quantified by matrix-matched calibration. The validation study was carried out on two representative herbs, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelica Sinensis Radix. In two matrices, the linearity of the calibration was good between 5 and 250ng/mL concentration ranges, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) less than 0.01mg/kg for most pesticides. At the LOQs and ten times the LOQs, the mean recoveries of almost all pesticides were within 70-120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 10%. The method was applied on twenty real samples. Seven batches of Chuanxiong and five batches of Danggui were found to contain the residues. The combination of modified QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS offers low cost of analysis as well as excellent accuracy and sensitivity. This method could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:26894850

  18. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from aerial parts of Korean salad plants.

    PubMed

    Heo, Buk-Gu; Park, Yong-Seo; Chon, Sang-Uk; Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Ja-Yong; Gorinstein, Shela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 11 Korean medicinal salad plants. The highest total phenolic content of the methanol extracts was found in Aster scaber (17.1 mg 100 g(-1)), followed by Ixeris dentate (16.4 mg 100 g(-1)), Aster yomena (12.0 mg 100 g(-1)) and Sedum sarmentosum (9.1 mg 100 g(-1)) of FW. Methanol extracts of Ixeris dentate and Aster scaber at 50 microg mL(-1) exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity by 86.4 and 83.3%, respectively. It was registered a dose-dependent increase of DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content of the studied plant extracts was correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. It was found by means of MTT assay, that cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts was the highest against HCT-116. Methanol extracts from Petasites japonicus (IC(50)<25.0 microg mL(-1)) showed the highest activity against HCT-116, following by Angelica gigas (34.75 microg mL(-1)), Erythronium japonicum (44.06 microg mL(-1)), and Aster scaber (54.87 microg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the studied salad plants have high total phenolics content and high antioxidant activity. These plants dose-dependently increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The total phenolics level was highly correlated with the free radical scavenging activity. Most of the studied salad plants have potent cytotoxicity activity. The results of this investigation suggest that the extracts of studied salad plants could be an addition to basic medicine for some diseases. PMID:18356580

  19. Treatment with QiBaoMeiRan, a Kidney-Invigorating Chinese Herbal Formula, Antagonizes Estrogen Decline in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-ping; Ding, Jie; Liu, Zhen-li; Song, Zhi-qian; Liu, Hong-ning

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) contain multi-interactive compounds that have been used for treatment of peri-menopausal syndrome and have become a new phytoestrogens resource. The QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR), including Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Semen Cuscutae, Fructus Lycii, Poria, and Fructus Psoraleae, has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function. However, no evidence base links QBMR to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertook a characterization of estrogenic activity of QBMR using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were treated with QBMR at doses of 0.875, 1.75, and 3.5 grams/kg per day for 8 weeks. QBMR treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by vaginal cornification, reversal of atrophy of uterus, vagina, and mammary gland, and up-regulation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression in the reproductive target tissues, where ER? up-regulation was stronger than that of ER?. Meanwhile, treatment with QBMR significantly increased adrenal weight and serum estradiol levels and tended to decrease serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QBMR significantly decreased weight gain and rectal temperature increase caused by ovariectomy, and the largest changes in rectal temperature were found at the lowest dose. The data suggest that QBMR's estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QBMR components. This study demonstrates that QBMR activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QBMR treatment of post-menopausal symptoms. PMID:24773352

  20. An investigation into competence in TCM of BSN graduates from technological universities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chung, Ue-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what competences in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be possessed by Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) graduates from technological universities in Taiwan. There were two phases in this study: focus groups and expert panel discussion. First, we held four focus groups, and interviewed 31 participants, including consumers, nursing staff and clinical nursing faculty. The interview tapes were transcribed verbatim, were proofed for accuracy and the content was analyzed. The results were then discussed by four academic experts in a panel discussion. Results indicated that the TCM competences of BSN graduates from technological universities should include the following: (1) to understand the basic concepts of TCM, including Yin/Yang, the Five Evolutive Phases, holistic view, the Five Viscera and Six Bowels, Meridians, etiology, and concepts of therapy and health preservation; (2) to recognize the cold and hot nature of food; (3) to illustrate the common dietetic care for immune enhancement in the four seasons, and the foods that help postnatal and postoperative physical regeneration; (4) to illustrate the properties, indications, and administration of common Chinese medicines, including: Ginseng, Lycium, Astragalus, Angelica sinensis (danggui), Chrysanthemum, Pinellia, Zizyphi fructus; (5) to describe the properties, indications, adverse effects, and administration of Siwutang and Shenghuatang; (6) to describe basic principles of administering both Chinese medicine and Western medicine; (7) to describe the indications and cautions of the following techniques: acupuncture, scraping therapy, and cupping; (8) to implement acupressure as a measure for promoting comfort under the following conditions: pain, vomiting, insomnia, palpitations; and (9) to demonstrate an open mind and cautious attitude to respect consumers using TCM. Results of the study can serve as a reference for nurse educators when training BSN graduates from technological universities in TCM competences. PMID:18080975

  1. [A study on protein metabolism in nephrotic patients treated with Chinese herbs].

    PubMed

    Li, L; Yu, H; Pan, J

    1995-10-01

    It was found in our previous studies that two Chinese herbs Astragali and Angelica (A&A) together with high protein diet could ameliorate the lowering of serum albumin level and increase the synthesis rate of protein as shown by 15N-glicine tracer priming protein turnover study in nephrotic rats. Further experiment was designed to investigate the role of A&A and high protein intake in protein dynamic study and nitrogen balance in nephrotic patients. The level of serum total protein (STP), serum albumin (SA), urinary protein loss (UP), serum cholesterol (Cho) and index number of protein turnover and nitrogen balance in 7 patients were measured before and after treatment of 30 days with A&A. The results showed that after treatment the patients had significantly increased STA and SA (44.3 +/- 5.60 vs 49.7 +/- 6.80 P < 0.01; 22.6 +/- 0.42 vs. 29.4 +/- 7.40 P < 0.05), decreased UP and Cho (6.54 +/- 1.83 vs 4.63 +/- 1.33 P < 0.05; 9.69 +/- 2.31 vs. 7.82 +/- 1.95 P < 0.05) and increased net rates of total protein synthesis (1.06 +/- 0.03 vs 1.27 +/- 0.12 P < 0.05). It is concluded that A&A together with high protein intake could improve the disorder of protein metabolism and increase the level of serum protein by improving the net rate of protein synthesis in nephrotic patients. PMID:8731827

  2. Synergistic antidepressant-like effect of ferulic acid in combination with piperine: involvement of monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Gaowen; Ruan, Lina; Chen, Ruijie; Wang, Renye; Xie, Xupei; Zhang, Meixi; Chen, Lichao; Yan, Qizhi; Reed, Miranda; Chen, Jiechun; Xu, Ying; Pan, Jianchun; Huang, Wu

    2015-12-01

    The lifetime prevalence rate for major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately 17 % for most developed countries around the world. Dietary polyphenols are currently used as an adjuvant therapy to accelerate the therapeutic efficacy on depression. Ferulic acid (FA) or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid (Fig. 1a) is a main polyphenolic component of Chinese herb Radix Angelicae Sinensis, which is found to have antidepressant-like effects through regulating serotonergic and noradrenergic function. The present study examined the synergistic effect of low doses of FA combined with subthreshold dose of piperine, a bioavailability enhancer, on depression-like behaviors in mice, and investigated the possible mechanism. The administration of FA, even in the highest dose tested, reduced immobility time by 60 % in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests (TST and FST) in mice when compared to control. The maximal antidepressant-like effect of FA was obtained with 200 mg/kg. In addition, piperine only produced a weak antidepressant-like effect in the TST and FST. However, the evidence from the interaction analysis suggested a synergistic effect when low doses of FA were combined with a subthreshold dose of piperine. Further neurochemical evidence such as monoamine levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus and measurements of monoamine oxidase activity also supported a synergistic effect of FA and piperine in the enhancement of monoaminergic function. This finding supports the concept that the combination strategy might be an alternative therapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with high efficacy and low side effects. PMID:26220010

  3. Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Lin, Po-Cheng; Liu, Cyong-Yue; Liu, Po-Yen; Chang, Li-Fu; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Liu, Fu-Chen; Tai, Dar-Fu; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that the natural compound z-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis, has antitumor effects. Because of the limitation of the blood-brain barrier, the Bdph dosage required for treatment of glioma is relatively high. To solve this problem, we developed a local-release system with Bdph incorporated into a biodegradable polyanhydride material, p(CPP-SA; Bdph-Wafer), and investigated its antitumor effects. On the basis of in vitro release kinetics, we demonstrated that the Bdph-Wafer released 50% of the available Bdph by the sixth day, and the release reached a plateau phase (90% of Bdph) by the 30th day. To investigate the in situ antitumor effects of the Bdph-Wafer on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we used 2 xenograft animal models—F344 rats (for rat GBM) and nude mice (for human GBM)—which were injected with RG2 and DBTRG-05MG cells, respectively, for tumor formation and subsequently treated subcutaneously with Bdph-Wafers. We observed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, with no significant adverse effects on the rodents. Moreover, we demonstrated that the antitumor effect of Bdph on RG2 cells was via the PKC pathway, which upregulated Nurr77 and promoted its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Finally, to study the effect of the interstitial administration of Bdph in cranial brain tumor, Bdph-Wafers were surgically placed in FGF-SV40 transgenic mice. Our Bdph-Wafer significantly reduced tumor size in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our study showed that p(CPP-SA) containing Bdph delivered a sufficient concentration of Bdph to the tumor site and effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the glioma. PMID:21565841

  4. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. Methods HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. Results In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. Conclusion HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:19292900

  5. Plant and Fungal Diversity in Gut Microbiota as Revealed by Molecular and Culture Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Gouba, Nina; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. Methodology/Principal Findings A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp.) species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta). Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda) are used as medicinal plants. Conclusions/Significance Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health. PMID:23555039

  6. Cluster K Mycobacteriophages: Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mycobacteriophage TM4

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Welkin H.; Ferreira, Christina M.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Benjamin, Robert C.; Davis, Ariangela J.; DeJong, Randall J.; Elgin, Sarah C. R.; Guilfoile, Forrest R.; Forsyth, Mark H.; Harris, Alexander D.; Harvey, Samuel E.; Hughes, Lee E.; Hynes, Peter M.; Jackson, Arrykka S.; Jalal, Marilyn D.; MacMurray, Elizabeth A.; Manley, Coreen M.; McDonough, Molly J.; Mosier, Jordan L.; Osterbann, Larissa J.; Rabinowitz, Hannah S.; Rhyan, Corwin N.; Russell, Daniel A.; Saha, Margaret S.; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Simon, Stephanie E.; Sims, Erika F.; Tovar, Isabel G.; Weisser, Emilie G.; Wertz, John T.; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen A.; Williamson, Kurt E.; Zhang, Bo; Cresawn, Steven G.; Jain, Paras; Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2011-01-01

    Five newly isolated mycobacteriophages –Angelica, CrimD, Adephagia, Anaya, and Pixie – have similar genomic architectures to mycobacteriophage TM4, a previously characterized phage that is widely used in mycobacterial genetics. The nucleotide sequence similarities warrant grouping these into Cluster K, with subdivision into three subclusters: K1, K2, and K3. Although the overall genome architectures of these phages are similar, TM4 appears to have lost at least two segments of its genome, a central region containing the integration apparatus, and a segment at the right end. This suggests that TM4 is a recent derivative of a temperate parent, resolving a long-standing conundrum about its biology, in that it was reportedly recovered from a lysogenic strain of Mycobacterium avium, but it is not capable of forming lysogens in any mycobacterial host. Like TM4, all of the Cluster K phages infect both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria, and all of them – with the exception of TM4 – form stable lysogens in both Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; immunity assays show that all five of these phages share the same immune specificity. TM4 infects these lysogens suggesting that it was either derived from a heteroimmune temperate parent or that it has acquired a virulent phenotype. We have also characterized a widely-used conditionally replicating derivative of TM4 and identified mutations conferring the temperature-sensitive phenotype. All of the Cluster K phages contain a series of well conserved 13 bp repeats associated with the translation initiation sites of a subset of the genes; approximately one half of these contain an additional sequence feature composed of imperfectly conserved 17 bp inverted repeats separated by a variable spacer. The K1 phages integrate into the host tmRNA and the Cluster K phages represent potential new tools for the genetics of M. tuberculosis and related species. PMID:22053209

  7. Byakangelicin induces cytochrome P450 3A4 expression via transactivation of pregnane X receptors in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Luan, Xiaofei; Gui, Haiyan; Yan, Peng; Yang, Dongfang; Song, Xiulong; Liu, Wei; Hu, Gang; Yan, Bingfang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Byakangelicin is found in extracts of the root of Angelica dahurica, used in Korea and China as a traditional medicine to treat colds, headache and toothache. As byakangelicin can inhibit the effects of sex hormones, it may increase the catabolism of endogenous hormones. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of byakangelicin on the cytochrome P450 isoform cytochrome (CY) P3A4 in human hepatocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cultures of human hepatocytes and a hepatoma cell line (Huh7 cells) were used. mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Plasmid constructs and mutants were prepared by cloning and site-directed mutagenesis. Reporter (luciferase) activity was determined by transient co-transfection experiments. KEY RESULTS In human primary hepatocytes, byakangelicin markedly induced the expression of CYP3A4 both at the mRNA level (approximately fivefold) and the protein level (approximately threefold) but did not affect expression of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR). In reporter assays, byakangelicin activated CYP3A4 promoter in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50= 5 µM), and this activation was enhanced by co-transfection with hPXR. Further reporter assays demonstrated that the eNR4 binding element in the CYP3A4 promoter was required for the transcriptional activation of CYP3A4 by byakangelicin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Byakangelicin induced expression and activity of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. This induction was achieved by the transactivation of PXR and not by increased expression of PXR. Therefore, byakangelicin is likely to increase the expression of all PXR target genes (such as MDR1) and induce a wide range of drug–drug interactions. PMID:20942813

  8. Simultaneous determination of seven coumarins by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and arthritic rats after oral administration of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan or single-herb extract.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Fenrong; Ai, Yu; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2015-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of seven coumarins, the bio-active ingredients of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), in rat plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method with ether-dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) was used to prepare the plasma samples. Analytes and internal standard (IS) of bifendate were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75mm×3.0mm, 2.2μm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.05% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 0.03-0.25ng/mL for all the analytes. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the seven analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The matrix effect and the mean extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all within satisfaction. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the seven active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and arthritic rats after oral administration of HLXLD, Angelica pubescens extract and Notopterygium incisum extract, respectively. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes among the different groups. PMID:25932790

  9. [Acupoint selection and medication rules analysis for allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application-based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Han, Dongyue; Liu, Chang; Qie, Lili; Wang, Fuchun; Wang Zhaohui

    2015-11-01

    To make a systematic study on acupoints selection and medication rules for allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application, literature regarding clinical researches on acupoint application for allergic rhinitis since 2000 has been retrieved; medication and acupoints involved were preprocessed and cluster analysis technique was applied to classify the data. As a result, a total of 37 pieces of literature were included, involving 27 types of herbs and 33 acupoints. The results showed Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis), Jiangzhi (Ginger juice) and Baizhi (Radix angelicae) constituted the main herb prescription, and the layer was increased along with frequency of use. Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14), Shenshu (BL 23), Pishu (BL 20), Gaohuang (BL 43), Fengmen (BL 12) constituted the main acupoint prescription, which were clustered into 4 classes; Feishu (BL 13) and Dazhui (GV 14) constituted the first class; Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) constituted the second class; the first and second class merged into the third class, Including Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui (GV 14), Shenshu (BL 23) and Pishu (BL 20); Gaohuang (BL 43) and Fengmen (BL 12) constituted the fourth class; the fourth class and the third class constituted the whole acupoint prescription. It was showed that for the allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint application, the medication was mainly epispastic herbs with pungent nature that belonged to the lung, spleen and kidney meridian, which presented the principle of simultaneous treatment of principal and subordinate symptoms; also the medication can be selected from core layer to supporting layer based on clinical needs; for the selection of acupoints, acupoints in lung and bladder meridian were mainly selected to assist exterior and resist the pathogenic qi, which could treat allergic rhinitis fundamentally by joint use with acupoints in soleen and kidney meridian. PMID:26939343

  10. What has been overlooked on study of Chinese materia medica in the West?

    PubMed

    Liu, Willow J H

    2015-07-01

    Chinese materia medica (CMM), including Chinese herbal, animal, and mineral medicine, has been widely researched in the past century for their biological and pharmacological activities. However, their mechanism and clinical efficacy studies did not always give expected results. For example, the most commonly used Chinese herb for menstrual disorders, Radix Angelicae sinensis, showed neither estrogenic nor progesteronic activity in laboratory and clinical studies. Its efficacy should not be denied simply based on such results, because it is mostly used together with other herbs in formulae. Moreover, its regulation on menstruation may take effect through other mechanisms, such as regulation of blood circulation. The key difference of Chinese medicine (CM) from conventional medicine is its unique holistic view on human body and diseases. CMM is mostly applied in clinic in the form of formulae. Study on individual CMM, simply using methods for development of conventional drugs, is unable to thoroughly reveal the power of CMM formulae. The reason may partly result from improper design due to the lack understanding about application principle of CMMs in CM, and/or to current lack of knowledge about the causes of some symptoms and diseases. This paper will introduce the importance of qi and blood in CM etiology and pathology, Zheng differentiation, formulation of CMMs, and explain why one formula can treat different diseases and one disease can be treated with different formulae. Examples in the paper will demonstrate that proper studies on Zheng and its corresponding clinically proven formulae could help scientists find new direction to explain and treat symptoms and diseases that so far modern medicine has been unable to, provided that the designer properly understands CM theories, etiology and pathology of CM, as well as modern medicine. Strategy suggestions about research methods for CMM and its formulae will be given at the end. PMID:26156100

  11. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

  12. Effects of Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang, an herbal decoction, on iron uptake in iron-deficient anemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ganzon, Jerome G; Lee, Chia-Jung; Shiah, Her-Shyong; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-01-01

    Dang-Gui-Bu-Xue-Tang (DBT), a combination of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Astragali Radix, is a widely used herbal decoction in traditional Chinese medicine primarily to promote or invigorate the “blood”. In this study, we explored this ancient formulation and provide evidence of its blood-toning properties. We used the improvement iron uptake as promote or invigorate the “blood” indicator. Ferritin formation of Caco-2 cells in vitro assay and diet-induced anemia (DIA) in rat model were used to prove its improvement iron uptake and ameliorating effects. Finally, the iron–DBT interactions were measured by iron-binding assay. We first demonstrated DBT increased uptake of ferrous iron through the biosynthesis of ferritin by Caco-2 cells and determined which complementary treatment would provide optimum results. Thereafter, effects of the treatment on improving the bioavailability of absorbed iron in the form of hemoglobin (Hb) were established using a DIA-animal model. The results showed that DBT slightly improved Hb levels compared with the baseline Hb and pretreatment with DBT for 2 hours prior to supplementation with ferrous sulfate provided the greatest gain in Hb levels in DIA rats. However, DBT and ferrous sulfate were co-treated with Caco-2 cell or DIA rats, the ferritin formation and Hb levels both were decreased. In iron-binding assay, the DBT extract influenced the free Fe(II) type in the FeSO4 solution. Therefore, we suggest that complementary treatment with DBT and iron supplementation can have a strong ameliorating effect on iron-deficiency anemia in clinical settings, but needs a 2-hour interval of DBT administration prior to ferrous sulfate treatment. PMID:27041997

  13. n-Butylidenephthalide Protects against Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration and α-Synuclein Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ru-Huei; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chen, Chang-Shi; Chang, Wen-Lin; Chen, Yue-Mi; Huang, Jing-En; Li, Rong-Jhu; Tsai, Sung-Yu; Hung, Huey-Shan; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Wang, Yu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills and cognitive function. To date, the disease has no effective therapies. The identification of new drugs that provide benefit in arresting the decline seen in PD patients is the focus of much recent study. However, the lengthy time frame for the progression of neurodegeneration in PD increases both the time and cost of examining potential therapeutic compounds in mammalian models. An alternative is to first evaluate the efficacy of compounds in Caenorhabditis elegans models, which reduces examination time from months to days. n-Butylidenephthalide is the naturally-occurring component derived from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis. It has been shown to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties, but no reports have yet described the effects of n-butylidenephthalide on PD. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for n-butylidenephthalide to improve PD in C. elegans models. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, we employed a pharmacological strain that expresses green fluorescent protein specifically in dopaminergic neurons (BZ555) and a transgenic strain that expresses human α-synuclein in muscle cells (OW13) to investigate the antiparkinsonian activities of n-butylidenephthalide. Our results demonstrate that in PD animal models, n-butylidenephthalide significantly attenuates dopaminergic neuron degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine; reduces α-synuclein accumulation; recovers lipid content, food-sensing behavior, and dopamine levels; and prolongs life-span of 6-hydroxydopamine treatment, thus revealing its potential as a possible antiparkinsonian drug. n-Butylidenephthalide may exert its effects by blocking egl-1 expression to inhibit apoptosis pathways and by raising rpn-6 expression to enhance the activity of proteasomes. Conclusions/Significance n-Butylidenephthalide may be one of the effective neuroprotective agents for PD. PMID:24416384

  14. Scientific basis of botanical medicine as alternative remedies for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cindy L H; Or, Terry C T; Ho, Marco H K; Lau, Allan S Y

    2013-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that causes permanent disability and mortality to approximately 1 to 100 people in the world. Patients with RA not only suffer from pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in their joints, but also have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and lymphoma. Typically prescribed medications, including pain-relieving drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, can help to relieve pain, reduce inflammation and slow the course of disease progression in RA patients. However, the general effectiveness of the drugs has been far from satisfactory. Other therapeutic modalities like TNF-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists targeting precise pathways within the immune system are expensive and may be associated with serious side effects. Recently, botanical medicines have become popular as alternative remedies as they are believed to be efficacious, safe and have over a thousand years experience in treating patients. In this review, we will summarize recent evidence for pharmacological effects of herbs including Black cohosh, Angelica sinensis, Licorice, Tripterygium wilfordii, Centella asiatica, and Urtica dioica. Scientific research has demonstrated that these herbs have strong anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects. A wide range of phytochemicals including phenolic acids, phenylpropanoid ester, triterpene glycosides, phthalide, flavonoids, triterpenoid saponin, diterpene and triterpene have been isolated and demonstrated to be responsible for the biological effects of the herbs. Understanding the mechanisms of action of the herbs may provide new treatment opportunities for RA patients. PMID:22700248

  15. Comparative metabolomics analysis on invigorating blood circulation for herb pair Gui-Hong by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujiao; Lin, Hang; Tang, Yuping; Li, Weixia; Shen, Juan; Kai, Jun; Yue, Shijun; Shang, Guanxiong; Zhu, Zhenhua; Shang, Erxin; Zhang, Changbin; Zhang, Li; Yan, Hui; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-03-25

    The compatibility of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG) and Flos Carthami (Honghua, HH), a famous herb pair Gui-Hong (GH), can produce synergistic and promoting blood effects. Although some physiological and pathological function parameters of the acute blood stasis have been investigated, little information about the changes of small metabolites in biofluids has been reported. In present study, global metabolic profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) combined with pattern recognition method was performed to discover the underlying blood-activating regulation mechanisms of DG, HH and GH on the acute blood stasis rats induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenaline hydrochloride and ice water bath. The total 14 metabolites (10 in urine and 4 in plasma), up regulated or down regulated (P<0.05 or 0.01), were identified and contributed to the acute blood stasis progress. These promising identified biomarkers underpin the metabolic pathway including phenylalanine metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism are disturbed in the acute blood stasis rats, which identified by using pathway analysis with MetPA. The altered metabolites and hemorheological indexes could be regulated closer to normal level after DG, HH and GH intervention. In term of activate blood circulation function, GH was the most effective as shown by the relative distance in PLS-DA score plots and relative intensity of metabolomics trategy, reflecting the synergic action between Danggui and Honghua. The results demonstrated that biofluids metabolomics was a powerful tool in clinical diagnosis and treatment of syndrome of blood stasis for providing information on changes in metabolites pathways. PMID:25668798

  16. According to the CPLL proteome sheriffs, not all aperitifs are created equal!

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteome of a popular aperitif in Northern Italy, called "Amaro Branzi", stated to be an infusion of a secret herbal mixture, of which some ingredients are declared on the label, namely Angelica officinalis, Gentiana lutea and orange peel, sweetened by a final addition of honey. In order to assess the genuineness of this commercial liqueur, we have prepared extracts of the three vegetable ingredients, assessed their proteomes, and compared them to the one found in the aperitif. The amaro's proteome was identified via prior capture with CPLLs at two different pH values (2.2 and 4.8). Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could confirm the presence of the following: six proteins originating from honey, 11 from orange peels, 29 from G. lutea and 46 from A. officinalis (including shared species), plus 33 species which could not be attributed to the other secret ingredients, due to paucity of genomic data on plant proteins, for a total of 93 unique gene products (merging shared proteins). This fully confirmed the genuineness of the product. Considering that most of these species could be present in trace amounts, undetectable by conventional techniques, the CPLL methodology, due to its ability to enhance the signal of trace components up to 3 to 4 orders of magnitude, could represent a powerful tool for investigating the genuineness and natural origin of commercial beverages in order to protect consumers from adulterated products. PMID:24802180

  17. Review on Natural Enemies and Diseases in the Artificial Cultivation of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zenghui; Shi, Ping; He, Yuanchuan; Zhang, Deli; He, Zongyi; Chen, Shijiang; Tu, Yongqin; Li, Li; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), well known as DongChongXiaCao (DCXC), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicinal species. In this article, we provide a systematic review of natural enemies and diseases encountered in artificial cultivation of DCXC. Unfortunately, DCXC has been endangered over the past decades due to overharvesting and a worsening ecological environment. Therefore, the artificial cultivation of DCXC has been extensively investigated in recent years. Complete indoor artificial cultivation and semi-field cultivation are the two most common strategies used to cultivate DCXC. However, cultured DCXCs are often attacked by various natural enemies and diseases, which have resulted in substantial loss of the valuable medicinal resource. In this study, we have summarized the species of natural enemies and types of diseases confronted by DCXC. Twenty reported natural enemy species are categorized into four classes, one of which is reported for the first time in this study. Moreover, six microbial pathogens are also discussed. The recapitulation of the natural enemies and diseases in DCXC artificial cultivation not only promote the development of integrated pest management of DCXC cultivation but also provide important information to help preserve and develop this valuable resource. PMID:26559703

  18. Improved version of a binding energy formula for heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z{>=}90 and N{>=}140

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Tiekuang; Ren Zhongzhou

    2008-06-15

    A local formula of binding energy for heavy and superheavy nuclei has very recently been proposed [Dong and Ren, Phys. Rev. C 72, 064331 (2005)]. In this paper, the limit of the predictive ability of this local formula is investigated. It is found that the neutron-proton correlations should be considered when higher precision is required. On the one hand, we introduce a new term |N-Z-50|/A, and on the other hand we consider the different strengths of proton-proton, neutron-neutron, and neutron-proton pairing correlations. For the first time, the standard deviation {radical}({sigma}{sup 2}) of the binding energies for 117 nuclei with Z{>=}90 and N{>=}140 is reduced to 0.105 MeV. The {alpha} decay energies Q{sub {alpha}} and half-lives T{sub {alpha}} of nuclei with Z=102-118 are reproduced quite well. The proton drip line of superheavy elements from Md (Z=101) to Ds (Z=110) are predicted.

  19. Control of disinfection by-product formation using ozone-based advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chung; Wang, Yu-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of ozone dosage, water temperature and catalyst addition in an ozonation-fluidized bed reactor (O3/FBR) on treated water quality and on the control of chlorinated and ozonated disinfection by-products (DBPs) were investigated. A biofiltration column was used to evaluate its removal efficiency on biodegradable organic matter and to reduce DBP formation. The Dong-Gang River, polluted by agricultural and domestic wastewater in Pingtung, Taiwan, was used as the water source. The treated water quality in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biodegradable DOC, ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) improved with increasing ozone and catalyst dosages. Catalytic ozonation was more effective than ozonation alone at reducing the formation of DBPs at a given dosage. Experimental results show that water temperature had little effect on the treated water quality with the O3/FBR system used in this study (p > 0.05). The combination of O3/FBR and the biofiltration process effectively decreased the amount ofDBP precursors. The concentration of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) was less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) requirement, which is 80 microg/L, for all treated waters and the concentration of five haloacetic acids (HAA5) fell below 60 microg/L with an ozone dosage higher than 2.5 mg/L. PMID:22629621

  20. Driving experience and special skills reflected in eye movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Atvars, Aigars

    2011-10-01

    When driving a vehicle, people use the central vision both to plan ahead and monitor their performance feedback (research by Donges, 1978 [1], and after). Discussion is ongoing if making eye movements do more than gathering information. Moving eyes may also prepare the following body movements like steering. Different paradigms exist to explore vision in driving. Our perspective was to quantify eye movements and fixation patterns of different proficiency individuals, a driving learner, a novice, an experienced driver and a European level car racer. Thus for safety reasons we started by asking them to follow a video tour through a known city, remote from an infrared eye tracker sampling at 250 Hz. We report that gaze strategy of an experienced driver differs qualitatively from that of an automobile sports master. Quantitative differences only were found between the latter and a driving learner or a novice driver. Experience in a motor action provides skills different from sports training. We are aiming at testing this finding in real world driving.

  1. Clinical Review of the Effects of Chukyu (spinehealing) Pharmacopuncture in the Treatment of Lumbago and Skelalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Yeob; Lee, Kyeong-A; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Jang, Kyung-Jun; Kim, Won-Il; Kim, Young-Gyun; Yoon, Hyun-Min

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the effects of Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture treatment in patients with lumbago and skelalgia. Methods: This clinical study included 45 patients who were treated for lumbago and skelalgia at the Department of Acupuncture and Moxibusition, Dong-Eui University College of Oriental Medicine, from July 5, 2011, to January 31, 2012. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: Chukyu (spinehealing)- pharmacopuncture-treated group (experimental group, n = 23) and normal saline-pharmacopuncture-treated group (control group, n = 22). Patients in the experimental group were treated with acupuncture and Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture while those in the control group were treated with acupuncture and normal saline pharmacopuncture. To estimate the efficacy of controlling pain, we checked the visual analog scale [VAS], and to estimate the improvement of the symptoms, we evaluated by pain rating scale [PRS] and the Oswestry low-back pain disability index [ODI]. Results: A comparison of the experimental and the control groups showed more significant improvements in the VAS, PRS, and ODI for the experimental group than for the control group. Conclusions: Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture can be used for effective treatment in patients with lumbago and skelalgia. PMID:25780646

  2. Investigation of chemical and physical properties of carbon nanotubes and their effects on cell biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chenbo

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used for a variety of applications from nanocircuits, to hydrogen storage devices, and from designing optical fibers to forming conductive plastics. Recently, their functionalization with biomolecules led to exciting biological and biomedical applications in drug delivery or bioimaging. However, because of CNTs interactions with biological systems and their ability to translocate and persist into the circulatory and lymphatic systems and biological tissues, concerns about CNTs intrinsic toxicity have risen. It is thus necessary to develop and implement sensitive analysis technologies that allow investigation of CNTs toxicity upon uptake into a biological system. This thesis provides a comprehensive guide of experiments that have been performed during my Ph.D. tenure at West Virginia University in the Department of Chemical Engineering, in the group of Prof. Cerasela Zoica Dinu. Briefly: Chapter one presents a systematic study of the CNTs physical and chemical properties and how these properties are changed upon exposure to chemical agents normally used during their cleaning and purification processes. Also, this chapter shows how acid oxidation treatment leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity making CNTs feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors. (Publication: Chenbo Dong, Alan S Campell, Reem Eldawud, Gabriela Perhinschi, and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes, Applied Surface Science, 2013, 268, 261-268.) Chapter two shows how exposure to CNTs changes the biomechanical properties of fixed human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). Specifically, by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation technology, we demonstrated that cellular exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for 24h induces significant changes in cellular biomechanics leading to increased cellular stiffness. The MWCNTs incubation also seemed to alter the surface area of the cells. Consequently, measures of the mechanical properties of the exposed cell could be used as indicators of its biological state and could offer valuable insights into the mechanisms associated with CNTs-induced genetic instability. (Publication: Chenbo Dong, Linda Sargent, Michael L Kashon, David Lowry, Jonathan S. Dordick, Steven H. Reynolds, Yon Rojanasakul and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Expose to carbon nanotubes leads to change in cellular biomechanics, Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2013, 7, 945-951.) Chapter three links together the MWCNTs exposure duration, internalization and induced biomechanical changes in fixed cells. Our findings indicated that changes in biomechanical properties of the fixed cells are a function of the uptake and internalization of the MWCNTs as well as their uptake time. Specifically, short exposure time did not seem to lead to considerable changes in the elastic properties in the cellular system. However, longer cellular exposure to CNTs leads to a higher uptake and internalization of the nanotubes and a larger effect on the cell mechanics. Such changes could be related to CNTs interactions with cellular elements and could bring information on the CNT intrinsic toxicity. Chapter four talks about the potential of purified forms of CNTs with increased hydrophilicity to affect live human lung epithelial cells when used at occupational relevant exposure doses for particles not otherwise regulated. Specifically, our results showed that exposure to MWCNTs affects the dynamics and the biomechanical properties of live cells by reducing the activity of the mitochondria and inducing cell cycle arrest. Our analysis emphasized that cellular toxicity observed upon exposure to MWCNTs is a synergism resulting from multiple types of interactions that could be analyzed by means of intracellular mechanical changes. This thesis contains Appendices of additional projects/publications for which I served as the first author: (1) Chenbo Dong, and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Molecular trucks and complementary tracks for bionanotechnological applications, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2013, 24, 612-619. (2) Chenbo Dong, Zijie Yan, Jacklyn Kokx, Douglas B. Chrisey and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of AgCl cubes synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid, Applied Surface Science, 2012, 258(10), 9218-9222.

  3. THE ORIGIN OF THE NEGATIVE TORQUE DENSITY IN DISK-SATELLITE INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Petrovich, Cristobal

    2012-03-01

    Tidal interaction between a gaseous disk and a massive orbiting perturber is known to result in angular momentum exchange between them. Understanding astrophysical manifestations of this coupling such as gap opening by planets in protoplanetary disks or clearing of gas by binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) embedded in accretion disks requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of the torque exerted on the disk by a perturber. Recent hydrodynamical simulations by Dong et al have shown evidence for the tidal torque density produced in a uniform disk to change sign at the radial separation of Almost-Equal-To 3.2 scale heights from the perturber's orbit, in clear conflict with the previous studies. To clarify this issue, we carry out a linear calculation of the disk-satellite interaction putting special emphasis on understanding the behavior of the perturbed fluid variables in physical space. Using analytical as well as numerical methods, we confirm the reality of the negative torque density phenomenon and trace its origin to the overlap of Lindblad resonances in the vicinity of the perturber's orbit-an effect not accounted for in previous studies. These results suggest that calculations of the gap and cavity opening in disks by planets and binary SMBHs should rely on more realistic torque density prescriptions than the ones used at present.

  4. Mechanism of Rhodium-Catalyzed Formyl Activation: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoling; Bai, Ruopeng; Liu, Song; Shan, Chunhui; Chen, Changguo; Lan, Yu

    2016-03-18

    Metal-catalyzed transfer hydroformylation is an important way of cleaving C-C bonds and constructing new double bonds. The newly reported density functional theory (DFT) method, M11-L, has been used to clarify the mechanism of the rhodium-catalyzed transfer hydroformylation reported by Dong et al. DFT calculations depict a deformylation and formylation reaction pathway. The deformylation step involves an oxidative addition to the formyl C-H bond, deprotonation with a counterion, decarbonylation, and β-hydride elimination. After olefin exchange, the formylation step takes place via olefin insertion into the Rh-H bond, carbonyl insertion, and a final protonation with the conjugate acid of the counterion. Theoretical calculations indicate that the alkalinity of the counterion is important for this reaction because both deprotonation and protonation occur during the catalytic cycle. A theoretical study into the formyl acceptor shows that the driving force of the reaction is correlated with the stability of the unsaturated bond in the acceptor. Our computational results suggest that alkynes or ring-strained olefins could be used as formyl acceptors in this reaction. PMID:26909857

  5. Influence of plant species and environmental conditions on epiphytic and endophytic pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacterial populations associated with field-grown rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Sa, Tongmin

    2007-10-01

    The total methylotrophic population associated with rice plants from different cultivars was enumerated at three different stages: vegetative, flowering, and harvesting. The bacterial population in the leaf, rhizosphere soil, endophytic in the stem and roots, and epiphytic in the florets and grains were determined from four rice cultivars, Il-mi, Nam-pyeoung, O-dae, and Dong-jin, sampled from three different field sites. The methylotrophic bacteria isolated on AMS media containing 0.5% methanol as the sole carbon source uniformly showed three distinct morphologies, which were recorded as separate groups and their distribution among the various samples was determined using the ecophysiological index. The growth stage at the time of sampling had a more significant effect on the methylotrophic population and their distribution than the field site or cultivar. A similar effect was also observed for the PPFMs, where their population in different plant parts increased from V10 to R4 and then decreased towards stage R9. A canonical discriminant analysis of the PPFM population from different parts of rice showed clear variations among the cultivars, sampled sites, and growth stages, although the variations were more prominent among the growth stages. PMID:18156780

  6. Quantum Phases of Atom-Molecule Mixtures of Fermionic Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    Nicolas Lopez (University of California, Riverside, USA) Chi-Yong Lin (National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan) Shan-Wen Tsai (University of California, Riverside, USA) Cold atom experiments have realized a variety of multicomponent quantum mixtures, including Bose-Fermi atomic mixtures. Mixtures of fermionic atoms and diatomic molecules, which are boson, have also been obtained by tuning of the interactions with external fields. We study many-body correlations in such a system where the molecules are weakly bound and therefore pairs of fermionic atoms easily convert into and dissociate from the bound molecule state and this exchange mediates a long-range interaction between the fermions. We consider a simple many-body Hamiltonian that includes the destruction of fermionic atom pairs to form single bosonic molecules and vice versa. We employ a functional renomalization-group approach and calculate the renormalized frequency-dependent interaction vertices and fermion self-energies. We find an instability from the disordered quantum liquid phase to a BCS phase and calculate the energy scale for the transition. The unusual frequency-dependence of this mediated interaction leads to strong renormalization of the self-energy, and also affects the couplings in the BCS channel.

  7. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, William E.; Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J.; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results. PMID:26587532

  8. Egg Development and Morphology of Larva and Juvenile of the Oryzias latipes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Hun; Kim, Chun-Cheol; Koh, Soo-Jin; Shin, Lim-Soo; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor the developmental features of embryos, larvae, and juveniles of Oryzias latipes (Temminck and Schlegel), Oryzias latipes was caught in river of Shinduck-dong, Yeosu-si, Jeollanam-do, on May 2011, and experiments were carried out in Ichthyology laboratory at Chonnam National University. The blastodisc step was the first level for natural spawning. The optic vesicle, Kupffer's vesicle, myotome began to appear 75 hours 57 minutes later. After blastodisc development, the pectoral fins were made at 143 hours 37 minutes and the tail was separated started at the same time. Hatching was observed at 167 hours 27 minutes after blastodisc. The total length of the hatched larvae was 4.95~5.10 mm (mean, 5.01 mm), the mouth and anus were opened. Larvae used yolk completely after 3 days after hatching. The total length larvae was 5.45~5.56 mm (mean, 5.52 mm) after 8 days after hatching, and appeared the stems for tail. The stems pectoral, anal fin were showed after 14 days and the stems dorsal, ventral fin were appeared after 19 days. For 35 days after hatching, the total length of larvae 13.95~15.30 mm (mean, 14.64 mm), and at this time, fins and body were transferred like the adult Oryzias latipes. PMID:25949187

  9. Role of water and discharge mode on modulating properties in an atmospheric air MHCD jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Chenying; Lei, Juzhang; Hu, Huimin; Zheng, Peichao; He, Wei

    2016-04-01

    A portable micro hollow cathode discharge (MHCD) device was designed in this paper to generate water-air plasma jet. The results showed that MHCD jet pattern was changed from self-pulsing discharge mode to DC mode with the increasing of voltage, and the critical voltage value of discharge mode increased with the rise of gas flow. In order to study the influences of discharge mode and water content on MHCD jet, the electrical characteristics and radicals were all measured in different conditions. We found that the length of jet decreased and temperature increased with raising water-air ratio, and during self-pulsing discharge mode, •OH content was extremely low because of the low energy of electron, but level of NO was raised with gradually increasing applied voltage. In DC mode, the results showed there was least NO content, on the other hand •OH content increased with rise of voltage and water-air ratio. O existed in both discharge modes and the effect of water content on the O production was complex. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  10. Field emission driven direct current argon discharges and electrical breakdown mechanism across micron scale gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matej?ik, tefan; Radjenovi?, Branislav; Klas, Matej; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, Marija

    2015-11-01

    In this paper results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the field emission driven direct current argon microdischarges for the gaps between 1 ?m and 100 ?m are presented and discussed. The breakdown voltage curves and Volt-Ampere characteristics proved to be a fertile basis providing better understanding of the breakdown phenomena in microgaps. Based on the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields have been estimated confirming that the secondary electron emission due to high electric field generated in microgaps depends primarily on the electric field leading directly to the violation of the Paschen's law. Experimental data are supported by the theoretical predictions that suggest departure from the scaling law and a flattening of the Paschen curves at higher pressures confirming that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism leading to the breakdown. Field emission of electrons from the cathode, the space charge effects in the breakdown and distinction between the Fowler-Nordheim field emission and the space charge limited current density are also analyzed. Images and Volt-Ampere characteristics recorded at the electrode gap size of 20 ?m indicate the existence of a discharge region similar to arc at the pressure of around 200 Torr has been observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  11. Discharge processes and an electrical model of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi; Shao, Tao; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma discharge in argon was generated using a needle-to-ring electrode configuration driven by a sinusoidal excitation voltage. The electric discharge processes and discharge characteristics were investigated by inspecting the voltage-current waveforms, Lissajous curves and lighting emission images. The change in discharge mode with applied voltage amplitude was studied and characterised, and three modes of corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and jet discharge were identified, which appeared in turn with increasing applied voltage and can be distinguished clearly from the measured voltage-current waveforms, light-emission images and the changing gradient of discharge power with applied voltage. Based on the experimental results and discharge mechanism analysis, an equivalent electrical model and the corresponding equivalent circuit for characterising the whole discharge processes accurately was proposed, and the three discharge stages were characterised separately. A voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) associated with a resistance and a capacitance were used to represent the DBD stage, and the plasma plume and corona discharge were modelled by a variable capacitor in series with a variable resistor. Other factors that can influence the discharge, such as lead and stray capacitance values of the circuit, were also considered in the proposed model. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  12. [Temporal and spatial structure of carabid community in agricultural landscape of Dongbeiwang, Beijing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Liu, Yun

    2004-01-01

    From May to October 2000, the carabid beetles in the habitats of woodland, field margin and crop field in Dong-beiwang agroecosystem in Beijing were investigated by pitfall traps, and the temporal and spatial structure of carabid community was analyzed. The results indicated that the numbers of both carabid species and individuals were much higher in the field margin and woodland than in the crop field. Both dominant species and rare species tended to live in field margin and/or woodland. Field margins had a positive effect on the diversity and richness of carabid community in their adjacent crop fields. The modest disturbance (plowing in autumn) in the field margin was beneficial for the increase of the individual number of carabid community, and the treatments of irrigation, fertilization and straw return in field had no effects on both the individual and species number of carabid community. Furthermore, the threatening condition to some carabid species was discussed, based on the analysis of the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid community. PMID:15139194

  13. Great hospitals of Asia: the Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Chi Heon; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1957, the Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine is the one of the oldest neurosurgical departments in Korea. The seven past Chairmen (Bo Sung Sim, Kil Soo Choi, Dae Hee Han, Byung-Kyu Cho, Hyun Jib Kim, Hee-Won Jung, and Dong Gyu Kim) have devoted themselves to the development of the department. The current chair, Chun Kee Chung, assumed the position in July 2010. The current department comprises several clinical programs that encompass the entire spectrum of neurosurgical disorders, with 29 specialized faculty members and care teams in three hospitals: Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH), Boramae Medical Center (BMC), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH). The remarkable growth of the department during the last half century made it possible to perform 5,666 operations (3,299 at SNUH, 411 at BMC and 1,860 at SNUBH) during 2009. A total of 1,201 articles authored by faculty members were published in scientific journals between 1958 and 2009, approximately 32% of which were published in international journals. The department is regarded as the "Mecca" of neurosurgery in Korea because of its outstanding achievement and the many distinguished alumni with leadership roles in the academic field. This article traces the clinical, academic, and scientific development of the department, its present activities, and its future direction. PMID:21600472

  14. Understanding community beliefs of Chinese-Australians about cancer: initial insights using an ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Soo See; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Katherine; Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2005-03-01

    Ethnography was employed to investigate the hypothesis that the cultural meaning of cancer is one of the possible barriers to access of cancer services. The objectives were to identify indigenous terminologies, taxonomies and illness explanatory models of cancer in a community-based sample of 15 Chinese-Australians and a sample of 16 informants who had been recruited through two Sydney familial cancer clinics. Many of the informants included in their narrative terms that seemed to match Western biomedical explanations for cancer. The majority of informants also maintained traditional Chinese beliefs, despite high acculturation and beliefs in biomedical explanations about cancer. Explanations of illness including cancer, referred to the following concepts: (i) karma (yeh), (ii) retribution (bao ying), (iii) fate (ming yun) or Heaven's or God's will, (iv) geomancy (feng-shui), (v) touched evil (zhong chia), (vi) misfortune or bad luck (shui wan, dong hark); (vii) offending the gods or deities requiring prayers or offerings for appeasement; and (viii) kong-tau (spells invoked through human intervention). Taking into consideration the heterogeneity of the Chinese population, the findings provide an insight into Chinese illness conceptualization that may assist health professionals to develop an understanding of how the cultural explanatory models affect access to screening services, communication of diagnosis of cancer and management of treatment regimen. PMID:15386778

  15. Wing-wing Flow Interaction of the Aero-Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dong-Hee; Kohama, Yasuaki; Kato, Takuma

    2003-11-01

    Title: Wing-wing Flow Interaction of the Aero-Train Authors: Dong-hee Yoon, Yasuaki Kohama and Takuma Kato Affiliations: Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan This paper presents a simple numerical method for controlling the wing-wing interaction of the flow for the Aero-Train, a new concept of the high-speed transport system. Aero-Train has a set of vertical wings at end of each main wings, which like a winglet of an airplane, were arranged in tandem to regulate the longitudinal stability and the lateral stability in a U-shape guide way. The flow analysis is carried out by CFD of ANSYS program in accordance to the k-A~model. In addition, the structural analysis is performed to find out lift, drag, using the FEM method of ANSYS. The results indicate that the flow around the wings of Aero-Train is different from the flow around the wings of an airplane in low-speed condition. This difference is due to the ground effect phenomenon from three sides of the U-shape guide way, and depend on some factors like, side force direction, stagnation point, downwash, wingtip vortex, etc.. Key words: Aero-Train, Wing-wing interaction, Ground effect phenomenon

  16. A New Specimen of Carroll’s Mystery Hupehsuchian from the Lower Triassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A new specimen of an enigmatic hupehsuchian genus is reported. The genus was first recognized by Robert L. Carroll and Zhi-ming Dong in 1991, who refrained from naming it because of the poor quality of the only specimen known at the time. After more than two decades, we finally report a second specimen of this genus, which remained unprepared until recently. The new specimen preserves most of the skeleton except the skull, allowing us to erect a new genus and species, Eretmorhipis carrolldongi. The new species shares many characters with Parahupehsuchus longus, including the strange axial skeleton that forms a bony body tube. However, the body tube is short in the new species, being limited to the pectoral region. The vertebral count and limb morphology considerably differ between the new species and P. longus. The forelimb of E. carrolldongi is markedly larger than its hind limb as in Hupehsuchus nanchangensis but unlike in P. longus. The new species is unique among hupehsuchians in a list of features. It has manual and pedal digits that spread radially, forming manus and pes that are almost as wide as long. The third-layer elements of the dermal armor are unusually large, spanning four vertebral segments, yet there are substantial gaps among them. With the addition of the unique paddle, it is now clear that Hupehsuchia had diverse forelimb morphologies spanning from paddles to flippers, unlike ichthyopterygians that were taxonomically more diverse yet only had flippers. PMID:26017585

  17. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dong, Xiquan

    2014-05-05

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  18. Ptosis Repair Using Preserved Fascia Lata with the Modified Direct Tarsal Fixation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcome of frontalis sling operation using preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation in congenital ptosis patients. Methods Forty-seven congenital ptosis patients (60 eyes) who underwent a frontalis sling operation using preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation method between March 2001 and December 2008 with a mean follow-up time of 52 months (range, 26 to 122 months) were included in this study. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Results A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients who were diagnosed with congenital ptosis and underwent frontalis suspension surgery using preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation from 2001 through 2008 at Dong-A University Hospital. The patients were 34 males and 14 females. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 18 years with an average age of 4.51 years. At a mean follow-up of 60 months, good final results were achieved in 46 eyes (76.6%), fair in 8 eyes (13.3%), and poor in 6 eyes (10%). The poor results consisted of undercorrection of 1 eye and recurrence in 5 eyes. The accumulative survival rate was 87.2%, with all recurrences occurring within 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions Frontalis sling operation by preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation appears to be an effective treatment for severe congenital ptosis, showing good long term results. PMID:24082767

  19. Persistent decadal-scale rainfall variability in the tropical South Pacific Convergence Zone through the past six centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maupin, C. R.; Partin, J. W.; Shen, C.-C.; Quinn, T. M.; Lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Banner, J. L.; Thirumalai, K.; Sinclair, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    Observations and reconstructions of decadal-scale climate variability are necessary to place predictions of future global climate change into temporal context (Goddard et al., 2012). This is especially true for decadal-scale climate variability that originates in the Pacific Ocean (Deser et al., 2004; Dong and Lu, 2013). We focus here on the western tropical Pacific (Solomon Islands; ~ 9.5° S, ~ 160° E), a region directly influenced by: the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), the Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC), and the Hadley Circulation. We calibrate δ18O variations in a fast growing stalagmite to local rainfall amount and produce a 600 yr record of rainfall variability from the zonally oriented, tropical portion of the SPCZ. We present evidence for large (~ 1.5 m), persistent and decade(s)-long shifts in total annual rainfall amount in the Solomon Islands since 1416 ± 5 CE. The timing of the decadal changes in rainfall inferred from the 20th century portion of the stalagmite δ18O record coincide with previously identified decadal shifts in Pacific ocean-atmosphere behavior (Clement et al., 2011; Deser et al., 2004). The 600 yr Solomons stalagmite δ18O record indicates that decadal oscillations in rainfall are a robust characteristic of SPCZ-related climate variability, which has important implications to water resource management in this region.

  20. Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xilong; Sato, T; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, S

    2005-11-01

    Consumption of vegetables and fish contaminated with the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cr is the most likely route for human exposure in Tianjin, China. Health risks associated with these heavy metals were assessed based on the target hazard quotients (THQs), which can be derived from concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables and fish consumed in four districts (Dong Li, Xi Qing, Jin Nan, and Bei Chen) and the urban area of Tianjin, China. Individual metal THQ (<1) values indicate the relative absence of health risks associated with intake of a single heavy metal through consumption of either contaminated vegetables or fish only. However, consumption of both vegetables and fish would lead to potential health risks especially for children, since individual THQs for vegetables and fish would sum up to almost 1. If individual THQs resulting from crops consumption are considered, the health risks would be greater for children since the THQ values will always be >1. Risk contribution from Cr is minimal compared to the other elements. Hg is the major risk contributor for children in Bei Chen since the THQ contribution amounts to about 45% of the total THQ values due to vegetables and fish consumption. The health risk to adults in Ding Li is ascribed mainly to the intake of Cd by vegetables and fish consumption, which contributes a substantial fraction to the total THQ (about 51%). PMID:16227070

  1. Marine boundary layer drizzle properties and their impact on cloud property retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we retrieve and document drizzle properties, and investigate the impact of drizzle on cloud property retrieval in Dong et al. (2014a) from ground-based measurements at the ARM Azores facility from June 2009 to December 2010. For the selected cloud and drizzle samples, the drizzle occurrence is 42.6 %, with a maximum of 55.8 % in winter and a minimum of 35.6 % in summer. The annual means of drizzle liquid water path LWPd, effective radius rd, and number concentration Nd for the rain (virga) samples are 4.73 (1.25) g m-2, 61.5 (36.4) μm, and 0.38 (0.79) cm-3. The seasonal mean LWPd values are less than 3 % of the LWP values retrieved by the microwave radiometer (MWR). The annual mean differences in cloud-droplet effective radius with and without drizzle are 0.75 and 2.35 %, respectively, for the virga and rain samples. Therefore, we conclude that the impact of drizzle below the cloud base on cloud property retrieval is insignificant for a solar-transmission-based method, but significant for any retrievals using radar reflectivity.

  2. Seasonal variations of heavy metals content in muscle and viscera of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Wen-Der; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    As a natural lagoon, rich in biological resources including fish, crabs, and bivalves, Da-Peng Bay Lagoon receives the discharges from the neighboring rivers, Kao-ping, Dong-gang, and Lin-Bian, which have harmed the ecology and reduced the water quality of the lagoon. This study analyzes seasonal variation of heavy metals concentration (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle and viscera of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon. Data from this study may provide information on the use of Perna viridis as a bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in the lagoon. The heavy metals concentrations were greater in viscera than in muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. Results showed that the mussel is capable of accumulating high contents of Cu and Zn. Generally, the order of concentrations in the muscle by season was Zn > Cu > Cr or As. In viscera, the general order of concentrations was Zn > Cu > Pb or Cr or As. Mercury was not detected in winter and spring in muscle and viscera. Cadmium displayed significant variation with season. There was also significant correlation between tissue concentration and heavy metals, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, and As. PMID:25208662

  3. Extremely low nucleotide polymorphism in Pinus krempfii Lecomte, a unique flat needle pine endemic to Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baosheng; Khalili Mahani, Marjan; Ng, Wei Lun; Kusumi, Junko; Phi, Hai Hong; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Szmidt, Alfred E

    2014-01-01

    Pinus krempfii Lecomte is a morphologically and ecologically unique pine, endemic to Vietnam. It is regarded as vulnerable species with distribution limited to just two provinces: Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong. Although a few phylogenetic studies have included this species, almost nothing is known about its genetic features. In particular, there are no studies addressing the levels and patterns of genetic variation in natural populations of P. krempfii. In this study, we sampled 57 individuals from six natural populations of P. krempfii and analyzed their sequence variation in ten nuclear gene regions (approximately 9 kb) and 14 mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions (approximately 10 kb). We also analyzed variation at seven chloroplast (cp) microsatellite (SSR) loci. We found very low haplotype and nucleotide diversity at nuclear loci compared with other pine species. Furthermore, all investigated populations were monomorphic across all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions included in our study, which are polymorphic in other pine species. Population differentiation at nuclear loci was low (5.2%) but significant. However, structure analysis of nuclear loci did not detect genetically differentiated groups of populations. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) using nuclear sequence data and mismatch distribution analysis for cpSSR loci suggested recent expansion of the species. The implications of these findings for the management and conservation of P. krempfii genetic resources were discussed. PMID:25360263

  4. A shallow water depth extraction model based on high resolution multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jun; Gu, Dongqi; Yang, Huiliang

    2009-10-01

    Shallow water depth extraction by remote sensing is an important research. Optical remote sensing can provide an alternative means for obtaining bathymetric data in areas where a traditional hydrographic survey may be difficult to obtain. IKONOS imagery can perform an important function in shallow water depth extraction because of its ability to provide data within three unique portions of the visible spectrum as well as a high spatial resolution of roughly four meters. But experiments indicated that, the bathymetric precision of high-resolution imagery is much lower than that of mid-resolution imagery such as TM imagery. In this paper, the affect factors of bathymetric precision of high-resolution imagery are presented. Moreover, on the basis of the conventional multi-band linear regression model , we develop an improved model by introducing a series of techniques including data processing by group averaging, image smooth, piece wise linear regression, data normalization, etc.. The improved model is more reasonable and accurate and suitable for high-resolution imagery. Using this improved mode, the shallow underwater topography of Dong-Sha Islands and nearby sea area is detected by IKONOS image. The results have preferable precision.

  5. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ∼1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ∼0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ∼150 Myr and mass ∼4 M {sub ☉}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ∼0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ∼1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  6. Ca2+ Binding/Permeation via Calcium Channel, CaV1.1, Regulates the Intracellular Distribution of the Fatty Acid Transport Protein, CD36, and Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Dimitra K; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Lee, Chang Seok; Griffin, Deric M; Wang, Hui; Lagor, William R; Pautler, Robia G; Dirksen, Robert T; Hamilton, Susan L

    2015-09-25

    Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) facilitates activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase type II (CaMKII) and Ca(2+) store refilling to reduce muscle fatigue and atrophy (Lee, C. S., Dagnino-Acosta, A., Yarotskyy, V., Hanna, A., Lyfenko, A., Knoblauch, M., Georgiou, D. K., Poché, R. A., Swank, M. W., Long, C., Ismailov, I. I., Lanner, J., Tran, T., Dong, K., Rodney, G. G., Dickinson, M. E., Beeton, C., Zhang, P., Dirksen, R. T., and Hamilton, S. L. (2015) Skelet. Muscle 5, 4). Mice with a mutation (E1014K) in the Cacna1s (α1 subunit of CaV1.1) gene that abolishes Ca(2+) binding within the CaV1.1 pore gain more body weight and fat on a chow diet than control mice, without changes in food intake or activity, suggesting that CaV1.1-mediated CaMKII activation impacts muscle energy expenditure. We delineate a pathway (Cav1.1→ CaMKII→ NOS) in normal skeletal muscle that regulates the intracellular distribution of the fatty acid transport protein, CD36, altering fatty acid metabolism. The consequences of blocking this pathway are decreased mitochondrial β-oxidation and decreased energy expenditure. This study delineates a previously uncharacterized CaV1.1-mediated pathway that regulates energy utilization in skeletal muscle. PMID:26245899

  7. Complication rates in patients using absorbable collagen sponges in third molar extraction sockets: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. Materials and Methods From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. Results A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Conclusion Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction. PMID:25741465

  8. Molecular hot electroluminescence due to strongly enhanced spontaneous emission rates in a plasmonic nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Li, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Dong, Zhen-Chao

    2015-02-14

    We have recently demonstrated anomalous relaxationless hot electroluminescence from molecules in the tunnel junction of a scanning tunneling microscope [Dong et al., Nat. Photonics, 2010, 4, 50]. In the present paper, based on physically realistic parameters, we aim to unravel the underlying physical mechanism using a multiscale modeling approach that combines classical generalized Mie theory with the quantum master equation. We find that the nanocavity-plasmon-tuned spontaneous emission rate plays a crucial role in shaping the spectral profile. In particular, on resonance, the radiative decay rate can be enhanced by three-to-five orders of magnitude, which enables the radiative process to occur on the lifetime scale of picoseconds and become competitive to the vibrational relaxation. Such a large Purcell effect opens up new emission channels to generate the hot luminescence that arises directly from higher vibronic levels of the molecular excited state. We also stress that the critical role of resonant plasmonic nanocavities in tunneling electron induced molecular luminescence is to enhance the spontaneous radiative decay through plasmon enhanced vacuum fluctuations rather than to generate an efficient plasmon stimulated emission process. This improved understanding has been partly overlooked in previous studies but is believed to be very important for further developments of molecular plasmonics and optoelectronics. PMID:25565003

  9. [Complete genome sequence of Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5/09) strain isolated in China and its phylogenetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-Feng; Zhao, Li-Na; Dong, Jie; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Jiang; Xue, Ying; Yang, Fan

    2010-07-01

    An outbreak of hand foot and mouth disease occurred in Shang dong, China in 2009. Almost 20% of patient's swabs was positive for Coxsackie virus B5 (CVB5) identified by RT-PCR and sequencing. It was suggested that CVB5 may be another important pathogen for HFMD. Fifteen pairs of overlapping primers were designed and the genome sequence was sequenced. The genome of CVB5 was 7 399 nt in length, coding for 2 185aa. The genome displayed 80.6%-85.3% nucleotide sequence identity and 96.1%-96.9% amino acid sequence identity with another three CVB5 respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that different segment of genome underwent a distinct evolutionary and selective pressure. Simplot analysis displayed no evident recombination between genome of CVB5 and other HEV B viruses. The complete and characterized genome of CVB5/09 provides further insight into the genetics of CVB5 and other HEV B viruses, aiding in the surveillance and control of HFMD. PMID:20836381

  10. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  11. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in breast milk from women living in Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Tu Binh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the contamination status of PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in human and possible exposure pathways in three Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites: Trang Minh (suburb of Hai Phong city), Dong Mai and Bui Dau (Hung Yen province), and one reference site (capital city Hanoi) by analysing human breast milk samples and examining the relationships between contaminant levels and lifestyle factors. Levels of PBDEs, but not PCBs and HBCDs, were significantly higher in Trang Minh and Bui Dau than in the reference site. The recyclers from Bui Dau had the highest levels of PBDEs (20-250 ng g(-1) lipid wt.), higher than in the reference group by two orders of magnitude and more abundant than PCBs (28-59 ng g(-1) lipid wt.), and were also the only group with significant exposure to HBCDs (1.4-7.6 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). A specific accumulation, unrelated to diet, of low-chlorinated PCBs and high-brominated PBDEs was observed in e-waste recyclers, suggesting extensive exposure to these compounds during e-waste recycling activities, possibly through inhalation and ingestion of dust. The estimated infant intake dose of PBDEs from breast milk of some mothers occupationally involved in e-waste recycling were close to or higher than the reference doses issued by the U.S. EPA. PMID:20116831

  12. Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lusan; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Binghui; Cai, Wenqian; Lin, Kuixuan; Tang, Jingliang

    2013-07-15

    Between 1972 and 2009, evidence of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters was collected. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of these red tides, and it was subsequently used to map the distribution of these events. The results show that the following findings. (1) There were three red tide-prone areas: outside the Yangtze River Estuary and the eastern coast of Sheshan, the Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi waters, and the Zhoushan areas and eastern coast of Zhujiajian. In these areas, red tides occurred 174 total times, 25 of which were larger than 1000 km(2) in areal extent. After 2000, the frequency of red tide outbreaks increased significantly. (2) During the months of May and June, the red tide occurrence in these areas was 51% and 20%, respectively. (3) Outbreaks of the dominant red tide plankton species Prorocentrum dong-haiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, and Noctiluca scientillan occurred 38, 35, 15, and 10 times, respectively, during the study interval. PMID:23628547

  13. New Ceratocystis species from Eucalyptus and Cunninghamia in South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, FeiFei; Mbenoun, Michael; Barnes, Irene; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Michael J; Li, GuoQing; Li, JieQiong; Chen, ShuaiFei

    2015-06-01

    During routine surveys for possible fungal pathogens in the rapidly expanding plantations of Eucalyptus and Cunninghamia lanceolata in China, numerous isolates of unknown species in the genus Ceratocystis (Microascales) were obtained from tree wounds. In this study we identified the Ceratocystis isolates from Eucalyptus and Cunninghamia in the GuangDong, GuangXi, FuJian and HaiNan Provinces of South China based on morphology and through comparisons of DNA sequence data for the ITS, partial β-tubulin and TEF-1α gene regions. Morphological and DNA sequence comparisons revealed two previously unknown species residing in the Indo-Pacific Clade. These are described here as Ceratocystis cercfabiensis sp. nov. and Ceratocystis collisensis sp. nov. Isolates of Ceratocystis cercfabiensis showed intragenomic variation in their ITS sequences and four strains were selected for cloning of the ITS gene region. Twelve ITS haplotypes were obtained from 17 clones selected for sequencing, differing in up to seven base positions and representing two separate phylogenetic groups. This is the first evidence of multiple ITS types in isolates of Ceratocystis residing in the Indo-Pacific Clade. Caution should thus be exercised when using the ITS gene region as a barcoding marker for Ceratocystis species in this clade. This study also represents the first record of a species of Ceratocystis from Cunninghamia. PMID:25840908

  14. Resonances of Spin-1/2 Fermions in Eddington-Inspired Born-Infeld Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi-Ming; Zhao, Li; Du, Yun-Zhi; Gu, Bao-Min

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the fermionic resonances for both chiralities in five-dimensional Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory. In order to localize fermion on the brane, it needs to be considered the Yukawa coupling between the fermion and the background scalar field. In our models, since the background scalar field has kink, double kink, or anti-kink solution, the system has rich resonant Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes structure. The massive KK fermionic modes feel a volcano potential, which result in a fermionic zero mode and a set of continuous massive KK modes. The inner structure of the branes and a free parameter in background scalar field influence the resonant behaviors of the massive KK fermions. Supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11075065, the Huo Ying-Dong Education Foundation of Chinese Ministry of Education under Grant No. 121106 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. lzujbky-2014-31

  15. Resonances of Spin-1/2 Fermions in Eddington-Inspired Born-Infeld Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi-Ming, Fu; Li, Zhao; Yun-Zhi, Du; Bao-Min, Gu

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the fermionic resonances for both chiralities in five-dimensional Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory. In order to localize fermion on the brane, it needs to be considered the Yukawa coupling between the fermion and the background scalar field. In our models, since the background scalar field has kink, double kink, or anti-kink solution, the system has rich resonant Kaluza–Klein (KK) modes structure. The massive KK fermionic modes feel a volcano potential, which result in a fermionic zero mode and a set of continuous massive KK modes. The inner structure of the branes and a free parameter in background scalar field influence the resonant behaviors of the massive KK fermions. Supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11075065, the Huo Ying-Dong Education Foundation of Chinese Ministry of Education under Grant No. 121106 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. lzujbky-2014-31

  16. [The Gurhigae Jejoongwon: its size and activities].

    PubMed

    Wang, H J; Lee, K L; Park, H W

    2001-12-01

    This article explores the location, size of the site, and medical activities of the Gurhigae Jejoongwon. Relevant documents such as reminiscences, diplomatic notes, newspaper accounts, maps, and photographs were referred for this study. The Gurhigae Jejoongwon located on a hill that, at present, covers the area from Ulchi-ro to MyungDong Cathedral. Its main entrance was towards Ulchi-ro. Real estate including the buildings of the Gurhigae Jejoongwon was returned to the Chosun government in 1905, and the estimated size of its site varied from 1,810 pyung to 5,036 pyung. The site of the Gurhigae Jejoongwon was 2 - 5 times larger than the 862.16-pyung-site of the Jejoongwon in its Jaedong days. With such larger size, the Jejoongwon could take care of more patients. Dr. Avison started medical education again. The Gurhigae Jejoongwon took the central part in medical treatment activities for public in Seoul, as it carried out the prevention activities against Cholera in 1895. The Chosun government highly recognized its medical treatment activities for the common people. PMID:12190071

  17. Mass hierarchy determination using neutrinos from multiple reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Zhang, Xinmin

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of a medium baseline reactor neutrino experiment. The difference in baselines resulting from the 1 km separations of Daya Bay and Ling Ao reactors reduces the amplitudes of 1-3 oscillations at low energies, decreasing the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. A perpendicular detector location eliminates this effect. We simulate experiments under several mountains perpendicular to the Daya Bay/Ling Ao reactors, considering in particular the background from the TaiShan and YangJiang reactor complexes. In general the hierarchy can be determined most reliably underneath the 1000 meter mountain BaiYunZhang, which is 44.5 km from Daya Bay. If some planned reactors are not built then nearby 700 meter mountains at 47-51 km baselines gain a small advantage. Neglecting their low overhead burdens, hills near BaiMianShi or DongKeng would be the optimal locations. We use a weighted Fourier transform to avoid a spurious dependence on the high energy neutrino spectrum and find that a neural network can extract quantities which determine the hierarchy marginally better than the traditional RL + PV.

  18. Refinement of the pharmacophore of an agonist ligand of the secretin receptor using conformationally-constrained cyclic hexapeptides

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Maoqing; Narang, Pooja; Pinon, Delia I.; Bordner, Andrew J.; Miller, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a compelling need for the development of small molecule agonists acting at family B G protein-coupled receptors. A possible lead for the development of such drugs was reported when it was recognized that sequences endogenous to the amino terminus of the secretin receptor and certain other receptors in this family possess weak full agonist activity (Dong et al., Mol Pharmacol 2006). In the current report, we extended those observations by building the active dipeptide motif found in the secretin receptor (WD) into each position around a conformationally-constrained D-amino acid-containing cyclic hexapeptide, and determining the biological activity of each peptide at the secretin receptor. Indeed, only two positions for WD around this constrained ring resulted in biological activity at the receptor, providing further insights into the structural specificity of this phenomenon. Molecular modeling supported the presence of a unique WD backbone conformation shared only by these active peptides, and provided a more constrained template for future receptor-active agonist drug development. PMID:20214947

  19. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  20. Simulated impacts of climate change on current farming locations of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh L; Dang, Vinh H; Bosma, Roel H; Verreth, Johan A J; Leemans, Rik; De Silva, Sena S

    2014-12-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these influences. In this study, water level rise and salt water intrusion for three sea level rise (SLR) scenarios (i.e., +30, +50, and +75 cm) were simulated. The results showed that at SLR +50, the 3-m-flood level would spread downstream and threaten farms located in AnGiang, DongThap and CanTho provinces. Rising salinity levels for SLR +75 would reduce the window appropriate for the culture in SocTrang and BenTre provinces, and in TienGiang's coastal districts. Next to increasing dikes to reduce the impacts, the most tenable and least disruptive option to the farming community would be to shift to a salinity tolerant strain of catfish. PMID:24715387

  1. High levels of contamination and antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars on pig and poultry farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tu, L T P; Hoang, N V M; Cuong, N V; Campbell, J; Bryant, J E; Hoa, N T; Kiet, B T; Thompson, C; Duy, D T; Phat, V V; Hien, V B; Thwaites, G; Baker, S; Carrique-Mas, J J

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and associated risk factors on 341 pig, chicken, and duck farms in Dong Thap province (Mekong Delta, Vietnam). Sampling was stratified by species, district (four categories), and farm size (three categories). Pooled faeces, collected using boot swabs, were tested using ISO 6575: 2002 (Annex D). Isolates were serogrouped; group B isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect S. Typhimurium and (monophasic) serovar 4,[5],12:i:- variants. The farm-level adjusted NTS prevalence was 64·7%, 94·3% and 91·3% for chicken, duck and pig farms, respectively. Factors independently associated with NTS were duck farms [odds ratio (OR) 21·2], farm with >50 pigs (OR 11·9), pig farm with 5-50 pigs (OR 4·88) (vs. chickens), and frequent rodent sightings (OR 2·3). Both S. Typhimurium and monophasic S. Typhimurium were more common in duck farms. Isolates had a high prevalence of resistance (77·6%) against tetracycline, moderate resistance (20-30%) against chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ampicillin and nalidixic acid, and low resistance (<5%) against ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins. Multidrug resistance (resistance against ⩾3 classes of antimicrobial) was independently associated with monophasic S. Typhimurium and other group B isolates (excluding S. Typhimurium) and pig farms. The unusually high prevalence of NTS on Mekong Delta farms poses formidable challenges for control. PMID:25778282

  2. Song I-Yeong's Armillary Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (宋以穎, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (仁村) Kim Seong-Su (金性洙, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.

  3. An Adam15 amplification loop promotes vascular endothelial growth factor-induced ocular neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bing; Shen, Jikui; Dong, Aling; Swaim, Mara; Hackett, Sean F.; Wyder, Lorenza; Worpenberg, Susanne; Barbieri, Samuel; Campochiaro, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins with a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase domain (ADAMs) are a family of membrane-bound proteinases that bind integrins through their disintegrin domain. In this study, we have found modest expression of ADAM15 in pericytes in normal retina and strong up-regulation of ADAM15 in retinal vascular endothelial cells in ischemic retina. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina in the absence of ischemia also increased ADAM15 levels, and knockdown of Vegf mRNA in ischemic retina reduced Adam15 mRNA. Mice deficient in ADAM15 showed a significant reduction in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization, choroidal neovascularization at rupture sites in Bruch’s membrane, and VEGF-induced subretinal neovascularization. ADAM15-deficient mice also showed reduced levels of VEGF164, VEGF receptor 1, and VEGF receptor 2 in ischemic retina. These data suggest that ADAM15 and VEGF participate in an amplification loop; VEGF increases expression of ADAM15, which in turn increases expression of VEGF and its receptors. Perturbation of the loop by elimination of ADAM15 suppresses ocular neovascularization in 3 different model systems, and thus ADAM15 provides a new therapeutic target for diseases complicated by neovascularization.—Xie, B., Shen, J., Dong, A., Swaim, M., Hackett, S. F., Wyder, L., Worpenberg, S., Barbieri, S., Campochiaro, P. A. An Adam15 amplification loop promotes VEGF-induced ocular neovascularization. PMID:18381816

  4. Transition disks as signposts of multi-planet systems? Constraints from orbital stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Dawson, Rebekah

    2015-08-01

    One in ten proto-planetary disks is a transition disk, with a cavity at its center. The sizes of such cavities, measured in resolved observations at both near infrared and mm wavelengths, can be huge, tens of AU or larger. It is an outstanding question whether these cavities are gaps cleared by planets or depletion of the inner disk by another mechanism, such as photo-evaporation. Many of the cavities are too large to be attributed to a single planet and would require multiple planets to open a common gap. Duffell and Dong (arXiv:1412.3560) recently showed that the combination of multiple planets produces only a shallow cavity, requiring much larger planet masses than previously assumed to account for the observations. However, in the regime of massive, closely-spaced planets, dynamical interactions among the planets become important and can quickly destabilize the system. Here we explore the overlap between stability requirements and common gap opening requirements. We discuss the implications for whether it's plausible that the planet gap clearing mechanism is responsible for most cavities. Our results provide guidelines for interpreting cavities as the signposts of planetary systems and for searches for planets in transitional disks via direct imaging.

  5. Management of giant hepatic cysts in the laparoscopic era

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chan Joong; Roh, Young Hoon; Jung, Ghap Joong; Seo, Jeong Wook; Baek, Yang Hyun; Lee, Sung Wook; Roh, Myung Hwan; Han, San Young; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence. Methods From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9). Results The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant. Conclusion Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken. PMID:24020020

  6. Gandhi and Mao on manual labour in the school: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariah, Mathew; Hoffman, Arlene

    1985-12-01

    Mahatma Gandhi's views on relating the world of formal education to the world of work were developed first in his experimental `Tolstoy Farm' in South Africa. On his return to India, Gandhi insisted that a required manual labour component in the curriculum would help regenerate India's village economy, develop in India's children a deeper understanding of India's cultural roots, motivate children to relate `book learning' to life in society, and destroy invidious caste distinctions. The major proposals and suggestions in Gandhi's writing will be discussed in the context of his hopes for using schooling as an agent of progress in India. Mao Ze-Dong's views, on the other hand, were developed in the context of his Yenan experience in the 1930s, i.e. the decision to consolidate a power base in the interior of China before waging a class war against the landlords and capitalists of China. Mao's views were also, to some extent, rooted in the Chinese reality of stagnant, poverty-stricken rural areas. But, Mao's writings indicate that Marxist hopes to relate theory and practice (as understood in dialectical materialism) and to ensure that everyone participated in mental as well as manual labour in a socialist society had led him to formulate his proposals. Both Gandhi's and Mao's views and proposals have been more or less abandoned in India and China respectively. The similar and dissimilar reasons which led to such a fate are examined in this retrospective analysis.

  7. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (<50%; X111), environmental factors like population density (148-169 pop/km2; X73), and land use as wetland (X64), were correlated with the liver fluke disease distribution at 0.000, 0.034, and 0.006 levels, respectively. Multiple regression analysis, by equations OV=-0.599+0.005(population density (148-169 pop/km2); X73)+0.040 (human attitude (<50%); X111)+0.022 (land used (wetland; X64), was used to predict the distribution of liver fluke. OV is the patients of liver fluke infection, R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures. PMID:25824758

  8. Investigation on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at Liaodong Bay in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuhong; Huang, Leichang; Li, Yao Olive; Ding, Ming; Hu, Yingying; Ding, Dewen

    2006-07-01

    An investigation on the effect of various microbes on degradation was carried out as part of the study on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at LiaoDong Bay in northeast China. The method used involved direct inoculation of selected bacteria, which were capable of degrading oil, to the soil samples. The combination of various bacteria showed better results in terms of oil degradation than any single ones due to their synergetic effects. The operation conditions [pH 8.0, 25 degrees C, C/N/P (40:5.6:1)] for these bacteria to degrade the oil content in the soil samples were also studied and optimized. Addition of appropriate surfactants was helpful for bacteria growth, thus favoring the oil degradation. For instance, after adding Tween 80 (300 mg/kg) for 8 days, the number of bacteria was amplified 6.22 times and the rate of oil degradation increased by 20%. Adequate amount of H2O2 was also beneficial for microbes to decompose oil. However, overdosage may cause the death of the bacteria. The addition of 400 mg/l H2O2 each time was suitable. Seven thousand milligrams of H2O2 was added entirely in 11 days, and the rate of oil degradation increased significantly from 27% (without H2O2) up to 67%. The study clearly demonstrated that the direct soil inoculation was an effective method for environmental bioremediation. PMID:16237524

  9. Seasonal Signal Variations in GPS Time Series in the Central Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinelli, P.; Flouzat, M.; Avouac, J.; Bollinger, L.; Cattin, R.; Sapkota, S.

    2006-12-01

    Continuous GPS stations (cGPS) have been deployed in Nepal, by the DMG and the CEA/DASE, and operated since 1997. Daily positions were processed using the Bernese V4.2 software (Beutler et al., 2001). Further, Quasi-Observation Combination Analysis (QOCA) software (Dong et al., 1998) modeling of the time series data was performed through sequential Kalman filtering, allowing adjustment for global translation and rotation of each daily solution. It appears that the dominant signal depicted by the time series is a secular pattern of interseismic strain which can be modeled from 19mm/yr creep along the MHT, assumed locked from the surface to beneath the front of the high range over a width of about 100km (Bettinelli et al., 2006). In addition ,the time series encompass strong seasonal variations visible on the vertical as well as on the horizontal components (bettinelli et al., 2006), respectively up to 50 mm and 30 mm. The purpose of this presentation is to analyse these time variations to try to understand its origin. First of all, we use meteorological data, acquired nearby each station, to improve estimation of the tropospheric delay time variations. Then, we estimate possible surface displacement variations due to seasonal loadings such as atmospheric, aquifer or snow loadings, using both elastic analytical approaches and finite element modeling encompassing a realistic topography. Finally, we document possible slow slip events and further discuss the magnitude of each contributions to the measured signal.

  10. Complementary Role of Frontoparietal Activity and Cortical Pattern Similarity in Successful Episodic Memory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    One central goal in cognitive neuroscience of learning and memory is to characterize the neural processes that lead to long-lasting episodic memory. In addition to the stronger frontoparietal activity, greater category- or item-specific cortical representation during encoding, as measured by pattern similarity (PS), is also associated with better subsequent episodic memory. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether frontoparietal activity and cortical PS reflect distinct mechanisms. To address this issue, we reanalyzed previous data (Xue G, Dong Q, Chen C, Lu ZL, Mumford JA, Poldrack RA. 2010. Greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better memory. Science. 330:97, Experiment 3) using a novel approach based on combined activation-based and information-based analyses. The results showed that across items, stronger frontoparietal activity was associated with greater PS in distributed brain regions, including those where the PS was predictive of better subsequent memory. Nevertheless, the item-specific PS was still associated with later episodic memory after controlling the effect of frontoparietal activity. Our results suggest that one possible mechanism of frontoparietal activity on episodic memory encoding is via enhancing PS, resulting in more unique and consistent input to the medial temporal lobe. In addition, they suggest that PS might index additional processes, such as pattern reinstatement as a result of study-phase retrieval, that contribute to episodic memory encoding. PMID:22645250

  11. Estimation of benchmark dose for micronucleus occurrence in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Tan, Hong-shan; Ma, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yuan; Feng, Nan-nan; Zhou, Li-fang; Ye, Yun-jie; Zhu, Yi-liang; Li, Yong-liang; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.; Tang, Nai-jun; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the possibility of using benchmark dose (BMD) to assess the dose–response relationship between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure and chromosome damage. A group of 317 workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and 166 normal, unexposed control in Shan-dong Province northern China were examined for chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CB-MN) assay of DNA damage. The exposed group (3.47 ± 2.65)‰ showed higher micronucleus frequency than the control (1.60 ± 1.30)‰ (P < 0.01). Occupational exposure level based on micronucleus occurrence in all individuals was analyzed with benchmark dose (BMD) methods. The benchmark dose lower limit of a one-sided 95% confidence interval (BMDL) for 10% excess risk was also determined. Results showed a dose–response relationship between cumulative exposure and MN frequency, and a BMDL of 0.54 mg/m3 and 0.23 mg/m3 for males and females, respectively. Female workers were more susceptible to MN damage than male workers. PMID:22425610

  12. The spatial distribution of vulnerability to the health impacts of flooding in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, Dung; Rutherford, Shannon; Dwirahmadi, Febi; Chu, Cordia; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Thuy; Duong, Nam Chi

    2015-10-01

    Flooding causes significant public health issues. The Mekong Delta has been considered the region to be the most vulnerable to flooding in Vietnam. This study assessed the spatial vulnerability of the health impacts of flooding in the Mekong Delta region, Vietnam. This study applied a vulnerability assessment framework which was computed as the function of three dimensions: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The indicators for each dimension were derived from the relevant literature, consultations with experts, and data availability. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the weight of indicators. Vulnerability indexes (VIs) were then computed for each province. A total of 29 indicators (sensitivity index, 14; adaptive capacity index, 13; and exposure index, 2) were employed to evaluate the vulnerability to the health impacts of flooding at a provincial level. The results of AHP revealed that the highest VIs were found in the Dong Thap and An Giang provinces (VI, 1.948 and 1.574, respectively). VIs were distributed with higher indexes in upstream provinces close to a river than in coastal provinces. PCA generated three components from the 29 indicators, and the VIs computed from the PCA method are in substantial agreement with the AHP method (ICC = 0.71, p < 0.05). The vulnerability to the health impacts of flooding varies from province to province in the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam. Individual plans for health preparedness and adaption to flooding should be developed for each province in the Mekong Delta region.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

  14. CaCu3Ti4O12: One-step internal barrier layer capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Derek C.; Adams, Timothy B.; Morrison, Finlay D.; West, Anthony R.

    2002-03-01

    There has been much recent interest in a so-called "giant-dielectric phenomenon" displayed by an unusual cubic perovskite-type material, CaCu3Ti4O12; however, the origin of the high permittivity has been unclear [M. A. Subramanian, L. Dong, N. Duan, B. A. Reisner, and A. W. Sleight, J. Solid State Chem. 151, 323 (2000); C. C. Homes, T. Vogt, S. M. Shapiro, S. Wakimoto, and A. P. Ramirez, Science 293, 673 (2001); A. P. Ramirez, M. A. Subramanian, M. Gardel, G. Blumberg, D. Li, T. Vogt, and S. M. Shapiro, Solid State Commun. 115, 217 (2000)]. Impedance spectroscopy on CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics demonstrates that they are electrically heterogeneous and consist of semiconducting grains with insulating grain boundaries. The giant-dielectric phenomenon is therefore attributed to a grain boundary (internal) barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) instead of an intrinsic property associated with the crystal structure. This barrier layer electrical microstructure with effective permittivity values in excess of 10 000 can be fabricated by single-step processing in air at ˜1100 °C. CaCu3Ti4O12 is an attractive option to the currently used BaTiO3-based materials which require complex, multistage processing routes to produce IBLCs of similar capacity.

  15. Growth-temperature-dependent optical and acetone detection properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shewale, P. S.; Yu, Y. S.

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared onto glass substrates at moderately low growth temperature by two-stage spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of growth temperature on structural, optical and acetone detection properties were investigated with X-ray diffractometry, a UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and a homemade gas sensor testing unit, respectively. All the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and exhibit a preferential orientation along [002] direction. The film crystallinity is gradually enhanced with an increase in growth temperature. The optical measurements show that all the films are physically highly transparent with a transmittance greater than 82% in the visible range. The band gap of the film is observed to exhibit a slight red shift with an increasing growth temperature. The PL studies on the films show UV/violet PL band at ˜ 395 nm. Among all the films investigated, the film deposited at 250 °C demonstrates a maximum sensitivity of 13% towards 20 ppm of acetone vapors at 300 °C operating temperature. Project supported by the Dong-Eui University Grant (No. 2014AA342).

  16. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jinfeng

    Ultrathin semiconductors present various novel electronic properties. The first experimental realized two-dimensional (2D) material is graphene. Searching 2D materials with heavy elements bring the attention to Si, Ge and Sn. 2D buckled Si-based silicene was realized by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Ge-based germanene was realized by mechanical exfoliation. Sn-based stanene has its unique properties. Stanene and its derivatives can be 2D topological insulators (TI) with a very large band gap as proposed by first-principles calculations, or can support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. For the first time, in this work, we report a successful fabrication of 2D stanene by MBE. The atomic and electronic structures were determined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in combination with first-principles calculations. This work will stimulate the experimental study and exploring the future application of stanene. In cooperation with Fengfeng Zhu, Wei-jiong Chen, Yong Xu, Chun-lei Gao, Dan-dan Guan, Canhua Liu, Dong Qian, Shou-Cheng Zhang.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N,N-3-phenyl-3-benzylaminopropanamide derivatives as novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongmei; Xie, Honglei; Bai, Changlin; Liu, Chunchi; Hao, Chenzhou; Zhao, Shizhen; Yuan, Hongli; Luo, Changqun; Wang, Jian; Lin, Bin; Zheng, Jiang; Cheng, Maosheng

    2016-04-15

    A series of N,N-3-phenyl-3-benzylaminopropanamide derivatives were identified as novel CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) inhibitors. In our previous study, lead compound L10 was discovered by pharmacophore-based virtual screening (Dong-Mei Zhao et al., 2014). Based on L10 (IC50 8.06μM), compound HL6 (IC50 10.7μM) was discovered following systematic structure variation and biological tests. Further optimization of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) resulted in N,N-3-phenyl-3-benzylaminopro panamides derivatives as novel CETP inhibitors. They were synthesized and evaluated against CETP by BODIPY-CE fluorescence assay. Among them, HL16 (IC50 0.69μM) was a highly potent CETP inhibitor in vitro. In addition, HL16 exhibited favorable HDL-C enhancement and LDL-C reduction in vivo by hamster. The molecular docking of HL16 into the CETP was performed. The binding mode demonstrated that HL16 occupied the CETP binding site and formed interactions with the key amino acid residues. PMID:27010500

  18. Particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in laser-plasma experiments on Shenguang-II facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui; Dong, Quanli; Zhu, Jianqiang; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Recently, magnetic reconnection has been realized in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas. Plasma bubbles with self-generated magnetic fields are created by focusing laser beams to small-scale spots on a foil. The bubbles expand into each other, which may then drive magnetic reconnection. The reconnection experiment in laser-produced plasmas has also been conducted at Shenguang-II (SG-II) laser facility, and the existence of a plasmoid was identified in the experiment [Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215001 (2012)]. In this paper, by performing two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate such a process of magnetic reconnection based on the experiment on SG-II facility, and a possible explanation for the formation of the plasmoid is proposed. The results show that before magnetic reconnection occurs, the bubbles squeeze strongly each other and a very thin current sheet is formed. The current sheet is unstable to the tearing mode instability, and we can then observe the formation of plasmoid(s) in such a multiple X-lines reconnection.

  19. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  20. Role of the F spin-orbit excited state in the F+HD reaction: Contributions to the dynamical resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Yi-Ren; Alexander, Millard H.

    2004-09-01

    We report quantum mechanical calculations of excitation functions (relative reaction cross sections) for the F+HD reaction. We include three potential energy surfaces and an accurate treatment of all couplings (non-adiabatic, spin-orbit, and Coriolis). Comparison with experimental results [Dong, Lee, and Liu, J. Chem. Phys., 113, 3633 (2000)] show excellent agreement for the DF product channel and an improved but not perfect agreement for the HF product channel. In the former case, when weighted by the (16%) fractional population of the spin-orbit excited state (F*) in the beam, the overall reactivity of the F* is small (˜5%). For the HF product channel and with the same (16%) fractional weight, F* reactivity makes a contribution of ˜12% in the high-energy tail of the resonance peak. As a result, averaging over the population of F spin-orbit states in the beam changes the shape of the resonance. The greater the fraction of F* in the beam, the less pronounced will be the resonance modulation of the reaction excitation function.

  1. Seedling development and evaluation of genetic stability of cryopreserved Dendrobium hybrid mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; de Faria, Ricardo Tadeu; Vendrame, Wagner Aparecido

    2014-03-01

    Vitrification, a simple, fast, and recommended cryopreservation method for orchid germplasm conservation, was evaluated for Dendrobium hybrid "Dong Yai" mature seeds. The genetic stability of regenerated seedlings was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Mature seeds from this hybrid were submitted to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 h at 0 °C. Subsequently, they were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C for 1 h and recovered in half-strength Murashige and Skoog culture medium (1/2 MS), and seed germination was evaluated after 30 days. Seeds directly submitted to LN did not germinate after cryopreservation. Seeds treated with PVS2 between 1 and 3 h presented the best germination (between 51 and 58%), although longer exposure to PVS2 returned moderated germination (39%). Germinated seeds were further subcultured in P-723 culture medium and developed whole seedlings in vitro after 180 days, with no abnormal characteristics, diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Seedlings were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with over 80% survival. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no chromosomal changes on vitrified seedlings, as well as seedlings germinated from the control treatment (direct exposure to LN). These findings indicate that vitrification is a feasible and safe germplasm cryopreservation method for commercial Dendrobium orchid hybrid conservation. PMID:24402568

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 ; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  3. The sonication of graphite in various solvents and surfactants to synthesize high quality graphene as well as the nitrogen doping of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soden, Daniel R.; Bai, Jincheng; Dong, Lifeng

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of graphene in the scientific community has been the cause of much excitement among material scientists due to its unusual physical and photovoltaic properties. However, the much sought after monolayer graphene has proven to be difficult to produce in sufficient quantities This experiment aims to correct some of these problems, concerning itself with the synthesis of high quality graphene through continuous sonication with surfactant or solvent added throughout, as well as the issue of graphene quality as a function of sonication time. This was accomplished through the creation and addition of a solvent or surfactant solution to a graphite suspension during sonication lasting for 50, 80, 110,140, 170, and 200 minutes. The resulting suspension was then filtrated to separate out the graphene. Following this, the graphene was then doped through various methods with nitrogen to alter its properties. This completely physical method of graphene synthesis and doping provides a much simpler and more environmentally safe way to achieve the highly desired few layer graphene, and will hopefully allow for greater use of the substance in industry and its implementation into new technology. L. F. Dong acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (DMR-1126375 and DMR-1126375), the Faculty Research Grant and the Sabbatical Leave Award from Missouri State University.

  4. Gravity Anomalies and Depths of Sedimentary of Mekong Delta Area, South of Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang Van, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is the region in the south of Vietnam with the total area of about 40.000 km2 and almost of this area is covered by water. Gravity measurement of this area was performed by Cuu Long Petroleum Agency (Vietnam) in 1980's and the Bouguer anomaly map of this area at the scale of 1/500.000 was established.We used the Bouguer anomaly map to study the geological structure of this area. This paper is divided into two parts. Firstly, we split the Mekong Delta area into two basins (CanTho-DongThap and TraCu basins) and two swells (Saigon and SocTrang swells) and delineated their boundaries by using the characteristics of Bouguer anomalies. Secondly, we used the second polynomial formula to separate the Bouger anomaly map into the regional and residual gravity anomaly maps. With this residual anomaly map, the 3D basemenf of Cenozoic-Mesozoic sediments of this area was computed by using the Parker-Oldenburg method.

  5. The Impact of Surface Albedo on the Retrievals of Low-Level Stratus Cloud Properties: An Updated Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of Dong et al. (1998, hereafter D98) parameterization is developed from a total of 40 hours of data with a broad range of surface albedos (0.1-0.8) during the 2000-2002 winter seasons at the DOE ARM SGP site. The updated parameterization includes the impact of surface albedo on the retrievals of stratus cloud microphysical and radiative properties, and has a significant improvement over D98 when surface albedo is high. Comparing the retrievals, the cloud-droplet effective radii (r(sub e)) calculated from the updated parameterization have a higher correlation coefficient (0.733) and lower Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error (1.74 m or 17.4%) than those (0.602, 4.0 m or 40%) from the D98. The cloud albedos also have a much higher correlation coefficient (0.983) and lower RMS (3%) than those 0.465, 26%) from the D98. The upper limit of surface albedo is 0.3 in applying the D98.

  6. Wall-Resolved Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA0012 Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a NACA0012 airfoil is performed at angle of attack (AoA) 3o and Rec = 2 . 3 ×104 . The filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are spatially discretized using an energy conservative fourth-order scheme developed by Morinishi et al. (J. of Comput. Phys., 1998), and the subgrid-scale (SGS) tensor is modeled by the stretched-vortex SGS model developed by Pullin and co-workers (Phys. of Fluids, 2000, J. of Fluid Mech., 2009). An extension of the original stretched-vortex SGS model is utilized to resolve the streak-like structures in the near-wall flow regions. The mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles on airfoil surface and in wake are validated against experimental data reported in Dong-Ha Kim et al. (AIAA, 2009). To further verify our LES capacity, some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the DNS results produced by our in-house DNS code. The effect of grid-refinement on the wall-resolved LES approach is also discussed. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of turbulent flows over bluff bodies and airfoils.

  7. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. PMID:24704609

  8. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Wolf, Sonya J; Samulski, R J

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV's high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package "large" genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161-169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568-8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002). This method involves "splitting" the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15(4):750-755, 2007). The other major strategy for AAV-mediated large gene delivery is the use of fragment AAV (fAAV) (Dong et al., Mol Ther 18(1):87-92, 2010; Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 21(12):2205-2216, 2013; Lai et al., Mol Ther 18(1):75-79, 2010; Wu et al., Mol Ther 18(1):80-86, 2010). This strategy developed following the observation that the attempted encapsidation of transgenic cassettes exceeding the packaging capacity of the AAV capsid results in the packaging of heterogeneous single-strand genome fragments (<5 kb) of both polarities (Dong et al., Mol Ther 18(1):87-92, 2010; Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 21(12):2205-2216, 2013; Lai et al., Mol Ther 18(1):75-79, 2010; Wu et al., Mol Ther 18(1):80-86, 2010). After transduction by multiple fAAV particles, the genome fragments can undergo opposite strand annealing, followed by host-mediated DNA synthesis to reconstruct the intended oversized genome within the cell. Although, there appears to be growing debate as to the most efficient method of rAAV-mediated large gene delivery, it remains possible that additional factors including the target tissue and the transgenomic sequence factor into the selection of a particular approach for a specific application (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 21(12):2205-2216, 2013; Trapani et al., EMBO Mol Med 6(2):194-211, 2014; Ghosh et al., Hum Gene Ther 22(1):77-83, 2011). Herein we discuss the design, production, and verification of the leading rAAV large gene delivery strategies. PMID:26611576

  9. (When and where) Do extreme climate events trigger extreme ecosystem responses? - Development and initial results of a holistic analysis framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, Eva K.; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-04-01

    In the context of ongoing climate change, extremes are likely to increase in magnitude and frequency. One of the most important consequences of these changes is that the associated ecological risks and impacts are potentially rising as well. In order to better anticipate and understand these impacts, it therefore becomes more and more crucial to understand the general connection between climate extremes and the response and functionality of ecosystems. Among other region of the world, Europe presents an excellent test case for studies concerning the interaction between climate and biosphere, since it lies in the transition region between cold polar and warm tropical air masses and thus covers a great variety of different climatic zones and associated terrestrial ecosystems. The large temperature differences across the continent make this region particularly interesting for investigating the effects of climate change on biosphere-climate interactions. However, previously used methods for defining an extreme event typically disregard the necessity of taking seasonality as well as seasonal variance appropriately into account. Furthermore, most studies have focused on the impacts of individual extreme events instead of considering a whole inventory of extremes with their respective spatio-temporal extents. In order to overcome the aforementioned research gaps, this work introduces a new approach to studying climate-biosphere interactions associated with extreme events, which comprises three consecutive steps: (1) Since Europe exhibits climatic conditions characterized by marked seasonality, a novel method is developed to define extreme events taking into account the seasonality in all quantiles of the probability distribution of the respective variable of interest. This is achieved by considering kernel density estimates individually for each observation date during the year, including the properly weighted information from adjacent dates. By this procedure, we obtain a seasonal cycle for each quantile of the distribution, which can be used for a fully data-adaptive definition of extremes as exceedances above this time-dependent quantile function. (2) Having thus identified the extreme events, their distribution is analyzed in both space and time. Following a procedure recently proposed by Lloyd-Hughes (2012) and further exploited by Zscheischler et al. (2013), extremes observed at neighboring points in space and time are considered to form connected sets. Investigating the size distribution of these sets provides novel insights into the development and dynamical characteristics of spatio-temporally extended climate and ecosystem extremes. (3) Finally, the timing of such spatio-temporally extended extremes in different climatic as well as ecological variables is tested pairwise to rule out that co-occurrences of extremes have emerged solely due to chance. For this purpose, the recently developed framework of coincidence analysis (Donges et al., 2011; Rammig et al. 2014) is applied. The corresponding analysis allows identifying potential causal linkages between climatic extremes and extreme ecosystem responses and, thus, to study their mechanisms and spatial as well as seasonal distribution in great detail. In this work, the described method is exemplified by using different climate data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as remote sensing-based land surface temperature data. References: Donges et al., PNAS, 108, 20422, 2011 Lloyd-Hughes, Int. J. Climatol., 32, 406, 2012 Rammig et al., Biogeosc. Disc., 11, 2537, 2014 Zscheischler et al., Ecol. Inform., 15, 66, 2013

  10. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jie; Liu, Xiao-hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Cui-hong; Wu, Xiong-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and orthogonal experimental design, the small formula (SHZHSD) was determined from the original formula (HZHSD). SHZHSD exhibited superior antitumor activity compared with the original formula both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26421050

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  12. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P = 0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P = 0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P = 0.05) and acetate was higher (P = 0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P = 0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P = 0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

  13. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  14. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species. PMID:26630034

  15. Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Mun; Schumacher, H Ralph; Kim, Hocheol; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Pessler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Dried roots of the plants Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis are used in traditional oriental medicine and reportedly possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we investigated the efficacy and mode of action of an extract from these three plants in crystal-induced inflammation. Air pouches were raised on the backs of 8-week-old BALB/c mice. Mice were fed 100 mg/kg body weight of root extracts (A. senticosus:A. sinensis:S. baicalensis mixed in a ratio of 5:4:1 by weight) or vehicle only on days 3-6. Inflammation was elicited on day 6 by injecting 2 mg of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals into the pouch. Neutrophil density and IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels were determined in the pouch membrane, and the leukocyte count and IL-6, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) levels were determined in the pouch exudate. Treatment with the root extracts led to a reduction in all inflammatory parameters: the leukocyte count in the pouch exudate decreased by 82%; the neutrophil density in the pouch membrane decreased by 68%; IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels in the pouch membrane decreased by 100%; the IL-6 concentration in the pouch fluid decreased by 50%; and the PGE2 concentration in the pouch fluid decreased by 69%. Remarkably, the concentration of the potentially anti-inflammatory PGD2 rose 5.2-fold in the pouch exudate (p < 0.005), which led to a normalization of the PGD2:PGE2 ratio. A 3.7-fold rise in hematopoietic PGD synthase (h-PGDS) mRNA paralleled this rise in PGD2 (p = 0.01). Thus, the root extracts diminished MSU crystal-induced inflammation by reducing neutrophil recruitment and expression of pro-inflammatory factors and increasing the level of the potentially anti-inflammatory PGD2. These results support a need for further studies of the efficacy of these extracts in the treatment of inflammatory arthropathies and suggest elevation of PGD2 levels as a novel mechanism for an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:17612394

  16. The administration of Sheng Hua Tang immediately after delivery to reduce the incidence of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Wang, Xuezhi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Qin, Zhe; Li, Jianxi; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-15

    Sheng Hua Tang, a classical herbal formula consisting of Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustici rhizoma, Semen persicae, Zingiberis rhizoma, and Radix glycyrrhizae, is known to be beneficial in alleviating postpartum diseases and facilitating a return to normal reproductive function. This study investigated whether the administration of Sheng Hua Tang within 2 to 4 hours after delivery was effective as a preventive treatment for reducing the risk of retained placenta in Holstein dairy cows. A total of 357 cows, each of which had delivered its calf spontaneously, were randomly allocated to one of two groups. In the treatment group, the cows (n = 175) received Sheng Hua Tang with an oral dose of 0.36 g crude herb per kg·body weight once daily for three consecutive days. The controls (n = 182) received no treatment. The placental retention proportion was 4.0% and 17.0% within 12 hours after delivery in the treated and control animals, respectively (P < 0.01). We found decreases in the calving-to-first-service interval (73.2 ± 25.1 vs. 81.9 ± 32.8 days; P < 0.01), calving-to-conception interval (93.4 ± 38.8 vs. 114.6 ± 42.9 days; P < 0.01), and service per conception (1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.01) in the treatment group compared with the control group. The first artificial insemination conception proportion was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (60.4% vs. 41.1%; P = 0.01). Moreover, the between-group difference in the proportion of cows that were pregnant within 180 days postpartum approached statistical significance (88.2% vs. 80.6%; P = 0.07). Sheng Hua Tang showed beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of retained placenta and improving subsequent reproductive performance in cows. This preventive treatment strategy would be effective in improving the management of puerperal health. The potential benefits of Sheng Hua Tang warrant further investigation to determine whether this preventive treatment strategy can be endorsed as a general preventive approach in postpartum cows. PMID:24444716

  17. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.

  18. Recent Developments on the Numerical Upscaling and Homogenization of the Quasi-Static Maxwell's Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudillo Mata, L.; Haber, E.

    2013-12-01

    Luz Angelica Caudillo-Mata, Eldad Haber Geophysics Department, The University of British Columbia. 4013-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. Z. C. V6R 1Z4 Key words: Finite Volume, Quasi-static Maxwell's Equations, Optimization, Upscaling, Homogenization, Exploration Geophysics. Abstract: Mineral exploration has exploited the application of mathematical modelling and inversion methods to electromagnetic data by creating a thoughtful workflow that assists in the identification of potential geological targets, the understanding of the larger scale stratigraphy and structure in which a deposit might be located, or delineating finer scale detail in an existing deposit. [1] In recent years, electromagnetic modelling and inversion techniques based on finite volume and finite elements have been studied extensively due to their usefulness in theory as well as in practice [2]. Although the theoretical foundation for these methods is straight-forward, it can face major difficulties when used to simulate realistic situations. One of the fundamental issues is modelling the vast heterogeneity of geological targets in terms of scale, magnitude and anisotropy. Robust and accurate simulations require very fine meshes, especially when the earth is highly heterogeneous. Such meshes are difficult-to-work-with and may lead to very expensive-to-compute simulations when considering large earth-multiscale scenarios. For instance, geological characterizations typically contain on the order of 1e7 to 1e8 cells. These models, which are referred as fine models, represent geological variations on very fine scales vertically, though their areal resolution is still relatively coarse [3]. Numerical upscaling is a mathematical procedure that strive to develop coarse scale models to accurately approximate fine scale ones. Therefore, it is a useful resource to alleviate the computational cost. Upscaling of Maxwell's equations presents big challenges such as choosing the appropriate upscaling method and the assessment of risk and uncertainty in geological characterizations. In this work, we present insights on how to build an efficient framework that allows for homogenization and upscaling of the Maxwell's Equations' coefficients trying to address the challenges mentioned above. One example on geological characterization is provided. [1] D. Oldenburg and D. Pratt, 'Geophysical inversion for mineral exploration: A decade of progress in theory and practice,' Proceedings of exploration, 2007. [2] S. H. Ward and G. W. Hohmann, "Electromagnetic theory for geophysical applications", Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Issue 1. pp. 131-311, 1998. Soc. Expl. Geophys. [3] L. Durlofsky, 'Upscaling of geocellular models for reservoir flow simulation: a review of recent progress,' 7th International Forum on Reservoir Simulation Bühl/Baden-Baden, Germany, pp. 1-58, 2003.

  19. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Cui-Hong; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and orthogonal experimental design, the small formula (SHZHSD) was determined from the original formula (HZHSD). SHZHSD exhibited superior antitumor activity compared with the original formula both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26421050

  20. Towards a more robust molecular phylogeny of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: additional evidence from nrDNA ITS and cpDNA intron (rpl16 and rps16) sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Gong, Xun; Downie, Stephen R; Peng, Hua

    2009-10-01

    China contains some of the world's greatest diversity of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), with ten endemic genera. Our previous investigation into the phylogenetic relationships of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae, based exclusively on nrDNA ITS sequences, revealed several major clades heretofore unrecognized in the subfamily and confirmed the phylogenetic placements of five endemic genera. To further elucidate relationships among Chinese Apioideae, ascertain the phylogenetic placements of the remaining endemic genera, and test hypotheses of relationships proposed in our earlier study, additional taxa were examined for ITS and, for smaller sets of accessions, cpDNA rpl16 and rps16 intron sequence variation. These ITS and cpDNA data matrices comprised 158 and 131 accessions, respectively, with 110 accessions included in the analysis of combined ITS and cpDNA data. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of partitioned ITS and chloroplast data sets resulted in highly consistent phylogenies, whereas analyses of combined molecular data resulted in trees of greatest resolution and overall branch support. Two major clades identified in our previous study are recognized at the tribal level: Komarovieae J. Zhou & S. R. Downie trib. nov. and Chamaesieae J. Zhou & F. D. Pu trib. nov. The monotypic tribe Chamaesieae represents one of the earliest diverging lineages of subfamily Apioideae in Asia. The Acronema and East Asia clades of previous circumscription are each expanded. Of the five Chinese endemic genera not examined previously, Chaerophyllopsis finds affinity within tribe Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae, Chuanminshen allies with Changium and Cyclorhiza in tribe Komarovieae, Harrysmithia falls within the Acronema Clade, Melanosciadium embeds in Angelica in tribe Selineae, and Dickinsia is confirmed as a member of Apiaceae subfamily Azorelloideae. The cpDNA-based phylogenies are not sufficiently resolved in their distal portions to elucidate the tribal placement of the endemic genus Nothosmyrnium, whereas the ITS trees strongly indicate an affinity with tribe Pimpinelleae. The affinities of several Chinese endemic species are also addressed. Peucedanum delavayi, for example, is phylogenetically distant from Sinodielsia and Meeboldia, genera with which it has been allied previously, and shows close affinity to three Chinese species of Ligusticum in tribe Selineae. Aside from providing a framework for taxonomic revisions, the phylogenetic structure recovered in this study for subfamily Apioideae will lay the foundation for future investigations of evolutionary patterns of morphological characters and biogeography. PMID:19501179

  1. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high-throughput, cost-effective, and early evaluation of passive intestinal absorption of active principles in medicinal plants. In phytochemical studies, obtaining effective passive permeability values of pharmacologically active natural products is important to predict if natural products showing interesting activities in vitro may have a chance to reach their target in vivo. PMID:26872320

  2. Single Oral Dose Pharmacokinetics of Decursin and Decursinol Angelate in Healthy Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Hale, Thomas W.; Chee, Wayne; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH) in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY) in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax) of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax) of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h) and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h). The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h) for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957 PMID:25695490

  3. Determining changes in the average minimum winter temperature of Horqin Sandy Land using tree ring records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Liu, TingXi; Wang, JingRu; Ji, LanHong; Gao, RuiZhong

    2016-02-01

    Horqin Sandy Land, a region in China that suffers from desertification, has become a primary economic zone in Inner Mongolia MengDong. Ecological and environmental problems continue to affect the local environment and human survival, becoming one of the bottlenecks to economic and social development. Thus, research on the characteristics of climatic variation is urgently required. This study used the comprehensive timeline for the regional tree wheel width of Horqin Sandy Land to reconstruct the average minimum winter temperatures of the study area. The timeline, which has been in use for 183 years, was established using core samples from the annual growth rings of elm trees in 10 sampling sites. For 181 years (1826-2006), varying minimum temperatures were observed: a gentle wave stage (1826-1923), an intense cooling stage (1923-1957), and a considerable heating stage (1957-2006). The longest continuous heating stage was observed from 1957 to 2006, during which time the average minimum temperature was -16.81 °C, a value greater than the mean temperature over the entire study period. The coldest 10 years occurred during the 1950s, until 1957, at which point the temperature sharply increased. The next 50 years exhibited a general warming trend until 2000. This period reflected a time span with the warmest minimum temperature and displayed a warming trend rate of 0.575 °C/10 years and an overall increase of up to 1.5° every 50 years. A continued rise in temperature is predicted to cause a wider range and longer time scale of ecological and environmental problems.

  4. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  5. Synergetic use of neural precursor cells and self-assembling peptides in experimental cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zweckberger, Klaus; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jian; Forgione, Nicole; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) cause serious neurological impairment and psychological, economic, and social consequences for patients and their families. Clinically, more than 50% of SCI affect the cervical spine. As a consequence of the primary injury, a cascade of secondary mechanisms including inflammation, apoptosis, and demyelination occur finally leading to tissue scarring and development of intramedullary cavities. Both represent physical and chemical barriers to cell transplantation, integration, and regeneration. Therefore, shaping the inhibitory environment and bridging cavities to create a supportive milieu for cell transplantation and regeneration is a promising therapeutic target. Here, a contusion/compression model of cervical SCI using an aneurysm clip is described. This model is more clinically relevant than other experimental models, since complete transection or ruptures of the cord are rare. Also in comparison to the weight drop model, which in particular damage the dorsum columns, circumferential compression of the spinal cord appears advantageous. Clip closing force and duration can be adjusted to achieve different injury severity. A ring spring facilitates precise calibration and constancy of clip force. Under physiological conditions, synthetic self-assembling peptides (SAP) self-assemble into nanofibers and thus, are appealing for application in SCI. They can be injected directly into the lesion minimizing damage to the cord. SAPs are biocompatible structures erecting scaffolds to bridge intramedullary cavities and thus, equip the damaged cord for regenerative treatments. K2(QL)6K2 (QL6) is a novel SAP introduced by Dong et al. In comparison to other peptides, QL6 self-assembles into β-sheets at neutral pH. 14 days after SCI, after the acute stage, SAPs are injected into the center of the lesion and neural precursor cells (NPC) are injected into adjacent dorsal columns. In order to support cell survival, transplantation is combined with continuous subdural administration of growth factors by osmotic micro pumps for 7 days. PMID:25742521

  6. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T. K.; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted. PMID:26452338

  7. On-road remote sensing of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Z.; Chan, T. L.

    In the present study, the real-world on-road liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle/taxi emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated. A regression analysis approach based on the measured LPG vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road LPG vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the LPG vehicle model years and driving patterns have a strong correlation to their emission factors. A unique correlation of LPG vehicle emission factors (i.e., g km -1 and g l -1) on different model years for urban driving patterns has been established. Finally, a comparison was made between the average LPG, and petrol [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., Leung, C.W., Cheung, C.S., Hung, W.T., Dong, G., 2004. On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 38, 2055-2066 and 3541] and diesel [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., 2005. On-road remote sensing of diesel vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6843-6856] vehicle emission factors. It has shown that the introduction of the replacement of diesel taxis to LPG taxis has alleviated effectively the urban street air pollution. However, it has demonstrated that proper maintenance on the aged LPG taxis should also be taken into consideration.

  8. The heptad repeats region is essential for AcMNPV P10 filament formation and not the proline-rich or the C-terminus basic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Chunsheng; Deng Fei; Li Dan; Wang Hualin; Hu Zhihong

    2007-09-01

    Baculovirus P10 protein is a small conserved protein and is expressed as bundles of filaments in the host cell during the late phase of virus infection. So far the published results on the domain responsible for filament structural formation have been contradictory. Electron microscopy revealed that the C-terminus basic region was involved in filament structural formation in the Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) [van Oers, M.M., Flipsen, J.T., Reusken, C.B., Sliwinsky, E.L., Vlak, J.M., 1993. Functional domains of the p10 protein of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedorsis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 74, 563-574.]. While in the Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV), the heptad repeats region but not the C-terminus domain was proven to be responsible for filament formation [Dong, C., Li, D., Long, G., Deng, F., Wang, H., Hu, Z., 2005. Identification of functional domains required for HearNPV P10 filament formation. Virology 338, 112-120.]. In this manuscript, fluorescence confocal microscopy was applied to study AcMNPV P10 filament formation. A set of plasmids containing different P10 structural domains fused with a fluorescent protein were constructed and transfected into Sf-9 cells. The data indicated that the heptad repeats region, but not the proline-rich region or the C-terminus basic region, is essential for AcMNPV P10 filament formation. Co-transfection of P10s tagged with different fluorescent revealed that P10s with defective heptad repeats region could not interact with intact heptad repeats region or even full-length P10s to form filament structure. Within the heptad repeats region, deletion of the three amino acids spacing of AcMNPV P10 appeared to have no significant impact on the formation of filament structures, but the content of the heptad repeats region appeared to play a role in the morphology of the filaments.

  9. Life time suicidal thoughts in an urban community in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Huong Tran Thi; Tran, Trung Nam; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Leenaars, Antoon; Wasserman, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Background Suicidal thought is a risk factor and a stage in the suicidal process from planning to attempting and dying by suicide. To date, studies on suicidal thought in the general population, especially in Asian communities, have been limited. Method The WHO SUPRE-MISS (the multisite intervention study on suicidal behaviours) community survey questionnaire was filled in for 2,280 randomly selected residents of the DongDa district of Hanoi, Vietnam by means of face-to-face interviews. This multi-factor questionnaire includes such variables as sociodemographic information, suicidal thought and history of suicide attempts, physical health, alcohol consumption and medication. Results Prevalence rates for life time suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts were 8.9%, 1.1% and 0.4% respectively. Suicidal thoughts are associated with multiple characteristics, such as female gender, single/widowed/separated/divorced marital status, low income, lifestyle (use of alcohol, sedatives and pain relief medication), but not with low education or employment status. Having no religion and being a Buddhist appear to be protective factors for suicidal thought. The ratio of suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts on a lifetime basis is 22.3:2.8:1. Conclusion In Vietnam, as in Western and other Asian countries, suicidal thoughts are associated with similar negative psychosocial risk factors, lifestyle and emotional problems, which implies that suicide preventive measure developed elsewhere can be adjusted to Vietnamese condition. Understanding the unique and common risks in a culture may assist in prediction and control. PMID:16563173

  10. Optical broad-band photometry and reference image for APMUKS(BJ) B215839.70-615403.9 / ASASSN-15lh from the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, Peter; Drlica-Wagner, Alexander; Bechtol, Keith; Rykoff, Eli; Hartley, William; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We report optical broad-band photometry of the host galaxy APMUKS(BJ) B215839.70-615403.9 of SLSN ASASSN-15lh (ATel #7642; Dong et al., arXiv:1507.03010). The images were obtained using the DECam imager on the Blanco 4-m telescope at NOAO's Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory during Year-2 observations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). A preliminary reduction of the images was performed by the DES Data Management pipeline (Mohr et al. 2012, SPIE Conference Series, 84510D; Desai et al. 2012, ApJ, 757, 83). The photometry was measured using SExtractor with additional calibration via stellar locus regression to provide magnitude zero points with 2-3% calibration uncertainty for point sources (relative to 2MASS) and mildly increased uncertainties for extended sources. We fit the DES g-r, r-i, and i-z colors to a red-sequence model from redMaPPer (Rykoff et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 104) and obtain a redshift 0.25±0.02, consistent with the spectroscopic redshift of z = 0.2326 (ATel #7774). Fixed to that redshift, the host photometry is fully consistent with a red-sequence galaxy. We combine photometry from DES grizY with VHS NIR (ATel #7776) and WISE IR and fit a linear combination of single stellar populations with a variety of ages. We find that the fit is dominated by an old (5 Gyr) component, consistent with those of elliptical galaxies. We further compare with dusty SEDs taken from the latest set of templates in EAZY (Brammer, van Dokkum & Coppi, 2008, ApJ, 686, 1503). The combined host photometry is not well described by any of the dusty templates.

  11. Application of attitude jitter detection based on short-time asynchronous images and compensation methods for Chinese mapping satellite-1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Long, Hui; Liu, Bao-Cheng; Li, Ying

    2015-01-26

    Given the recent development in high-resolution (HR) optical satellites, the study of both attitude jitter (AJ) detection and compensation has become increasingly essential to improving the radiometric and geometric quality of HR images. A group of HR optical stereo mapping satellites in China, mapping satellite-1 (MS-1) has launched two satellites and will launch one satellite to build a satellite network. The geometric accuracy of the launched MS-1 satellites is greater than 80 m because of the AJ caused by the instability of the platform. AJ detection and compensation are critical issues that must be addressed to improve the accuracy of geo-positioning and mapping before launching a new satellite. The present study employs a method of jitter detection based on short-time asynchronous images to detect MS-1 jitter. The adjacent overlapping areas of an original panchromatic image are used as detection images instead of the traditional multispectral images, and a differential recursion optimal estimation filter is proposed for the optimal estimation and elimination of the gross errors of the registration data procedure, thereby increasing the detection accuracy. The space variant blurring model and viewing angles correction method are employed for the radiometric and geometric jitter compensation of images, respectively. The methods of radiometric objective evaluation indices and geometric checkpoint are then utilised to evaluate the quality of jitter compensation. Finally, the DeZhou regional image (ShanDong province, China) from MS-1 is used as the experimental data. Results for the AJ of MS-1 are analysed and reported for the first time. The assessment results obtained show that both radiometric and geometric qualities greatly increase after the jitter compensation procedure. Thus, the work of this study for jitter detection and compensation effectively addresses the jitter of MS-1 HR optical satellites. PMID:25835898

  12. Desalinated underground seawater of Jeju Island (Korea) improves lipid metabolism in mice fed diets containing high fat and increases antioxidant potential in t-BHP treated HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jung-Ran; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Yang, Keum-Jin; Lee, Chul-Ho; Na, O-Su; Kim, Gi-Ju; Oh, Won-Keun

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of desalinated underground seawater (named as 'magma seawater', MSW) of Jeju Island in Korea on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity. MSW was collected from underground of Han-Dong in Jeju Island, and freely given to high fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice for 10 weeks. Although there were no significant differences in the body weight changes and plasma lipid levels, hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the MSW group than in the normal tap water (TW)-drunken control group. Furthermore, the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly decreased and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity was increased in MSW group compared to TW group. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expressions of lipogenic genes were lowered in MSW groups compared to the control group. In a morphometric observation on the liver tissue, accumulation of fats was remarkably reduced in MSW group. Meanwhile, in vitro assay, free radical scavenging activity measured by using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was increased in MSW group. The 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) staining followed with fluorescent microscopy showed a low intensity of fluorescence in MSW-treated HepG2 cells, compared to TW-treated HepG2 cells, which indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in HepG2 cells was decreased by MSW treatment. The antioxidant effect of MSW on t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells was supported by the increased activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione reductase. From these results, we speculate that MSW has an inhibitory effect on lipogenesis in liver and might play a protective role against cell damage by t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20198202

  13. THE STRUCTURE OF PRE-TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF THE DISK+CAVITY IN THE PDS 70 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruobing; Rafikov, Roman; Zhu Zhaohuan; Brandt, Timothy; Hashimoto, Jun; Whitney, Barbara; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, S.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Muto, Takayuki; McClure, Melissa K.; Wisniewski, John; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Carson, J.; Grady, C.; Hayashi, M.; and others

    2012-12-01

    Through detailed radiative transfer modeling, we present a disk+cavity model to simultaneously explain both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and Subaru H-band polarized light imaging for the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk PDS 70. In particular, we are able to match not only the radial dependence but also the absolute scale of the surface brightness of the scattered light. Our disk model has a cavity 65 AU in radius, which is heavily depleted of sub-micron-sized dust grains, and a small residual inner disk that produces a weak but still optically thick near-IR excess in the SED. To explain the contrast of the cavity's edge in the Subaru image, a factor of {approx}1000 depletion for the sub-micron-sized dust inside the cavity is required. The total dust mass of the disk may be on the order of 10{sup -4} M {sub Sun }, only weakly constrained due to the lack of long-wavelength observations and the uncertainties in the dust model. The scale height of the sub-micron-sized dust is {approx}6 AU at the cavity edge, and the cavity wall is optically thick in the vertical direction at H-band. PDS 70 is not a member of the class of (pre-)transitional disks identified by Dong et al., whose members only show evidence of the cavity in the millimeter-size dust but not the sub-micron-sized dust in resolved images. The two classes of (pre-)transitional disks may form through different mechanisms, or they may simply be at different evolution stages in the disk-clearing process.

  14. The effect of electrical properties for InGaN and InN by high-energy particle irradiation (notice of removal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shao-guang; Fan, Guang-han

    2008-03-01

    This paper (SPIE Paper 68411H) was removed from the SPIE Digital Library on 8 August 2008 upon discovery that the paper has substantially plagiarized the following two papers: R.E. Jones, S.X. Li, L. Hsu, K.M. Yu, W. Walukiewicz, Z. Liliental-Weber, J.W. Ager III, E.E. Haller, H. Lu, and W.J. Schaff, "Native-defect-controlled n-type conductivity in InN," Physica B 376-377 (2006) 436-439 and S.X. Li, K.M. Yu, J. Wu, R.E. Jones, W. Walukiewicz, J.W. Ager III, W. Shan, E.E. Haller, Hai Lu, and William J. Schaff, "Native defects in InxGa1-xN alloys," Physica B 376-377 (2006) 432-435. As stated in the SPIE Publication Ethics Guidelines, "SPIE defines plagiarism as the reuse of someone else's prior ideas, processes, results, or words without explicit attribution of the original author and source, or falsely representing someone else's work as one's own. Unauthorized use of another researcher's unpublished data or findings without permission is considered to be a form of plagiarism even if the source is attributed. SPIE considers plagiarism in any form, at any level, to be unacceptable and a serious breach of professional conduct." It is SPIE policy to remove such papers and to provide citations to original sources so that interested readers can obtain the information directly from those sources. One of the authors, Shao-guang Dong, accepts full responsibility and apologizes for this plagiarism and has absolved the second author, Guang-han Fan, of any prior knowledge of or professional misconduct in this matter. Guang-han Fan also states that he had not previously seen the paper or given permission to include his name as an author.

  15. Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy of NbW- and W2-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepper, D. Alex; Baudhuin, Melissa A.; Leopold, Doreen; Casey, Sean M.

    2015-06-01

    The 488 nm vibrationally-resolved photoelectron spectra of NbW- and W2- are reported. The electron affinity of W2 ( 1σg+ ← 2σu+ ) is found to be 1.118 ± 0.007 eV, which differs from the value reported in a previous anion photoelectron spectroscopic study of W2- (1.46 eV), but was accurately predicted by density functional calculations (1.12 eV). The fundamental vibrational frequency of W2 is measured to be 345 ± 15 wn, in agreement with the value previously reported in matrix resonance Raman studies (337 wn). The W2- anion is measured to have a fundamental frequency of 320 ± 15 wn. Several weak transitions to excited electronic states are seen and tentatively assigned based on calculated energies. NbW has an electron affinity of 0.856 ± 0.007 eV. Vibrational frequencies are found, by Franck-Condon fitting of overlapping transitions, to be 365 ± 20 cm-1 for NbW- and 410 ± 20 cm-1 for NbW. This increase in vibrational frequency upon photodetachment suggests that the extra electron is in an antibonding orbital, leading to ground state assignments of 3Δ and 2Δ for the anion and neutral, respectively. These results are compared to those obtained for other Group V and Group VI transition metal dimers and trends are discussed. H. Weidele et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 237 (1995) 425-431 Z. J. Wu, X. F. Ma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 371 (2003) 35-39 Z. Hu, J.-G. Dong, J. R. Lombardi, D. M. Lindsay, J. Chem. Phys. 97 (1992) 8811-8812

  16. Tectonic significance of the Dongqiao ophiolite in the north-central Tibetan plateau: Evidence from zircon dating, petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Zhai, Qing-guo; Wang, Jun; Bao, Pei-sheng; Qiangba, Zhaxi; Tang, Suo-han; Tang, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The Dongqiao ophiolite occurs in the central segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, in north-central Tibet, China. It is still debated on the tectonic setting of the Dongqiao ophiolite despite after more than 30 years' studies. The Dongqiao ophiolite has a complete section of a typical ophiolite, composed of harzburgite, dunite, layered and isotropic gabbros, pillow and massive basalts, as well as radiolarian chert. Whole-rock geochemical analyses show that harzburgite displays a broad U-shaped REE pattern and has a fore-arc affinity, whereas basalts show affinities of E-MORB, OIB and IAB. The basalts were probably formed in different tectonic settings, that is, mid-ocean ridge, oceanic island and island arc. The gabbros and basalts are characterized by positive εNd(t) (+1.6 to +6.7) and εHf(t) (+8.1 to +13.9) values. Zircon U-Pb dating yielded ages of 188 ± 1 Ma for the layered gabbro and 181 ± 1 Ma for the amphibole gabbro. The new ages and the published age data of the Dingqing and Dong Co ophiolites led us to conclude that the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean existed from the Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The new geochemical data also suggested that the Dongqiao ophiolite was a typical SSZ-type ophiolite formed in an initial fore-arc oceanic basin. Fore-arc ophiolites are probably widely distributed along the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone. If so, the Tethys Ocean of the Bangong-Nujiang area probably existed as a fore-arc oceanic basin during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

  17. Influences of oxygen content on characteristics of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in argon/oxygen mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi; Shao, Tao; Wang, Ruixue; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge generated in argon/oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and the effect of oxygen content on discharge characteristics at applied voltage of 4.5 kV is studied by means of electrical measurements and optical diagnostics. The results show that the filaments in the discharge regime become more densely packed with the increasing in the oxygen content, and the distribution of the filaments is more uniform in the gap. An increase in the oxygen content results in a decrease in the average power consumed and transported charges, while there exists an optimal value of oxygen content for the production of oxygen radicals. The maximal yield of oxygen radicals is obtained in mixtures of argon with 0.3% oxygen addition, and the oxygen radicals then decrease with the further increase in the oxygen content. The oxygen/argon plasma is employed to modify surface hydrophilicity of the PET films to estimate the influence of oxygen content on the surface treatment, and the static contact angles before and after the treatments are measured. The lowest contact angle is obtained at a 0.3% addition of oxygen to argon, which is in accordance with the optimum oxygen content for oxygen radicals generation. The electron density and electron temperature are estimated from the measured current and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The electron density is found to reduce significantly at a higher oxygen content due to the increased electron attachment, while the estimated electron temperature do not change apparently with the oxygen content. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  18. A Conserved Negative Regulatory Region in ?PAK: Inhibition of PAK Kinases Reveals Their Morphological Roles Downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhou-Shen; Manser, Edward; Chen, Xiang-Qun; Chong, Claire; Leung, Thomas; Lim, Louis

    1998-01-01

    ?PAK in a constitutively active form can exert morphological effects (E. Manser, H.-Y. Huang, T.-H. Loo, X.-Q. Chen, J.-M. Dong, T. Leung, and L. Lim, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:11291143, 1997) resembling those of Cdc42G12V. PAK family kinases, conserved from yeasts to humans, are directly activated by Cdc42 or Rac1 through interaction with a conserved N-terminal motif (corresponding to residues 71 to 137 in ?PAK). ?PAK mutants with substitutions in this motif that resulted in severely reduced Cdc42 binding can be recruited normally to Cdc42G12V-driven focal complexes. Mutation of residues in the C-terminal portion of the motif (residues 101 to 137), though not affecting Cdc42 binding, produced a constitutively active kinase, suggesting this to be a negative regulatory region. Indeed, a 67-residue polypeptide encoding ?PAK83-149 potently inhibited GTP?S-bound Cdc42-mediated kinase activation of both ?PAK and ?PAK. Coexpression of this PAK inhibitor with Cdc42G12V prevented the formation of peripheral actin microspikes and associated loss of stress fibers normally induced by the p21. Coexpression of PAK inhibitor with Rac1G12V also prevented loss of stress fibers but not ruffling induced by the p21. Coexpression of ?PAK83-149 completely blocked the phenotypic effects of hyperactive ?PAKL107F in promoting dissolution of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. These results, coupled with previous observations with constitutively active PAK, demonstrate that these kinases play an important role downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1 in cytoskeletal reorganization. PMID:9528787

  19. Research on Earthquake Precursor in E-TEC: A Study on Land Surface Thermal Anomalies Using MODIS LST Product in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. Y.; Wu, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan has been known as an excellent natural laboratory characterized by rapid active tectonic rate and high dense seismicity. The Eastern Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (E-TEC) is established on 2013/09/24 in National Dong Hwa University and collaborates with Central Weather Bureau (CWB), National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR), Institute of Earth Science of Academia Sinica (IES, AS) and other institutions (NCU, NTU, CCU) and aims to provide an integrated platform for researchers to conduct the new advances on earthquake precursors and early warning for seismic disaster prevention in the eastern Taiwan, as frequent temblors are most common in the East Taiwan rift valley. E-TEC intends to integrate the multi-disciplinary observations and is equipped with stations to monitor a wide array of factors of quake precursors, including seismicity, GPS, strain-meter, ground water, geochemistry, gravity, electromagnetic, ionospheric density, thermal infrared remote sensing, gamma radiation etc, and will maximize the value of the data for researches with the range of monitoring equipment that enable to predict where and when the next devastated earthquake will strike Taiwan and develop reliable earthquake prediction models. A preliminary study on earthquake precursor using monthly Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) data before 2013/03/27 Mw6.2 Nantou earthquake in Taiwan is presented. Using the statistical analysis, the result shows the peak of the anomalous LST that exceeds a standard deviation of LST appeared on 2013/03/09 and became less or none anomalies observed on 2013/03/16 before the main-shock, which is in consist with the phenomenon observed by other researchers. This preliminary experimental result shows that the thermal anomalies reveal the possibility to associate surface thermal phenomena before the strong earthquakes.

  20. 2K09 and thereafter : the coming era of integrative bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing for functional genomics and personalized medicine research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Significant interest exists in establishing synergistic research in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. Supported by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF), International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine (http://www.ISIBM.org), International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design (IJCBDD) and International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalized Medicine, the ISIBM International Joint Conferences on Bioinformatics, Systems Biology and Intelligent Computing (ISIBM IJCBS 2009) attracted more than 300 papers and 400 researchers and medical doctors world-wide. It was the only inter/multidisciplinary conference aimed to promote synergistic research and education in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. The conference committee was very grateful for the valuable advice and suggestions from honorary chairs, steering committee members and scientific leaders including Dr. Michael S. Waterman (USC, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Chih-Ming Ho (UCLA, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Academician of Academia Sinica), Dr. Wing H. Wong (Stanford, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy (UC Berkeley, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Member of United States Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), Dr. Mary Qu Yang (United States National Institutes of Health and Oak Ridge, DOE), Dr. Andrzej Niemierko (Harvard), Dr. A. Keith Dunker (Indiana), Dr. Brian D. Athey (Michigan), Dr. Weida Tong (FDA, United States Department of Health and Human Services), Dr. Cathy H. Wu (Georgetown), Dr. Dong Xu (Missouri), Drs. Arif Ghafoor and Okan K Ersoy (Purdue), Dr. Mark Borodovsky (Georgia Tech, President of ISIBM), Dr. Hamid R. Arabnia (UGA, Vice-President of ISIBM), and other scientific leaders. The committee presented the 2009 ISIBM Outstanding Achievement Awards to Dr. Joydeep Ghosh (UT Austin), Dr. Aidong Zhang (Buffalo) and Dr. Zhi-Hua Zhou (Nanjing) for their significant contributions to the field of intelligent biological medicine. PMID:21143775