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Sample records for dong quai angelica

  1. Dong quai

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use it. Bleeding disorders. Dong quai might slow blood clotting. In theory, dong quai might increase the risk ... have protein S deficiency. Surgery: Dong quai can slow blood clotting. It might increase the risk of bleeding during ...

  2. Donges Receives 2013 Donald L. Turcotte Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Jonathan F. Donges was awarded the 2013 Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Donges's Ph.D. thesis is entitled "Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics." He gave an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting, held 9-13 December in San Francisco, Calif.

  3. Assessment of Young Dong tributary and Imgok Creek impacted by Young Dong coal mine, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Ranville, James F; Wildeman, Thomas R; Jang, Min; Shim, Yon Sik; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2012-01-01

    An initial reclamation of the Young Dong coal mine site, located in northeastern South Korea, was completed in 1995. Despite the filling of the adit with limestone, acid rock drainage (ARD) enters Young Dong tributary and is then discharged to Imgok Creek. This ARD carries an average of 500 mg CaCO(3)/l of mineral acidity, primarily as Fe(II) and Al. Before spring runoff, the flow of Imgok Creek is 3.3-4 times greater than that of the tributary and has an alkalinity of 100 mg CaCO(3)/l, which is sufficient to eliminate the mineral acidity and raise the pH to about 6.5. From April through September 2008, there were at least two periods of high surface flow that affects the flow of ARD from the adit. Flow of ARD reaches 2.8 m(3)/min during spring runoff. This raised the concentrations of Fe and Al in the confluence with Imgok Creek. However, by 2 km downstream the pH of the Imgok Creek is 6.5 and only dissolved Fe is above the Korean drinking water criteria (0.30 mg/l). This suggests only a minor impact of Young Dong Creek water on Imgok Creek. Acid digestion of the sediments in Imgok Creek and Young Dong Tributary reveals considerable abundances of heavy metals, which could have a long-term impact on water quality. However, several water-based leaching tests, which better simulate the bioavailable metals pool, released only Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn at concentrations exceeding the criteria for drinking water or aquatic life. PMID:21818559

  4. A fluorescence spectroscopy study of traditional Chinese medicine Angelica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Song, Feng; Liu, Shujing; Chen, Guiyang; Wei, Chen; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Jiadong

    2013-10-01

    By measuring the fluorescence spectra of Chinese medicine (CM) Angelica water solutions with different concentrations from 0.025 to 2.5 mg/mL, results showed that the fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration. Through fluorescence spectra of Angelica solution under different pH values, results indicated coumarin compounds were the active ingredients of Angelica. We also observed fluorescence quenching of the Angelica solution in the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles with radius of 12 nm. Keeping a certain value for the volume of the silver nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity at 402 nm was linearly proportional to the Angelica in the range of 1-3 mg/mL.

  5. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from different angelica roots by H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui Hei; Zhang, Wendy L; Lau, Chung-Ho; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Keun, Hector C; Tsim, Karl W K; Lam, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites. PMID:24658570

  6. Phytochemical progress made in investigations of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Bing; Jin, Ling; Li, Ying-Dong

    2015-04-01

    The phytochemical progress on Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels over the past decades is summarized. Since 1970s, 165 chemical constituents, including phthalides, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and essential oils, aromatic compounds, alkaloids, alkynes, sterols, fatty acids, and polysaccharides have been isolated or detected from the various parts of the title plant. PMID:25908620

  7. A NOVEL VIRUS IN ANGELICA LUCIDA (WILD CELERY) IN ALASKA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Documentation of viruses in native plants is scarce despite the fact that affected plants may act as hosts for agronomical important viruses and impact natural ecosystems. In south central Alaska, wild celery (Angelica lucida, family Apiaceae) plants growing along roadsides near crops and in forests...

  8. Ethnobotany of dye plants in Dong communities of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to document the ethnobotany of dye plants in indigenous communities towards their conservation and potential commercialization as a sustainable means of supporting local development initiatives. Methods Semi-structured surveys on plants used for coloring agents and associated traditional knowledge were conducted in fifteen Dong villages of Tongdao County in Hunan Province of South Central China during 2011–2012. Transect walks were carried out with key informants identified from semi-structured surveys to collect samples and voucher specimens for each documented plant species for taxonomic identification. Results Dong households at the study sites utilize the flowers, bark, stems, tubers and roots of 13 plant species from 9 families as dyes to color their customary clothing and food. Out of the documented plants, a total of 7 are used for coloring food, 3 for coloring clothing and 3 for both food and clothing. Documented plants consist of 3 species that yield black pigments, 3 for brownish red/russet pigments, 3 for red pigments, 2 for dark blue pigments and 2 for yellow pigments. In addition to dyes, the plants have multiple uses including medicinal, ornamental, sacrificial, edible, and for timber. Conclusions The use of dyes derived from plants persists at the study sites for their important role in expressing Dong cultural identity through customary clothing and food. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety of dye plants, their efficacy in enhancing food items and their commercial potential. Conservation policies and management plans are called for to preserve these ethnobotanical resources in a sustainable manner that supports local livelihoods while maintaining cultural practices. PMID:24552267

  9. The essential oil from Angelica gigas NAKAI suppresses nicotine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong Jie; Koo, Byung Soo; Kim, Geun Woo; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Jong Rok; Kim, Mi Ryeo; Kim, Sang Chan; Kwon, Young Kyu; Kim, Kwang Joong; Huh, Tae-lin; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Shim, Insop; Yang, Chae Ha

    2005-12-01

    Behavioral sensitization, as evidenced by the progressive enhanced locomotor response to a subsequent injection of the drug, is the major behavioral outcome produced by repeated injections of nicotine, and a model for studying drug addiction. It is putatively regarded that the alteration of extracellular dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is closely associated with nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of the essential oil from Angelica gigas NAKAI (on fragrance inhalation) on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor activity and extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats using in vivo microdialysis. Rats were given repeated injections of saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg s.c., twice a day for 7 d), followed by one challenge injection on the 4th day after the last daily injection. Systemic challenge with nicotine (0.4 mg/kg s.c.) produced a larger increase in locomotor activity in nicotine-pretreated rats than in saline-pretreated rats. A direct local challenge of 3 mM nicotine via a microdialysis probe also induced a larger increase in dopamine release in nicotine-pretreated rats than in saline-pretreated rats. Most importantly, our results showed that inhalation of the essential oils from Angelica gigas NAKAI significantly decreased both dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and locomotor activity induced by a nicotine challenge. These results suggest that the essential oils from Angelica gigas NAKAI inhibit nicotine-induced behavioral and neurochemical sensitization, and imply that the essential oil from Angelica gigas NAKAI may be effective in treating nicotine addiction, possibly by modulating dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:16327174

  10. A new potyvirus first isolated and identified from Angelica sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Jianhui; Chang, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Xinfang; Chen, Tuo; An, Lizhe; Xu, Shijian

    2009-08-01

    A filamentous virus was isolated in Angelica sinensis (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels) which shows mosaic symptoms on leaves in Minxian, Gansu province, China. According to morphology and molecular biology properties, this virus, which has a flexuous rod-shaped particle about 750 nm in length and 12 nm in width, was assigned to the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. Its coat protein (CP) shows high similarity with six other potyviruses by analysis of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). The 919 bp nucleotides of 3' terminal covering partial CP gene and 3'-untranslated region was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers which were designed according to the result of PMF. In sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, the new isolate was found to be closely related to Japanese hornwort mosaic virus (JHMV), Konjak mosaic virus (KoMV), and Zantedeschia mosaic virus (ZaMV). The most closely related virus is JHMV03 (AB251346), with 96.59% aa and 87.60% nt identity to the isolate. All results suggest the presence of a new member of potyvirus, tentatively named Dang Gui strain of Japanese hornwort mosaic virus (JHMV-DG*). In our research the antiserum against the CP of JHMV-DG had also been prepared. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a potyvirus has been isolated and identified in Angelica sinensis. PMID:19415480

  11. Polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis alleviate neuronal cell injury caused by oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Tao; Li, Haifeng; Fang, Zhen; Lin, Junbin; Wang, Shanshan; Xiao, Lingyun; Yang, Fan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Junjian; Huang, Zebo; Liao, Weijing

    2014-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis. In a preliminary experiment, Angelica sinensis polysaccharides not only protected PC12 neuronal cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, but also reduced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and increased the mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2 treatment. In a rat model of local cerebral ischemia, we further demonstrated that Angelica sinensis polysaccharides enhanced the antioxidant activity in cerebral cortical neurons, increased the number of microvessels, and improved blood flow after ischemia. Our findings highlight the protective role of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis against nerve cell injury and impairment caused by oxidative stress. PMID:25206810

  12. [Discrimination of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ji, Peng; Wei, Yan-Ming; Hua, Yong-Li; Zhang, Wen-quan

    2014-05-01

    A new rapid and nondestructive method for identifying polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was developed, and this method was based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine, unprocessed Angelica sinensis(UAS) is of ten used after processed, the common processed products are Angelica sinensis parched with wine(WAS), Angelica sinensis parched with soil(SAS), Angelica sinensis parched with oil(OAS) and Charred Angelica sinensis(CAS). In order to use polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its processed products effectively and reasonably in clinic, it is very necessary to identify them. FTIR of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was determined, and then it was decomposed by discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The high frequency information in scale 2, 3 and 4 was selected as feature information, from which the each wavelet entropy was extracted as characteristic value. BP neural network was trained with these characteristic values. The trained BP neural network was used to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products. According to 30 prediction samples, the correct rate for recognition was 93. 3%, which indicates that: it has better feasibility to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products by this method, which is based on FTIR, discrete wavelet transform and BP neural network PMID:25095420

  13. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-?, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents. PMID:26727903

  14. Bioavailability of plant pigment phytochemicals in Angelica keiskei in older adults: A pilot absorption kinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Camila R; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Aldini, Giancarlo; Rasmussen, Helen; Ronchi, Carlos F; Berchieri-Ronchi, Carolina; Cho, Soo-Muk; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Angelica keiskei is a green leafy vegetable rich in plant pigment phytochemicals such as flavonoids and carotenoids. This study examined bioavailability of flavonoids and carotenoids in Angelica keiskei and the alteration of the antioxidant performance in vivo. SUBJECTS AND MATERIALS Absorption kinetics of phytochemicals in Angelica keiskei were determined in healthy older adults (> 60 y, n = 5) and subjects with metabolic syndrome (n = 5). Subjects consumed 5 g dry Angelica keiskei powder encapsulated in gelatin capsules with a low flavonoid and carotenoid liquid meal. Plasma samples were collected at baseline, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 h. Samples were analyzed for flavonoids and carotenoids using HPLC systems with electrochemical and UV detection, respectively, and for total antioxidant performance by fluorometry. RESULTS After ingestion of Angelica keiskei increases in plasma quercetin concentrations were observed at 1-3 and 6-8 hr in the healthy group and at all time points in the metabolic syndrome group compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Plasma lutein concentrations were significantly elevated in both the healthy and metabolic syndrome groups at 8 hr (P < 0.05). Significant increases in total antioxidant performance were also observed in both the healthy and the metabolic syndrome groups compared to baseline (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Findings of this study clearly demonstrate the bioavailability of phytonutrients of Angelica keiskei and their ability to increase antioxidant status in humans. PMID:25324936

  15. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Aneelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides and Colletotrichum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water distilled essential oils from the roots of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis were investigated for their antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides as well as insecticidal activity against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes ...

  16. Regional water quality management for the Dong Nai River Basin, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Grayman, W M; Day, H J; Luken, R

    2003-01-01

    A three-year study that started solely as an industrial pollution reduction effort in Dong Nai Province of Vietnam expanded into an ongoing regional river basin water quality management effort. The project was a cooperative effort between the United Nations (UNDP and UNIDO) and the Federal and Provincial governments in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach was used to assess the impacts and strategies for reducing industrial, municipal and agricultural pollution to the water, air and land. The strategy was based upon use of knowledge in four subject areas, economics, ecology, technology and institutions, integrated within a framework for regional environmental quality management, sometimes called Areawide Environmental Quality Management (AEQM). Dong Nal Province encompasses a major developing area immediately north of Ho Chi Minh City. The land area chosen for the AEQM study is the 1,400 square kilometre region in and around Bien Hoa that drains into the Dong Nai River. The Dong Nai River serves many purposes including navigation, fisheries and a water supply for both the Province and Ho Chi Minh City. Extensive industrial and residential development was underway and was projected to increase in the coming decade. A strategy for the control of pollution from liquid, gaseous and solid wastes for the period 1998 to 2010 in Dong Nai Province was developed. PMID:15137148

  17. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation and GC/MS Fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica Root Components for Antifungal and Mosquito Deterrent Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica sinensis and A. archangelica belong to the Umbelliferae and both are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gynecological and intestinal disorders. In this study, oils from three different A. sinensis collections and one A. archangelica root were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The domin...

  18. Molecular systematics of Angelica and allied genera (Apiaceae) from the Hengduan Mountains of China based on nrDNA ITS sequences: phylogenetic affinities and biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tu; Downie, Stephen R; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Xuemei; Chen, Weiwei; He, Xingjin; Liu, Shuang

    2009-07-01

    Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences were used to infer the phylogenetic affinities and historical biogeography of Angelica and its allies (Apiaceae tribe Selineae), with emphasis on those species of Angelica and Peucedanum endemic to the Hengduan Mountains of south-central China. Results of these analyses corroborate a monophyletic Angelica (Angelica sensu stricto) upon the inclusion of Coelopleurum, Czernaevia, and one of two examined species of Ostericum, but with the exclusion of several species previously attributable to Angelica. Angelica oncosepala and A. likiangensis arise within the genus Heracleum in tribe Tordylieae; the former is recognized under its original name, Heracleum oncosepalum. Angelica sinensis, A. tianmuensis and A. paeoniifolia arise within the Sinodielsia clade of previous circumscription, closely related to Levisticum officinale. Angelica anomala is a sister group to Ostericum grosseserratum in the previously delimited Acronema clade. Angelica apaensis and A. decursiva, taxa whose phylogenetic affinities have previously been controversial, are confirmed within Angelica. Northeast Asia (including Japan, northeast China, Korea and adjacent areas of Russia), Western Europe, and North America are inferred to be ancestral areas of Angelica based on optimal solutions of a dispersal-vicariance analysis, with the Hengduan Mountains likely providing a refugium for Angelica during the latter part of the Tertiary. PMID:19440815

  19. Identification and characterization of a new virus in the genus Potyvirus from wild populations of Angelica lucida L. and A. genuflexa Nutt., family Apiacea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel potyvirus was discovered in Angelica livida L. (wild celery) and Angelica genuflexa Nutt. (kneeling Angelica) (family Apiaceae) in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska. The experimental plant host range of the virus included species in three families: Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium amaranticolo...

  20. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kB? and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kB? and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats. PMID:26261562

  1. Evaluation of acute skin irritation and phototoxicity by aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SANG-HAN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to assess whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei induce acute skin irritation and phototoxicity, acute skin irritancy and phototoxicity tests were performed. The skin of rabbits or guinea pigs was treated with these fractions (100 mg/dose) and whether the animals sustained significant skin damage was determined. The data demonstrated that the aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei did not induce acute toxicity in the skin of the animals, as assessed by anatomical and pathological observations. The results from the present study suggest that these aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei have promising potential uses as cosmetic ingredients that do not induce significant levels of skin irritation or phototoxicity. PMID:23251240

  2. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of angelica sinensis (Oliv.) diels dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (“Danggui” in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases. There are a lo...

  3. Bio-pesticidal and anti-microbial coumarins from Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica dahurica is an important traditional Chinese herb which is widely used in curing acne, ulcers, carbuncles, rheumatism, headaches and toothaches. A systematic antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from A. dahurica led to the isolation of six coumarins, namely...

  4. Source identification and mass balance studies of mercury in Lake An-dong, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Byeon, M.; Yoon, J.; Park, J.; Lee, M.; Huh, I.; Na, E.; Chung, D.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, mercury and methylmercury were measured in atmospheric, tributary, open-lake water column, sediment, planktons and fish samples in the catchments area of Lake An-dong, S. Korea. Lake An-dong, an artificial freshwater lake is located on the upstream of River Nak-dong. It has 51.5 km2 of open surface water and 1.33 year of hydraulic residence time. It is a source of drinking water for 0.3 million S. Koreans. Recently, the possibilities of its mercury contamination became an issue since current studies showed that the lake had much higher mercury level in sediment and certain freshwater fish species than any other lakes in S. Korea. This catchments area has the possibilities of historical mercury pollution by the location of more than 50 abandoned gold mines and Young-poong zinc smelter. The objective of this study was to develop a mercury mass balance and identify possible mercury sources in the lake. The results of this study are thus expected to offer valuable insights for the sources of mercury loading through the watershed. In order to estimate the mercury flux, TGM, RGM and particulate mercury were measured using TEKRAN 2537 at the five sites surrounding Lake An-dong from May, 2009 with wet and dry deposition. The fate and transport of mercury in water body were predicted by using EFDC (Environmental Dynamic Fluid Code) and Mercury module in WASP7 (Water quality analysis program) after subsequent distribution into water body, sediments, followed by bioaccumulation and ultimate uptake by humans. The mercury mass balance in Young-poong zinc smelter was also pre-estimated by measuring mercury content in zinc ores, emission gases, sludge, wastewater and products.

  5. Ultrafine Angelica gigas powder normalizes ovarian hormone levels and has antiosteoporosis properties in ovariectomized rats: particle size effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-10-01

    The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake. PMID:23039111

  6. Ultrafine Angelica gigas Powder Normalizes Ovarian Hormone Levels and Has Antiosteoporosis Properties in Ovariectomized Rats: Particle Size Effect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500?mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake. PMID:23039111

  7. Long-term trend of climate variables in the upper Dong Nai river basin in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Nguyen Cung Que; Nguyen, Hong Quan; Kondoh, Akihiko

    2015-04-01

    Dong Nai river and Mekong delta downstream are located in and supplied the major water resources to the whole Southern of Vietnam. In the state of continuous changes in water resources due to climate changes, there are several controversy about the potential impact of sediment transport and river flows downstream due to either the cascade hydroelectric power plant system or dam construction in the upper of Mekong delta. Therefore, management and planning for efficient use of Dong Nai river water resource is very important. Furthermore, that it is necessary to consider the hydrological regime change by the effects of climate variable. On the other hand, solving the problems of water shortage in the dry season and flood control in rainy season are also important for issues of water management at Dong Nai river basin. In this study we evaluated changes in two main factors of the water balance equation (both rainfall and evapotranspiration) to assess long-term change in the hydrological regime in the upper area of Dong Nai river basin. This key theme was divided into the following two sub-goals. The first goal was to analyze long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends. The second goal was to analyze the long-term trend of meteorological factors determining evapotranspiration such as air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation and sunshine duration. The results were used to assess their impact to evapotranspiration. The meteorological and hydrological data of the basin for the last 20 years (from 1993 to 2012) were analyzed based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. The EMD method has been pioneered by Huang et al. (1998) for adaptively representing nonstationary time-series data as sum of zero-mean amplitude modulation-frequency modulation (AM-FM) components by iteratively conducting the sifting process. These components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) allow the calculation of a meaningful multi-component instantaneous frequency. The results show temperature slightly increased of 2% in all areas and rainfall in rainy season increased of 10% in highland, 15% in midland and 5% in lowland. Whereas we have found the downtrend in all meteorological factors, while the reduction of wind speed were greatly with 15% but they are very small in related humidity (0.3%) and sunrise duration (1%). Solar radiation was slightly decreased of 8% and discharge was increased of 8% steadily. EMD is not only the quantitative results as above but it also shows shape of trend curves, from which we can verify change in climate variables in analyzed period. EMD could be widely used to detect trend over time of meteorological time series data.

  8. Polyphenols, Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity in Different Varieties of Angelica keiskei (Angels plant) and Glycine max (Black soybeans)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant content and activity as well as the stability of different varieties of Angelica keiskei (n = 3), and Glycine max (n = 5) were determined. Angelica keiskei, a dark green leafy vegetable, was lyophilized; and Glycine max, black soybeans, were roasted at 125 deg C for 2 min, milled to ...

  9. Characterization of the Anticoagulative Constituents of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Their Metabolites in Rats by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Huang, Shuai; Chen, Bing; Zang, Xin-Yu; Su, Dan; Liang, Jing; Xu, Feng; Liu, Guang-Xue; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Angelicae Sinensis Radix is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies show that Angelicae Sinensis Radix has clear anticoagulant activity. Therefore, in this study, the anticoagulant activity of crude Angelicae Sinensis Radix extracts was investigated by measuring the thrombin times of the extracts. The results revealed that the petroleum ether-soluble fraction of Angelicae Sinensis Radix exhibited significant anticoagulant activity in vitro, and 26 compounds were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry. In addition, 5 prototype constituents, 24 in vivo metabolites in rat urine and 7 prototype constituents, and 9 in vitro metabolites in the rat hepatic S9 incubation system of the petroleum ether-soluble fraction were tentatively identified. All metabolites were found from Angelicae Sinensis Radix for the first time. Among them, 13 (three ferulic acid-related constituents, six senkyunolide D-related constituents, and four senkyunolide F-related constituents) were identified as new metabolites (new compounds). This study is the first to qualitatively characterize the chemical constituents of the potent anticoagulative extract of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and to explore its metabolism. The result is a notable improvement in the discovery of Angelicae Sinensis Radix metabolites, and it provides the chemical basis for the effective forms and pharmacodynamic substances (prototypes, metabolites, or both) of the anticoagulant activity of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. PMID:26829520

  10. Application of mid-infrared spectroscopy in analyzing different segmented production of Angelica by AB-8 macroporous resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yizhen; Wang, Jingjuan; Lu, Lina; Sun, Suqin; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Yao; Qin, Youwen; Xiao, Lijuan; Wen, Haoran; Qu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As complicated mixture systems, chemical components of Angelica are very difficult to identify and discriminate, so as not to control its quality effectively. In recent years, Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been innovatively employed to identify and assess the quality of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. In this paper, the macroscopic IR fingerprint method including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR), are applied to study and identify Angelica raw material, the decoction and different segmented production of AB-8 macroporous resin. FT-IR spectrum indicates that Angelica raw material is rich in sucrose and the correlation coefficient is 0.8465. The decoction of Angelica contains varieties of polysaccharides components and the content is gradually decreased with increasing concentration of ethanol. In addition, the decoction of Angelica contains a certain amount of protein components and 50% ethanol eluate has more protein than other eluates. Their second derivative spectra amplify the differences and reveal the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands, then we conclude that the decoction of Angelica contains a certain amount of ferulic acid and ligustilide. And 30% ethanol eluate, 50% ethanol eluate and 70% ethanol eluate are similar to ligustilide. Further, 2D-IR spectra enhance the spectral resolution and obtain much new information for discriminating the similar complicated samples. It is demonstrated that the above three-step infrared spectroscopy could be applicable for effective, visual and accurate analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems of traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, and Colletotrichum species.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Zengping; Demirci, Betul; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Sampson, Blair J; Werle, Chris; Bernier, Ulrich R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis root essential oils were investigated as pest management perspectives, and root samples were also analyzed genetically using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a DNA barcode marker. A. pubescentis root essential oil demonstrated weak antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. dahurica root essential oil did not show antifungal activity. Conversely, A. dahurica root essential oil demonstrated better biting deterrent and insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides, than A. pubescentis root oil. The major compounds in the A. dahurica oil were found as ?-pinene (46.3%), sabinene (9.3%), myrcene (5.5%), 1-dodecanol (5.2%), and terpinen-4-ol (4.9%). ?-Pinene (37.6%), p-cymene (11.6%), limonene (8.7%), and cryptone (6.7%) were the major compounds found in the A. pubescentis oil. In mosquito bioassays, 1-dodecanol and 1-tridecanol showed antibiting deterrent activity similar to the positive control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, whereas only 1-tridecanol showed repellent activity in human-based cloth patch bioassay with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.086 0.089 mg/cm(2) (DEET = 0.007 0.003 mg/cm(2)). In larval bioassays, 1-tridecanol was more toxic with an LC50 value of 2.1 ppm than 1-dodecanol having an LC50 value of 5.2 ppm against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol could be useful for the natural mosquito control agents. PMID:25133520

  12. [Professor Dong Gui-rong's experiences in treatment of child cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guan-nan; Li, Cheng-jia; Bao, Chun-ling

    2014-09-01

    According to the characteristics of the etiology and pathogenesis of child cerebral palsy, on the basis of "regulating the mind in treatment of all kinds of diseases" and "regulating the functions of five zang organs with back-shu points", Professor DONG Gui-rong applied the penetrating needling technique on the scalp points and acupuncture at back-shu points of five zang organs in the treatment of child cerebral palsy. The valuable clinical experiences have been summarized as "regulating the mind with scalp needling technique, benefiting the brain and opening the orifice", "regulating five zang organs with back-shu points" and "integration of acupuncture and rehabilitation, and function reconstruction". Two effective cases were introduced. PMID:25509746

  13. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the upstrean Hing-she station raise vivestok Sing-She stations are that ammonia on a upward trend, BOD5 no significant change in trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, river pollution index (RPI) a slight downward trend. Dong-gang River Basin , but the progress of sewer construction in slow. To reduce pollation in this river effort shoul be made regulatory reform on livestock waste control and acceleration of sewer construction. Keywords: quantile regression analysis, BOD5, RPI

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Angelica gigas via Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Joon Hyeong; Kwon, Jung Eun; Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on controlling inflammation, which is caused by excessive nitric oxide (NO) production. Heme oxygenases (HOs), particularly HO-1, play a role in regulating the production of NO. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AG by measuring HO-1 expression. Treatments with CH2Cl2 layer and Angelica gigas extract (AGE) showed the highest NO inhibition effects. Decursin, decursinol angelate, and nodakenin were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of AGE. Decursin also demonstrated the highest anti-oxidative effect among the coumarins. Although decursin had the best NO inhibition and anti-oxidative effects, the effects of AGE treatment far surpassed that of decursin. This is owing to the combination effect of the coumarins present within AGE, which is a solvent extract of AG. The expression of HO-1 is an effective indicator of the anti-inflammatory effects of AG. Based on the results of the coumarin compounds, HO-1 expression was found to be dose dependent and specific to decursin. PMID:26083119

  15. A Study of the Phaonia angelicae Group (Diptera: Muscidae), with Descriptions of Six New Species from China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wan-Qi; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The P. angelicae group from China was studied, and six new species are described: P. hanmiensis, n. sp., P. nanlingensis, n. sp., P. reduncicauda, n. sp., P. spargocerca, n. sp., P. subincana, n. sp., and P. varimargina, n. sp. A key to the identification of males of the 40 Chinese species is given. PMID:24773293

  16. A Correction to the article "Geo-center movement caused by huge earthquakes" by Wenke Sun and Jie Dong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangcun; Sun, Wenke; Dong, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Sun and Dong (2014) studied the co-seismic geo-center movement using dislocation theory for a spherical earth model. However, they incorrectly considered the maximum vertical co-seismic displacement as the rigid geo-center motion (i.e., they did not separate the rigid shift and elastic deformation). In this paper, we correct Sun and Dong (2014) by using a new approach. We now define the geo-center motion as a shift of the center of figure of the Earth relative to the center of mass of the Earth. Furthermore, we derive new formulas to compute the co-seismic geo-center and inner core's center movements caused by huge earthquakes. The 2004 Sumatra earthquake and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake changed the geo-center by 1-4 mm and about 2 mm, respectively, and caused the inner core's center to displace by about 0.05 mm and 0.025 mm, respectively.

  17. Fluorescence enhancement of radix angelica dahurica by binding to single silver sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ru; Shi, Qiang; Li, Shu-Hong; Wang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the influence of a single silver sphere on the fluorescence of radix angelica dahurica, which is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. The enhancement factors of the excitation and the relaxation processes are deduced. The excitation can be enhanced more than 100 times at 315 nm. The enhancement factor of the emission can reach up to 9 at a center wavelength of 400 nm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405085 and 61275147), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Liaocheng University, China, the Key Project of Science and Technology of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. 2010GGX10127), and the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. ZR2013EML006 and ZR2012AL11).

  18. Chemical composition of Angelica pancicii essential oil determined by liquid and headspace GC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Simonovi?, Strahinja R; Stankov-Jovanovi?, Vesna P; Miti?, Violeta D; Ili?, Marija D; Petrovi?, Goran M; Stojanovi?, Gordana S

    2014-02-01

    The essential oil of the Balkan endemic species, Angelica pancicii, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, applying the liquid injection mode. These results were compared with the chemical composition of volatiles achieved by the "headspace" injection mode, followed by GC and GC-MS (HS-GC-MS). A total of 40 compounds were identified in the essential oil (98.8% of the total oil) and 44 by HS-GC-MS (99.8% of the total oil). The most abundant class of compounds in both cases was monoterpenoids, which formed 92.7% of the essential oil (97.7% by HS-GC-MS) of total identified compounds. The major components in both cases were beta-phellandrene (54.9% and 60.1%, respectively), alpha-pinene (14.5% and 20.1%, respectively) and alpha-phellandrene (4.5% and 4.3%, respectively). PMID:24689308

  19. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae) roots.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae) roots from central Italy were analyzed. The major constituents of the oil were ?-pinene (21.3%), ?-3-carene (16.5%), limonene (16.4%) and ?-phellandrene (8.7%). The oil shows a good antimicrobial activity against Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Eubacterium limosum, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.25, 0.25, 0.13, 0.25, 2.25, and 0.50% v/v, respectively. A weaker antimicrobial activity against bifidobacteria and lactobacilli-very useful in the intestinal microflora-has also been shown with MIC values >4.0% v/v. PMID:24788027

  20. Geochemistry and origin of metal, olivine clasts, and matrix in the Dong Ujimqin Qi mesosiderite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ping; Su, Wen; Li, Xianhua; Spettel, Bernhard; Palme, Herbert; Tao, Kejie

    2008-03-01

    The Dong Ujimqin Qi mesosiderite is the first recorded fall of a stony-iron meteorite in China. According to silicate textures and metal composition, this meteorite is classified as a member of subgroup IB. Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) of metals show that the matrix metal has lower concentrations of Os, Ir, Re, and Pt, but higher concentrations of Ni and Au than the 7.5 cm metal nodule present in the meteorite. We attribute these compositional differences to fractional crystallization of molten metal. Studies of olivine clasts show that FeO contents are uniform in individual olivine crystals but are variable for different olivine clasts. Although concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) change within olivine clasts, they all exhibit a vee-shaped pattern relative to CI chondrites. The relatively high concentrations of REEs in olivine and the shape of REE patterns require a liquid high in REEs and especially in light REEs. As such a liquid was absent from the region where basaltic and gabbroic clasts formed, mesosiderite olivine must have formed in a part of the differentiated asteroid that is different from the location where other mesosiderite silicate clasts formed.

  1. Abnormal function of platelets and role of angelica sinensis in patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei-Guo; Liu, Shao-Ping; Zhu, Hai-Hang; Luo, He-Sheng; Yu, Jie-Ping

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the abnormal function of platelets and the role of angelica sinensis injection (ASI) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: In 39 patients with active UC, 25 patients with remissive UC and 30 healthy people, ?-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were detected by means of ELISA, 6-keto-PGF1a was detected by radioimmunoassay, platelet count (PC) and 1 min platelet aggregation rate (1 min PAR) were detected by blood automatic tester and platelet aggregation tester respectively, and von Willebrand factor related antigen (vWF:Ag) was detected by the means of monoclonal-ELISA. The 64 patients with UC were divided into two therapy groups. After routine treatment and angelica sinensis injection (ASI) + routine treatment respectively for 3 weeks, all these parameters were also detected. RESULTS: The PC, 1 min PAR and levels of GMP-140, TXB2, and vWF:Ag in active UC were significanrly higher than those in remissive UC and normal controls (P < 0.05-0.01).Meanwhile, 1 min PAR and levels of GMP-140, TXB2, and vWF:Ag in remissive UC were still significantly higher than those in normal controls (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 6-keto-PGF1a level in active and remissive UC was remarkably lower than that in normal control (P < 0.05-0.01). These parameters except 6-keto-PGF1a were significantly improved after the treatment in ASI therapy group (P < 0.05-0.01), whereas they all were little changed in routine therapy group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Platelets can be significantly activated in UC, which might be related with vascular endothelium injury and imbalance between TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a in blood. ASI can significantly inhibit platelet activation, relieve vascular endothelial cell injury, and improve microcirculation in UC. PMID:14966927

  2. Anti-diabetic and anti-Alzheimer's disease activities of Angelica decursiva.

    PubMed

    Yousof Ali, Md; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitute two global health issues. DM is an ever-increasing epidemic affecting millions of elderly people worldwide, causing major repercussions on patients' daily lives, mostly due to chronic complications. Complications from DM can affect the brain, thereby characterizing DM as a risk factor for AD. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of different parts of 12 Angelica species against α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The methanol extract of Angelica decursiva exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, PTP1B, AChE, and BChE and so was selected for further investigation. Repeated column chromatography based on bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded seven compounds (1-7). Among these compounds, nodakenin (1), nodakenetin (2), umbelliferone (3), cis-3'-acetyl-4'-angeloylkhellactone (4), 3'(R)-O-acetyl-4'(S)-O-tigloylkhellactone (5), isorutarine (6), and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) exhibited potent inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, PTP1B, rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), AChE, BChE, and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Our results clearly indicate the potential inhibition of α-glucosidase, PTP1B, RLAR, AChE, BChE, and BACE1 by A. decursiva as well as its isolated constituents, which could be further explored to develop therapeutic modalities for the treatment of DM and AD. PMID:26152875

  3. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehyung; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Namil; Chae, Younbyoung

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam's acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods. PMID:25574179

  4. Systems biology in a commercial quality study of the Japanese Angelica radix: toward an understanding of traditional medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Akira; Fukuda, Shinzo; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hayasaki, Tomoyuki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Komura, Hajime; Nomoto, Kyosuke; Shojo, Masayuki; Takeno, Kanokwan Jumtee

    2011-01-01

    The commercial quality of Japanese Angelica radices -- Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Yamato-toki) and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyama Hikino (Hokkai-toki) -- used in Kampo traditional herbal medicines, was studied by use of omics technologies. Complementary and alternative medical providers have observed in their clinical experience that differences in radix commercial quality reflect the differences in pharmacological responses; however, there has been little scientific examination of this phenomenon. The approach of omics, including metabolomics, transcriptomics, genomics, and informatics revealed a distinction between the radix-quality grades based on their metabolites, gene expression in human subjects, and plant genome sequences. Systems biology, constructing a network of omics data used to analyze this complex system, is expected to be a powerful tool for enhancing the study of radix quality and furthering a comprehensive understanding of all medicinal plants. PMID:21721155

  5. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Cultivated and Wild Angelica gigas Nakai Extracts Prepared Using Different Extraction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Bo-Young; Lee, Hye-Jin; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological activities of cultivated Angelica gigas Nakai (CAG) and wild Angelica gigas Nakai (WAG) extracts prepared by extraction with water, 30% ethanol, 60% ethanol, or 90% ethanol. The electron donating ability of the WAG extracts was higher than that of the CAG extracts and 0.1% and 1.0% solutions of the comparative substance, L-ascorbic acid. The superoxide dismutase-like activity of the CAG extracts was higher than that of WAG extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity was highest (33.95%) in the CAG water extract. The total polyphenol content was highest in the 60% ethanol extracts of WAG. The nitrite scavenging ability of the CAG and WAG extracts was highest at a pH of 1.2. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect was highest (43.72%) in the water extract of WAG. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity was highest (83.84%) in the 60% ethanol extract of WAG. The results of the present study will be useful for understanding the antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of Angelica gigas Nakai extracts. PMID:25580391

  6. Novel characterization of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process by combining high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredients determination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jingjing; Cai, Hao; Li, Songlin; Ma, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qin, Kunming; Guan, Hongyue; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Harmful sulfur-fumigation processing method is abused during Radix Angelicae Dahuricae preparation. However, the analytical technique characterizing Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process is absent. Materials and Methods: The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was adopted to develop methods combining finger-print analysis and multi-ingredients simultaneous determination for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. The chromatographic fingerprint method was established for qualitative analysis coupled with statistical cluster analysis basing on Euclidean distance. Additionally, a determination method was developed for quantitative analysis, which was able to assay the concentrations of the major coumarins including imperatorin, isoimperatorin, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isoimpinellin, oxypeucedanin, and bergapten in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae simultaneously. The separations of the two methods were both achieved on a Hypersil octadecylsilyl C18 column (250 mm 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) at 35C under different strategic gradient elution programs. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm all the time. Method validation data indicated that the methods were both reliable and applicable. They were then used to assay different Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples collected from good agricultural practice (GAP) bases and local herbal markets. Results: The successful application demonstrated that the combination of HPLC fingerprint and simultaneous quantification of multi-ingredients offers an efficient approach for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. Conclusion: In order to discriminate Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process, oxypeucedanin, and xanthotoxol were the most sensitive biomarkers and should be determined. PMID:25210323

  7. Chemical and biological assessment of a chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: Determination of drug ratio in having optimized properties.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tina T X; Zhao, Kui J; Gao, Qiu T; Ji, Zhao N; Zhu, Ting T; Li, Jun; Duan, Ran; Cheung, Anna W H; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-04-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction that is commonly used as a dietary supplement in treating woman with menopausal irregularity, contains two herbs: Radix Astragali (Huangqi) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui). The ratio of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis used in DBT should be 5:1 as described in China in 1247 A.D.; however, the rationale of this formula has not been given. Here, the chemical and biological properties of DBT, prepared from different ratios of the drugs, were determined. Significantly, higher amounts of Radix Astragali-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, and formononetin and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT with Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis in a 5:1 ratio. By using the biological effects of DBT in stimulating osteoblast proliferation, estrogen promoter activation, and anti-platelet aggregation activity, the drug ratio of 5:1 produced the best effects. In addition, the use of ethanol-treated Radix Angelicae Sinensis enhanced the efficacy of DBT, and the treatment further increased the solubilities of chemical constituents. By analyzing the correlation of chemical and biological results, several chemicals showed positive correlation with DBT-induced bioactivities. The current results support the ancient formulation of DBT, and the identified chemicals could serve as markers for quality control of DBT. PMID:16569074

  8. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  9. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  10. Angelica Sinensis promotes myotube hypertrophy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Angelica Sinensis (AS), a folk medicine, has long been used in ergogenic aids for athletes, but there is little scientific evidence supporting its effects. We investigated whether AS induces hypertrophy in myotubes through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt (also termed PKB)/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Methods An in vitro experiment investigating the induction of hypertrophy in myotubes was conducted. To investigate whether AS promoted the hypertrophy of myotubes, an established in vitro model of myotube hypertrophy with and without AS was used and examined using microscopic images. The role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in AS-induced myotube hypertrophy was evaluated. Two inhibitors, wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3K) and rapamycin (an inhibitor of mTOR), were used. Result The results revealed that the myotube diameters in the AS-treated group were significantly larger than those in the untreated control group (P?

  11. Chalcones isolated from Angelica keiskei inhibit cysteine proteases of SARS-CoV.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young; Ko, Jin-A; Kim, Dae Wook; Kim, Young Min; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Woo Song; Ryu, Young Bae

    2016-02-01

    Two viral proteases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL(pro)) and a papain-like protease (PL(pro)) are attractive targets for the development of anti-SARS drugs. In this study, nine alkylated chalcones (1-9) and four coumarins (10-13) were isolated from Angelica keiskei, and the inhibitory activities of these constituents against SARS-CoV proteases (3CL(pro) and PL(pro)) were determined (cell-free/based). Of the isolated alkylated chalcones, chalcone 6, containing the perhydroxyl group, exhibited the most potent 3CL(pro) and PL(pro) inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 11.4 and 1.2?M. Our detailed protein-inhibitor mechanistic analysis of these species indicated that the chalcones exhibited competitive inhibition characteristics to the SARS-CoV 3CL(pro), whereas noncompetitive inhibition was observed with the SARS-CoV PL(pro). PMID:25683083

  12. Protection of Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels against hepatotoxicity induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L. and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chengwei; Wang, Junming; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-10-01

    Dioscorea bulbifera L., a traditionally used medicinal plant in China, is reported to induce hepatotoxicity. The present study is designed to investigate the protection of an ethanol extract of Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels (AE) against an ethyl acetate fraction of D. bulbifera (EF)-induced liver injury and its engaged mechanism. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the amount of diosbulbin B in EF was 16.03% and ferulic acid in AE was 0.18%. EF (350 mg/kg) increased serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin (TB) amount, while AE inhibited such an increase. Liver histological evaluation showed that AE prevented development of severe hepatic lesions induced by EF. Further results showed that EF decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and induced the cleaved activation of caspase-9 and -3, and all those effects were reversed by AE. AE also reversed EF-induced decreased expression of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Taken together, our results demonstrate that AE can prevent EF-induced hepatotoxicity via preventing apoptosis, meanwhile IκB, SOD, and GPx may be involved in such protection. PMID:25382441

  13. Effects of ferulic acid on antioxidant activity in Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Yan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Min; Tao, Wei-Wei; Li, Wei-Xia; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at exploring different roles of the same compound in different environment, using preparative HPLC, and the significance to investigating bio-active constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the basis of holism. In this study, the depletion of target component ferulic acid (FA) by using preparative HPLC followed by antioxidant activity testing was applied to investigate the roles of FA in Angelicae Sinensis Radix (DG), Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CX) and their combination (GX). The antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity testing. FA was successfully and exclusively depleted from DG, CX, and GX, respectively. By comparing the effects of the samples, it was found that FA was one of the main antioxidant constituents in DG, CX and GX, and the roles of FA were DG > CX > GX. Furthermore, the effects of FA varied at different doses in these herbs. This study provided a reliable and effective approach to clarifying the contribution of same compound in different TCMs to their bio-activities. The role of a constituent in different TCMs might be different, and a component with the same content might have different effects in different chemical environments. Furthermore, this study also suggested the potential utilization of preparative HPLC in the characterization of the roles of multi-ingredients in TCM. PMID:26073335

  14. Decursin from Angelica gigas suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Ting; Kang, Ju-Hee; Li, Hua; Cho, Hyewon; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Yim, Mijung

    2016-03-01

    Osteoclasts are the only cells capable of breaking down bone matrix, and excessive activation of osteoclasts is responsible for bone-destructive diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of decursin from extract of Angelica gigas root on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Decursin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation without cytotoxicity. In particular, decursin maintains the characteristics of macrophages by blocking osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Furthermore, the RANKL-stimulated bone resorption was diminished by decursin. Mechanistically, decursin blocked the RANKL-triggered ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation, which results in suppression of c-Fos and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. In accordance with the in vitro study, decursin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in vivo. Therefore, decursin exerted an inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation and bone loss in vitro and in vivo. Decursin could be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption. PMID:26825541

  15. Structural analysis and immunoregulation activity comparison of five polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmin; Ge, Beilei; Li, Zihong; Guan, Fangxia; Li, Feifei

    2016-04-20

    Four fractional polysaccharides (CAPS30, CAPS50, CAPS70 and CAPS80) and total polysaccharides (CAPSt) were obtained from Angelica sinensis. Their structures were identified by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), molecular weights were evaluated by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Their immunoregulation activities were further compared in vitro. The results showed that they displayed different structural features and immuno-enhancement activities. They all could cause the proliferation of the lymphocyte, up-regulate stimulate the productions of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion in the peripheral lymphocytes. Further experiments showed that CAPS50 and CAPS70 could increase the ratio of CD3(+)CD56(+) cells to some extent. These indicated that five CAPSs displayed different activities which were associated with their different structural characteristics and CAPS70, with the molecular weights of 20.82kDa and consisting of mannose and glucose in the molar ratio of 1.20:1.01, possessed the strongest immuno-enhancement activity. PMID:26876821

  16. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lgia; Gonalves, Maria-Jos; Hrimpeng, Karnjana; Pinto, Jssica; Pinto, Eugnia

    2015-04-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil (EO) of Angelica major and its main components ?-pinene and cis-?-ocimene against clinically relevant yeasts and moulds were evaluated. EO from the plant's aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil showed high contents of ?-pinene (21.8%) and cis-?-ocimene (30.4%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The EO, ?-pinene and cis-?-ocimene displayed low MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with ?-pinene being the most active. Regarding Candida species, the EO susceptibility profiles seem to be diverse and not correlated with fluconazole susceptibility patterns. Moreover, an inhibition of yeast-mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO, ?-pinene and cis-?-ocimene in C. albicans. In addition, their haemolytic activity was low. The activity displayed by A. major EO and its main components associated with low cytotoxic activity confirms their potential as an antifungal agent against fungal species frequently implicated in human mycoses, particularly cryptococcosis and dermatophytosis. The association with commercial antifungal compounds could bring benefits, by the effect on germ tube formation, and be used in mucocutaneous candidiasis treatment. PMID:25576097

  17. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiuying; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Li, Haibing; Li, Xiaoyue; Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Weijie; Fan, Wenbo

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a fraction (AAP-2A) of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus (AAP) were investigated. Characteriztion assay showed that AAP-2A had molecular weight (Mw), root-mean square (RMS) radius and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of 2.25210(3)kDa, 28.4nm and 1.038, respectively. There were infrared characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides in FT-IR spectroscopy. AAP-2A was composed of rhamnose (Rha), galactose (Gal), arabinose (Ara) and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 1:2.13:3.22:6.18 in GC analysis. Methylation analysis combined with NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that a preliminary structure of AAP-2A was proposed as follows: 1,3-linked Rhap, 1,3-linked Galp, 1,3-linked Araf, 1,5-linked Araf, 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Glcp and 1,4,6-linked Glcp interspersed with terminal Glcp. AAP-2A exhibited a surface with a sheet-like appearance in scanning electron microscope and stronger antioxidant capacity compared with AAP. PMID:26686116

  18. Distinguishing Radix Angelica sinensis from different regions by HS-SFME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hong-Sheng; Hu, Dong-Dong; Song, Jing-Zheng; Xu, Yong; Cai, Shuang-Fan; Chen, Qi-Long; Meng, Qian-Wan; Li, Song-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Mao, Qian; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2015-11-01

    An automated headspace solvent free microextraction (HS-SFME) based gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for discrimination of Radix Angelica sinensis (RAS) from different cultivation regions. The MS data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to rapidly find the potential characteristic components of RAS from top-geoherb region and non top-geoherb region. Totally, fifty-one volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, in which ?-ocimene, ?-pinene, 3-methylbutanal, heptanes, butanal were identified as potential markers for distinguishing RAS from top-geoherb region and non top-geoherb region. Sulphur dioxide was detected in some commercial RAS samples, which implied that sulphur-fumigation might be the main reason for the quality inconsistencies of commercial RAS samples. These results suggested that RAS from top-geoherb region and non-top geoherb region could be discriminated by the method. And characteristic chemical markers found in current study can be used for ensuring consistent quality of top-geoherb of RAS. PMID:25976811

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, ?-pinene, camphene, ?-limonene, ?-eudesmol, ?-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as ?-eudesmol, ?-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  20. Quick and selective extraction of Z-ligustilide from Angelica sinensis using magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiong; Jia, Yan-Wei; Xu, Pei-Li; Xiao, Meng-Wei; Liu, Yi-Ming; Peng, Shu-Lin; Liao, Xun

    2015-12-01

    A facile and highly efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction method has been developed for Z-ligustilide, the major therapeutic agent in Angelica sinensis. The solid-phase adsorbent material used was prepared by conjugating carbon nanotubes with magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles via a hydrothermal reaction. The magnetic material showed a high affinity toward Z-ligustilide due to the π-π stacking interaction between the carbon nanotubes and Z-ligustilide, allowing a quick and selective exaction of Z-ligustilide from complex sample matrices. Factors influencing the magnetic solid-phase extraction such as the amount of the added adsorbent, adsorption and desorption time, and desorption solvent, were investigated. Due to its high extraction efficiency, this method was proved highly useful for sample cleanup/enrichment in quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The proposed method had a linear calibration curve (R(2) = 0.9983) over the concentration between 4 ng/mL and 200 μg/mL Z-ligustilide. The accuracy of the method was determined by the recovery, which was from 92.07 to 104.02%, with the relative standard deviations >4.51%. PMID:26496363

  1. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-10-01

    Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells. PMID:26336081

  2. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Sun, Jianghao; Yu, Liangli (Lucy); Chen, Pei

    2013-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Danggui in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the U. S. markets. However, no study has been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which cananalyze each sample in 2 min, compared to 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the FIMS fingerprints was performed. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. PMID:23314619

  3. Interaction between Z-ligustilide from Radix Angelica sinensis and human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zhu, Xiting; Chen, Qi; Ge, Ming; Jia, Xueping; Wang, Xiang; Ge, Cunwang

    2015-11-01

    Z-ligustilide (LIG), an essential oil extract from Radix Angelica sinensis, has broad pharmaceutical applications in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Interaction of LIG with the major transport protein of human blood circulation, human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by steady-state, UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods, as well as the effect of metal ions (e.g. Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+)) on the LIG-HSA system. Fluorescence results revealed that a moderate binding affinity (1.59 10(4) M(-1) at 298 K) between LIG and HSA with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data (?S = +12.96 J mol(-1) K(-1) and ?H =- 20.11 kJ mol(-1)) suggested the involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces, as well as hydrogen bonding in the complex formation. The specific binding distance r (3.75 nm) between donor (Trp-214) and acceptor (LIG) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. CD results showed that slight conformational changes occurred in the protein upon complexation with LIG. PMID:25976824

  4. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Junghyun; Shin, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. PMID:25197308

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids incorporated colloidal systems for the delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Yoon, In-Soo; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fish oil-enriched colloidal systems were developed for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) extract (ext). By constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, the composition of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion (ME) systems based on ω-3 (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), and water was determined. AGN ext was dissolved into the ME system and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was added to the ME formulation in order to enhance the mucosal absorption of the pharmacologically active ingredients in the AGN ext. The droplet size of AGN-loaded MEs was 205-277nm and their morphology was spherical. The release of major components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), from ME formulations in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that from the AGN suspension group. The pharmacokinetic properties of AGN-loaded MEs in rats were evaluated by measuring decursinol (DOH) concentrations in plasma after oral administration. TPGS-included ME (F2) resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) systemic exposure of DOH than that with ME without TPGS (F1), AGN ext+TPGS, and AGN in suspension. Severe toxicity of F1 and F2 on the intestinal epithelium was not observed by histological staining. The colloidal carriers described herein are promising delivery systems for oral administration of AGN ext. PMID:26764107

  6. Identification of species and materia medica within Angelica L. (Umbelliferae) based on phylogeny inferred from DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, QING-JUN; ZHANG, BIN; JIANG, DAN; ZHANG, WEN-JING; LIN, TSAI-YUN; WANG, NIAN-HE; CHIOU, SHU-JIAU; HUANG, LU-QI

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcodes have been increasingly used in authentication of medicinal plants, while their wide application in materia medica is limited in their accuracy due to incomplete sampling of species and absence of identification for materia medica. In this study, 95 leaf accessions of 23 species (including one variety) and materia medica of three Pharmacopoeia-recorded species of Angelica in China were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of four DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and ITS). Our results showed that ITS provided the best discriminatory power by resolving 17 species as monophyletic lineages without shared alleles and exhibited the largest barcoding gap among the four single barcodes. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS showed that Levisticum officinale and Angelica sinensis were sister taxa, which indicates that L. officinale should be considered as a species of Angelica. The combination of ITS + rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA performed slight better discriminatory power than ITS, recovering 23 species without shared alleles and 19 species as monophyletic clades in ML tree. Authentication of materia medica using ITS revealed that the decoction pieces of A. sinensis and A. biserrata were partially adulterated with those of L. officinale, and the temperature around 80 °C processing A. dahurica decoction pieces obviously reduced the efficiency of PCR and sequencing. The examination of two cultivated varieties of A. dahurica from different localities indicated that the four DNA barcodes are inefficient for discriminating geographical authenticity of conspecific materia medica. This study provides an empirical paradigm in identification of medicinal plants and their materia medica using DNA barcodes. PMID:24961287

  7. Angelica sinensis polysaccharides promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via CREB-regulated caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Zhuang; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Song, Cai-Juan

    2015-11-20

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) is purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS). This traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years for treating gynecological diseases and used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. The antitumor activity of ASP is related to its biological activities, because it suppresses a variety of pro-proliferative or anti-apoptotic factors that are dramatically expressed in cancer cells of given types. In this study, we show that angelica sinensis polysaccharide induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells of T47D over-expressing the Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), inducing apoptosis-related signaling pathway activity. The result also found that ASP caused cell death was linked to caspase activity, accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. We found that ASP significantly affected the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and apoptotic protease activating facter-1 (Apaf1) protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DAPI staining and Flow cytometry were used to analyze apoptosis. The nude mice xenograft model was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of ASP in vivo. ASP has profound antitumor effect on T47D cells, probably by inducing apoptosis through CREB signaling pathway. Thus, these results suggest that ASP would be a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:26431878

  8. Chalcones from Angelica keiskei: Evaluation of Their Heat Shock Protein Inducing Activities.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Choi, Seul-Ki; Lee, Yun-Sil; Jafari, Mahtab; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-10-23

    Five new chalcones, 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E,5E)-7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienyl]chalcone (1), (±)-4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2-octenyl]chalcone (2), 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E)-3-methyl-5-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-pentenyl]chalcone (3), 2',3'-furano-4-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (4), and (±)-4-hydroxy-2',3'-(2,3-dihydro-2-methoxyfurano)-4'-methoxychalcone (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi together with eight known chalcones, 6-13, which were identified as (±)-4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(6E)-2-hydroxy-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octenyl]chalcone (6), xanthoangelol (7), xanthoangelol F (8), xanthoangelol G (9), 4-hydroxyderricin (10), xanthoangelol D (11), xanthoangelol E (12), and xanthoangelol H (13), respectively. Chalcones 1-13 were evaluated for their promoter activity on heat shock protein 25 (hsp25, murine form of human hsp27). Compounds 1 and 6 activated the hsp25 promoter by 21.9- and 29.2-fold of untreated control at 10 μM, respectively. Further protein expression patterns of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), HSP70, and HSP27 by 1 and 6 were examined. Compound 6 increased the expression of HSF1, HSP70, and HSP27 by 4.3-, 1.5-, and 4.6-fold of untreated control, respectively, without any significant cellular cytotoxicities, whereas 1 did not induce any expression of these proteins. As a result, 6 seems to be a prospective HSP inducer. PMID:26431394

  9. Efficacy and Safety Assessment of T. Angelica Herbal Tonic, a Phytomedicinal Product Popularly Used in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Esimone, Charles O.; Akah, Peter A.; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S.

    2011-01-01

    T. Angelica Herbal Tonic (TAHT) is a herbal product indicated for indigestion and constipation and highly patronized in Nigeria. In this study, the efficacy and safety of the herbal tonic in relation to the label claims were assessed. The effect on peristalsis in mice was evaluated by the charcoal meal model and in vitro using guinea pig ileum. The effects of TAHT on behavior, fertility, birth and organ weights were also determined. Teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity were studied in pregnant rats. Acute toxicity studies showed that at doses above 5000 mg kg−1, the herbal tonic did not cause lethality and produced no signs of intoxication in mice. The study did not show any gross behavioral changes in mice treated with 1000 mg kg−1 of TAHT as compared with the negative control treatment. TAHT (400 mg kg−1) exhibited a dose-dependent enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract motility in mice when compared with the negative control. At concentrations up to 300 μg mL−1, TAHT did not cause any significant effect on acetylcholine, histamine and nicotine-evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum preparation. It took an average of 31.25 ± 4.52 days for the TAHT-treated animals to litter, which is significantly (P < .05) different from the 55 ± 4.51 days recorded for the control treatment group. TAHT exhibited a modest fertility-promoting effect and showed lack of abortifacient and teratogenic properties in the study. Generally, the results of this study showed some favorable pharmacological effects of TAHT in animals which may authenticate some of the label claims. PMID:19812180

  10. [In situ rats single pass perfusion intestinal absorption of the effectivein components in Radix Angelicae Pubescentis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Na; Luan, Li-Biao

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the intestinal absorption behaviors of three active constituents, columbianetin acetate, osthole and columbianadin in Radix Angelicae Pubescentis extracts, in situ rat single pass intestine perfusion (SPIP) was carried out by the perfusion solution of the extract I containing less than 10% total coumarins. The absorption of extract II containing more than 60% total coumarins was compared with that of extract I by rat colon SPIP to elucidate the influence on absorption of the different coumarin content extracts of the Chinese traditional medicine. The samples of the perfusion solution were collected in certain intervals. The concentrations of three active components in the perfusion samples were determined by HPLC method. The results demonstrated that the absorption rate constants (Ka) or apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of columbianetin acetate, osthole and columbianadin from extract I had no significant difference among concentration ranges of 62-555 microg x mL(-1), 101-887 microg x mL(-1), 19-186 microg x mL(-1), respectively. The absorption quantity of three components was proportional to its concentration respectively and the saturate absorption phenomena were not observed. This suggested that the absorption of columbianetin acetate, osthole and columbianadin showed the passive diffusion process. Three components could be absorbed in whole intestinal sections. The Ka and Papp of three components all showed colon > duodenum > jejunum > ileum in four different regions of rat intestine. At colon, Ka and P app were significant different from the others. The Ka or Papp of three components from the extract I was significantly more than that of same components from extract II. The extract I redounded to increase the absorption of three active components. PMID:18357742

  11. An Aqueous Extract of Radix Astragali, Angelica sinensis, and Panax notoginseng Is Effective in Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dehong; Guo, Yijuan; Li, Xuejun; Li, Xiumin; Li, Zhipeng; Xue, Mei; Ou, Zhimin; Liu, Ming; Yang, Mingxing; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), in which inflammation has been implicated playing important roles, is one of the most common diabetes complications. Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), an aqueous extract of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelica sinensis, is a classical prescription in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating inflammation and ischemic diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of a modified recipe of DBT, with addition of Panax notoginseng, in treating diabetic retinopathy. An aqueous extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelica sinensis, and Panax notoginseng (RRP) was given to Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Leukostasis, vascular leakage, and acellular capillaries in retinal vasculature of animals were determined. Expression of retinal inflammatory biomarkers was assessed. We found that RRP reduced leukostasis, acellular capillaries, and vascular leakage compared to diabetic control rats. We also found that RRP decreased the expression of inflammatory factors including IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, NF-?B, MCP-1, ICAM-1, or VCAM-1 in the retinas of GK rats and reversed high glucose-induced inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro. We conclude that RRP has a potent effect in preventing the pathogenesis and/or progression of DR and thus may serve as a promising nontoxic therapeutic approach of DR. PMID:23662142

  12. In vitro Cytotoxic Activities and Molecular Mechanisms of Angelica shikokiana Extract and its Isolated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Amira; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Angelica shikokiana is a Japanese medicinal herb that is included among food and drug preparations protecting against cancer; however, there is no previous report about the cytotoxicity of A. shikokiana or its bioactive compounds. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of A. shikokiana methanol extract (AME) and its isolated compounds and to identify the molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity and selectivity was investigated by measuring the IC50 values on five cancer cell lines; human hepatocellular carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (RD), colorectal carcinoma, human epithelioma and human breast adenocarcinoma and one normal cell line; human lung fibroblasts. The effects on tubulin polymerization and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), were examined to determine the mechanism of cytotoxicity. Docking study was designed to examine the binding affinity to the target molecules. Results: Methanol extract and some of its isolated coumarins and flavonoids showed potent, selective cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. AME and all isolated compounds inhibited tubulin polymerization. Angelicin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were the most active compounds. Phenolic compounds and furanocoumarins showed binding affinity to colchicine binding site rather than the vinblastine binding site of tubulin microtubules. On the other side, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, chlorogenic acid, and methyl chlorogenate exhibited the strongest activity against HDAC8 and the highest affinity to trichostatin A binding site. Conclusion: These findings provide the first scientific evidence of the cytotoxicity of AME through inhibition of tubulin polymerization and HDAC8 activity through its coumarin and flavonoid content. SUMMARY The present study provides for the first time a clue for the cytotoxic activities of the AME. Our results indicate that the cytotoxic activities are partially related to the ability of AME to inhibit tubulin polymerization and HDAC8 activity. Isolated compounds; Angelicin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside showed the strongest inhibition of tubulin polymerization through binding to colchicine binding domain of tubulin microtubules. Phenolic compounds; quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid and methyl chlorogenate exhibited a strong inhibition of HDAC8 through binding to TSA binding site. This, however, further detailed pharmacological and in vivo studies should be the next step in evaluating the cytotoxic activities of AME and its active compounds that are currently ongoing. Abbreviations used: AME: Methanol extract of the aerial part of A. shikokiana, HDACs: Histone deacetylases,HDAC8: Histone deacetylase 8 PMID:27013795

  13. Effects of immunotoxic activity of the major essential oil of Angelica purpuraefolia Chung against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Park, Yool-Jin; Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In

    2010-12-01

    The rhizomes parts of Angelica purpuraefolia were extracted and the major essential oils composition and immunotoxic effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of A. purpuraefolia. The A. purpuraefolia essential oil (APEO) yield was 0.37%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were ?-Phellandrene (32.11%), Nerolidol (10.11%), Pyrimidine derivative (27.33%), Heptadecane (4.33%), and Celorbicol (6.33%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 31.21 ppm and an LC(90) value of 87.22 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxic agents against A. aegypti. PMID:20163192

  14. Stratigraphy and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of a Quaternary sequence along the Dong Nai River, southern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Tateishi, Masaaki

    2006-10-01

    The pre-Holocene Cenozoic sequence outcrops in the terrestrial part of the eastern margin of the Mekong Basin. However, the stratigraphy of the sequence is still unclear. Its detailed stratigraphy and chronology were therefore studied along the Dong Nai River, southern Vietnam, and the lithofacies and the relations among the formations were investigated from the outcrops. The ages of the deposits were determined by using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The Ba Mieu Formation was deposited about 17652 ka during marine isotope stage (MIS) 7-6. The Thu Duc Formation was deposited about 9727 ka during MIS 5. Both the Ba Mieu and Thu Duc formations are composed of fluvial and tidally influenced coastal deposits. The newly proposed Nhon Trach Formation was originally an eolian (blanket) deposit, but it has been partly reworked by fluvial processes. The Nhon Trach Formation was deposited about 10.94.7 ka, in the last part of the Pleistocene to the beginning of the Holocene. The OSL ages for the Ba Mieu, Thu Duc, and Nhon Trach formations are younger than the ages previously assigned to these formations.

  15. Association of APOE Genotype with Bone Mineral Density in Men and Women: The Dong-gu and Namwon Studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Song, Hye-Rim; Oh, Su-Hyun; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated relationships between APOE genotype and bone mineral density (BMD). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. Few studies have been carried out in Asian populations. We studied the relationship of the APOE gene polymorphism and BMD in two large population-based studies. The datasets included the Dong-gu Study (3575 men and 5335 women) and the Namwon Study (2310 men, 3512 women). Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. APOE genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The APOE genotypes were classified into APOE E2 (E2/E2 and E2/E3), APOE E3 (E3/E3), and APOE E4 (E3/E4 and E4/E4). The genotype distribution of the study population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no significant differences among APOE genotype groups in lumbar and femoral neck BMD in either cohort. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with BMD. PMID:26866001

  16. Association of APOE Genotype with Bone Mineral Density in Men and Women: The Dong-gu and Namwon Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Song, Hye-Rim; Oh, Su-hyun; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated relationships between APOE genotype and bone mineral density (BMD). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. Few studies have been carried out in Asian populations. We studied the relationship of the APOE gene polymorphism and BMD in two large population-based studies. The datasets included the Dong-gu Study (3575 men and 5335 women) and the Namwon Study (2310 men, 3512 women). Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. APOE genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. The APOE genotypes were classified into APOE E2 (E2/E2 and E2/E3), APOE E3 (E3/E3), and APOE E4 (E3/E4 and E4/E4). The genotype distribution of the study population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no significant differences among APOE genotype groups in lumbar and femoral neck BMD in either cohort. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with BMD. PMID:26866001

  17. An Improved LC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of the Eleven Bioactive Constituents for Quality Control of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and Its Related Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; He, Jun; Liu, Er-wei; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2015-01-01

    An improved LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive constituents of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and its related preparations. It was the first report on the quantification of bioactive constituents in different preparations of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis by LC-MS/MS analytical method. These samples were separated with an Agilent Zorbax Extend reversed-phase C18 column (1.8??m, 4.6 100?mm) by linear gradient elution using aqueous ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3?mL?min?1. The eleven bioactive constituents showed good regression (R > 0.990) within test ranges and the recoveries were in the range of 87.1110%. The limit of detections and quantifications for most of the major constituents were less than 0.5 and 1.0?ng?mL?1, respectively. All results indicated that the developed method could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and related preparations. PMID:26078992

  18. Identification and characterization of a new virus in the genus Potyvirus from wild populations of Angelica lucida L. and A. genuflexa Nutt., family Apiaceae.

    PubMed

    Robertson, N L

    2007-01-01

    A novel potyvirus was discovered in Angelica lucida L. (wild celery) and A. genuflexa Nutt. (kneeling Angelica) (family Apiaceae) in the Matanuska- Susitna Valley, Alaska. The experimental plant host range of the virus included species in three families: Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste et Reyn and Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), Solanaceae (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin, and N. clevlandii Gray.), and Apiaceae (Anethum graveolens L., Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Miller)), Daucus carota L. subspecies sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang., and Petroselinum crispum (Miller) Nyman ex A. W. Hilland). The virus contained flexuous rods with an ssRNA genome approximately 9.5-10 k nts and a CP ( approximately 35 kDa) that reacted to a universal potyvirus monoclonal antibody in Western blot analysis. The sequenced genomic 3'-end ( approximately 1850 nt) contained a potyvirus genomic arrangement that included the 3'-terminus of the NIb (nuclear inclusion) gene, the CP (coat protein) gene, and a 3'-UTR (untranslated region) attached to a poly(A)tail. The CP amino acids had between 54 and 70% identity with 12 selected members from the genus Potyvirus. Phylogenetically, the Alaskan potyvirus clustered with three other apiaceous potyviruses from Australia. The novel Alaskan virus was confined to A. lucida L. and A. genuflexa Nutt. in nature, and was classified in the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, and in part named after its natural plant hosts, angelica virus Y (AnVY). PMID:17558540

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in sediments from Sai Gon-Dong Nai River basin, Vietnam: levels and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tu Binh; Iwata, Hisato; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-05-01

    Surficial sediment samples were collected from Hochiminh City canals, the Sai Gon-Dong Nai River, and its estuary, one of the most predominant industrial areas in Hochiminh City, southern Vietnam, for determination of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Contamination pattern was as follows: PCBs > or = DDTs > HCB > CHLs > HCHs. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs ranged from 0.50-150 ng/g and 0.15-72 ng/g dry wt, respectively. On the other hand, concentrations of CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were mostly <2 ng/g dry wt. Levels of the all organochlorines (OCs) in Hochiminh City canals were significantly higher than those in the other areas, indicating the urban areas as major pollution sources to the aquatic environment. The contamination pattern was PCBs > DDTs in the city canals but PCBs < DDTs in the downstream and the estuary, suggesting particularly high contamination by PCBs in the city. Examination of DDTs composition and their ratios demonstrated continuous input of this pesticide to the city canals. However, the combination of our data and those from available literature implies a decreasing trend of PCBs and DDTs in the environment. DDTs concentrations have been reduced 50% after approximately 5 years. Composition of CHLs in the sediment from Hochiminh City canals was comparable to those of common technical mixtures, suggesting continuous input of CHLs to the environment. CHLs might be in use for purposes like termite control, wood preservation, and protection of underground cables. Hazard assessment implies high toxic potential of DDTs for sediments from Hochiminh City canals and suggests the need for better management of municipal discharges. PMID:17354037

  20. Tracing metal sources in core sediments of the artificial lake An-Dong, Korea: Concentration and metal association.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mansik; Park, Jongkyu; Cho, Dongjin; Jang, Dongjun; Kim, Miseon; Choi, Jongwoo

    2015-09-15

    The concentration and source of trace metals in the artificial lake An-Dong, which has widespread abandoned mines and a Zn smelter upstream of the drainage basin, were investigated. Soils (18ea), stream waters (15ea) and sediments (15ea) in the main channel and five tributaries downstream of the Zn smelter towards the lake (~ 50 km downstream) were collected. And two core sediments were also taken from the middle of the lake. All samples were analyzed for trace metals in bulk and in a 1N HCl-leached fraction. Although the soil and stream sediments consisted mostly of sand-sized grains, concentrations of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were very high in all samples, including soils, stream waters and sediments at sites near the Zn smelter. However the metal concentrations decreased rapidly downstream, suggesting that the area of impact of the smelter lies within 5 km. Highly enriched metal concentrations were also found in dated core sediments from the lake; while the highest concentrations of Co, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were detected in the bottom of the sediment core (dated 1980) they decreased towards 2000, and only Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations increased again in present-day samples. Since the temporal variation in metal concentrations appeared consistent with historical variation in ore mining and Zn smelter production rates, a model combining the production rates of each was developed, which estimated 3%, 12% and 7% contributions from Zn smelter compared to ore mining production rate to levels of Cu, Cd and Zn, respectively, suggesting the different pathways by different sources. In addition, analysis of Cd/Zn and Cu/Zn ratios showed that contamination from ore mining decreased from 1980 to 2000, and smelting processes were most likely responsible for metal enrichment (Cu, Cd and Zn) from 2000 to the present. PMID:25981937

  1. The investigation of anti-inflammatory activity of volatile oil of Angelica sinensis by plasma metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wanling; Zhang, Ling; Hua, Yongli; Ji, Peng; Li, Pengling; Li, Jinxia; Zhong, Lijia; Zhao, Haifu; Wei, Yanming

    2015-12-01

    Angelica sinensis (AS) is an important medicinal plant, and volatile oil is the main pharmacologically active ingredient. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the volatile oil of A. sinensis (VOAS) and explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanism by plasma metabolomics approach. Rat acute inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan in hind paws. Paw edema, histamine (HIS) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were detected. Then, we analyzed plasma metabolic profiling of acute inflammation and performed pathway analysis on the metabolite markers reversed after VOAS administration and further integration of metabolic networks. The results showed that VOAS could alleviate the paw edema and decrease plasma HIS and 5-HT levels. Fourteen metabolite markers of acute inflammation were screened, and the levels were all reversed to different degrees after VOAS administration. These metabolite markers mainly related to linoleic acid metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. In metabolic networks, glycine and arachidonic acid were node molecules. It indicated that VOAS could significantly inhibit systemic inflammatory response triggered by acute local stimulation and it exerted anti-inflammatory activity mainly through regulating the disturbed metabolic networks centered on glycine and arachidonic acid. PMID:26578286

  2. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishita, Ishrat Jahan; Nurul Islam, Md; Kim, Yeong Shik; Choi, Ran Joo; Sohn, Hee Sook; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    Angelica decursiva has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as an antitussive, analgesic, antipyretic, and cough remedy. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of 9 coumarin derivatives isolated from a 90% methanol fraction was evaluated via inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested compounds, edulisin II (1) exhibited the most potent NO production inhibitory activity, followed by decursidin (2), Pd-C-III (3), 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (4), Pd-C-I (5), and Pd-C-II (6). In contrast, (+)-trans-decursidinol (7) did not exhibit NO suppressive effects on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Structure-activity relationships revealed that esterification of the hydroxyl at C-3' or C-4' of 7 with an angeloyl/senecioyl/acetyl group is essential for its inhibitory activity against NO production, while the number of angeloyl or senecioyl groups, and their positions greatly affect the potency of these coumarins. Coumarins 1-6 also inhibited TNF-? production and iNOS protein expression, while compounds 1-4 inhibited COX-2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that coumarins isolated from A. decursiva might be used as potential leads for the development of therapeutic agents for inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:26474585

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction for identification and determination of volatile metabolites from Angelica dahurica by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinhua; Li, Peng; He, Jing; Zhang, Zhuo; Liu, Jia

    2008-10-01

    The volatile components of Angelica dahurica were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method. These oils obtained were analyzed by GC-MS (identification and determination of metabolites). The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (electron impact (EI), 70 eV). The effects of different parameters, such as pressure, temperature, flow rate of CO(2), and the amount of modifier, on the SFE of A. dahurica oil were investigated. A total of 50 compounds of SFE extracts were identified. Phellopterin (PO), isoimperatorin (IO), imperatorin (IM), alloimperatorin (AM), byakangelicin, isooxypeucedanin, and pimpinellin were the major coumarin compounds identified in A. dahurica SFE extracts. The quantitations of PO, IO, IM, and AM were then accomplished. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) >0.99) in the concentration ranges tested. The recoveries were higher than 85%, with RSDs less than 10%. The GC-MS method was successfully validated and applied to the quantitation of A. dahurica. PMID:18705001

  4. Metabolic study of Angelica dahurica extracts using a reusable liver microsomal nanobioreactor by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Li; Jia, Yan-Wei; Peng, Shu-Lin; Liao, Xun; Ding, Li-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Highly active and recoverable nanobioreactors prepared by immobilizing rat liver microsomes on magnetic nanoparticles (LMMNPs) were utilized in metabolic study of Angelica dahurica extracts. Five metabolites were detected in the incubation solution of the extracts and LMMNPs, which were identified by means of HPLC-MS as trans-imperatorin hydroxylate (M1), cis-imperatorin hydroxylate (M2), imperatorin epoxide (M3), trans-isoimperatorin hydroxylate (M1') and cis-isoimperatorin hydroxylate (speculated M2'). Compared with the metabolisms of imperatorin and isoimperatorin, it was found that the five metabolites were all transformed from these two major compounds present in the plant. Since no study on isoimperatorin metabolism by liver microsomal enzyme system has been reported so far, its metabolites (M1' and M3') were isolated by preparative HPLC for structure elucidation by (1) H-NMR and MS(2) analysis. M3' was identified as isoimperatorin epoxide, which is a new compound as far as its chemical structure is concerned. However, interestingly, M3' was not detected in the metabolism of the whole plant extract. In addition, a study with known chemical inhibitors on individual isozymes of the microsomal enzyme family revealed that CYP1A2 is involved in metabolisms of both isoimperatorin and imperatorin, and CYP3A4 only in that of isoimperatorin. PMID:25753568

  5. Effect of Angelica sinensis Polysaccharides on Osteoarthritis In Vivo and In Vitro: A Possible Mechanism to Promote Proteoglycans Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jun; Liu, Yan-song; Liu, Jun; Li, Jing; Tan, Yang; Li, Xiao-jun; Magdalou, Jacques; Mei, Qi-bing; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liao-bin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides (APS-3c) on rat osteoarthritis (OA) model in vivo and rat interleukin-1-beta- (IL-1?-) stimulated chondrocytes in vitro. APS-3c was administrated into rat OA knee joints and had protective effects on rat OA cartilage in vivo. Primary rat articular chondrocytes were cotreated with APS-3c and IL-1???in vitro. 2~50??g/mL APS-3c had no effect on chondrocytes viability, whereas it increased the proteoglycans (PGs) synthesis inhibited by IL-1?. Microarray analysis showed that the significant changes were concentrated in the genes which were involved in PGs synthesis. RT-PCR confirmed that treatment with APS-3c increased the mRNA expression of aggrecan and glycosyltransferases (GTs) inhibited by IL-1? but did not affect the mRNA expression of matrix-degrading enzymes. These results indicate that APS-3c can improve PGs synthesis of chondrocytes on rat OA model in vivo and IL-1?-stimulated chondrocytes in vitro, which is due to the promotion of the expression of aggrecan and GTs involved in PGs synthesis but not the inhibition of the expression of matrix-degrading enzymes. Our findings suggest the clinical relevance of APS-3c in the prospective of future alternative medical treatment for OA. PMID:23861713

  6. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels extract on ovariectomized rats and its oral toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai

    2014-10-01

    Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis as well as toxicity of the extract after repeated oral administration. The OVX rats were treated with 17?-estradiol (10 ?g/kg i.p. once daily) or A. sinensis extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) for four weeks. The bone (femur) mineral density (BMD) of rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control, reaching BMD of the estradiol group. Markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis, serum alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, were significantly decreased in the extract group. The body and uterus weight and serum estradiol concentration were not affected, and no treatment-related toxicity was observed during extract administration in rats. The results obtained indicate that A. sinensis extract can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats via estrogen-independent mechanism. PMID:25325255

  7. A Rapid Discrimination of Authentic and Unauthentic Radix Angelicae Sinensis Growth Regions by Electronic Nose Coupled with Multivariate Statistical Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Weixin; Yang, Yaojun; Yan, Yuning; Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Haozhong; Ren, Zihe

    2014-01-01

    Radix Angelicae Sinensis, known as Danggui in China, is an effective and wide applied material in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and it is used in more than 80 composite formulae. Danggui from Minxian County, Gansu Province is the best in quality. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate Danggui from the authentic region of origin from that from an unauthentic region, an electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was developed. Two different feature extraction methods were used to ensure the authentic region and unauthentic region of Danggui origin could be discriminated. One feature extraction method is to capture the average value of the maximum response of the electronic nose sensors (feature extraction method 1). The other one is to combine the maximum response of the sensors with their inter-ratios (feature extraction method 2). Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were employed. Nineteen samples were analyzed by PCA, SIMCA and HCA. Then the remaining samples (GZM1, SH) were projected onto the SIMCA model to validate the models. The results indicated that, in the use of feature extraction method 2, Danggui from Yunnan Province and Danggui from Gansu Province could be successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, SIMCA and HCA, which suggested that the electronic-nose system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the discrimination of Danggui between authentic and unauthentic region of origin. PMID:25350503

  8. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U. Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility.

  9. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26130946

  10. Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Ataur; Bishayee, Kausik; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2016-02-29

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim root extract (APRE) is a popular herbal medicine used for treating stomachache, abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, and rheumatism; however the effect of APRE on cancer cells has not yet been explored. Here, we examined APRE cytotoxicity seen on target neuroblastoma cells (NB) using cell viability assays, DAPI visualization of fragmented DNA, and Western blotting analysis of candidate signaling pathways involved in proliferation and apoptosis. We demonstrated that APRE reduced cell viability in NB to a greater extent than in fibroblast cells. In addition, we found that APRE could inhibit the three classes of MAPK proteins and could also down-regulate the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β activity all being relevant for proliferation and survival. APRE could also up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. With APRE treatment, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 was demonstrated in the SH-SY5Y cells. We could not found increased activity of death receptor and caspase-8 as markers of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway for the APRE treated cells. In presence of a caspase-3 siRNA and a pan-caspase inhibitor, APRE could not reduce the viability of NB cells to a significant degree. So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the non-caspase autophagy pathway or ER stress-ROS mediated pathways were not involved. These findings demonstrate that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway mediates the apoptotic effects of APRE on SH-SY5Y cells, and that APRE shows promise as a novel agent for neuroblastoma therapy. PMID:26674967

  11. Chemopreventive Effects of Korean Angelica versus Its Major Pyranocoumarins on Two Lineages of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Su-Ni; Zhang, Jinhui; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Peixin; Puppala, Manohar; Zhang, Yong; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-09-01

    We showed previously that daily gavage of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanolic extract starting 8 weeks of age inhibited growth of prostate epithelium and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NE-Ca) in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Because decursin (D) and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are major pyranocoumarins in AGN extract, we tested the hypothesis that D/DA represented active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP carcinogenesis. Three groups of male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice were gavage treated daily with excipient vehicle, AGN (5 mg per mouse), or equimolar D/DA (3 mg per mouse) from 8 weeks to 16 or 28 weeks of age. Measurement of plasma and NE-Ca D, DA, and their common metabolite decursinol indicated similar retention from AGN versus D/DA dosing. The growth of TRAMP dorsolateral prostate (DLP) in AGN- and D/DA-treated mice was inhibited by 66% and 61% at 16 weeks and by 67% and 72% at 28 weeks, respectively. Survival of mice bearing NE-Ca to 28 weeks was improved by AGN, but not by D/DA. Nevertheless, AGN- and D/DA-treated mice had lower NE-Ca burden. Immunohistochemical and mRNA analyses of DLP showed that AGN and D/DA exerted similar inhibition of TRAMP epithelial lesion progression and key cell-cycle genes. Profiling of NE-Ca mRNA showed a greater scope of modulating angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion-metastasis, and inflammation genes by AGN than D/DA. The data therefore support D/DA as probable active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP epithelial lesions, and they cooperate with non-pyranocoumarin compounds to fully express AGN efficacy against NE-Ca. PMID:26116406

  12. Angelica polymorpha Maxim Induces Apoptosis of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by Regulating an Intrinsic Caspase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Ataur; Bishayee, Kausik; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Angelica polymorpha Maxim root extract (APRE) is a popular herbal medicine used for treating stomachache, abdominal pain, stomach ulcers, and rheumatism; however the effect of APRE on cancer cells has not yet been explored. Here, we examined APRE cytotoxicity seen on target neuroblastoma cells (NB) using cell viability assays, DAPI visualization of fragmented DNA, and Western blotting analysis of candidate signaling pathways involved in proliferation and apoptosis. We demonstrated that APRE reduced cell viability in NB to a greater extent than in fibroblast cells. In addition, we found that APRE could inhibit the three classes of MAPK proteins and could also down-regulate the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β activity all being relevant for proliferation and survival. APRE could also up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. With APRE treatment, depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 was demonstrated in the SH-SY5Y cells. We could not found increased activity of death receptor and caspase-8 as markers of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway for the APRE treated cells. In presence of a caspase-3 siRNA and a pan-caspase inhibitor, APRE could not reduce the viability of NB cells to a significant degree. So we predicted that with APRE, the intrinsic pathway was solely responsible for inducing apoptosis as we also showed that the non-caspase autophagy pathway or ER stress-ROS mediated pathways were not involved. These findings demonstrate that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway mediates the apoptotic effects of APRE on SH-SY5Y cells, and that APRE shows promise as a novel agent for neuroblastoma therapy. PMID:26674967

  13. Effect of co-administration of Angelicae gigantis radix and Lithospermi radix on rat hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Lim, Se-Hyun; Cho, Su-In

    2015-01-01

    Background: Co-administration of Angelicae gigantis radix (AGR) and Lithospermi radix (LR) has been commonly applied to patients to treat cardiac and hepatic disorders. Individual bioactivities of these herbal medicines have been widely investigated, but the hepatoprotective effects of co-treatment of AGR and LR have yet to be clarified. Objective: The present study investigated the protective effects of extracts of AGR and LR on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, we measured the hepatoprotective activity of individual and co-treatment of the two herbal medicines on hepatic injury induced by CCl4 by measuring different biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT). Microarray technology also used to compare ontological difference with individual and co-treatment of these two. Results: Combined treatment with AGR and LR (AGR + LR) decreased AST and ALT level in serum which demonstrate hepatoprotective effect of the therapy. When the effect of AGR and LR according to treatment conditions was measured, co-treatment showed the most prominent effect on hepatic injury by CCl4 rather than individual treatment condition. We further defined gene set that could be the molecular target of herbal effect on hepatic injury by CCl4 using bioinformatical analysis of interaction network. Highly recovered genes by treating AGR + LR play significant roles in response to hepatic injury induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Combined treatment with AGR and LR showed synergistic protective effects on the CCl4-induced rat hepatic tissue injury. PMID:25829781

  14. Multi-class mycotoxins analysis in Angelica sinensis by ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiutao; Kong, Weijun; Guo, Weiying; Yang, Meihua

    2015-04-15

    An ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of multi-class mycotoxins including aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) and zearalanone (ZEN) in 20 batches of Angelica sinensis samples collected from different markets and stores in China. The eight mycotoxins were extracted and cleaned up by using QuEChERS-based procedure, and then were quantified under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) together with positive and negative ionization modes. Focusing on the optimization of extraction and clean-up conditions, as well as UFLC separation and MS/MS parameters of targeted analytes, the developed method expressed good linearity for the eight mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.9974. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.005 to 0.125 ?g/kg and from 0.0625 to 0.25 ?g/kg, respectively. Recoveries for spiked A. sinensis sample at three different levels were all above 78.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 6.36% for all analytes. Analysis of real samples demonstrated that two visibly moldy A. sinensis samples were detected with AFB1 of 2.07 and 2.92 ?g/kg, and AFG1 of 2.84 and 1.53 ?g/kg. The proposed quantitative method with significant advantages including simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity would be the preferred candidate for the determination and quantification of multi-class mycotoxin contaminants in complex matrixes, which well fulfilled the maximum residue limits (MRLs) from various countries. PMID:25795322

  15. Anti-inflammatory coumarins with short- and long-chain hydrophobic groups from roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The (1)H NMR-guided fractionation of a cyclohexane soluble portion of the 75% ethanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi led to the isolation of two coumarins, namely, 5-(3?-hydroxy-3?-methylbutyl)-8-hydroxyfuranocoumarin, and isobyakangelicin hydrate-3?-ethyl ether, and ten coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely, andafocoumarins A-J. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the C-2? secondary alcohols in ten of these compounds were deduced via the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex, and oxidation reactions were utilized to determine location of the double bonds in the lipid chain of andafocoumarins H and I, respectively. The long-chain hydrophobic group of andafocoumarin J was determined by the method of chemical degradation and GC-MS analysis. It was the first time that coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups in this plant had been comprehensively investigated. All isolates were assayed for their inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, among which andafocoumarins A and B exhibited a potent inhibition on LPS-activated NO production with IC50 values of 19.7 and 13.9?M, respectively, indicating their stronger inhibitory activity than l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (IC50=23.7?M), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:26775737

  16. Chemopreventive effect of Korean Angelica root extract on TRAMP carcinogenesis and integrative "omic" profiling of affected neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Li; Tang, Suni; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-12-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanol extract exerts anti-cancer activity in several allograft and xenograft models. Here we examined its chemopreventive efficacy through gavage administration against primary carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice and wild type littermates were given a daily gavage (5 mg/mouse, Monday-Friday) of AGN or vehicle, beginning at 8 wk of age (WOA). All mice were terminated at 24 WOA, unless earlier euthanasia was necessitated by large tumors. Whereas AGN-treated TRAMP mice decreased dorsolateral prostate lesion growth by 30% (P = 0.009), they developed fewer and smaller neuroendocrine-carcinomas (NE-Ca) (0.12 g/mouse) than vehicle-treated counterparts (0.81 g/mouse, P = 0.037). We analyzed the proteome and transcriptome of banked NE-Ca to gain molecular insights. Angiogenesis-antibody array detected a substantial reduction in AGN-treated NE-Ca of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), an angiogenesis stimulator. iTRAQ proteomics plus data mining suggested changes of genes upstream and downstream of FGF2 functionally consistent with AGN inhibiting FGF2/FGFR1 signaling at different levels of the transduction cascade. Moreover, AGN upregulated mRNA of genes related to immune responses, restored expression of many tumor suppressor genes, and prostate function and muscle differentiation genes. On the other hand, AGN down-regulated mRNA of genes related to neuron signaling, oncofetal antigens, inflammation, and mast cells, Wnt signaling, embryonic morphogenesis, biosynthesis, cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. These changes suggest not only multiple cancer cell targeting actions of AGN but also impact on the tumor microenvironments such as angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune surveillance. PMID:25307620

  17. Topical Application of Angelica sinensis Improves Pruritus and Skin Inflammation in Mice with Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehong; Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Han, Jae Min; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Eun Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Jinju; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (AS) is one of the most popular medicinal foods used as a hematopoietic herb and also traditionally applied topically for skin disorders. However, the effectiveness of AS on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been reported yet. This study was conducted to evaluate the antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effects of AS on regulating AD-related mediators in DNCB (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene)-induced mice. AS was topically applied to the dorsal skin of DNCB-challenged mice for 11 days. Alteration of skin thickness was measured for assessment of histological improvement. In addition, the number of mast cells, the level of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), the counting of scratching behavior, and the expression of substance P were evaluated. Also, the expressions of cytokines, nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), phospho-I?B?, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured for evaluating the improvement of skin inflammation. The repeated treatment of AS significantly inhibited the skin thickness, the number of mast cells, and the level of serum IgE. Moreover, AS significantly suppressed the increased scratching behavior and the expression of substance P compared to the DNCB group. Topical application of AS also reduced the level of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, TNF-?, and IFN-?) as well as the expressions of NF-?B, phospho-I?B?, and phospho-MAPKs in the dorsal skin. The results of our study suggest that topical application of AS might have efficacy for modulating pruritus and inflammation in AD. Further studies are required to further characterize the mechanism of actions of AS. PMID:26305727

  18. Anti-cancer and other bioactivities of Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and its major pyranocoumarin compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Jiang, Cheng; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; L, Junxuan

    2012-12-01

    Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a major medicinal herb used in Asian countries such as Korea and China. Traditionally, its dried root has been used to treat anemia, pain, infection and articular rheumatism in Korea, most often through boiling in water to prepare the dosage forms. The pyranocoumarin compound decursin and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are the major chemical components in the alcoholic extracts of the root of AGN. The in vitro anti-tumor activities of decursin and/or DA against prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, sarcoma, myeloma and leukemia have been increasingly reported in the past decade whereas the in vivo efficacy in mouse models was established only for a few organ sites. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies by us and others in rodent models indicated that decursinol (DOH), which has much less in vitro direct anticancer activities by itself, is the major and rapid in vivo hydrolysis metabolite of both decursin and DA. Besides decursin, DA and DOH, other chemical components in AGN such as polysaccharides and polyacetylenes have been reported to exert anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities as well. We systematically reviewed the published literature on the anti-cancer and other bio-activities effects of AGN extract and decursin, DA and DOH, as well as other chemicals identified from AGN. Although a number of areas are identified that merit further investigation, one critical need is first-in-human studies of the pharmacokinetics of decursin/DA to determine whether humans differ from rodents in absorption and metabolism of these compounds. PMID:22583405

  19. The effects of polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis on tumor growth and iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yao; Zhou, Jiali; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kaiping; Zhang, Yu

    2016-02-17

    The crude polysaccharide was obtained from the root of Angelica sinensis (AS) to investigate its effect on tumor growth and iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice. In our study, we showed that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was mainly composed of arabinose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1?:?1?:?1.75, with a molecular weight of 80?900 Da and a sugar content of 88.0%. Animal experimental results revealed that three doses of ASP all had anti-tumor effects with inhibition ratios of 27.11%, 31.65% and 37.05%. With respect to iron metabolism, the mean levels of serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ferritin, transferrin (Tf), transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) in H22-bearing mice were promoted, and serum iron concentration decreased significantly. After treatment with ASP, these iron-related indicators recovered in different degrees. The findings suggested that the anti-tumor activity of ASP may be affected by its regulation on iron metabolism in H22-bearing mice. PMID:26757699

  20. Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3 μM, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

  1. Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae) with proven repellent properties against Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue fever vector in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Champakaew, D; Junkum, A; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Sanghong, R; Intirach, J; Muangmoon, R; Chansang, A; Tuetun, B; Pitasawat, B

    2015-06-01

    Botanical resources with great diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants are a rich and reliable source for finding insect repellents of plant origin, which are widely popular among today's consumers. Although some herbal-based repellents have been proven comparable to or even better than synthetics, commercially available natural repellents generally tend to be expensive, with short-lived effectiveness. This critical flaw leads to ongoing research for new and effective repellents, which provide longer protection against vector and nuisance-biting insects, while remaining safe, user friendly, and reasonably priced. This study aimed to evaluate the repellent activity of plant-derived products against the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, by following the human bait technique of World Health Organization guidelines. Preliminary laboratory screening tests for repellency of 33 plant species clearly demonstrated Angelica sinensis as the most effective repellent from each kind of extracted product, with its essential oil and ethanolic extract having median complete protection times of 7.0 h (6.0-7.5) and 2.5 h (2.0-2.5), respectively. Due to its low yield (0.02 %), pungent smell, and little cause of irritation, A. sinensis essential oil did not qualify as a candidate for further repellent assessment. However, subsequent extractions of A. sinensis with different organic solvents of increasing polarity provided four extractants with varying degrees of repellency against A. aegypti. The hexane extract of A. sinensis provided excellent repellency, with a median complete protection time of 7.5 h (6.5-8.5), which was longer than that of ethanol (2.5, 2.0-2.5 h), acetone (1.75, 0.5-2.5 h), and methanol extracts (0.5, 0-1.0 h). By being the most effective product, A. sinensis hexane extract gave significant protection comparable to that of its essential oil and the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET: 6.25, 5.0-6.5 h). Qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of phthalides and phthalates, including 3-N-butylphthalide, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and di-iso-octyl phthalate, as the principal constituents in A. sinensis products. The success of A. sinensis products, particularly that of hexane extract, has proved their potential as bioactive candidates in the next step for developing and producing alternative natural repellents with commercial aspirations. PMID:25773182

  2. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  3. Chinese Medicine Formula Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction Attenuates Tourette Syndrome via Downregulating the Expression of Dopamine Transporter in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dao-han; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiao-fang; Zhang, Jin-ming; Wang, Su-mei

    2013-01-01

    Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) is dedicated to the treatment for Tourette syndrome (TS) with the guidance of the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This study aims to investigate the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and stereotyped behavior of TS mice model by intervention of JPZDD. Mice were induced by 3,3?-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN, 350?mg kg?1 day?1, i.p.) for 7 days and divided into 4 groups (n = 20, each): control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups with Tiapride (Tia, 50?mg kg?1 day?1) and JPZDD (20?g kg?1 day?1), respectively. The results showed that the scores of stereotyped behavior in IDPN+JPZDD group were significantly reduced. A noticeably increased 11C-?-CFT binding at bilateral striatum was observed after administration of JPZDD versus that of IDPN or Tia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies manifested higher levels of DAT protein and mRNA in IDPN+JPZDD group. These findings not only demonstrated that JPZDD could effectively inhibit the abnormal behaviors of TS mice model, but also increase the level of DAT in striatum. Therefore, JPZDD could be one of potential treatments of patients with TS. PMID:23431337

  4. Perimenopause Amelioration of a TCM Recipe Composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii: An In Vivo Study on Natural Aging Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ji-Yan; Xie, Qing-Feng; Liu, Wei-Jin; Lai, Ping; Liu, Dan-Dan; Tang, Li-Hai; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Li, Kun-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively applied as preferable herbal remedy for menopausal symptoms. In the present work, the potential of a TCM recipe named RRF, composed of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Folium Epimedii, was investigated on a natural aging rat model. After administration of RRF (141, 282, and 564?mg/kg/d), the circulated estradiol (E2) level increased accompanied by a reduction of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). But no significant impact on serum lutenizing hormone (LH) level was observed. As a result of the E2-FSH-LH adjustment, the histomorphology degenerations of ovary, uterus, and vagina of the 11.5-month female rats were alleviated. And lumbar vertebrae trabecular microstructure was also restored under RRF exposure by means of increasing the trabecular area and area rate. Moreover, levels of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) rallied significantly after RRF treatment. Results from our studies suggest that RRF possesses a positive regulation on the estrogen imbalance and neurotransmitter disorder, thereby restoring reproductive organ degeneration and skeleton deterioration. The above-mentioned benefits of RRF on the menopause syndromes recommend RRF as a potential candidate for the treatment of perimenopausal syndrome. PMID:24454513

  5. Separation and simultaneous quantification of nine furanocoumarins from Radix Angelicae dahuricae using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for bioavailability determination in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Jian, Yang; Wei, Ning; Yuan, Mei; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Li, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Radix Angelicae dahuricae is a well-known medicinal herb in a number of herb preparations for medical uses. In this study, a rapid and selective method using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the separation and simultaneous quantitation of nine furanocoumarins from Radix A. dahuricae, namely imperatorin, isoimperatorin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, bergapten, oxypeucedanin, xanthotoxol, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, and psoralen. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a CAPCELL PAK MG II C18 analytical column. Detection was performed using positive electrospray ion source in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was fully validated for analyzing these principles in rat plasma with a lower limit of quantification from 0.5 to 5 ng/mL. The intra- and interbatch precisions were less than 10%, and the accuracies ranged from -7.5 to 8.0%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was above 70% without a significant matrix effect. The method was used to determine the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profiles of these furanocoumarins after dosing with Radix A. dahurica extract. The bioavailability of these furanocoumarins ranged from 10.1 to 82.8%. These data provide critical information for a better understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms and herb-drug interaction potential of Radix A. dahurica. PMID:26496866

  6. Efficacy of Angelica archangelica essential oil, phenyl ethyl alcohol and ?- terpineol against isolated molds from walnut and their antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Goni, Reema; Raina, Ajay Kumar Pandit; Dubey, N K

    2015-04-01

    Mold association, aflatoxin B1 contamination as well as oxidative deterioration of agri-food items during storage and processing are some global task for food industries. In view of the adverse effects of some synthetic preservatives on treated food items and subsequently on consumers health, recently plant based chemicals are encouraged by food industries as better alternatives of synthetics. The present study recommends the combination (1:1:1) of Angelica archangelica essential oil: Phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA): ?- terpineol as botanical preservative against molds, aflatoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of walnut samples. Eight mold species were procured from stored walnut samples, including some aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains. The combination inhibited growth of aflatoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus NKDW-7 and aflatoxin B1 production at 2.25 and 2.0?LmL(-1) respectively. The IC50 value of the combination was recorded as 3.89?LmL(-1), showing strong antioxidant potential. The antifungal action of the combination showed?>?90% decrease in ergosterol content in plasma membrane of A. flavus at 2.0?LmL(-1). The LD50 of the combination, through oral administration on mice, was 9562.9?Lkg(-1) body weight, indication favourable safety profile as a plant based preservative. The combination may be recommended as safe preservative against molds, aflatoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of walnut samples. PMID:25829603

  7. [A cell membrane chromatography method for screening 5-HT receptor agonists from drug pair of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui; Lv, Nan; Huang, Jie; Deng, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Migraine is one of the common and frequently encountered diseases. The study proves that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor, plays an important role in the occurrence of migraine. Rat striatum was used for preparation of the cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) in our experiments. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC)-offline-HPLC system was applied to specifically recognize the components from the drug pair of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, which interact with the receptors on CMSP. The dissociation equilibrium constant (KD) was measured in a rat striatum/CMC system, performed by continuously pumping sumatriptan, a 5-HT1D agonist, ranging from 2.42 x 10(-8) to 4.84 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) through a CMC column, and the capacity factors (k') were recorded. The KD value obtained from the model was (4.59 0.33) x 10(-6) mol L(-1) for imperatorin, and the rat model of migraine induced by nitroglycerin was applied to validate the pharmacological effects of the drug pair. The results indicated that the CMC method could be a quick and efficient way for characterizing the drug-receptor interactions in vitro. PMID:26084175

  8. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent

    PubMed Central

    Zierau, Oliver; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.; Vollmer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. PMID:25214874

  9. Quantitative analysis of phenolic metabolites from different parts of Angelica keiskei by HPLC-ESI MS/MS and their xanthine oxidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Yuk, Heung Joo; Wang, Yan; Song, Yeong Hun; Jeong, Seong Hun; Park, Ki Hun

    2014-06-15

    Angelica keiskei is used as popular functional food stuff. However, quantitative analysis of this plant's metabolites has not yet been disclosed. The principal phenolic compounds (1-16) within A. keiskei were isolated, enabling us to quantify the metabolites within different parts of the plant. The specific quantification of metabolites (1-16) was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a quadruple tandem mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were calculated as 0.4-44 μg/kg and 1.5-148 μg/kg, respectively. Abundance and composition of these metabolites varied significantly across different parts of plant. For example, the abundance of chalcones (12-16) decreased as follows: root bark (10.51 mg/g)>stems (8.52 mg/g)>leaves (2.63 mg/g)>root cores (1.44 mg/g). The chalcones were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition shown by this plant. The most potent inhibitor, xanthoangelol inhibited XO with an IC50 of 8.5 μM. Chalcones (12-16) exhibited mixed-type inhibition characteristics. PMID:24491695

  10. Separation and quantitative analysis of coumarin compounds from Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm) Benth. et Hook. f by pressurized capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Fan, Guorong; Chen, Bin; Xie, Ying; Wu, Huiling; Wu, Yutian; Yan, Chao; Wang, Jianmin

    2006-04-11

    A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) method with post-column detection cell has been developed for the therapeutically important coumarins from Angelica dahurica extract. The separation of five major coumarins (xanthotoxol, osthenol, imperatorin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, byakangelicin) was optimized with respect to composition of the mobile phase, ionic strength of buffers, pH, and applied voltage. Baseline separation was achieved for the five coumarins in less than 25 min using a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 4.8; 15 mM) (22.5:15:62.5, v/v/v). The method showed satisfactory retention time and peak area repeatability with the first use of post-column detection cell in the pCEC instrument. Comparing to capillary high performance liquid chromatography (capillary HPLC) and conventional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), higher column efficiency, and shorter analysis time were achieved in pCEC. The five coumarins in the extract samples representing different stages of traditional extraction of A. dahurica were also quantitatively analyzed by pCEC. The calibration curves were linear in the range 37-129, 36-126, 12-41, 88-306, 20-69 microg/ml of the standard solutions containing the five coumarins with correlation coefficients between 0.9976 and 0.9994. PMID:16318908

  11. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment. PMID:25915423

  12. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Ferulic Acid in Normal and Blood Deficiency Rats after Oral Administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Their Combination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weixia; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Huang, Meiyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2012-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC(0t) and Cmax of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t1/2?, Vd, AUC(0t) and AUC(0?) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome. PMID:22489169

  13. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 ?g/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat shock amelioration among 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through heat shock factor and proteins augmentation and enhanced adipogenic marker expression. PMID:26950875

  14. Angelica sinensis and its Alkylphthalides Induce the Detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H: Quinone OxidoReductase 1 by Alkylating KEAP1

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Liu, Dongting; Hagos, Ghenet K.; Yao, Ping; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Pro, Samuel M.; Deng, Shixin; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2008-01-01

    The roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.), Diels (Dang Gui; Apiaceae) have a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy for women's disorders, and are often called “lady's ginseng”. Currently, extracts of A. sinensis are commonly included in numerous dietary supplements used for women's health and as anti-aging products. In the present study, we examined the potential chemopreventive activity of A. sinensis extracts by measuring the relative ability to induce the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The lipophilic partitions showed strong NQO1 induction with concentrations to double the enzyme activity (CD) of 5.5 ± 0.7 μg/mL (petroleum ether) and 3.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL (chloroform). Fractionation led to the isolation of phenolic esters and alkylphthalides, especially Z-ligustilide, the main lipophilic compound, which showed strong NQO1 inducing properties (CD = 6.9 ± 1.9 μM). Transcription of many detoxifying enzymes is regulated through the antioxidant response element (ARE) and its transcription factor Nrf2, which is repressed under basal conditions by Keap1. However, exposure to electrophilic inducers that alkylate Keap1 results in a higher concentrations of free Nrf2 and ARE activation. The ARE reporter activity was therefore analyzed in HepG2-ARE-C8 cells after incubation with lipophilic extracts of A. sinensis or ligustilide for 24 h. Under these conditions, both the extract and ligustilide increased ARE-luciferase reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of ligustilide with GSH and subsequent LC-MS-MS analysis revealed that ligustilide as well as oxidized ligustilide species covalently modified GSH. In addition, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and LC-MS-MS, it was demonstrated that the lipophilic extracts, ligustilide, and monooxygenated ligustilide alkylated important cysteine residues in human Keap1 protein, thus activating Nrf2 and transcription of ARE regulated genes. These observations suggest that A. sinensis dietary supplements standardized to ligustilide have potential as chemopreventive agents through induction of detoxification enzymes. PMID:18808158

  15. Comparison of two extraction methods for the determination of 135 pesticides in Corydalis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry. Application to the roots and rhizomes of Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Tong, Ling; Li, Dongxiang; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two simple pretreatment methods were comprehensively evaluated for the determination of 135 pesticide residues in roots and rhizomes of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs). The studied methodologies are (a) solid-phase extraction (SPE) and (b) Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS). For SPE, extraction solvents, SPE cartridges and types and volume of eluent were accessed and optimized. For QuEChERS, different versions, acetic acid concentration and dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent materials were tested. SPE and QuEChERS were estimated in recovery range, the number of pesticides that were recovered ranging from 90% to 110% and expenses in Corydalis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Sinensis Radix. QuEChERS method showed better performance than SPE. The method showed good linearity over the range assayed 0.9986-0.9999 (1-80ng/mL for 124 pesticides, 1-50ng/mL for 10 pesticides, 1-20ng/mL for satisfar). The matrix effect was compensated by matrix-based calibration curves with internal standard. The average recoveries of all pesticides were ranging from 70% to 120% at three levels of 10, 50 and 100ng/g with relative standard deviations less than 20%. The limits of quantification of the 135 pesticides in three matrices were 1-5ng/g, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European Union. The verified QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of 65 actual samples from eight different types of roots and rhizomes of CHMs. Angelicae Sinensis Radix was the most susceptible to pesticides among these samples, and the most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with levels below MRLs. Metalaxyl, phorate, atrazine, diniconazole, coumaphos and paclobutrazol were also detected in some samples. PMID:26990739

  16. Construction and analysis of correlation networks based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabonomics data for lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and intervention with volatile oil from Angelica sinensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yong-li; Ji, Peng; Xue, Zi-yu; Wei, Yan-ming

    2015-11-01

    Angelica sinensis (AS) is a well-known important traditional Chinese medicine that yields a volatile oil with anti-inflammatory effects. However, the holistic therapeutic effects and the mechanism underlying such effects of the volatile oil of A. sinensis (VOAS) are not yet well understood. Here, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomic study was conducted to explore the significantly altered metabolites for better understanding of VOAS and to assess the integral efficacy of VOAS on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation rat model. Principal component analysis was used to investigate the global metabonomic alterations and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of VOAS in rats. Clear separations were observed in the comparison of the metabolite profiles of the normal control (NC) group, the LPS-stimulated group (MI), the VOAS group, and the dexamethasone (Dex) group. VOAS exerted therapeutic effects on the LPS-stimulated group, which were in accordance with the results of cytokine analyses and blood physiobiochemical assay. Furthermore, a total of 20, 17, and 22 metabolites distributed in 27 metabolic pathways were respectively identified in plasma, liver, and lung samples as significantly altered metabolites of MI, VOAS, Dex, and NC of the same background. Network analysis revealed that glycine, glutamate, malic acid, succinate, arachidonic acid, glycerol, galactose, and glucose were hub metabolites of the inflammation correlation network. Results indicated that VOAS exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect by adjusting the Krebs cycle, improving the glucose content, and restoring the fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26399193

  17. Simultaneous determination of scopoletin, psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, columbianetin acetate, imperatorin, osthole and isoimperatorin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis extract.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-xu; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Xin-rong; He, Jun; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Lin; Deng, Yan-ru; Zhang, Bo-li; Gao, Xiu-mei

    2013-04-15

    A rapid and sensitive bioassay based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight coumarins in rat plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method with ethyl acetate was used to prepare the plasma samples after addition of warfarin as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on an Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm4.6mm, 1.8?m) using gradient elution when 1mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution - acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of each coumarin was lower than 2.16ngmL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%. The accuracies were in the range of 88.9-117%. The mean recoveries of coumarins and IS were higher than 84%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of eight coumarins in rats after oral administration of radix angelicae pubescentis. PMID:23384552

  18. Nutritional approaches to late toxicities of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Rock, Edwin; DeMichele, Angela

    2003-11-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer reduces recurrence rates and prolongs survival at the cost of both acute and chronic toxicities. Breast cancer survivors who have received adjuvant chemotherapy may suffer from late effects of chemotherapy including congestive heart failure, neuropathy, premature menopause, and osteoporosis. Nutritional approaches to these problems are distinct in their orientation and success. Study of free radical scavengers for anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy was born from known pathogenetic mechanisms of cardiotoxicity but has been universally disappointing thus far in clinical trials. Application of agents used for diabetic neuropathy suggests that evening primrose oil, alpha-lipoic acid, and capsaicin may all play a role in the empiric options available to patients with chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Plant-derived preparations including black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), and red clover (Trifolium pretense) are used by patients experiencing hot flashes due to premature menopause despite a paucity of clinical trial data demonstrating either safety or efficacy. Calcium and vitamin D are widely accepted as an effective means to retard bone loss leading to osteoporosis. Nutritional approaches to late effects of breast cancer chemotherapy offer the prospect of preventing or ameliorating these sequelae of treatment. However, except for vitamin D and calcium for prevention of bone loss, current clinical evidence supporting use of nutritional agents remains sparse. PMID:14608115

  19. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Xu, H; Gu, C; van Breemen, R B; Bhat, K P; Booth, N; Constantinou, A I; Pezzuto, J M; Fong, H H; Farnsworth, N R; Bolton, J L

    2001-05-01

    Eight botanical preparations that are commonly used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms were tested for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus L.), and hops (Humulus lupulus L.) showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta). With cultured Ishikawa (endometrial) cells, red clover and hops exhibited estrogenic activity as indicated by induction of alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and up-regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA. Chasteberry also stimulated PR expression, but no induction of AP activity was observed. In S30 breast cancer cells, pS2 (presenelin-2), another estrogen-inducible gene, was up-regulated in the presence of red clover, hops, and chasteberry. Interestingly, extracts of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) induced pS2 mRNA expression in S30 cells, but no significant ER binding affinity, AP induction, or PR expression was noted in Ishikawa cells. Dong quai [Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels] and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) showed only weak ER binding and PR and pS2 mRNA induction. Black cohosh [Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.] showed no activity in any of the above in vitro assays. Bioassay-guided isolation utilizing ER competitive binding as a monitor and screening using ultrafiltration LC-MS revealed that genistein was the most active component of red clover. Consistent with this observation, genistein was found to be the most effective of four red clover isoflavones tested in the above in vitro assays. Therefore, estrogenic components of plant extracts can be identified using assays for estrogenic activity along with screening and identification of the active components using ultrafiltration LC-MS. These data suggest a potential use for some dietary supplements, ingested by human beings, in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. PMID:11368622

  20. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Su-yin; Lee, Pei-yi; Lai, Ming-tsung; Shen, Li-ching; Chung, Wen-sheng; Huang, Hui-fen; Wu, Kuen-yuh; Wu, Hsiu-ching

    2011-12-24

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) is a reactive electrophilic metabolite of the hepatocarcinogen safrole, the main component of sassafras oil. Safrole occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including the commonly used Chinese medicine Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis). SAFO is the most mutagenic metabolite of safrole tested in the Ames test. However, little or no data are available on the genotoxicity of SAFO in mammalian systems. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SAFO in human HepG2 cells and male FVB mice. Using MTT assay, SAFO exhibited a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells with TC(50) values of 361.9?M and 193.2?M after 24 and 48h exposure, respectively. In addition, treatment with SAFO at doses of 125?M and higher for 24h in HepG2 cells resulted in a 5.1-79.6-fold increase in mean Comet tail moment by the alkaline Comet assay and a 2.6-7.8-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Furthermore, repeated intraperitoneal administration of SAFO (15, 30, 45, and 60mg/kg) to mice every other day for a total of twelve doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean Comet tail moment in peripheral blood leukocytes (13.3-43.4-fold) and in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (1.5-5.8-fold). Repeated administration of SAFO (60mg/kg) to mice caused liver lesions manifested as a rim of ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes immediately surrounding the central vein. Our data clearly demonstrate that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity. PMID:21986196

  1. Narrated Landscape as Counterweight to Perception of Placelessness in Contemporary Urban Landscape: Re-Visioning Place in Gwangbok-Dong and Nampo-Dong, Busan, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sungkyung

    2009-01-01

    Although the contemporary commercial urban landscape is often assessed as placeless, this research proposes that even these seemingly anonymous places are repositories of thriving community values and meanings. Seeking a more complex reading, this research extends the scope of analysis from physical space to human use in order to reveal the

  2. Narrated Landscape as Counterweight to Perception of Placelessness in Contemporary Urban Landscape: Re-Visioning Place in Gwangbok-Dong and Nampo-Dong, Busan, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sungkyung

    2009-01-01

    Although the contemporary commercial urban landscape is often assessed as placeless, this research proposes that even these seemingly anonymous places are repositories of thriving community values and meanings. Seeking a more complex reading, this research extends the scope of analysis from physical space to human use in order to reveal the…

  3. Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Low Dog, Tieraona

    2005-12-19

    Since the release of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) findings, an increasing number of dietary supplement products specifically targeting women in menopause have appeared in the American marketplace. This growth highlights the need for a critical evaluation of the tolerability and effectiveness of these products. The purpose of this article is to assess the evidence for safety and benefit of botanical monopreparations used for relief of menopause-related symptoms. The Cochrane Library and Medline databases were searched from January 1966 to October 2004, using a detailed list of terms related to botanicals and menopausal symptoms. Studies were considered eligible (1) if they were controlled trials of a botanical monopreparation administered orally for a minimum of 6 weeks to perimenopausal or postmenopausal women with hot flashes and (2) if they included a placebo or comparative treatment arm. Topical preparations, botanical combinations, and dietary interventions, such as soy food or protein, were not included. No language restrictions were imposed on the search. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies indicate that extract of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) improves menopause-related symptoms; however, methodologic shortcomings in the trials were identified. To date, 4 case reports of possible hepatotoxicity have been published, although previous safety reviews suggest that black cohosh is well tolerated and that adverse events are rare when it is used appropriately. The results of 6 clinical studies on soy (Glycine max L.) isoflavone extracts are mixed. Moreover, the composition and dose of soy supplements varies widely across studies, making comparisons and definitive conclusions difficult. One study challenged the long-term safety of high-dose soy isoflavone extract (150 mg/day for 5 years) on the uterine endometrium. Clinical data from 5 controlled trials assessing the efficacy of semipurified isoflavone red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) leaf extracts to reduce hot flash frequency and severity or to relieve symptoms associated with the domains of the Greene Menopausal Symptom Scale are contradictory. The largest study showed no benefit for reducing symptoms associated with menopause for 2 different red clover isoflavone products compared with placebo. No significant adverse events have been reported in the literature. Single clinical trials do not support the use of dong quai (Angelica sinensis L.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey), or evening primrose seed oil (Oenothera biennis L.) for improving menopausal symptoms. We conclude that black cohosh extracts appear to ease menopausal symptoms; ongoing studies funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will provide more definitive safety and efficacy data. Soy isoflavone extracts appear to have minimal to no effect, although definitive conclusions are difficult given the wide variation in product composition and dose. Long-term safety of higher dosage (150 mg/day) soy isoflavone extracts is uncertain. Semipurified isoflavone red clover leaf extracts have minimal to no effect in reducing menopausal symptoms. Dong quai, ginseng extract, and evening primrose seed oil appear to be ineffective in ameliorating menopausal symptoms at the dosages and in the preparations used in these studies. PMID:16414334

  4. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia. PMID:11419135

  5. Qiang-Dong proper quantization rule and its applications to exactly solvable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, F. A.; Gu Xiaoyan; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2010-08-15

    We propose proper quantization rule, x{sub A}(x{sub B})k(x)dx-x{sub 0A}(x{sub 0B})k{sub 0}(x)dx=n{pi}, where k(x)={radical}(2M[E-V(x)])/({h_bar}/2{pi}). The x{sub A} and x{sub B} are two turning points determined by E=V(x), and n is the number of the nodes of wave function {psi}(x). We carry out the exact solutions of solvable quantum systems by this rule and find that the energy spectra of solvable systems can be determined only from its ground state energy. The previous complicated and tedious integral calculations involved in exact quantization rule are greatly simplified. The beauty and simplicity of the rule come from its meaning--whenever the number of the nodes of {phi}(x) or the number of the nodes of the wave function {psi}(x) increases by 1, the momentum integral x{sub A}(x{sub B})k(x)dx will increase by {pi}. We apply this proper quantization rule to carry out solvable quantum systems such as the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the Morse potential and its generalization, the Hulthen potential, the Scarf II potential, the asymmetric trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, the Poeschl-Teller type potentials, the Rosen-Morse potential, the Eckart potential, the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions, the hydrogen atom, and the Manning-Rosen potential in D dimensions.

  6. Application of 3S Techniques in the Study of Wetland Environment of Dong Ting Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Baicheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Shuai, Xiqiang; Luo, Boliang

    Wetland is a multifunctional ecosystem in the earth, wetlands possess irreplaceable and enormous ecological functions and serve as an essential life supporting system. how to apply the new and high technology to the study of wetland has become the key point in wetland study area in our country. RS, GIS and GPS technology provide a new method for resource and ecological environment monitor. In this paper, the problem and development trend of 3S technology are discussed. Application of 3S technique in the study of wetland environment of Dongting Lake are described. The wetland monitor ways and technique route are introduced. The beach and water area information were gained.the dynamic changes of water were evaluated objective and quantitative. Finally, we point out the difficulties of wetland monitor of Dongting Lake.

  7. Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

  8. How to Continue the Beauty of Traditional Architecture of Dong Village ------the exploration of cultural protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fan; Xiaohua, Zhu

    Based on architectural culture of ethnic minority and folk customs, keep multiple characteristics of traditional architecture, inject new connotation, meet people's new demand of living condition. Explore a feasible approach to inherit traditional dwellings and diversify architecture. Ensure the healthy development of traditional architecture.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Angelica sinensis Essential Oil Against Three Colletotrichum Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical fungicides are an important component in disease management for most crops. As part of a program to discover natural product-based fungicides, several sensitive assay systems have been developed for the evaluation of naturally occurring antifungal agents. In this study, we focused on the di...

  10. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the

  11. The Implementation of Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation in Vietnamese Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Dong Thap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a critical area of concern in Vietnamese education. Recently, new professional standards for teachers in secondary schools have been developed, piloted, and implemented. This study explores the perceptions of teachers, school principals, and other administrators about the new teacher professional standards, the…

  12. Governing "Suzhi" and Curriculum Reform in Rural Ethnic China: Viewpoints from the Miao and Dong Communities in Qiandongnan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinting

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the uptake of "suzhi"--roughly glossed as "quality"--in China's recent curriculum reform called "suzhi jiaoyu" (Education for Quality) in the rural ethnic context of Qiandongnan. It engages with three layers of analysis. First is a brief etymological overview of "suzhi" to map out its cultural politics in contemporary China.

  13. Educational and Social Development in Doi Ang Khang: A Comparative Study of the Khob Dong and Nor Lae Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Timothy; Gray, Lauren; Lake, John; Roy, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Northern Thailand is home to many hill tribes, who have lived for hundreds of years as subsistence farmers or nomadic hunters. In the 1940s, communist insurgencies drove many hill tribes from China, Burma, and other nations south into northern Thailand. Uprooted from their native lands, the hill tribes left behind ties to economic resources and,…

  14. Korean Confucianism's Mindful Learning Model of Moral Internalization as Manifested in the Cheonghak-Dong Hermit Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Si Ha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand an unknown educational approach in Korean Confucianism's ethical education characterized as moral internalization, based on the study participants. A prevailed understanding of moral internalization of Confucianism is a strong imposed learning process, which is a well known Asian learning

  15. Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei) extract prevents adiposity in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianshun; Yamashita, Yoko; Yasuda, Michiko; Yamamoto, Norio; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Two main chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, from Ashitaba, which is a food ingredient and a folk medicine in Asia, have been demonstrated to modulate lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ashitaba extract on adiposity in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on adipose tissue and hepatic lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal or HF diet supplemented with Ashitaba extract (0.01% and 0.1%, w/w) for 16 weeks. Ashitaba extract suppressed the HF diet-induced body weight gain and fat deposition in white adipose tissue, reduced plasma cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels, increased the adiponectin level, lowered triglyceride and the liver cholesterol content, increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipose tissue and liver, inhibited lipogenesis in adipose tissue by down-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), inhibited lipogenesis in the liver by down-expression of SREBP1 and its target enzyme fatty acid synthase, and promoted fatty acid oxidation by up-expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A and PPAR?. In conclusion, Ashitaba extract can possibly prevent adiposity through modulating lipid metabolism through phosphorylation of AMPK in adipose tissue and liver. PMID:25406632

  16. Mud deposition on the meso-tidal beach due to Typhoon Durian on 4-5th December 2006 in BaDong beach, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayama, F.; Horaguchi, K.; Ta, O. T.; Watanabe, K.; Tateishi, R.; Yamaguchi, T.; Tamura, T.; Nguyen, L. V.; Murakami, F.; Saito, Y.; Tateishi, M.

    2008-12-01

    BaDnog beach is located in the southeastern margin of the Mekong River Delta, Tra Vinh province, southern Vietnam"CIt is a typical meso-tidal beach system. Since November 2005 we have repeatedly studied surface sedimentation and morphological change controlled by Asian monsoon effects. On March 2007, we described strange mud layers and mud clasts around the high-tide shoreline on Lines A and BT. The diameters of the mud clasts are 1-30 cm and the roundness varies from angular block shape to ellipse spherical shape. Furthermore, we dug among sand bars near the coast and high-tide shoreline. Then we found some mud layers under the beach and sand bars. According to comparison with field data of March 2007 and November 2006, we summarized five important characteristics: (1) Mud layers were found only in the south area such as Lines A and BT because this area had a depositional tendency during March 2007 and November 2006. (2) Mud layers were distributed between the surfaces of March 2007 and November 2006, and mostly spread over the surface of November 2006. (3) The thickness of the mud layers is 1-30 cm. The maximum number of mud layers is three. These are associated with thin sand layers, which consist of very fine sand, derived from beach and associated traction structures such as plane bed and wave ripple. (4) The mud includes much organic materials and its color suggests a subtidal mud origin. The southern Vietnam region has rarely been damaged by strong typhoon since 1997. But, Typhoon Durian hit Vietnam's southern regions on 4-5th December, 2006. We guess the mud layers were brought from the subtidal area to the high-tide shoreline due to the strong waves of this typhoon. Also we guess the mud clasts were washed out from buried mud layers under the beach and sand bars due to the strong waves during the winter monsoon after the typhoon.

  17. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography couple...

  18. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Angelica. Angelica root Do. Angelica seed Do. Angostura (cusparia bark) Galipea officinalis Hancock. Anise Pimpinella anisum L. Anise, star Illicium verum Hook. f. Balm (lemon balm) Melissa officinalis L. Basil, bush... spicata L. Star anise Illicium verum Hook. f. Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus L. Thyme Thymus vulgaris...

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shou, Chong; Li, Justin; Liu, Zitao

    2011-12-01

    A large number of women will pass through menopause each year. Women in menopausal transition experience a variety of menopausal symptoms. Although hormonal therapy remains the most effective treatment, side effects have been reported by several large studies. An increased number of women seek the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treating menopausal symptoms. This review analyzes the evidence from systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and epidemiological studies of using herbal medicine (Black cohosh, Dong quai, St John's wart, Hops, Wild yam, Ginseng, and evening primrose oil) and acupuncture for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of most CAM for relief of menopausal symptoms are limited. Future larger and better controlled studies testing the effectiveness of these treatments are needed. PMID:22139538

  20. 76 FR 72388 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Federal Register. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR... INFORMATION CONTACT: Edythe Artman or Angelica Mendoza, AD/ CVD Operations, Office 7, Import...

  1. GENERA OF THE DIAPORTHALES: DIAPORTHOPSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diaporthopsis was described for species that are similar to Diaporthe but have non-septate ascospores. The type species of Diaporthopsis is D. angelicae, an earlier name for D. nigrella. Molecular analysis of the large subunit of the ribosomal nuclear DNA places D. angelicae within a gro...

  2. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: mechanisms of action?

    PubMed

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

    2013-05-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats, which can affect quality of life. Although it has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, hormone therapy has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief have been controversial, and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report a reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 ligands or inhibit serotonin reuptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women's health could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  3. Reprint of The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design.

    PubMed

    Newton, Katherine M; Reed, Susan D; Grothaus, Lou; Ehrlich, Kelly; Guiltinan, Jane; Ludman, Evette; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2008-01-01

    We designed a randomized double-blind randomized trial to examine the short and long-term effects of alternative approaches commonly used to manage menopause symptoms. Women were randomly assigned to: (1) black cohosh 160 mg daily; (2) multibotanical (50 mg black cohosh, alfalfa, chaste tree, dong quai, false unicorn, licorice, oats, pomegranate, Siberian ginseng, boron) four capsules daily; (3) multibotanical plus telephone counseling to increase dietary soy; (4) conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg +/- 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate; or (5) placebo. Working with a skilled CAM provider helped us choose interventions that reflected naturopathic practices worthy of study. Mass mailing, with careful tracking and rapid responses to recruitment rates, was an effective and cost-effective recruitment strategy. Creativity was necessary to construct methods for blinding capsules and the dietary soy intervention. Independent testing of herbal products was vital to confirming their constituents. The Data and Safety and Monitoring Committee, and project officers at the funding agency, were critical partners in designing responses to unanticipated Women's Health Initiative findings published during the HALT trial. Careful monitoring of adverse events may provide much needed information about side effects of herbal products and supplements. Despite inherent challenges, the study of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms is a rewarding and important area deserving of further inquiry. PMID:19434890

  4. The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design.

    PubMed

    Newton, Katherine M; Reed, Susan D; Grothaus, Lou; Ehrlich, Kelly; Guiltinan, Jane; Ludman, Evette; Lacroix, Andrea Z

    2005-10-16

    We designed a randomized double-blind randomized trial to examine the short and long-term effects of alternative approaches commonly used to manage menopause symptoms. Women were randomly assigned to: (1) black cohosh 160 mg daily; (2) multibotanical (50 mg black cohosh, alfalfa, chaste tree, dong quai, false unicorn, licorice, oats, pomegranate, Siberian ginseng, boron) four capsules daily; (3) multibotanical plus telephone counseling to increase dietary soy; (4) conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg +/- 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate; or (5) placebo. Working with a skilled CAM provider helped us choose interventions that reflected naturopathic practices worthy of study. Mass mailing, with careful tracking and rapid responses to recruitment rates, was an effective and cost-effective recruitment strategy. Creativity was necessary to construct methods for blinding capsules and the dietary soy intervention. Independent testing of herbal products was vital to confirming their constituents. The Data and Safety and Monitoring Committee, and project officers at the funding agency, were critical partners in designing responses to unanticipated Women's Health Initiative findings published during the HALT trial. Careful monitoring of adverse events may provide much needed information about side effects of herbal products and supplements. Despite inherent challenges, the study of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms is a rewarding and important area deserving of further inquiry. PMID:16186076

  5. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    PubMed Central

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  6. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results. PMID:25839871

  7. [Extraction and anti-tumor activity study of polysaccharide in several traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai-dan; Fang, Yan-xiong; Chen, Min-min; Huang, Jing-ping; Zhang, Kun

    2007-02-01

    Polysaccharides in Several traditional Chinese medicine compounds of Dioscorea bulbifera L, Dioscorea bulbifera L and Chinese Angelica compounds (3: 2 by mass ratio), Hedyotis diffusa Willd and Scutellrla barbata D. Don compounds (3: 2 by mass ratio) were extracted by ultrasound and the content of polysaccharides were determined by the colorimetry. Dioscorea bulbifera L and Chinese Angelica compounds contained the biggest polysaccharide, 16. 509%. All of these three kinds of polysaccharide had anti-tumor activity. The anti-tumor activity was Dioscorea bulbifera L and Chinese Angelica compounds > Hedyotis diffusa Willd and Scutellrla barbata D. Don compounds > Dioscorea bubifera L. PMID:17571768

  8. Peppermint

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chamomile, caraway, licorice, milk thistle, angelica, celandine, and lemon balm. Spasms caused by endoscopy. Research shows that ... specific combination of tea tree oil, peppermint, and lemon oil can improve breath smell when used for ...

  9. 75 FR 76396 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 47780 (August 9, 2010) (Preliminary Results). In the Preliminary Results, we invited... INFORMATION CONTACT: Patrick Edwards, Brian Davis, or Angelica Mendoza, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7,...

  10. 75 FR 17690 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Administrative Reviews, 74 FR 42875 (August 25, 2009). The current deadline for the preliminary results of this... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Patrick Edwards, Brian Davis, or Angelica Mendoza, AD/CVD...

  11. 78 FR 75332 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Electrical Steel from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 78 FR... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yasmin Nair at (202) 482-3813 or Angelica Mendoza at (202) 482-3019,...

  12. 76 FR 67146 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011). This review covers the... INFORMATION CONTACT: Edythe Artman or Angelica Mendoza, AD/ CVD Operations, Office 7, Import...

  13. 76 FR 56796 - In the Matter of Certain Devices for Improving Uniformity Used in a Backlight Module and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... section 337, and are the parties upon which the complaint is to be served: LG Corporation, LG Twin Towers, 20 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-721, South Korea; LG Electronics, Inc., LG Twin...

  14. Financial Exploitation FAQS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Risk factors and prevention strategies. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 33, 5-25.; Dong, X., Simon, M., Rajan, K., & Evans, D. A. (2011). Association of cognitive function and risk for elder abuse in a ...

  15. "Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would…

  16. 76 FR 1154 - Operating Industries, Inc., Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... & Supply, Inc., Air System Components, Inc. (fka Lau Industries, Inc.) and Ruskin Company, Lau Division...., Allan Aircraft Supply Co., LLC, Allegiance Corporation, Allen Telecom, Inc., Angelica Corporation... Corporation, Aviall, Inc., Axis Petroleum Company, B-J Management, Inc., Baker Hughes Incorporated,...

  17. 78 FR 65265 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Information: Final Rule, 78 FR 21246 (April 10, 2013), which modified two regulations related to AD and CVD... support from domestic producers (or workers) accounting for more than 50 percent of the total production..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yasmin Nair at (202) 482-3813 or Angelica Mendoza at (202)...

  18. "Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would

  19. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Order, 75 FR 60084 (September 29, 2010). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dena Crossland or Angelica...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010) (Notice of... Carboxymethylcellulose From the Netherlands; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR...

  20. 76 FR 55011 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Reviews, 76 FR 5137 (January 28, 2011). The current deadline for the preliminary results of this review is... Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This extension is issued and published in..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Drury or Angelica Mendoza, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  1. 76 FR 9542 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 2332 (January 13, 2011) (S4 from Mexico 2008-2009 Final Results). On... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). This clarification will apply to...: Patrick Edwards, Brian Davis, or Angelica Mendoza, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import...

  2. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese" (Maria Cecilia

  3. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of their breastfed infants. Conclusions The use of herbal medicines is common amongst breastfeeding women, while information supporting their safety and efficacy is lacking. This study has demonstrated the need for further research into commonly used herbal medicines. Evidence-based information should be available to breastfeeding women who wish to consider use of all medicines, including complementary medicines, to avoid unnecessary cessation of breastfeeding or compromising of pharmacotherapy. PMID:24219150

  4. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sim TF; Sherriff J; Hattingh HL; Parsons R; Tee LB

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research.METHODS: This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software.RESULTS: A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of their breastfed infants.CONCLUSIONS: The use of herbal medicines is common amongst breastfeeding women, while information supporting their safety and efficacy is lacking. This study has demonstrated the need for further research into commonly used herbal medicines. Evidence-based information should be available to breastfeeding women who wish to consider use of all medicines, including complementary medicines, to avoid unnecessary cessation of breastfeeding or compromising of pharmacotherapy.

  5. A Review of Potential Harmful Interactions between Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Lu, Ying-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Mahady, Gail B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions. Methodology and Findings Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric. Conclusions/Significance Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly used single entity CHMs. For those patients who are taking conventional anti-clotting medications with CHMs for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, the potential risks of increased bleeding due to drug-CHM interactions should not be ignored. PMID:23671711

  6. ANALYSIS OF A HEAT-FLUX DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY INSTRUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Porter, Wallace D

    2007-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to estimate the fractional latent heat release during phase changes. There are temperature lags inherent to the instruments due to the temperature measurement at a different location than that of the sample and reference materials. Recently, Dong and Hunt[1] showed that significant improvement in estimating the fractional latent heat can be obtained when detailed simulations of the heat transfer within the instrument are performed. The Netzsch DSC 404C instrument, with a high accuracy heat capacity sensor, is considered in this study. This instrument had a different configuration than that studied by Dong and Hunt[1]. The applicability of Dong and Hunt's approach to this instrument is investigated. It was found that the DSC instrument could be described by numerous parameters but that model parameters were difficult to estimate. Numerical simulation results are presented and compared with experimental results for the fractional latent heat of a commercial A356 aluminum alloy.

  7. Comment on "Acoustic chaos in a duct with two separate sound sources" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 120-126 (2001)].

    PubMed

    Castrejn-Pita, A A; Castrejn-Pita, J R; Huelsz, G; Sarmiento-Galn, A

    2008-11-01

    In a paper published in this journal in 2001 by Dong et al. [W. G. Dong, X. Y. Huang, and Q. L. Wo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 120-126 (2001)] it was claimed that acoustic chaos was obtained experimentally by the nonlinear interaction of two acoustic waves in a duct. In this comment a simple experimental setup and an analytical model is used to show that the dynamics of such systems corresponds to a quasiperiodic motion, and not to a chaotic one. PMID:19045755

  8. Cloning and Characterization of ifitm1 and ifitm3 Expression During Early Zebrafish Development - CORRIGENDUM.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei-Wei; Wang, Huan-Nan; Wang, Zhi-Meng; Qiu, Meng-Xi; Che, Jing; Deng, Feng-Jiao; Liu, Jiang-Dong

    2016-02-01

    The authors apologise for errors in the corresponding authors details given on page 1 of the article. Below is the correct information of the corresponding author and email address : 1) Wei-Wei Xue, Huan-Nan Wang, Zhi-Meng Wang, Meng-Xi Qiu, Jing Che, Feng-Jiao Deng* and Jiang-Dong Liu* 2) *All correspondence to: Feng-Jiao Deng and Jiang-Dong Liu. e-mail: fish4@whu.edu.cn 3) All authors are from the same one laboratory. The second laboratory was superfluous and should be deleted. PMID:26194805

  9. [Discussion on efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine "Zi-hua Qianhu" in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition)].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Hao, Jin-da; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the origin and application development of the traditional Chinese medicine " Zi-hua Qianhu" and " Qianhu", the medicinal literatures of past dynasties and modern researches were analysed. The plant Angelica decursivum was used as a substitute for traditional Chinese medicine "Angelica sinensis Radix" for a long historical period, it is used incorrectly for traditional Chinese medicine "Qianhu" due to origin research in modern times. The plant origin of "Qianhu" is Peucedanum praeruptorum. There are significant differences in clinical applications and chemical composition of the two drugs. The same efficacy description of "Zi-huaQianhu" and "Qianhu" could not stop "Zi-huaQianhu" used as "Qianhu" in practical application. Therefore, we need to further research for the plant A. decursivum, delimit its medicinal attribution. PMID:26591544

  10. Irritant contact dermatitis risk of common topical traditional chinese medicines used for skin-lightening: a pilot clinical trial with 30 volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kao-Sung; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Wu, Meng-Tse; Shen, Jui-Lung; Mao, Ming-Ya; Chen, Huey-Yi; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Topical traditional Chinese medicine- (TTCM-) related contact dermatitis is not uncommon but ignored. Patch and photopatch tests using 6 individual herbal ingredients and Bai-Zhi-Kao (BZK; ), a skin-lightening TTCM preparation, were conducted on 30 participants. Twenty-five subjects showed at least 1 positive reaction, including 6 (20.0%) participants who reacted to BZK. The majority reacted to Radix Ampelopsis japonica (Bai-Lian; ) (60.0%), whereas few reacted to Rhizoma Bletilla striata (Bai-Ji; ) (16.7%), Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae (Bai-Zhu; ) (10.0%), Radix Angelicae dahuricae (Bai-Zhi; ) (3.3%), and Herba asari (Xi-Xin; ) (3.3%). In the photopatch test, 3 participants (10.0%) reacted positively to BZK and 10 to ?1 constituent; however, all reacted to Radix Angelicae dahuricae (26.7%), Radix Ampelopsis japonica (13.3%), and Rhizoma Bletilla striata (3.3%). In contrast, no subjects showed positive reactions to Sclerotium Poria cocos (Bai-Fu-Ling; ). Thus, BZK and its constituents might present potential latent risk of contact dermatitis owing to the possible presence of Radix Ampelopsis japonica and Radix Angelicae dahuricae. Furthermore, TTCMs, particularly cosmetic products, must be used carefully, with ample warning of potential contact dermatitis risk. PMID:24817899

  11. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  12. New Horizons in Education, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This journal, written in English and Chinese, includes the following papers: "Values for Creativity: A Study among Undergraduates in Hong Kong and Guangzhou" (Xia Dong Yue and Kok Leung); "The Present Situation of Family Education at the Turn of the Century: An Investigation in Three South-Eastern Provinces in China" (Feng Luo); "Philosophers…

  13. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in

  14. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, Melissa, Ed.; Choi, Dong-Ik, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Papers in this volume include the following: "Evidence for Foot Structure in Hausa" (Ousseina Alidou); "Korean 'Tense' Consonants as Geminates" (Dong-Ik Choi); "Gemination Processes: Motivation, Form, and Constraints" (Mamadou Niang); "Syllable 'Sonority' Hierarchy and Pulaar Stress: A Metrical Approach" (Mamadou Niang); "On the Condition of…

  15. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  16. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  17. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  18. 75 FR 61246 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Pyongan-Pukto, North Korea (individual) . Entities GREEN PINE ASSOCIATED CORPORATION (a.k.a. CHONGSONG YONHAP; a.k.a. CH'O'NGSONG YO'NHAP), Nungrado, Pyongyang, Korea, North; c/o Reconnaissance General Bureau... KWP Government Building (Korean-- Ch'o'ngsa), Chungso'ng, Urban Town (Korean--Dong), Chung...

  19. Information Technology in Education and Training (IT@EDU98). Proceedings, Session 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The first session of IT@EDU98 consisted of four papers and was chaired by Dong Thi Bich Thuy (University of Natural Sciences, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Technology for Learning: The Present and Future in the United States" (Thomas Owens, Carolyn Cohen) focuses on how technology is changing learning, looks at the most promising opportunities as…

  20. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students

  1. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Catalogue of Tape Archive No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Inst. of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

    The aboriginal studies listed in this catalogue are indexed according to language/tribe and subject (linguistic studies, myths and stories, songs and dances, dongs and music, and speech). Entries are listed alphabetically under the depositor's name. Language/tribe headings are from the Institute's Preliminary Tribal Index. Summaries are brief but

  2. 76 FR 30360 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...), 182-16 147th Avenue, Jamaica, NY 11413. Officer: Kwang Y. Choi, President/Secretary/Director... Road, Suite, 1 Jamaica, NY 11434. Officer: Wei-Dong Lu, President/VP/Secretary/Treasurer (Qualifying... F1, Jamaica, NY 11434. Officers: James Kwok, Secretary (Qualifying Individual), Kit Hui,...

  3. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  4. Finding the missing code of RNA recognition by PUF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Pumilio and FBF homology (PUF) proteins represent highly promising candidates for engineering sequence-specific RNA recognition, but were only known to recognize G, A and U, significantly limiting applications. Two groups (Filipovska et al., 2011; Dong et al., 2011) have now reported the discovery of the cytosine-recognition code for PUF proteins. PMID:21802002

  5. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2000 Berdyshev EV, Schmid PC, Dong Z, & Schmid HH. Stress-induced generation of N- acylethanolamines in mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells. Biochem J 346 Pt 2: 369-74, 2000.  Abstract  Full Text    Borowski P, Resch K, Schmitz H, & Heiland M. A s

  6. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2008 Zheng D, Cho YY, Lau AT, Zhang J, Ma WY, Bode AM, & Dong Z. Cyclin-dependent kinase 3-mediated activating transcription factor 1 phosphorylation enhances cell transformation. Cancer Res 68(18): 7650-60, 2008. Abstract Full Text Lee KW,

  7. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 1998 Cmarik JL, Li Y, Ogram SA, Reeves R & Colburn NH. Tumor promoter induces high mobility group HMG-Y protein expression in transformation-sensitive but not resistant cells. Oncogene 16: 3387-3396, 1998.  Abstract  Dong Z, Huang C, Ma WY,

  8. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2001 Berdyshev EV, Schmid PC, Krebsbach RJ, Hillard CJ, Huang C, Chen N, Dong Z, Schmid HH. Cannabinoid-receptor-independent cell signaling by N-acylethanolamines. Biochem J 360: 67-75, 2001.  Abstract  Full Text    Chung JY, Park JO, Phyu

  9. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 1995 Chang PL, Yang WC, Prince CW. Effects of okadaic acid on calcitriol- and phorbol ester-induced expression and phosphorylation of osteopontin in mouse JB6 epidermal cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 760: 24-34, 1995.  Pub Med link    Dong Z, Lavro

  10. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  11. NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero.
    HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2
    1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  12. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show

  13. Are Modern Concepts of Complex Systems Science Useful for Earth Sciences? (Lewis Fry Richardson Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The application of methods of complex systems science has a rich tradition in Earth sciences and has enabled substantially new insights into various complex processes there. However, some approaches and findings have been controversially discussed over the last decades. One reason is that they are often basing on strong restrictions and their violation may lead to pitfalls and misinterpretations. Here, we discuss three general concepts of complex systems science: synchronization, recurrence and complex networks and explain that they are indeed useful for better understanding phenomena as recent and past monsoon or El Nino, to detect paleoclimate-variability transitions which are related to human evolution and to identify teleconnections. References Marwan, N., Romano, M., Thiel, M., Kurths, J., Physics Reports 438, 237-329 (2007). Arenas, A., Diaz-Guilera, A., Kurths, J., Moreno, Y., Zhou, C., Physics Reports 469, 93-153 (2008). Marwan, N., Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Donner, R. and Kurths, J., Phys. Lett. A 373, 4246 (2009). Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J. Europhys. Lett. 87, 48007 (2009). Donner, R., Zou, Y., Donges, J.F., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J., Phys. Rev. E 81, 015101(R) (2010). Mokhov, I. I., D. A. Smirnov, P. I. Nakonechny, S. S. Kozlenko, E. P. Seleznev, and J. Kurths, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L00F04 (2011). Donges, J., H. Schultz, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, J. Kurths, Eur. J. Phys. B 84, 635-651 (2011). Donges, J., R. Donner, M. Trauth, N. Marwan, H.J. Schellnhuber, and J. Kurths, PNAS 108, 20422-20427 (2011). Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Climate Dynamics 39, 971 (2012). Runge, J. , J. Heitzig, V. Petoukhov, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 258701 (2012). Menck, P., J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, J. Kurths, Nature Physics (2013).

  14. Temporal and spatial analysis of vegetation coverage changes in Ordos area based on time series GIMMS-NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruimei; Zou, Youfeng; Ma, Chao; Liu, Pei

    2014-11-01

    Ordos area is the desert-wind erosion desertification steppe transition zone and the complex ecological zone. As the research area, Ordos City has the similar natural geographic environment to ShenDong coalfield. To research its ecological patterns and natural evolution law, it has instructive to reveal temporal and spatial changes of ecological environment with artificial disturbance in western mining. In this paper, a time series of AVHRR-NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data was used to monitor the change of vegetation temporal and spatial dynamics from 1981 to 2006 in Ordos City and ShenDong coalfield, where were as the research area. The MVC (Maximum Value Composites) method, average operation, linear regression, and gradation for NDVI change trend were used to obtained some results, as follows: vegetation coverage had obvious characteristics with periodic change in research area for 26 years, and vegetation growth peak appeared on August, while the lowest appeared on January. The extreme values in Ordos City were 0.2351 and 0.1176, while they were 0.2657 and 0.1272 in ShenDong coalfield. The NDVI value fluctuation was a modest rise trend overall in research area. The extreme values were 0.3071 and 0.1861 in Ordos City, while they were 0.3454 and 0.1904 in ShenDong coalfield. In spatial distribution, slight improvement area and slight degradation area were accounting for 42.49% and 8.37% in Ordos City, while slight improvement area moderate improvement area were accounting for 70.59% and 29.41% in ShenDong coalfield. Above of results indicated there was less vegetation coverage in research area, which reflected the characteristics of fragile natural geographical environment. In addition, vegetation coverage was with a modest rise on the whole, which reflected the natural environment change.

  15. Determination of volatile flavor components in danggui cultivars by solvent free injection and hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, M R; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, I S; Shim, J H

    2006-05-26

    The rhizome of Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica sinensis Diels and Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Umbelliferae) were chopped and extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent free solid injector (SFSI) methods to obtain the volatile compounds that were then characterized and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SFSI extraction yielded a generally higher amount of volatile compounds than that produced by HD. A total of 48 components [including terpenes (8), aldehydes (4), alcohol (2), coumarins (9), Phthalide (3), acids (2) and sterols (2)] were identified by SFSI and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from the three species of danggui cultivars, whereas, 24-essential oil was obtained by HD for Korean danggui only. According to these analyses, several coumarin derivatives such as decursinol angelate (16.83%) and decursin (29.34%) were found to be the dominant ones, followed by lomatin (10.25%) and marmesin (9.33%) in Korean danggui. Furfural and butylidene phthalide were the main components in Japanese in addition to butylidene dihydro-phthalide in Chinese danggui. Some parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as injector temperature, injection time and pre-heating time were optimized. The results showed that the SFSI-method gave a higher yield of components with higher molecular mass than hydrodistillation. SFSI required little time to prepare the sample, little sample mass and a small quantity of organic solvent was needed. It can be concluded that analysis of volatile flavor compounds by SFSI in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is a suitable monitoring technique to differentiate danggui cultivars. PMID:16620859

  16. Radio Non-Detection of ASASSN-15lh = SN2015L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kool, E. C.; Ryder, S. D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Romero-Canizales, C.; Prieto, J. L.; Kotak, R.

    2015-12-01

    ASASSN-15lh (=SN 2015L; CBET #4120) appears to be the most luminous SN yet found (ATel #7642, #7774; Dong et al. 2015, arXiv:1507.03010). We observed SN 2015L with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 5.5 and 9 GHz, on 2015 November 21.1 UT. No radio emission was detected at the supernova location, to a 3-sigma upper limit of 23 microJy at 5.5 GHz and 21 microJy at 9 GHz. Based on a luminosity distance of 1171 Mpc (Dong et al. 2015) these correspond to luminosity upper limits of 3.8E28 and 3.4E28 erg/s/Hz, respectively.

  17. Pseudo-feathery dunes in the Kumtagh desert reclassified as linear dunes and zibars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Ting; Sun, Qing-Feng; Ren, Xiao-Zong; Wang, Tao; Chen, Fa-Hu

    Dunes with apparent feathery patterns are common in the harsh and inaccessible Kumtagh desert in China. A recent paper by Dong et al. [Dong, Z., Qu, J., Wang, X., Qian, G., Luo, W., Wei, Z., 2008. Pseudo-feathery dunes in the Kumtagh desert. Geomorphology 100, 328-334] argued that the dunes are pseudo-feathery dunes with the different forms (linear versus marginal feather vanes) being related to grain composition differences. Field studies in the region and sedimentological analyses revealed that the dune 'feathers' are created by dunes of different heights, rather than by differences in material composition. The dunes are, in fact, linear dunes and zibars corresponding with the rachises and vanes, respectively, and appearing as feathery patterns in aerial photographs and satellite images.

  18. Ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Joint Russian-Vietnamese Biological Expedition (October 2013-April 2014).

    PubMed

    Niedba?a, Wojciech; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2014-01-01

    An annotated checklist of ptyctimous mite taxa, collected from the Joint Russian-Vietnamese Biological expedition (October 2013-April 2014) in four forest zones (Dong Nai Biosphere Reserve, Dong Nai Culture and Nature Reserve, Bu Gia Map National Park, Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Park) is provided. It includes 28 species, 16 genera and six families. One new subgenus, Euphthiracarus (Parapocsia) Niedba?a subgen. nov., and five new species, Acrotritia paragranulata Niedba?a sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus clavatus Niedba?a sp. nov., Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) spinus Niedba?a sp. nov., Euphthiracarus (Euphthiracarus) quasitakahashii Niedba?a sp. nov. and Euphthiracarus (Parapocsia) medius Niedba?a sp. nov., are described. Supplementary descriptions of Apoplophora minuscula Niedba?a, 2013 (see Niedba?a & Ermilov 2013), Arphthicarus parasentus Niedba?a, 2000 and Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) stilifer (Hammer, 1961) are presented. PMID:25543774

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Buyang Huanwu decoction on cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qingchun; Liu, Pengfei; Hu, Xitong; Gao, Haijun; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-09-01

    Among the various treatment methods for stroke, increasing attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicines. Buyang Huanwu decoction is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of stroke. This paper summarizes the active components of the Chinese herb, which is composed of Huangqi (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari), Danggui (Radix Angelica sinensis), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Honghua (Flos Carthami), Taoren (Semen Persicae) and Dilong (Pheretima), and identifies the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanisms that contribute to the neuroprotective properties of Buyang Huanwu decoction. PMID:25368650

  20. Identification of the plant origin of propolis from Jeju Island, Korea, by observation of honeybee behavior and phytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Inui, Saori; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kurosawa, Miho; Nakamura, Jun; Choi, Su-Jin; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Propolis collected on Jeju Island, Korea, contains characteristic components not present in propolis from other regions. Hence, the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island can be expected to be a novel plant. To identify the plant origin of this propolis, first we observed honeybee behavior, and found them collecting the resin from Angelica keiskei. Then comparative analyses of chemical and biological properties of the resin from the plant and propolis from hives of nearby apiaries were performed. Alcoholic extracts showed entirely identical HPLC profiles and closely similar antioxidant activities. These results indicate that A. keiskei is the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island, Korea. PMID:23132582

  1. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  2. Neuroprotective effects of Buyang Huanwu decoction on cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal damage

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Qingchun; Liu, Pengfei; Hu, Xitong; Gao, Haijun; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Among the various treatment methods for stroke, increasing attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicines. Buyang Huanwu decoction is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of stroke. This paper summarizes the active components of the Chinese herb, which is composed of Huangqi (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari), Danggui (Radix Angelica sinensis), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Honghua (Flos Carthami), Taoren (Semen Persicae) and Dilong (Pheretima), and identifies the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanisms that contribute to the neuroprotective properties of Buyang Huanwu decoction. PMID:25368650

  3. Biological properties and molecular targets of umbelliprenin--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    7-Prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites found mainly in plants belonging to the families Rutaceae and Apiaceae. Auraptene, umbelliprenin (UM), and 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin are some examples of prenylated coumarins. UM occurs in various edible plant species including celery, coriander, angelica, lemon, and particularly, Ferula species. Although UM was isolated more than 50 years ago, its biological activities have been studied since the last two decades. Besides anticancer activities, biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antileishmanial activities have been reported from this natural compound. The present mini-review deals with the biological activities and mechanism of actions reported for UM. PMID:24852499

  4. Bulk-Boundary Duality, Gauge Invariance, and Quantum Error Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintun, Eric; Polchinski, Joseph; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    Recently, Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow have argued that the localization of bulk information in a boundary dual should be understood in terms of quantum error correction. We show that this structure appears naturally when the gauge invariance of the boundary theory is incorporated. This provides a new understanding of the nonuniqueness of the bulk fields (precursors). It suggests a close connection between gauge invariance and the emergence of spacetime.

  5. High grain, low noise organic and nanoelectronic photodetectors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    The dramatically reduction of cost of photodetectors without comprising their performance will enable new applications in many fields. In this talk, I will brief our progress in the development of sensitive photodetectors/photon counters using low-cost solution processable organic and nano-electronic materials. Four types of device structures will be compared in terms of device gain, noise, sensitivity, response speed and linear dynamic range: 1) traditional diode structure, 2) a structure combine the photodiode and photoconductor through the interface trap triggered secondary charge injection, 3) an organic phototransistor that has combined photoconductive gain and photovoltaic gain, and 4) quantum dots modulated transistor channel conductance. Broad response spectrum from UV to NIR will be demonstrated, and active material limited performance will be discussed. Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Super-Float-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor as Un-cooled Ultraviolet and Infrared Photon Counter Yongbo Yuan, Qingfeng Dong, Bin Yang, Fawen Guo, Qi Zhang, Ming Han, and Jinsong Huang*, Scientific Reports, 3, 2707 (2013) A nanocomposite ultraviolet photodetector enabled by interfacial trap-controlled charge injection Fawen Guo, Bin Yang, Yongbo Yuan, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong, Yu Bi, and Jinsong Huang*, Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 798-802, (2012) Large Gain, Low Noise Nanocomposite Ultraviolet Photodetectors with a Linear Dynamic Range of 120 dB Yanjun Fang, Fawen Guo,Zhengguo Xiao, Jinsong Huang*, Advanced Optical Materials, 348-353 (2014) High Gain and Low-Driving-Voltage Photodetectors Based on Organolead Triiodide Perovskites Rui Dong, Yanjun Fang, Jungseok Chae, Jun Dai, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong,Yongbo Yuan, Andrea Centrone,Xiao Cheng Zeng , Jinsong Huang*. ,Advanced Materials, 2015

  6. Bulk-Boundary Duality, Gauge Invariance, and Quantum Error Corrections.

    PubMed

    Mintun, Eric; Polchinski, Joseph; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    Recently, Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow have argued that the localization of bulk information in a boundary dual should be understood in terms of quantum error correction. We show that this structure appears naturally when the gauge invariance of the boundary theory is incorporated. This provides a new understanding of the nonuniqueness of the bulk fields (precursors). It suggests a close connection between gauge invariance and the emergence of spacetime. PMID:26550715

  7. Building neural choice points for love and war.

    PubMed

    Simerly, Richard

    2005-05-19

    The molecular specification of central circuits that coordinate expression of innate behaviors in response to specific sensory cues from the environment remains a puzzle. In this issue of Neuron, Choi, Dong, and colleagues used expression profiling and genetic axonal tracing to visualize a hypothalamic point of convergence for defensive and reproductive olfactory cues that may function as a gating mechanism for sensory activation of defensive responses over reproduction. PMID:15944120

  8. [Analysis on formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-guang; Tang, Shi-huan; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Fan-yun

    2014-11-01

    In this article we built formula database of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (V2.0). And on this basis, use data mining method such as association rules of the software, to analyze commonly used formula raw materials or materials combination of formula containing Gardeniae Fructus and raw material application having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury. The result shows that of the 71 health food formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus, most used materials are Gardeniae Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Angelica Sinensis Radix, Poria and so on. Commonly used materials combination mostly are Gardeniae Fructus and Lycii Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus and Angelica Sinensis Radix, Gardeniae Fructus and Poria, Gardeniae Fructus and Paeonia. There are nearly 18 healthcare functions of the health food containing Gardeniae Fructus, and most of these are assisted functions to protect chemical liver injury, and then immune modulating function. Of 23 formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury, Gardeniae Fructus usually combined with traditional Chinese medicine which nourishs blood and liver such as Pueraria, Lycii Fructus, Hawthorn, Paeonia and Turnjujube. Analyzing formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus contributes a lot to the further development and utilization. PMID:25850287

  9. A combinational effect of acetaminophen and oriental herbs on the regulation of inflammatory mediators in microglia cell line, BV2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemin; Bae, Seyeon; Kwon, Kil-Young; Hwang, Young-il; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of Western medicine that is commonly used for pain relief is well-known. However, very little is known for oriental herbs, and even less is known for mixture of the two. We investigated the combinational effect of 3 kinds of oriental herbs, usually used for the control of headache, and acetaminophen to relieve headache in microglia cell line, BV2. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced to produce nitrite and increased the expression of inflammation-related factors like inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine microglia cell line, BV2. Oriental herbs such as Angelica tenuissima, Angelica dahurica, and Scutellaria baicalensis reduced the production of nitric oxide and the expression of COX-2. Moreover, a treatment of acetaminophen combined with oriental herbs was more decreased the COX-2 expression, and its product, prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 cells. Therefore, a combined treatment of oriental herbs such as A. tenuissima, A. dahurica, and S. baicalensis and Western medicine like acetaminophen has a synergistic effect on the decrease of LPS-induced inflammation in microglia. PMID:26770874

  10. A combinational effect of acetaminophen and oriental herbs on the regulation of inflammatory mediators in microglia cell line, BV2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemin; Bae, Seyeon; Kwon, Kil-Young; Hwang, Young-Il; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism of Western medicine that is commonly used for pain relief is well-known. However, very little is known for oriental herbs, and even less is known for mixture of the two. We investigated the combinational effect of 3 kinds of oriental herbs, usually used for the control of headache, and acetaminophen to relieve headache in microglia cell line, BV2. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced to produce nitrite and increased the expression of inflammation-related factors like inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine microglia cell line, BV2. Oriental herbs such as Angelica tenuissima, Angelica dahurica, and Scutellaria baicalensis reduced the production of nitric oxide and the expression of COX-2. Moreover, a treatment of acetaminophen combined with oriental herbs was more decreased the COX-2 expression, and its product, prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 cells. Therefore, a combined treatment of oriental herbs such as A. tenuissima, A. dahurica, and S. baicalensis and Western medicine like acetaminophen has a synergistic effect on the decrease of LPS-induced inflammation in microglia. PMID:26770874

  11. Exploring supervised neighborhood preserving embedding (SNPE) as a nonlinear feature extraction method for vibrational spectroscopic discrimination of agricultural samples according to geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanguk; Hwang, Jinyoung; Lee, Hyeseon; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-11-01

    Supervised neighborhood preserving embedding (SNPE), a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method, was employed to represent near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectral features of agricultural samples (Angelica gigas, sesame, and red pepper), and the newly constructed variables were used to discriminate their geographical origins. This study was done to evaluate the potential of SNPE for recognizing minute spectral differences between classes by preserving local relationships, in comparison with widely adopted linear feature representation methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). For this purpose, diffuse reflectance NIR spectral datasets of Angelica gigas, sesame, and red pepper, and a Raman spectral dataset of the same red pepper were prepared. The spectra were represented into new variables in reduced dimensions by PCA, PLS, neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE), and SNPE, and the represented variables were used to determine the geographical origins of samples by using the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and support vector machine (SVM). The combination of SNPE and SVM differentiated the geographical origins with improved accuracy. Overall results demonstrate that SNPE is a valuable alternative feature representation method, especially when complex and highly overlapping vibrational spectra are used for analysis. PMID:26452914

  12. Fluorine in fragrances: exploring the difluoromethylene (CF2) group as a conformational constraint in macrocyclic musk lactones.

    PubMed

    Corr, Michael J; Cormanich, Rodrigo A; von Hahmann, Cortney N; Bhl, Michael; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2016-01-01

    The CF2 group is incorporated into specific positions within the lactone ring of the natural musk lactone, (12R)-(+)-12-methyl-13-tridecanolide, a constituent of Angelica root oil, Angelica archangelica L. The approach is taken as it was anticipated that CF2 groups would dictate corner locations in the macrocycle and limit the conformational space available to the lactone. Three fluorine containing lactones are prepared by organic synthesis. One (8) has CF2 groups located at the C-6 and C-9 positions, another (9) with CF2 groups at the C-5 and C-9 positions, and a third (10) with a CF2 group at C-8. Two of the fluorine containing lactones (8 and 10) were sufficiently crystalline to obtain X-ray crystal structures which revealed that the CF2 groups do adopt corner locations. All three lactones were subject to computational analysis at the B3LYP-D3/6-311+G** level to assess the relative energies of different conformers. In all cases, the global minima and most of the lowest energy minima have squared/rectangular geometries and located the CF2 groups at the corners. The lowest energy structures for 8 and 10 closely approximated the observed X-ray structures, suggesting good convergence of theory and experiment in determining relevant low energy conformations. All three compounds retained a pleasant odour suggesting the rings retained sufficient conformational flexibility to access relevant olfactory conformations. PMID:26584449

  13. Auraptenol attenuates vincristine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfei; Cao, Shu-e; Tian, Jianmin; Liu, Guozhe; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Pingfa

    2013-01-01

    Common chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine often cause neuropathic pain during cancer treatment in patients. Such neuropathic pain is refractory to common analgesics and represents a challenging clinical issue. Angelicae dahuricae radix is an old traditional Chinese medicine with demonstrated analgesic efficacy in humans. However, the active component(s) that attribute to the analgesic action have not been identified. This work described the anti-hyperalgesic effect of one coumarin component, auraptenol, in a mouse model of chemotherapeutic agent vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. We reported that auraptenol dose-dependently reverted the mechanical hyperalgesia in mice within the dose range of 0.05–0.8 mg/kg. In addition, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of auraptenol was significantly blocked by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). Within the dose range studied, auraptenol did not significantly alter the general locomotor activity in mice. Taken together, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust analgesic efficacy in mice. These data support further studies to assess the potential of auraptenol as a novel analgesic for the management of neuropathic pain. PMID:24287473

  14. Antidepressant-like effects of auraptenol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosu; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Cai-Yi; Du, Chenchen; Shen, Lihua; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Jiansheng; Liu, Chunfeng; Ke, Kaifu

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a major psychiatric disorder affecting nearly 21% of the world population and imposes a substantial health burden on society. Current available antidepressants are not adequate to meet the clinical needs. Here we report that auraptenol, an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine, angelicae dahuricae radix, had antidepressant-like effects in mice models of depression. In mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test, two validated models of depression, auraptenol dose-dependently decreased the immobility duration within the dose range of 0.05–0.4 mg/kg. In addition, the antidepressant-like effects of auraptenol was significantly averted by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg). These doses that affected the immobile response did not affect locomotor activity. In summary, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust antidepressant-like efficacy in mice. These data support further exploration for the possibility of developing auraptenol as a novel antidepressant agent in the treatment of major depression disorders. PMID:24658501

  15. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea. PMID:26457698

  16. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

  17. Internal Wave Study in the South China Sea Using SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-Kuang; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the internal wave distribution maps in the China Seas have been compiled from hundreds of ERS-1/2, RADARSAT, and Space Shuttle SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images from 1993 to 1999. Based on internal wave distribution map, most of internal waves in the northeast part of South China Sea were propagating westward. The wave crest can be as long as 200 km with amplitude of 100 m due to strong current from the Kuroshio branching out into the South China Sea. Based on the observations from drilling rigs near DongSha Island by Amoco Production Co., the solitons may be generated in a 4 km wide channel between Batan and Sabtang islands in Luzon Strait. The proposed generation mechanism is similar to the lee wave formation from a shallow topography. Both depression and elevation internal waves have been observed in the same RADARSAT ScanSAR image on May 4, 1998 near DongSha Island. Furthermore, depression and elevation internal waves have also been observed by SAR at the same location on the shelf in April and June, 1993 (in different seasons) respectively. Numerical models have been used to interpret their generation mechanism and evolution processes. Based on the SAR images, near DongSha Island, the westward propagating huge internal solitons are often encountered and diffracted/broken by the coral reefs on the shelf. After passing the island, the diffracted waves will re-merge or interact with each other. It has been observed that after the nonlinear wave-wave interaction, the phase of wave packet is shifted and wavelength is also changed. Examples of mesoscale features observed in SAR images, such as fronts, raincells, bathymetry, ship wakes, and oil spills will be presented. Recent mooring measurements in April 1999 near Dongsha Island, future field test ASIAEX (Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment) planned for April 2001, and some pretest survey data will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Petroleum Generation and Migration in the Song Hong Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Byeong-Kook; Thi Nguyen, Hong; Park, Mee-Sook

    2014-05-01

    The numerical modeling of petroleum systems is an effective tool to understand generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin and hence to determine future targets for the hydrocarbon exploration. The numerical modeling identifies two petroleum systems in the Song Hong Basin, which is a petroliferous Cenozoic basin, offshore eastern Vietnam. These petroleum systems were named DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System and SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System. DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System covers northern and central parts of the Song Hong basin with Oligocene shale and coaly shale source rocks of Dinh Cao formation, which are dominated by type II-III kerogens. The hydrocarbon generation starts at 13 Ma within deeply buried Oligocene strata located in the centre of the basin. The hydrocarbon expels from the Oligocene source rock and migrates laterally and then up dip toward marginal areas where Middle Miocene sandstones of Phu Cu formation are present as major reservoirs. The numerical model shows that the critical moment occurs at about 3.5 Ma. The DinhCao-PhuCu(.) petroleum system is confirmed by sparse occurrence of oil and gas along the coast of eastern Vietnam. SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is identified in limited areas of the central and southern Song Hong basin. The major source rock of this petroleum system is Lower Miocene dark claystones of Song Huong formation which contain gas prone, type III kerogen. The migration model shows that hydrocarbons are generated from the Miocene source rocks in the center of the basin at about 12 Ma, and migrates updip through sand bodies of Quang Ngai formation to the major boundaries faults, and further moves into highly permeable up-dipping units, the Bien Dong formation. The best depiction of the generation-migration-accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs at about 2 Ma. The presence of the SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is indicated by the large gas fields in the central and southern Song Hong Basin.

  19. Network of Networks and the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Jrgen; Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Donges, Jonathan; Donner, Reik; Malik, Nishant; Marwan, Norbert; Stolbova, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    Network of networks is a new direction in complex systems science. One can find such networks in various fields, such as infrastructure (power grids etc.), human brain or Earth system. Basic properties and new characteristics, such as cross-degree, or cross-betweenness will be discussed. This allows us to quantify the structural role of single vertices or whole sub-networks with respect to the interaction of a pair of subnetworks on local, mesoscopic, and global topological scales. Next, we consider an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This technique is then applied to 3-dimensional data of the climate system. We interpret different heights in the atmosphere as different networks and the whole as a network of networks. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. This concept is applied to Indian Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of strong rain events and its impact on predictability. References: Arenas, A., A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Kurths, Y. Moreno, and C. Zhou, Phys. Reports 2008, 469, 93. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europhys. Lett. 2009, 87, 48007. Donner, R., Y. Zou, J. Donges, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 2010, 81, 015101(R ). Mokhov, I. I., D. A. Smirnov, P. I. Nakonechny, S. S. Kozlenko, E. P. Seleznev, and J. Kurths, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L00F04. Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Climate Dynamics, 2012, 39, 971. Donges, J., H. Schultz, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, J. Kurths, Eur. J. Phys. B 2011, 84, 635-651. Donges, J., R. Donner, M. Trauth, N. Marwan, H.J. Schellnhuber, and J. Kurths, PNAS 2011, 108, 20422-20427. Runge, J. , J. Heitzig, V. Petoukhov, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 108, 258701.

  20. The Israeli initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfsthal, J.B. )

    1993-09-01

    North Korea has begun testing a new 1,000-kilometer-range missile called the No Dong. The missile appears to be nearing production and North Korea appears to be close to selling it to Iran. This article describes Israel's intentions to prevent North Korea from exporting missiles through negotiations. Obstacles to an Israeli-North Korean agreement are discussed and are compared with the Israeli-Chinese agreement concerning missile sales. A review of Israel's attempts to date to negotiate with North Korea over proliferation is included in the article.

  1. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  2. A Second Law for higher curvature gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2015-10-01

    The Second Law of black hole thermodynamics is shown to hold for arbitrarily complicated theories of higher curvature gravity, so long as we allow only linearized perturbations to stationary black holes. Some ambiguities in Wald’s Noether charge method are resolved. The increasing quantity turns out to be the same as the holographic entanglement entropy calculated by Dong. It is suggested that only the linearization of the higher curvature Second Law is important, when consistently truncating a UV-complete quantum gravity theory.

  3. Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Park, Young Sook; Lee, Eun Ok; Yun, Soon Nyung

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests from a feminist perspective. Twenty Korean women working in Dong-Dae-Moon Market in Seoul, South Korea were recruited using a convenience sampling method. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guideline that was developed for the study. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. The themes emerged from the analysis process included: "importance of breasts to women", "fearful, but not related to me", "bad previous experience", and "no need for a breast exam." Based on the findings, implications for nursing practice are proposed. PMID:15240081

  4. Correction to "Concurrent Adaptation of Human and Machine Improves Simultaneous and Proportional Myoelectric Control".

    PubMed

    Hahne, Janne M; Dahne, Sven; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Muller, Klaus-Robert; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-11-01

    In the above-named work [ibid., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 618-627, Jul. 2015], the affiliation for Klaus-Robert Mueller should have appeared as follows: K-R. Mueller is with the Machine Learning Laboratory, Berlin Institute of Technology, D-10587 Berlin, Germany, and also with the Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN), D-10587 Berlin, Germany, and also with the Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea; (e-mail: klaus-robert.mueller@tu-berlin.de). PMID:26560083

  5. Experimental demonstration of laser to x-ray conversion enhancements with low density gold targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shang, Wanli; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Zhichao; Deng, Bo; Dong, Yunsong; Zhu, Tuo; Huang, Chengwu; Zhan, Xiayu; Mei, Yu; et al

    2016-02-12

    The enhancement of laser to x-ray conversion efficiencies using low density gold targets [W. L. Shang, J. M. Yang, and Y. S. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 094105 (2013)] is demonstrated. Laser to x-ray conversion efficiencies with 6.3% and 12% increases are achieved with target densities of 1 and 0.25 g/cm3, when compared with that of a solid gold target (19.3 g/cm3). Experimental data and numerical simulations are in good agreement. Lastly, the enhancement is caused by larger x-ray emission zone lengths formed in low density targets, which is in agreement with the simulation results.

  6. Reports on Astronomy 2006-2009 (IAU XXVIIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel A.

    2009-04-01

    Preface; Division I. Fundamental Astronomy Jan Vondrk; Division II. Sun and Heliosphere Donald B. Melrose; Division III. Planetary Systems Sciences Edward L. G. Bowell; Division IV. Stars Monique Spite; Division V. Variable Stars Alvaro Gimnez; Division VI. Interstellar Matter Thomas J. Miller; Division VII. Galactic System Ortwin Gerhard; Division VIII. Galaxies and the Universe Sadanori Okamura; Division IX. Optical and Infrared Techniques Andreas Quirrenbach; Division X. Radio Astronomy Ren-Dong Nan; Division XI. Space and High-Energy Astrophysics Gnther Hasinger; Division XII. Union-wide Activities Malcolm G. Smith; EC Service. Press Office Lars Lindberg Christensen; Author index.

  7. Reports on Astronomy 2006-2009 (IAU XXVIIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel A.

    2009-04-01

    Preface; Division I. Fundamental Astronomy Jan Vondrák; Division II. Sun and Heliosphere Donald B. Melrose; Division III. Planetary Systems Sciences Edward L. G. Bowell; Division IV. Stars Monique Spite; Division V. Variable Stars Alvaro Giménez; Division VI. Interstellar Matter Thomas J. Miller; Division VII. Galactic System Ortwin Gerhard; Division VIII. Galaxies and the Universe Sadanori Okamura; Division IX. Optical and Infrared Techniques Andreas Quirrenbach; Division X. Radio Astronomy Ren-Dong Nan; Division XI. Space and High-Energy Astrophysics Günther Hasinger; Division XII. Union-wide Activities Malcolm G. Smith; EC Service. Press Office Lars Lindberg Christensen; Author index.

  8. Anti-acne effects of Oriental herb extracts: a novel screening method to select anti-acne agents.

    PubMed

    Nam, C; Kim, S; Sim, Y; Chang, I

    2003-01-01

    The acne-therapeutic effects of Oriental herb extracts were investigated in terms of antichemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear leucocytes, antilipogenic actions, antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and resistance induction potency in the bacteria. The ethanol extract (0.01%) of Angelica dahurica markedly suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis, comparable to the effect of erythromycin (0.01%), whereas a strong antilipogenic effect was obtained with rhizoma coptidis (Coptis chinensis) extract (0.01%), leading to a higher efficacy than that of retinoic acid (0.01%). Interestingly, only Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a remarkable antibacterial activity against P. acnes, resulting in negligible induction of resistance, in comparison with a marked development of resistance in the bacteria treated with erythromycin. We suggest that an appropriate formulation containing A. dahurica, rhizoma coptidis and G. glabra could be helpful for the prevention and treatment of acne lesions. PMID:12637783

  9. Isolation and identification of male medfly attractive components inLitchi chinensis stems andFicus spp. stem exudates.

    PubMed

    Warthen, J D; McInnis, D O

    1989-06-01

    Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male Mediterranean fruit flies [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), (Diptera: Tephritidae)] to a stem extract of a host plant,Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae), and to milky exudates from stems of nonhost plants,Ficus retusa L. andF. benjamina L. (Moraceae), were attributed to the presence of the sesquiterpene ?-copaene. The presence of ?-copaene in the milky exudate from stems ofF. benghalensis L. is also suggested as eliciting similar behavioral responses in male medflies. The presence of minor quantities of ?-ylangene in the plants and its contributory effects to the behavioral response of male medflies is discussed. Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male medflies to equal amounts of ?-ylangene-free ?-copaene samples (94.5%+), prepared from ?-copaene-enriched angelica seed oil and copaiba oil, respectively, showed no difference in intensity of response. ?-Ylangene elicited a slightly less intense response for male medflies than ?-copaene. PMID:24272193

  10. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID:17486680

  11. Recent advances in studies on traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica.

    PubMed

    Chen, K; Li, C

    1993-09-01

    Presented in this paper is a report of our studies on 386 traditional effective anti-aging medications, the effects of which on cell generation, survival time, immunomodulation, improvement of visceral and metabolic functions, and anti-infection, and their trace element contents were further summarized and analysed. This suggests that the investigations of traditional anti-aging materia medica in China are now well under way and some effective drugs and compound prescriptions have been explored, such as Ginseng, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Herba Epimedii, Cordyceps, Ganoderma Lucidum seu Japonicum, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi, Rhizoma Polygonati, Fructus Lycii, and Poria. However, all of these preliminary results remain to be further investigated. PMID:8246603

  12. [Exploration into rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Dan-ni; Chen, Wen-yu; Xiao, Ying

    2010-03-01

    In order to explore the rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility, the study was carried out by searching relative primary documents from databases and 26 articles (dealing with 5865 cases) were screened out. Excel was used to perform the frequency analysis on the Western drugs and 27 Chinese recipes emerging in the documents separately. It was discovered that the combined use of Chinese and Western medicines has its superiority. Low dose glucocorticoids together with vitamine is the main Western treatment used, and dexamethasone is the most frequently used preparation of glucocorticoids. Among the 72 Chinese drugs presented in the 27 Chinese recipes, 13 appeared for more than 1800 times, they were Angelica sinensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Radix Astragali, Poria, Carthamus tinctorius, Phellodendron amurense, Scutellaria baicalensis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cuscuta chinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Glycyrrhiza. PMID:20535936

  13. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. PMID:25467854

  14. Osthole: A Review on Its Bioactivities, Pharmacological Properties, and Potential as Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-Rong; Leung, Wing Nang; Cheung, Ho Yee; Chan, Chun Wai

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest understanding of biological and pharmacological properties of osthole (7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one), a natural product found in several medicinal plants such as Cnidium monnieri and Angelica pubescens. In vitro and in vivo experimental results have revealed that osthole demonstrates multiple pharmacological actions including neuroprotective, osteogenic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, and antimicrobial activities. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies showed osthole uptake and utilization are fast and efficient in body. Moreover, the mechanisms of multiple pharmacological activities of osthole are very likely related to the modulatory effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cGMP) level, though some mechanisms remain unclear. This review aims to summarize the pharmacological properties of osthole and give an overview of the underlying mechanisms, which showcase its potential as a multitarget alternative medicine. PMID:26246843

  15. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ?2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. PMID:25022682

  16. Protection of Chinese herbs against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yanqing; Han, Bing; Guo, Hongyang; Liu, Yanru

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Rats in group A (n = 10), B (n = 10) and C (n = 10) were fed a standard laboratory chow and allowed tap water ad libitum. In group B and C, renal failure was induced by the administration of a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 28 days which began at day 0. Rats in group C were given Chinese herbs (40 ml/kg with drug concentration 1.75 g/ml) beginning at day 0. Urine albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were determined at days 0, 14 and 28. At day 28, the animals were killed and their kidneys removed for light microscope evaluation. Body weight in Group B decreased more significantly than that in Group C (p = 0.032) at day 28. The rats in group B demonstrated more severe proteinuria and higher Serum creatinine and BUN levels than group C at day 14 and day 28 (P < 0.05, 0.01). All rats given adenine developed marked structural renal damage involving the tubule and interstitium. The values were much less severe in group C than those in group B. In adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats, the protective effects of these Chinese herbs were of a significant nature. Our results do support the notion that these Chinese herbs are useful in deferring the advance of chronic renal failure. We recommend Chinese herbs as a beneficial treatment for pre-end stage chronic renal failure. PMID:21731165

  17. [A medieval herbal from the 14th century, a new version of the Latin Macer?].

    PubMed

    Mauch, Ute

    2006-01-01

    A medical compendium of "Melleus liquorphysicae artis" has survived under the name Alexander Hispanus; it is in codex Ms. 8769 of the Biblioteca nacional in Madrid. Therein a herbal from the 14th century is integrated. However, today people must think that we have one herbal and two authors: Alexander Hispanus and Henrik Harpestraeng (died 1244), a physician from Scandinavia. First of all, the parts of the medical compendium are presented. We do not know which parts originally belong to the medical compendium. The examination of many handwritings suggested that the discourses about consumption and dropsy were not originally included in the compendium; that seems certain. Further it was shown that probably Alexander Hispanus did not live after all and we must see him as a fictional person. Nevertheless we should not automatically regard Henrik Harpestraeng as the author of the herbal although it contains typical plants of the North like Angelica. The oldest codex of the herbal was probably written in Bavaria or Austria because it contains old Bavarian words. This handwriting can be seen as a piece of evidence that the knowledge about Angelica was spreading from the South. We should explore the connection with handwritings of the Macer, too. The herbal could be a Latin version of the Macer, in which the original verses are abandoned. An analysis of the medical plants made it clear that the herbal is probably directed to a male readership. Especially the chapter on Galganum elucidates that. In the 14th century Galganum was thought to have a contraceptive effect, but this was kept secret from women! All in all the structure of the herbal suggests a use as a kind of reference book that was not used daily though. PMID:17451114

  18. [The history of Korean traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Kee, C K

    1999-01-01

    Records of ethnic medicine in the Kokuryo, Baekjae and Shilla dynasties can be found in foreign literature, and evidence that a medicine unique to Korean was being developed in the Koryo dynasty can be found in Korean historical records. With the founding of Chosun, Hyang-yak medicine was established, and a medicine purely and uniquely Korean took root. The Chosun dynasty saw the development of a new form of medicine called Dong-Ui medicine, and an independent system emphasizing practicality was established as the new tradition of Korean medicine. Korean medicine continued in the Chosun dynasty without significant changes from the Koryo dynasty. However, tides of enlightenment brought Western medicine onto the shores of the Korean peninsula. Western medicine began to gain the recognition and trust of part of the royal court. Nonetheless, ordinary people still preferred Dong-Ui, Korean medicine, and they did not have a full understanding of Western medicine. As Chosun began to adopt enlightenment policies in the footsteps of Japan through the Kabo (1894) Revolution, Japan drove the Ching rulers out of the Korean peninsula and openly started interfering in Chosun's internal affairs. After repelling Russia, Japan's intervention in the Korean peninsula became even more aggressive, taking over Chosun's politics, diplomacy and military. Its encroachment on Chosun's sovereignty was at times even more cruel than during Japan's Meiji period. PMID:11624460

  19. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS).

    PubMed

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Tue, Ngo T; Bryant, Juliet E; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V; Hoa, Ngo T; An, Nguyen N; Hien, Vo B; Lao, Pham V; Tu, Nguyen C; Chuyen, Nguyen K; Chuc, Nguyen T K; Tan, Dinh V; Duong, Hoang Van V; Toan, Tran K; Chi, Nguyen T Y; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based 'high-risk sentinel cohort' (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks. PMID:26659094

  20. A comparative study of insertion/deletion polymorphisms applied among Southwest, South and Northwest Chinese populations using Investigator() DIPplex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Lv, Meili; Zaumsegel, Daniel; Zhang, Lushun; Liu, Fengji; Xiang, Jihua; Li, Jun; Schneider, Peter M; Liang, Weibo; Zhang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The low mutation rates, short amplicon sizes and length variation characteristics of biallelic insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) are features that allow combining advantages of both STR and SNP markers for genetic analysis. The Qiagen Investigator DIPplex kit contains 30 biallelic autosomal INDELs plus Amelogenin for forensic personal identification and parentage testing. This study compares general performances, forensic and population data collected in 7 Chinese ethnic populations (Han, Tibetan, Yi, Zhuang, Dong, Miao and Uyghur) from three areas (Southwest, South and Northwest) of China by DIPplex kit. There were no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of the 30 markers in all the tested populations after Bonferroni correction. The combined matching probabilities ranged from 1.427310(-10) for the Dong minority to 1.281710(-12) for the Uyghur minority. The combined power of paternity exclusion was from 0.9854 to 0.9968. All pairwise genetic differences (FST) between the seven ethnic groups were less than 0.05, and the results of STRUCTURE analysis did not indicate the presence of substructures suggesting genetic similarity among the populations in these three areas. The DIPplex kit can be used as a good additional tool for forensic personal identification in these three areas of China. PMID:26656953

  1. Retrieval of continental and Marine Low-level cloud microphysical properties: Challenge and Difficulty to retrieve its profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.

    2013-12-01

    Xiquan Dong (dong@aero.und.edu) and Baike Xi, University of North Dakota Knowledge of the vertical structure of a cloud's microphysical characteristics is important for a variety of reasons. The profiles of cloud-droplet effective radius (re) and liquid water content (lwc) affect the cloud's interaction with solar and infrared radiation that ultimately contribute to the energy budget at the surface and top of atmosphere (TOA). Knowledge of the microphysical structure also increases our understanding of the process acting to form and maintain these cloud systems. This understanding may lead to improved numerical models and parameterizations of clouds. Several algorithms have been developed in recent years that combine millimeter wavelength radar (MMCR) observations with other data sources to derive the microphysical properties of low-level stratus clouds. The multi-parameter algorithms developed for low-level liquid-phase stratus clouds use radar reflectivity observations and microwave radiometer-derived cloud liquid water path (lwp) combined with various assumptions to retrieve the microphysical properties of the cloud layer. Since these techniques tend to assume a functional form (lognormal or gamma) for the particle size distribution, three independent parameters are generally needed to estimate the characteristics of the particle size distribution. In this study, we will investigate the strengths and weaknesses of different retrieval methods using the aircraft in-situ measurements as a ground-truth.

  2. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating agents: Batch and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Do Gee, Eun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ram Lee, Woo; Park, Young-Tae

    2013-04-01

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO42-) production in the presence of KMnO4 (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased SO42- production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1, respectively to <0.05 mg L-1 (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites.

  3. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS)

    PubMed Central

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Tue, Ngo T.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; An, Nguyen N.; Hien, Vo B.; Lao, Pham V.; Tu, Nguyen C.; Chuyen, Nguyen K.; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Tan, Dinh V.; Duong, Hoang Van V.; Toan, Tran K.; Chi, Nguyen T.Y.; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A.; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based ‘high-risk sentinel cohort’ (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks. PMID:26659094

  4. Planet Masses from Disk Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Young, forming planets can generate immense spiral structures within their protoplanetary disks. A recent study has shown that observations of these spiral structures may allow astronomers to measure the mass of the planets that create them.Spirals From WavesSnapshots of the surface density of a protoplanetary disk in a 2D simulation, 3D simulation, and synthesized scattered-light image. Click for a closer look! [Fung Dong, 2015]Recent studies have shown that a single planet, if it is massive enough, can excite multiple density waves within a protoplanetary disk as it orbits. These density waves can then interfere to produce a multiple-armed spiral structure in the disk inside of the planets orbit a structure which can potentially be observed in scattered-light images of the disk.But what do these arms look like, and what factors determine their structure? In a recently published study, Jeffrey Fung and Ruobing Dong, two researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, have modeled the spiral arms in an effort to answer these questions.Arms Provide AnswersA useful parameter for describing the structure is the azimuthal separation (sep) between the primary and secondary spiral arms. If you draw a circle within the disk and measure the angle between the two points where the primary and secondary arms cross it, thats sep.Azimuthal separation of the primary and secondary spiral arms, as a function of the planet-to-star mass ratio q. The different curves represent different disk aspect ratios. [Fung Dong, 2015]The authors find thatsep stays roughly constant for different radii, but its strongly dependent on the planets mass: for larger planets, sep increases. They discover that sep scales as a power of the planet mass for companions between Neptune mass and 16 Jupiter masses, orbiting around a solar-mass star. For larger, brown-dwarf-size companions, sep is a constant 180.If this new theory is confirmed, it could have very interesting implications for observations of protoplanetary disks: this would give us the ability to measure the mass of a planet in a disk without ever needing to directly observe the planet itself!Modeling ObservationsFung and Dong confirm their models by additionally running 3D simulations, which yield very similar outcomes. From these simulation results, they then synthesize scattered-light images similar to what we would expect to be able to observe with telescopes like the VLT, Gemini, or Subaru. The authors demonstrate that from these scattered-light images, they can correctly retrieve the planets mass to within 30%.Finally, as a proof-of-concept, the authors apply this modeling to an actual system: SAO 206462, a nearly face-on protoplanetary disk with an observed two-armed spiral within it. From the measured azimuthal separation of the two arms, the authors estimate that it contains a planet of about 6 Jupiter masses.CitationJeffrey Fung () and Ruobing Dong () 2015 ApJ 815 L21. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L21

  5. Planet Masses from Disk Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Young, forming planets can generate immense spiral structures within their protoplanetary disks. A recent study has shown that observations of these spiral structures may allow astronomers to measure the mass of the planets that create them.Spirals From WavesSnapshots of the surface density of a protoplanetary disk in a 2D simulation, 3D simulation, and synthesized scattered-light image. Click for a closer look! [Fung Dong, 2015]Recent studies have shown that a single planet, if it is massive enough, can excite multiple density waves within a protoplanetary disk as it orbits. These density waves can then interfere to produce a multiple-armed spiral structure in the disk inside of the planets orbit a structure which can potentially be observed in scattered-light images of the disk.But what do these arms look like, and what factors determine their structure? In a recently published study, Jeffrey Fung and Ruobing Dong, two researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, have modeled the spiral arms in an effort to answer these questions.Arms Provide AnswersA useful parameter for describing the structure is the azimuthal separation (sep) between the primary and secondary spiral arms. If you draw a circle within the disk and measure the angle between the two points where the primary and secondary arms cross it, thats sep.Azimuthal separation of the primary and secondary spiral arms, as a function of the planet-to-star mass ratio q. The different curves represent different disk aspect ratios. [Fung Dong, 2015]The authors find thatsep stays roughly constant for different radii, but its strongly dependent on the planets mass: for larger planets, sep increases. They discover that sep scales as a power of the planet mass for companions between Neptune mass and 16 Jupiter masses, orbiting around a solar-mass star. For larger, brown-dwarf-size companions, sep is a constant 180.If this new theory is confirmed, it could have very interesting implications for observations of protoplanetary disks: this would give us the ability to measure the mass of a planet in a disk without ever needing to directly observe the planet itself!Modeling ObservationsFung and Dong confirm their models by additionally running 3D simulations, which yield very similar outcomes. From these simulation results, they then synthesize scattered-light images similar to what we would expect to be able to observe with telescopes like the VLT, Gemini, or Subaru. The authors demonstrate that from these scattered-light images, they can correctly retrieve the planets mass to within 30%.Finally, as a proof-of-concept, the authors apply this modeling to an actual system: SAO 206462, a nearly face-on protoplanetary disk with an observed two-armed spiral within it. From the measured azimuthal separation of the two arms, the authors estimate that it contains a planet of about 6 Jupiter masses.CitationJeffrey Fung () and Ruobing Dong () 2015 ApJ 815 L21. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L21

  6. The French Atlantic littoral and the Massif Armoricain, part 1. [Island of Jersey, Fromentine, Loire Estuary, and Mont Saint-Michel Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Monget, J. M.; Guerin, O.; Poisson, R. M.; Thomas, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For interpretation of Isle of Jersey imagery, two types of taxons were defined according to their variability in time. On the whole, taxons with a similar spectral signature were opposed to those with strongly varying spectral signature. The taxon types were low diachronic variations and strong diachronic variation. Imagery interpretation was restricted to the landward part of the Fromentine area, including the sand beaches which were often difficult to spectrally separate from the barren coastal dunes in the southern part of Noirmoutier Island as well as along the Breton marsh. From 1972 to 1976, sandbanks reduced in area. Two high river discharge images showed over a two year period an identical outline for the Bilho bank to seaward, whereas upstream, the bank has receeded in the same time to a line joining Paimboeuf to Montoir. The Brillantes bank has receeded at both ends, partly due to dredging operations in the access channel to Donges harbor.

  7. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Womens Health

    PubMed Central

    Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for womens health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  8. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Snelten, Courtney S; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women's health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  9. Compilation of Published Estimates of Annual Geocenter Motions Using Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elosegui, P.

    2005-01-01

    The definition of the term "geocenter motion" depends on the adopted origin of the reference frame. Common reference frames used in Space Geodesy include: the center of mass of the whole Earth (CM), the center of mass of the Solid Earth without mass load (CE), and the center of figure of the outer surface of the Solid Earth (CF). There are two established definitions of the term geocenter: one, the vector offset of CF relative to CM and, two, the reverse, the vector offset of CM relative to CF. Obviously, their amplitude is the same and their phase differs by 180 deg. Following Dong et al. [2003], we label the first X(sub CF, sup CM) and the second X(sup CF, sup CM) (i.e., the superscript represents the frame, the subscript represents any point in the frame).

  10. Improved method of laser photovaporization for endometrium cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, En-ju; Lu, Hua; Chen, En-ling; Wan, Hong-yue

    1995-03-01

    Endometrium was destroyed by Nd-YAG laser under B ultrasonic monitoring through direct application of a fibrous catheter specially designed by Dong-lin Lee (an optical engineer). Of the 12 patients 11 cases had dysfunctional uterine bleeding and one case had postmenopausal uterine bleeding. The mean time of laser treatment was 5' 45', the mean volume of irrigating solution was 850 ml, and the mean estimated blood loss was less than 9 ml. All patients showed neither evidence of infection nor uterine perforation. Follow-up examination for 3 - 16 months showed amenorrhea in 4 cases, spotting in 4 cases, and obviously reduced menstrual flow in 3 cases. One patient, partly treated, had normal menstruation.

  11. Division X: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: Historic Radio Astronomy WG by Wayne Orchiston, Astrophysically Important Lines WG by Masatoshi Ohishi, and Global VLBI WG by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of Interference Mitigation WG was located in the third session.

  12. Mobilization for HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services in Vietnam: Clients' Risk Behaviors, Attitudes and Willingness to Pay.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Nhung Phuong; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Bui, Trang Thu; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-04-01

    A multi-site survey was conducted on a sample of 365 clients to assess their willingness to pay for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services in Ha Noi and Nam Dinh province, two epicenters of Vietnam. By using contingent valuation technique, the results showed that most of respondents (95.1 %) were willing to pay averagely 155 (95 % CI 132-177) thousands Vietnam Dong (~US $7.75, 2013) for a VCT service. Clients who were female, had middle income level, and current opioid users were willing to pay less; meanwhile clients who had university level of education were willing to pay more for a VCT service. The results highlighted the high rate of willingness to pay for the service at a high amount by VCT clients. These findings contribute to the implementation of co-payment scheme for VCT services toward the financial sustainability of HIV/AIDS programs in Vietnam. PMID:26363790

  13. Response to ''Comment on 'Heating of ions by low-frequency Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas''' [Phys. Plasmas 18, 084703 (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Chuanfei; Paty, Carol S.

    2011-08-15

    The calculation of temperature in a plasma system that is not in thermal equilibrium remains a topic of debate. In our article [Dong and Paty, Phys. Plasmas 18, 030702 (2011)] we use the average kinetic energy to calculate the ''kinetic temperature'' in a non-equilibrium system to quantify the heating of ions by low-frequency Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma (i.e., where collisions with neutrals can not be ignored). We implement a method previously used by Wang, Wu and Yoon [Wang, Wu and Yoon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125001 (2006)] and several others studying the effects of low frequency Alfven waves in collisionless plasmas. This method is appropriate for several reasons discussed in this response. Most notably, we implement it to investigate heating of the plasma population since the bulk velocity of the particle ensemble perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field remains zero during the numerical experiment.

  14. New species of Metacaligus (Caligidae, Copepoda) parasitic on the cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) of Taiwan, with a cladistic analysis of the family Caligidae.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Lin, Ching-Long

    2002-12-01

    Metacaligus latus n. sp. (Copepoda, Caligidae) is described from specimens found parasitic in the oral and gill cavities of the cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, caught from the Strait of Taiwan and landed at Dong-Shih Fishing Port in Chiayi County, Taiwan. It is close to M. uruguayensis (Thomsen, 1949), but can be distinguished from the latter by the possession of shorter caudal rami in both sexes and wider cephalothorax and genital complex in the male. Cladistic (phylogenetic) analysis of the Family Caligidae, based on 23 selected morphological characters, revealed that Metacaligus Thomsen, 1949 is distantly related to Caligus Mller, 1758. It is a valid genus and occurs in sister-group relationship with Apogonia Cressey and Cressey, 1990. PMID:12520096

  15. A new Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khanh Hoa Province, southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nicole; Phung, Trung My; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from southern Vietnam, based on morphological and molecular datasets. Cyrtodactylus cucdongensis sp. nov. is described on the basis of seven specimens collected from Cuc Dong Cape, Khanh Hoa Province. The new species can be distinguished from the remaining bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL 65.9 mm; 16-19 dorsal tubercle rows; 41-44 ventral scales at midbody; 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males, 4-6 pitted precloacal scales in females; no femoral pores; 6-13 enlarged precloacal scales; 5-9 enlarged femoral scales; no transversally enlarged subcaudals; dorsal pattern consisting of irregular dark bands. This is the 33rd species of Cyrtodactylus known from Vietnam. PMID:24872243

  16. Fragment-Based Design of Selective Nanomolar Ligands of the CREBBP Bromodomain.

    PubMed

    Unzue, Andrea; Xu, Min; Dong, Jing; Wiedmer, Lars; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Caflisch, Amedeo; Nevado, Cristina

    2016-02-25

    Novel ligands of the CREBBP bromodomain were identified by fragment-based docking. The in silico discovered hits have been optimized by chemical synthesis into selective nanomolar compounds, thereby preserving the ligand efficiency. The selectivity for the CREBBP bromodomain over other human bromodomain subfamilies has achieved by a benzoate moiety which was predicted by docking to be involved in favorable electrostatic interactions with the Arg1173 side chain, a prediction that could be verified a posteriori by the high-resolution crystal structure of the CREBBP bromodomain in complex with ligand 6 and also by MD simulations (see Xu , M. ; Unzue , A. ; Dong , J. ; Spiliotopoulos , D. ; Nevado , C. ; Caflisch , A. Discovery of CREBBP bromodomain inhibitors by high-throughput docking and hit optimization guided by molecular dynamics . J. Med. Chem. 2015 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00171 ). PMID:26043365

  17. The North Korean missile program: How advanced is it?

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.; Kadyshev, T.

    1994-04-01

    For the past three years there have been increasing numbers of reports that North Korea is developing a 1,000-1,300-kilometer range missile generally referred to as the NoDongg-1. Pyongyang`s missile program has generated international concern because of North Korea`s potential nuclear capabilities, its proximity to South Korea and Japan and its reported missile sales to Iran, Syria and Libya. In June 1993, Japanese and South Korean wire services reported that North Korea had test fired several missiles into the Sea of Japan in late May, at least two of which were though to be NoDong-1 missiles. A missile with a 1,300-kilometer range would give North Korea the capability to reach all of Japan, and give Iran and Libya the capability to reach all of Israel.

  18. Preface to the Eighth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibao; Huang, Ning

    2015-12-01

    The papers in this special issue of Aeolian Research arise from the Eighth International Conference on Aeolian Research (ICAR8), held on July 21-25, 2014 at Lanzhou University, China. The conference was sponsored by the International Society for Aeolian Research, convened by Zhibao Dong and Ning Huang, and supported by several institutions from China. The conference was well attended by 284 participants from 20 nations. 138 oral presentations, 142 posters and 296 abstracts were organized into six sessions. The 13 papers that appear in this special issue are drawn from the post-conference submissions, which were successfully reviewed by peers, revised and accepted. Those papers that have not completed review will become regular submissions to Aeolian Research and published (if accepted) when they pass review process.

  19. Research and development of coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Dong-wen, B.; Yi-shao, R.

    1982-01-01

    The main reason for developing fluidized-bed boilers in China is to burn high-ash coal of low calorific value, and thus broaden the scope of energy resources. This appears to be especially important in the southern provinces. Practice over a number of years has indicated that FBB are promising, at least for industrial boilers and small electricity generating units in China. The application of FBB to utility power plants, however, depends on future development, economic factors, and the success of intermediate demonstration units. There is no doubt that many areas still need further investigation and that equipment could be improved, but we are convinced that a good start has already been made. Dong-fang Boiler Works now produces commercial FBB with steam capacity of up to 35 t/h. Units of greater capacity are under consideration.

  20. Effect of grid size on building wind according to a computation fluid dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Cheol; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2011-02-01

    Skyscrapers negatively impact the environment by creating gusty winds, known as building winds, which are the result of descending turbulences caused by the blockage of upper air by tall buildings. Usually, a building wind impact assessment (BWIA) is carried out using a wind tunnel test or computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation methods. The application of wind tunnel test is limited by the high costs of the models. Thus, CFD simulations are now the preferred approach to save time and expense as a result of advancements in computer technology, however, differing grid cell sizes greatly impact simulation results. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate cell sizes. CFD simulations based on different grid sizes were tested and compared in this study. The study site is located in the Dogok-dong at Gangnam-ku in Seoul, Korea. The study results revealed significant errors when using coarse grid sizes due to incorrect representations of building shape.

  1. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-08-28

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed. PMID:16504449

  2. Diffuse mesangial and endocapillary cell proliferative glomerulonephritis with persistent hypocomplementemia in a child

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Mei; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy was admitted to Peoples Hospital of Dong E with anasarca. The laboratory findings revealed proteinuria, hematuria, hypocomplementemia. Renal biopsy specimen revealed diffuse mesangial and endocapillary cell proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopic (LM) examination. On immunofluorescence (IF) examination, deposition of IgG, IgA, C3, C1q and F to capillary wall and subendothelial were observed. By means of electron microscopy (EM), subendothelial electron-dense deposits and segmental fusion of epithelial cell foot process were recognized. He was treated by only some supportive drugs, no ACEI/ARB, without glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. About one month later, complete remission of proteinuria occurred. During next 62-weeks follow up, urinary analysis always showed microscopic hematuria. However, it is interesting to note that the serum complement C3 and C4 levels remained persistently low. PMID:26629229

  3. The Impact of Hydrodynamics in Erosion - Deposition Process in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, South Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Luong, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve is always considered as a friendly green belt to protect and bring up the habitants. However, recently some mangrove areas in the Dong Tranh estuary are being eroded seriously. Based on the field measurements in SW and NE monsoons as well as data of topography changes in 10 years, it is proved that hydrodynamics of waves, tidal currents and riverine currents are the main reasons for erosion-deposition processes at the studied site. The erosion-deposition process changes due to monsoon. The analysed results show that high waves and tidal oscillation cause the increase of the erosion rate in NE monsoon. However, high sediment deposition occurs in SW monsoon due to weak waves and more alluvium from upstream. Many young mangrove trees grow up and develop in the SW monsoon. From the research, it is strongly emphasized the role of mangrove forests in soil retention and energy dissipation.

  4. Genomic and transcriptome profiling identified both human and HBV genetic variations and their interactions in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hua; Qian, Ziliang; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Yunqin; Ren, Zhenggang; Ji, Qunsheng

    2015-12-01

    Interaction between HBV and host genome integrations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is a complex process and the mechanism is still unclear. Here we described in details the quality controls and data mining of aCGH and transcriptome sequencing data on 50 HCC samples from the Chinese patients, published by Dong et al. (2015) (GEO#: GSE65486). In additional to the HBV-MLL4 integration discovered, we also investigated the genetic aberrations of HBV and host genes as well as their genetic interactions. We reported human genome copy number changes and frequent transcriptome variations (e.g. TP53, CTNNB1 mutation, especially MLL family mutations) in this cohort of the patients. For HBV genotype C, we identified a novel linkage disequilibrium region covering HBV replication regulatory elements, including basal core promoter, DR1, epsilon and poly-A regions, which is associated with HBV core antigen over-expression and almost exclusive to HBV-MLL4 integration. PMID:26697315

  5. AMS applications to the paleoclimate changing study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.; Chen, T.M.; Yuan, D.X.

    1995-12-01

    To study the paleoclimates changing in China, a high-resolution AMS radio-carbon dating of a loess profile at Weinan, Shaanxi Province, has been carried out and an age of 10,300 BP has been assigned to be the beginning of the HOLOCENE in the studied areas. In the south of China, a stalagmite of 1.2-m high taken from Panlong-dong cave, Guilin, Guangxi Province, has also been studied. The dating with micro-stratification sampling shows that the climate in HOLOCENE was generally damp and warm, but there was a short cola period during 10-11 Ka BP. The resolution of AMS carbon dating of stalagmite is 100 years for the warm and damp period and 500 years for the dry and cold period.

  6. The Research on the Impact of Management Level’s Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level’s charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level’s charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936

  7. Magnetospheric Consequences of Charged Ice Grains from the Enceladus Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.; Hill, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Based on Cassini's multiple instrument observations, we have studied the size distributions, densities, dynamics and currents of the ice grains from the Enceladus plume (Dong et al., 2014, submitted to JGR). Due to the charged grains' large gyroradii (>> RE), they carry most of the negative charge away from the picked-up ion flow, which leads to a current system different from the ion pick-up and Birkeland current system. We will study the grain and ion currents based on their motion, develop a self-consistent current system near Enceladus, and estimate the consequent electromagnetic perturbations. Comparing the modeled magnetic perturbations with the MAG data may determine the magnitude of the total grain current, which in turn will give constraints on the grain charge density to compare with RPWS-LP plasma data in the plume.

  8. Structure formation of atmospheric pressure discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexey E.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper it is shown, by analyzing the results of experimental studies, that the outer boundary of the atmospheric pressure discharge pinch is determined by the condition of equality of plasma flows based on the thermal and electric field energy. In most cases, the number of charged particles coming from near-electrode zones is sufficient to compensate for losses in the discharge bulk. At large currents and enhanced heating, plasma is in the diffusion mode of losses, with recombination of charged particles at the pinch boundary. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  9. First results from the third-generation Columbia parallel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccarino, Alessandro

    1990-09-01

    We present results from preliminary simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics with 4 flavours of staggered fermions, using the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. We are investigating the finite temperature phase transition on a relatively large lattice, 16 3 Nt, varying both the coupling of the gauge fields and the quark mass. We found no evidence for a first order phase transition for Nt = 4 at mqa = 1.0 and mqa = 0.5 and neither for Nt = 6 at mqa = 0.025. We were able to collect high statistics in a relatively short time using the floating point power of our third-generation machine. This work was done in collaboration with Norman Christ, Frank Brown, Frank Butler, Hong Chen, Zhihua Dong and Leo Unger.

  10. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936

  11. Investigating Cultural Evolution Using Phylogenetic Analysis: The Origins and Descent of the Southeast Asian Tradition of Warp Ikat Weaving

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    The warp ikat method of making decorated textiles is one of the most geographically widespread in southeast Asia, being used by Austronesian peoples in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, and Daic peoples on the Asian mainland. In this study a dataset consisting of the decorative characters of 36 of these warp ikat weaving traditions is investigated using Bayesian and Neighbornet techniques, and the results are used to construct a phylogenetic tree and taxonomy for warp ikat weaving in southeast Asia. The results and analysis show that these diverse traditions have a common ancestor amongst neolithic cultures the Asian mainland, and parallels exist between the patterns of textile weaving descent and linguistic phylogeny for the Austronesian group. Ancestral state analysis is used to reconstruct some of the features of the ancestral weaving tradition. The widely held theory that weaving motifs originated in the late Bronze Age Dong-Son culture is shown to be inconsistent with the data. PMID:23272211

  12. Genomic and transcriptome profiling identified both human and HBV genetic variations and their interactions in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hua; Qian, Ziliang; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Yunqin; Ren, Zhenggang; Ji, Qunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between HBV and host genome integrations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is a complex process and the mechanism is still unclear. Here we described in details the quality controls and data mining of aCGH and transcriptome sequencing data on 50 HCC samples from the Chinese patients, published by Dong et al. (2015) (GEO#: GSE65486). In additional to the HBV-MLL4 integration discovered, we also investigated the genetic aberrations of HBV and host genes as well as their genetic interactions. We reported human genome copy number changes and frequent transcriptome variations (e.g. TP53, CTNNB1 mutation, especially MLL family mutations) in this cohort of the patients. For HBV genotype C, we identified a novel linkage disequilibrium region covering HBV replication regulatory elements, including basal core promoter, DR1, epsilon and poly-A regions, which is associated with HBV core antigen over-expression and almost exclusive to HBV-MLL4 integration. PMID:26697315

  13. The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, X.-P.; Bengtson, S.; Gostling, N.J.; Cunningham, J.A.; Harvey, T.H.P.; Kouchinsky, A.; Val'Kov, A.K.; Repetski, J.E.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Donoghue, P.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to provide an improved taxonomic framework for material assigned to Markuelia. Five species are recognized: M. secunda Val'kov, M. hunanensis Dong and Donoghue, M. lauriei Haug et al., M. spinulifera sp. nov. and M. waloszeki sp. nov. Finally, the preservation of Markuelia is evaluated in the light of both the taphonomy of the fossil embryos themselves and the experimental taphonomy of the priapulid Priapulus caudatus, which has been proposed as both a close relative and an anatomical analogue of Markuelia. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  14. [Analysis of Peng Zemin's medical letter].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Zheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mr. Peng Zemin, a senior leader of the Kuomintang leftist and patriotic overseas Chinese, had acknowledged the famous Guangdong modern TCM masters Chen Botan as his mentor in TCM for six years, and deeply affected by Chen Botan's way of prescribing large dose of classical recipes. Guang-dong Chinese Medicine Museum has collected a number of Mr. Peng Zernin' s letters, which were handwriting works written by Mr. Peng Zemin himself to his nephew Peng Bingtang who worked in the government of Guyang Wulanchabu League, Inner Mongolia. Among them, nine are related to medicine, reflecting Mr. Peng Zemin' s medical activities, medical ethics and medical practice experience, the way he prescribed after Chen Botan's characteristics of prescribing and applying materia medica. PMID:26268254

  15. Eriophyoid mites from Northeast China (Acari: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    We describe and illustrate herein one new genus and eighteen new eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) collected in northeast China. They are: Shevtchenkella huzhongiensis sp. nov. on Ulmus davidiana Planch. var. japonica (Sarg. ex Rehder) Nakai (Ulmaceae), Shevtchenkella jingboicus sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Calepitrimerus flexuosus sp. nov. on Spiraea flexuosa Fisch. ex Cambess. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus maximowiczii sp. nov. on Crataegus maximowiczii Schneid. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus pilosus sp. nov. on Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus yichunensis sp. nov. on Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A.Br. (Rosaceae), Cupacarus oxyphyllus sp. nov. on Euonymus oxyphyllus Miq. (Cel-astraceae), Epitrimerus sambucus sp. nov. on Sambucus williamsii Hance (Caprifoliaceae), Epitrimerus wuyingensis sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Longisolenidionus amurensis gen. nov & sp. nov. on Tilia amurensis Rupr. (Tiliaceae), Phyllocoptes jiagedaqiensis sp. nov. on Cunninghamia sp. (Taxodiaceae), Aculops huzhongensis sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Sali-caceae), Aculus huzhongsalixus sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Salicaceae), Tetra angelica sp. nov. on Angelica sp. (Apiaceae), Tetra jiagedaqia sp. nov. on Lespedeza sp. (Fabaceae), Vittacus mandshurica sp. nov. on Corylus sieboldiana Blume var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid. (Betulaceae), Vittacus cannabus sp. nov. on Cannabis sativa L. (Moraceae), and Peralox dentatis sp. nov. on Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae). Two species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. abiesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) and R. fabris (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) were reassigned to Nalepella, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, and other characteristics of Nalepella. One species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. fargesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) was reassigned to Pentaporca, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, opisthosoma with five ridges and other characteristics of Pentaporca. At the same time, four new eriophyoid mite records from China are provided, Acaphyllisa distasa (Keifer, 1961) rec. nov. on Betula costata Trautv. (Betulaceae), Shevtchenkella ulmi (Farkas, 1960) rec. nov. on Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae), Calepitrimerus cariniferus Keifer, 1938, rec. nov. on Artemisia argyi H. Lev. & Vaniot (Asteraceae), Aculodes dubius (Nalepa, 1891) species complex, rec. nov. on Roegneria sp. (Poaceae). With this publication, the number of eriophyoid mite species in the region reaches 101. A list of these eriophyoid mites is provided. PMID:26146687

  16. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are needed to evaluate the efficacy and the combination pattern of these Chinese herbs. The mechanism of the combination pattern of these prescriptions should also be investigated whether additive, synergistic or antagonistic effect exist using in vitro or in vivo models. PMID:25172790

  17. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82.05%) and rose aqueous (73.86%). Conclusion From a panel of twenty three plant extracts, some one dozen exhibit high or satisfactory anti-collagenase or anti-elastase activities, with nine having inhibitory activity against both enzymes. These included white tea which was found to have very high phenolic content, along with high TEAC and SOD activities. PMID:19653897

  18. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis results showed that 38 farmers fertilizer "zhuanggenling" content of 6 kinds of plant growth retardant. It is regarded that fertilizer "zhuanggenling" was dominant in medicinal plant cultivation, and that the plant growth retardant is added widespreadly in farm fertilizer "zhuanggenling". All evidence proves conclusively that "zhuanggenling" have been used in the proper way, whereas some others have been misused or even abused in the use regarding to type, number, use frequency. The root or rhizoma are increased to 20%-200%. But there is lack of evaluation to appraise the quality of medicinal materials from the aspects of research or industry. "zhuanggenling" has become a important Chemical control material besides fertilizer, insecticidal sterilization of pesticide PMID:26084162

  19. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  20. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Patrick W. C.; Liang, Yan; Lau, Erica Y.; Choi, Choung-Rak; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Shin, Myung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88) were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (category range: 0 to 10) were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii). Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min) from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min) from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute) from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50%) for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:25872015

  1. The oldest flora of the South China Block, and the stratigraphic bearings of the plant remains from the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonez, Paul; Nguyên Huu, Hung; Ta Hoa, Phuong; Clément, Gaël; Janvier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Several outcrops of the Late Silurian and Devonian of the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam, yielded plant remains. The Late Silurian localities delivered the earliest known flora of the South China block. Although the fossils are fragmentary, they complement our knowledge about the global composition of the flora. The major components of the flora are plants with dichotomous habit and terminal bivalvate sporangia, which are close relatives to zosterophylls, and zosterophylls. Plants with possible euphyllophyte affinities and bryophytes are occasionally present. This floral composition is similar to that of the rich, younger South China block assemblages from the Posongchong and Xujiachong Formations of China, considered Pragian in age. The South China block flora is therefore likely to have been dominated by zosterophylls and pre-zosterophylls at least from the Late Silurian to the Pragian (i.e. a 20 million years long period). It also strengthens the hypothesis that more derived plants were present on eastern Gondwana earlier that elsewhere, in the first steps of tracheophyte evolution. The Devonian localities of the Ngoc Vung Series delivered a thick fibrous stem fragment and a basal euphyllophyte. These latter plant remains provide some stratigraphic data. The large stem fragment is consistent with an Eifelian age for the Duong Dong Formation (part of the Ngoc Vung Series), as suggested by the brachiopod fauna. The accompanying basal euphyllophyte displays a combination of characters (axes 3-4 mm wide and lateral branchings) that is also consistent with an Eifelian age, but possibly more characteristic of the Emsian flora. It is therefore suggested that the stratigraphic range of the Duong Dong Formation might be extended down to the Emsian.

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses from retail markets in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ta, Yen T; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; To, Phuong Bich; Pham, Da Xuan; Le, Hao Thi Hong; Alali, Walid Q; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption. PMID:23043836

  3. Biotransformation of columbianadin by rat hepatic microsomes and inhibition of biotransformation products on NO production in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-Bo; Li, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2012-09-01

    Columbianadin (CBN, 1), 1-[(8S)-8,9-dihydro-2-oxo-2H-furo[2,3-h]-1-benzopyran-8-yl]-1-methylethyl-[(2Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid]ester is a coumarin-type compound and one of the main bioactive constituents of the underground part of Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan. Although numerous investigations have been undertaken to study the biological activities of CBN, such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, calcium-channel blocking, and platelet aggregation inhibiting functions, little attention has been paid to its metabolism and/or biotransformation. Biotransformation of CBN by rat liver microsomes in vitro was studied, and thirteen biotransformation products including eight hitherto unknown compounds [columbianadiratimetins A-H (3-10)] and five known compounds [columbianadin oxide (2), (+)-2,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-5-benzofurancarboxaldehyde (11), oroselol (12), columbianetin (13), and vaginol (14)] were produced by liver microsomes from rats pre-treated with sodium phenobarbital. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses which included IR, UV, EIMS, HRESIMS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR, respectively. The inhibition of CBN and its main biotransformation products on nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide was assayed in RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ?M to evaluate the biological significance of biotransformation. PMID:22784551

  4. Screening of Chinese herbal drug extracts for inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production and identification of an active compound of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Y; Irikawa, S; Kaneko, T; Banskota, A H; Nagaoka, T; Xiong, Q; Hase, K; Kadota, S

    2001-10-01

    Sixty-eight water and methanol extracts from 34 Chinese herbal drugs, most of which are used for inflammatory diseases, were screened for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774.1 macrophages and in LPS/interferon (IFN)-gamma-stimulated mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages. Among the extracts, methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans, Plantago asiatica, Rubia cordifolia, and Zanthoxylum bungeanum showed significant inhibition in J774.1 macrophages, while in mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages, water extracts of Ru. cordifolia and Scutellaria baicalensis and methanol extracts of Angelica megaphylla, My. fragrans, and Z. bungeanum inhibited the NO production. Among them, inhibition of water extract of Sc. baicalensis was found to be mainly due to direct scavenging of NO radicals, through an examination of its scavenging activity on PAPA NONOate-generated NO radicals, while water extract of Ru. cordifolia and methanol extracts of An. megaphylla, My. fragrans, P. asiatica, and Z. bungeanum showed inhibition on iNOS mRNA expression. At last, an inhibitory compound on iNOS mRNA expression was isolated from a methanol extract of Z. bungeanum and identified as 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyldihydroferulic acid by NMR spectral analyses and chemical synthesis. PMID:11535366

  5. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  6. Scientific basis of botanical medicine as alternative remedies for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cindy L H; Or, Terry C T; Ho, Marco H K; Lau, Allan S Y

    2013-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that causes permanent disability and mortality to approximately 1 to 100 people in the world. Patients with RA not only suffer from pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in their joints, but also have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and lymphoma. Typically prescribed medications, including pain-relieving drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, can help to relieve pain, reduce inflammation and slow the course of disease progression in RA patients. However, the general effectiveness of the drugs has been far from satisfactory. Other therapeutic modalities like TNF-alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists targeting precise pathways within the immune system are expensive and may be associated with serious side effects. Recently, botanical medicines have become popular as alternative remedies as they are believed to be efficacious, safe and have over a thousand years experience in treating patients. In this review, we will summarize recent evidence for pharmacological effects of herbs including Black cohosh, Angelica sinensis, Licorice, Tripterygium wilfordii, Centella asiatica, and Urtica dioica. Scientific research has demonstrated that these herbs have strong anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects. A wide range of phytochemicals including phenolic acids, phenylpropanoid ester, triterpene glycosides, phthalide, flavonoids, triterpenoid saponin, diterpene and triterpene have been isolated and demonstrated to be responsible for the biological effects of the herbs. Understanding the mechanisms of action of the herbs may provide new treatment opportunities for RA patients. PMID:22700248

  7. Application of the equivalency factor concept to the phototoxicity and -genotoxicity of furocoumarin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Raquet, Nicole; Schrenk, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    Furocoumarins (FCs) are natural constituents widely occurring in plants used as food or in phytomedicines, cosmetics, etc. Some FCs exert dermal photo-toxicity and -genotoxicity when combined with UVA irradiation. For a few congeners, skin tumor formation has been described in humans and laboratory animals. Since almost no information is available on the photo-toxic properties of several congeners, we analyzed the photo-cytotoxic, photo-mutagenic, and photo-clastogenic properties in V79 cells for thirteen naturally occurring FCs, and for the coumarin limettin. Furthermore, nine FC mixtures including one mixture based on the FC pattern of an Angelica archangelica extract were tested in the same assays. We found that the concept of relative potency factors for photo-cytotoxic, -mutagenic, and -clastogenicpotencies of FCs, setting the value for 5-methoxypsoralen at 1.00, was applicable to all congeners tested. The concept was used successfully to describe the photo-toxic properties of binary mixtures of 5- and 8-methoxypsoralen. Furthermore, the photo-genotoxic (photo-mutagenic and -clastogenic) properties of complex FC mixtures comprising up to nine different congeners could be predicted. These data suggest that FCs can differ widely in their photo-toxic and photo-genotoxic properties but show relatively strict additivity with respect to their on target-effects when occurring as complex mixtures. PMID:24680798

  8. Identification of multiple ingredients for a Traditional Chinese Medicine preparation (bu-yang-huan-wu-tang) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is a popular Traditional Chinese Medicine formula consisting of seven herbal medicines (Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Carthamus tinctorius, Amygdalus persica and Pheretima aspergillum), that has been used in China for centuries to overcome stroke-induced disability. To ensure the consistency of quality, a reliable analytical method is required, therefore, we developed a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of the major constituents in BYHWT. The herbal ingredients consisting of the cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides of astragaloside I, astragaloside II and astragaloside IV; isoflavones of formononetin, ononin calycosin, calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside; ligustilide and paeoniflorin were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer-formic acid (100:0.1, v/v). This study was performed by a mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) with positive ionization ions monitored in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were validated for this quantification method, and the sensitivity, reliability and reproducibility were all confirmed. The experiments provided a good method for analyzing BYHWT extracts. This study also quantitated the active components in various brands of commercially available products. The results indicated that the pharmaceutical industrial products of BYHWT exhibited considerable variation in their contents of the herbal compounds. PMID:24036516

  9. Clinical and experimental study of effect of Raondix Salviae Militiorrhiza and other blood-activating and stasis-eliminating Chinese herbs on hemodynamics of portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xi-Xian; Cui, Dong-Lai; Sun, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao-Tian

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Radix Salviae Militiorrhiza (RSM), other blood-activating and stasis-eliminating Chinese herbs on hemodynamics of portal hypertension. METHODS: Portal pressure of cirrhotic dogs after chronic common bile duct ligation was measured directly; portal blood flow in patients with liver cirrhosis were detected by ultrasound Doppler. RESULTS: After administration of RSM and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) by intravenous infusion in cirrhosis dogs, the portal venous pressure (Ppv), wedge hepatic venous pressure (WHVP), hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), were significantly decreased (P < 0.05-0.01), but the mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the heart rate (HR) remained unchanged. When nifedipine was used, Ppv, WHVP, MAP and HR were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the MVPG unchanged (P < 0.05). After administration of RSM, RSM + nifedipine and RSM + Hirudin + Nifedpin for 10-12 weeks, the diameter of portal vein (Dpv), spleen vein (Dsv), the portal venous flow (Qpv) and splenic venous flow (Qsv) in patients with hepatic cirrhosis were significantly lowered (P < 0.05-0.01), and the effect of RAS was weaker. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of decreasing Ppv by Chinese herbs?RSM, RAS, etc. as compared with nifedipine, demonstrated that the Chinese herbs were slower in action than that of nifedipine, but more long-lasting and without side effects. Hence, long-term administration of Chinese herbs, would be more beneficial. PMID:11819341

  10. The difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs of Danggui-Shaoyao San in theory of TCM, based on serum pharmacochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunlai; Li, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Yin, Dengke; Tao, Chunlei; Han, Lan; Yue, Xiaoli; Pan, Yongfu; Yao, Yao; Peng, Daiyin; Xu, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao San (DSS) is a famous Chinese formula for activating blood circulation and promoting urination. This study was to investigate the difference of material basis between a blood-associated herbs group and a water-associated herbs group. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the formula can be divided into a blood-associated herbs group (Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora and Ligusticum chuanxiong) and a water-associated herbs group (Atractylodes macrocephala, Alisma orientale and Poria cocos). The HPLC fingerprint of the formula was established for quality control. Serum samples from rats, orally administrated DSS, and the decomposed recipes of DSS, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and the transitional blood components of DSS were identified. Twenty-one common peaks were identified in the fingerprint of DSS. Contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid and alisol B 23-acetate in co-decoction were significantly higher than those in individual decoction. Eleven peaks belonged to the blood-associated herbs group (four metabolites and seven prototype components; paeoniflorin and ferulic acid appeared in prototype components), whereas six peaks belonged to the water-associated herbs group (three metabolites and three prototype components). It was concluded that the serum pharmacochemistry is a meaningful approach for clarifying the difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs in chemical composition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26270156

  11. Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT. PMID:20506431

  12. Vegetational response to human colonisation of the coastal and volcanic environments of Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Edwards, Kevin J.; Buckland, Paul C.

    2009-09-01

    Tephra-dated, high-resolution pollen profiles from Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland, indicate a largely unwooded pre-settlement environment, a probable consequence of the exposed coastal location. The degree of change associated with the Norse landnám is more limited than in many Icelandic pollen diagrams. There are three main periods of change in the post-settlement vegetational development of the area. Firstly, Norse settlement affected the hydrology of the bog, resulting in the near-disappearance of Sphagnum and agricultural activity led to a reduction of some species (e.g. Angelica spp. and, Salix). Secondly, the establishment of probable permanent settlement in the mid-11th century AD initiated expansion of such apophytic taxa as Plantago spp. Lactuceae, Ranunculus spp. and Pteridophytes. Thirdly, the ≥ 10 cm thick Katla tephra, deposited in AD 1357, enhanced drainage of the bog surface, favouring dryland taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Galium and Lactuceae). The tephra deposit and the associated drainage probably caused or contributed to the local extinction of the wetland beetle Hydraena britteni. The study has enabled a series of natural and humanly-related issues to be addressed including tephra-vegetation relationships, the anthropogenic reduction in plant diversity, and comparisons between historical and environmental settlement records.

  13. New, rare and remarkable records of microfungi from the Slovakian Republic.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2005-01-01

    During an excursion to the Slovakian Republic (lower and upper Tatra) of the Botanical Institute of the University of Essen in 2004 we were able to collect about 150 species of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on cultivated crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for the entire world and a few of them are new for the Slovakian Republic, e.g: Ramularia liliicola N. Ale-Agha, U. Braun & G.B. Feige on Lilium martagon L.; Septoria aegopodii DESM. Ex Kickx. F. on Aegopodium podagaria L.; Puccinia asarina Kunze on Asarum europaeum L.; Puccinia polygoni ALB. & SCHW. and Puccinia polygoni-amphibii PERS. on Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Du Mont.; Ramularia chamaenerii Rostr. and Mycosphaerella chamaenerii Saville on Epilobium angustifolium L.; Plasmopara pusilla (de By.) Schroet on Geranium sylvaticum L.; Cercosporidium depressum (Berk. & Br.) Deighta on Angelica sylvestris L. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:16637188

  14. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Elgayyar, M; Draughon, F A; Golden, D A; Mount, J R

    2001-07-01

    The beneficial health effects of extracts from many types of plants that are used as seasoning agents in foods and beverages have been claimed for centuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected herb and spice essential oils for control of growth and survival of microorganisms. Inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility discs were used as control. Minimum lethal concentration (MLC) was determined by the tube dilution method. Essential oils from anise, angelica, basil, carrot, celery, cardamom, coriander, dill weed, fennel, oregano, parsley, and rosemary were evaluated. Inhibition ranged from complete with oregano to no inhibition with carrot oil for each of the test strains that included: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O:157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula. Oregano essential oil showed the greatest inhibition (zone, > or = 70 to 80 mm) (MLC, approximately 8 ppm). Coriander and basil were also highly inhibitory (MLC, approximately 25 to 50 ppm) to E. coli O:157:H7 and to the other bacteria and fungi tested. Anise oil was not particularly inhibitory to bacteria (inhibition zone, approximately 25 mm); however, anise oil was highly inhibitory to molds. Because some of the herbal and spice essential oils are highly inhibitory to selected pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, they may provide alternatives and supplements to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. PMID:11456186

  15. Korean Studies on Blood Stasis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Lee, Ju Ah; Yun, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Blood stasis is one of the important pathological concepts in Korean medicine. We analyzed the Korean studies concerning blood stasis. We searched for articles in eight electronic databases from their inception to September, 2014. We included reviews, clinical studies, and preclinical studies that had studied blood stasis and excluded articles in which blood stasis was not mentioned or in which the original authors had not explained blood stasis. Of 211 total included studies, 19 were reviews, 52 were clinical studies, and 140 were preclinical articles. Stagnant blood within the body was the most frequently mentioned phrase of the traditional concept of blood stasis. Traumatic injury was the most frequently studied disease/condition in the clinical studies. In the preclinical studies, coagulopathy was studied most frequently, followed by hyperviscosity, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, neoplasm, ischemic brain injury, and atherosclerosis. Hyeolbuchukeo-tang and Angelicae Gigantis Radix were the most frequent formula and single herb, respectively, used in the blood stasis researches. The results showed that blood stasis was mainly recognized as disorder of circulation and many studies showed the effectiveness of activating blood circulating herbs for diseases and pathologies such as traumatic injury or coagulopathy. Further studies are needed in the pathologic mechanisms and various diseases of blood stasis. PMID:25821483

  16. Rapid separation and identification of 54 major constituents in Buyang Huanwu decoction by ultra-fast HPLC system coupled with DAD-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, E-Hu; Qi, Lian-Wen; Peng, Yong-Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Wu, Qian; Li, Ping; Li, Chang-Yin

    2009-08-01

    Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD), is a well-known traditional Chinese preparation consisting of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong, Radix paeoniae Rubra, Flos Carthami, Semen Persicae and Lumbricus. An ultra-fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) has been developed for rapid separation and structural identification of constituents in BYHWD. Using an ultra-fast HPLC system with short columns (4.6 x 50 mm, 1.8 microm), the total analysis time for this complex prescription is less than 30 min. With various fragmentor voltages in TOF/MS, accurate mass measurements (less than 5 ppm error) for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent reliable identification criteria for these compounds. Fifty-four major constituents from BYHWD sample, including four C-glycosyl quinochalcones, four flavonoid O-glycosides, sixteen isoflavones, six monoterpene glycosides, eight saponins, four organic acids and five amino acids, were identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention times, DAD and TOF/MS data. All the compounds were further assigned in the seven individual crude drugs. In conclusion, the ultra-fast HPLC with DAD-TOF/MS is a highly useful and efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of herbal medicines or preparations. PMID:19353693

  17. Treatment with the herbal medicine, naoxintong improves the protective effect of high-density lipoproteins on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    LV, PU; TONG, XUNLIANG; PENG, QING; LIU, YUANYUAN; JIN, HAIQIANG; LIU, RAN; SUN, WEI; PAN, BING; ZHENG, LEMIN; HUANG, YINING

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on endothelial function is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which may result in atherosclerotic complications. Naoxintong (NXT) is a compound preparation that includes Radix Astragali, Angelicae sinensis, Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Ligusticum wallichii. It is widely administered in China to prevent atherosclerotic complications. In the present study, NXT was administered to 69 patients with T2DM. HDLs were isolated from patient blood samples prior to and following the intervention. In vitro endothelial functions of HDL, including proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis were investigated by bromodeoxyuridine, wound healing, Transwell and Matrigel tube formation assays on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results from the present study demonstrated that HUVECs treated with HDL isolated from diabetic patients following NXT therapy exhibited increased proliferative effects (1027%; P<0.05), and improved migration ability (1535%; P<0.05), anti-apoptotic function (2334%; P<0.05) and angiogenesis (3054%; P<0.001). Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of Akt (2636%; P<0.01) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (1680%; P<0.01) were increased following NXT therapy. The present in vitro study demonstrates that the protective effect of HDL on endothelial function is markedly impaired in diabetic patients who tend to develop atherosclerosis, and the impaired function may be partly abrogated by NXT. PMID:26781332

  18. Treatment of Mild Gastrointestinal Disorders with a Herbal Combination: Results of a Non-interventional Study with Gastritol() Liquid.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Tankred; Heimueller, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A combination of extracts from chamomile, silverweed, licorice, angelica, blessed thistle and wormwood, Gastritol() Liquid, is registered for the use of indigestion and gastrointestinal spasmodic complaints. To gain data on the experience in practice, a non-interventional open study was conducted in ambulatory patients including diabetics which were treated for 2?weeks. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by medical examination and evaluation of typical symptoms by patients. A total of 149 patients was enrolled, 90 without and 59 with diabetes. The treatment led to relevant improvements in all symptoms in both study groups. The most notable improvements were seen for the symptoms vomiting (-66.7%; diabetics: -63.9%) and retching (-52.2%; diabetics: -53.6%). An overall improvement was rated by about 90% in both study groups. In seven patients adverse events had been reported (5 times temporary nausea after intake, one time gastric spasm and one time oral burning sensation), all of them of mild nature. The global tolerability was assessed as good or very good in more than 80% by practitioners and patients. Under the conditions of this open study method Gastritol() Liquid had been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of mild gastrointestinal disorders, including diabetic patients. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26522087

  19. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth by medical plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Schinella, G R; Tournier, H A; Prieto, J M; Ros, J L; Buschiazzo, H; Zaidenberg, A

    2002-12-01

    This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 18 plants and two fungi used in the Chinese and Mediterranean traditional medicines on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The extracts were tested against epimastigote of T. cruzi Bra C15C2 clone in vitro at 27 degrees C and at a concentration of 250 microg/ml in axenic culture. Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A. sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Coptis chinensis, Haplophyllum hispanicum, Phellodendron amurense, Poria cocos, Ranunculus sceleratus and Scutellaria baicalensis showed significant effects against the parasite with a percentage of growth inhibition between 20 and 100%. C. chinensis and R. sceleratus showed the greatest activity with IC(50) values of 1.7 microg/ml for C. chinensis and 10.7 microg/ml for R. sceleratus. These activities are greater than that of allopurinol. C. chinesis and R. sceleratus extracts did not show cytotoxic effects on rat polimorphonuclear cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactic dehydrogenase assays. These results allowed us to suggest that R. sceleratus and C. chinensis could be a source of new compounds clinically active against T. cruzi. PMID:12490214

  20. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.

  1. The Effect of Tou Nong San on Transplanted Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Liang-Hua; Wang, Rui-Ping; Hu, Shou-You; Teng, Yu-Hao; Xie, Wei-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Tou Nong San (TNS) is a traditional Chinese medicinal decoction used to treat sores and carbuncles. It contains four herbal drugs and one animal medicine: Radix Astragaliseu Seu Hedysari, Angelica sinensis, Ligustici Chuanxiong, Spina Gleditsiae, and stir-baked Squama Manis. Previous studies have shown that it has anticancer effects. This report validates in vivo antitumor properties of TNS. The compounds contained in TNSE were confirmed by liquid chromatographmass spectrometer (LC-MS) analysis. The in vivo antitumor activity of TNS extract (TNSE) was tested by feeding it to athymic mice harboring a human colonic tumor subcutaneous xenograft. Toxicity was monitored by recording behavior and weight parameters. Seven compounds were detected in TNSE by LC-MS. TNSE was fed to athymic mice for 2 weeks. No adverse reactions were reported. Compared to the control group, administration of TNSE to tumor bearing mice significantly reduced both tumor weight and volume. The expressions of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k1, VEGF, and CD31 were significantly reduced, the expression levels of cleaved Caspase-9 and cleaved Caspase-3 were significantly increased in the TNSE groups compared to the control group as determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. TNSE produced anticolonic cancer effects and the underlying mechanisms involved inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, inhibition of angiogenesis, and promotion of apoptotic proteins. PMID:25788964

  2. Position of the Upper Devonian Frasnian--Famennian boundary in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, T.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Biostratigraphic analysis of eight Upper Devonian sections in VA and WV reveals that the section at Huttonsville, Randolph County, WV, is a key locality for determining the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. The Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville indicates a higher stratigraphic placement of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary than has been generally assumed. Conodonts are not known within that section, so placement of the boundary uses the last occurrence of tentaculitids and the last and first occurrences of several species of brachiopods. It is believed that the Frasnian-Famennian boundary can be identified independently of the atrypoid brachiopods. Stratigraphic ranges of the cricoconarid Tentaculites discusses and the brachiopod Tropidoleptus carinatus, both considered Frasnian marker fossils, indicate that the Frasnian extends well into the Red Lick Member of the Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville, with T. carinatus occurring up to 70% of the stratigraphic thickness of the Red Lick. The Famennian marker fossils A. angelica and C. sulcifer are both found at Huttonsville above the last recorded occurrence of all the Frasnian marker fossils. To the northeast of Huttonsville the Frasnian-Famennian series boundary has been placed by other workers within or at the top of the Pound Member of the Foreknobs Formation. This discrepancy implies that either the Pound Member is diachronous or that to the northeast paleoecologic factors caused local disappearances of critical fossils before their extinction at Huttonsville.

  3. The Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang Inhibits Angiogenesis in a Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jing; Zhao, Zhimin; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Yang, Li; Fan, Tai-Ping; Liu, Chenghai

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of the Chinese herbal decoction Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT; Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis in 5?:?1 ratio) in a rat model of liver fibrosis, in order to elucidate its mechanisms of action against liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced with CCl4 and high-fat food for 6 weeks, and the rats were treated with oral doses of DBT (6?g raw herbs/kg/d) and N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 0.1?g/kg/d). The results showed that both DBT and NAC attenuated liver fibrosis and neo-angiogenesis. Furthermore, DBT and NAC improved SOD activity but decreased MDA content and 8-OH-dG in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective than NAC. DBT decreased the expression of VEGF, Ang1 and TGF-?1 and their signaling mediators, whereas NAC had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR2 expression. Both DBT and NAC reduced HIF-1? gene and protein expression in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective. These data clearly demonstrate that the anti-fibrotic properties of DBT are related to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis and its anti-angiogenic mechanisms are associated with improving oxidative stress, regulating the expression and signaling of angiogenic factors, and especially modulating HIF-1? in fibrotic livers. PMID:22927877

  4. Protective effects of Chinese herbs on D-galactose-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-H; Ho, S-C; Lai, T-H; Liu, T-H; Chi, P-Y; Wu, R-Y

    2003-01-01

    A mixture of traditional Chinese herbs ('FTDA') was found to improve several oxidation-related biomarkers in D-galactose-induced mimetic aging mice. FTDA consists of seven herbal components: Cuscutae Semen, Schisandrae Fructus, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lonicerae Flos, Nelumbinis Semen, Angelica Radix and Poria, and is routinely used for treating mice with D-galactose-induced oxidative damage. Measurements of antioxidant status, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were made on blood, brain and liver tissue collected from animals after 60 days of treatment with D-galactose subcutaneous injections. High-dose, medium-dose and control groups exhibited higher levels of SOD, GSH-Px and TAS in their blood, as well as lower levels of serum MDA activity, compared with the D-galactose group. In the liver, all three experimental and PBS groups demonstrated significant increases in SOD activity and a decrease in MDA activity. The MDA activity decreased in medium-dose, high-dose and PBS groups, while medium-dose and PBS groups demonstrated increased SOD activity compared with that seen in the brain. These results support the efficacy of FTDA in improving the antioxidant status of D-galactose-induced mimetic aging mice. PMID:12949630

  5. Ex Vivo and In Situ Evaluation of 'Dispelling-Wind' Chinese Medicine Herb-Drugs on Intestinal Absorption of Chlorogenic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lixiang; Shi, Jun; Xu, Weitong; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Jianying; Deng, Wenji

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the additive or synergistic effects and mechanism of intestinal absorption of extracts from two commonly used 'dispelling-wind' TCM botanical drugs [roots of Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Franch. & Sav. (RAD) and Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. (RSD)] using chlorogenic acid as a marker substance. Ex vivo everted intestinal sac and in situ single pass perfusion methods using rats were employed to investigate the effects of two TCM botanical drugs extracts on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. Both the extracts of RAD and RSD showed synergistic properties on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. The verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) and intestinal dysbacteriosis model induced by norfloxacin increased the Papp and Ka of intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. These synergistic effects on intestinal absorption in a rat model can be correlated with the inhibition of P-gp and regulation of gut microbiota. This experimental approach has helped to better understand changes in the absorption of chlorogenic acid under different conditions. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26514546

  6. Characterization and comparison of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum in China using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Deng, Yong; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Wei, Feng; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Long, Ze-Rong; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-10

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that ?-1,3-glucosidic, ?-1,4-galactosiduronic and ?-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides. PMID:26428094

  7. Uncovering potential 'herbal probiotics' in Juzen-taiho-to through the study of associated bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Diego; Kalpana, Kriti; Chrissian, Christine; Sharma, Ashutosh; Takaoka, Anna; Iacovidou, Maria; Soll, Clifford E; Aminova, Olga; Heguy, Adriana; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven; Kawamura, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) is an immune-boosting formulation of ten medicinal herbs. It is used clinically in East Asia to boost the human immune functions. The active factors in JTT have not been clarified. But, existing evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like factors contribute to the activity. To examine this possibility, JTT was subjected to a series of analyses, including high resolution mass spectrometry, which suggested the presence of structural variants of LPS. This finding opened a possibility that JTT contains immune-boosting bacteria. As the first step to characterize the bacteria in JTT, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was carried out for Angelica sinensis (dried root), one of the most potent immunostimulatory herbs in JTT. The sequencing revealed a total of 519 bacteria genera in A. sinensis. The most abundant genus was Rahnella, which is widely distributed in water and plants. The abundance of Rahnella appeared to correlate with the immunostimulatory activity of A. sinensis. In conclusion, the current study provided new pieces of evidence supporting the emerging theory of bacterial contribution in immune-boosting herbs. PMID:25547935

  8. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Marta; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Ch?opecka, Magdalena; Dziekan, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1100??M). At 25 and 50??M, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop) at 0.1??M. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from ?-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K+-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca2+ influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study. PMID:26236380

  9. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, Stimulates Proliferation, Differentiation and Gene Expression of Cultured Osteosarcoma Cells: Genomic Approach to Reveal Specific Gene Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Roy C. Y.; Gao, Qiu T.; Cheung, Anna W. H.; Zhu, Judy T. T.; Lau, Faye T. C.; Li, Jun; Li, Winnie Z. M.; Chu, Glanice K. Y.; Duan, Ran; Cheung, Jerry K. H.; Ding, An W.; Zhao, Kui J.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2011-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat ailments in women, contains Radix Astragali (Huangqi; RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui; RAS). When DBT was applied onto cultured MG-63 cells, an increase of cell proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cell were revealed: both of these effects were significantly higher in DBT than RA or RAS extract. To search for the biological markers that are specifically regulated by DBT, DNA microarray was used to reveal the gene expression profiling of DBT in MG-63 cells as compared to that of RA- or RAS-treated cells. Amongst 883 DBT-regulated genes, 403 of them are specifically regulated by DBT treatment, including CCL-2, CCL-7, CCL-8, and galectin-9. The signaling cascade of this DBT-regulated gene expression was also elucidated in cultured MG-63 cells. The current results reveal the potential usage of this herbal decoction in treating osteoporosis and suggest the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoction that requires a well-defined formulation. The DBT-regulated genes in the culture could serve as biological responsive markers for quality assurance of the herbal preparation. PMID:19131392

  10. Simultaneous determination of 11 major components in Palmul-tang by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bohyoung; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2014-07-01

    Palmul-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, is composed of eight herbs (Ginseng radix, Glycyrrhizae radix, Hoelen, Atractylodis rhizoma, Angelicae gigantis radix, Cnidii rhizoma, Paeoniae radix and Rehmanniae radix) and exhibits various bioactivities, including antiallergic and antitumor effects. In this study, an effective, reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 marker components in Palmul-tang: hydroxymethylfurfural, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, ginsenoside Rg1, decursinol, glycyrrhizin, 6-gingerol, ginsenoside Rg3 and decursin. All calibration curves of the 11 components indicated excellent linearity (correlation coefficient > 0.9997) within the test range. The limits of detection and quantification of each component were in the ranges of 0.08-1.03 and 0.23-3.11 µg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were within 1.65 and 2.71%, respectively. The mean recovery values were 94.49 to 101.10%. The established method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 11 major components in 12 commercial samples of Palmul-tang. The developed analytical method is simple and suitable for the quality control of Palmul-tang. PMID:23741048

  11. [Mining analysis on composition and medication of menstruation prescriptions in Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-qing; Che, Yu-xia

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, menstruation prescriptions were selected from "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" and analyzed by using GRI algorithm, correlation analysis, hierarchical clustering method through SPSS, Clementine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary systems, in order to screen out 15 menopathy prescriptions, which involve 45 traditional Chinese medicine herbs. In the study, blood-tonifying and qi-tonifying herbs were found to be frequent in the prescriptions. The most frequent single herb was white paeony root, accounting for 9.6% in the total number of prescriptions; The most frequent herb pairs were white paeony root-radix rehmanniae preparata and paeony root-angelica sinensis. Among Fu Shan's menopathy prescriptions, 61 herbal pairs showed a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.05, which evolved into 16 pairs of core combinations. The analysis showed that menopathy prescriptions in volume 1 of "Fu Qingzhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology" focused on tonic traditional Chinese medicines involving liver, spleen and kidney and were adjusted according to changes in qi, blood, cold, hot and wet, which could provide a specific reference for further studies on Fu Shan's academic thoughts and traditional Chinese medicine clinical treatment of menopathy. PMID:26281608

  12. Sulfur dioxide residue in sulfur-fumigated edible herbs: The fewer, the safer?

    PubMed

    Duan, Su-Min; Xu, Jun; Bai, Ying-Jia; Ding, Yan; Kong, Ming; Liu, Huan-Huan; Li, Xiu-Yang; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Chen, Hu-Biao; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The residual content of sulfur dioxide is frequently regarded as the exclusive indicator in the safety evaluation of sulfur-fumigated edible herbs. To examine the feasibility of such assessment criteria, here the variations in residual sulfur dioxide content during sulfur-fumigation and the potential mechanisms involved were investigated, using Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) as a model herb. The residual sulfur dioxide content and ten major bioactive components in sulfur-fumigated ASR samples were dynamically examined at 13 successive time points within 72 h sulfur-fumigation. The relationship between the content variation tendency of sulfur dioxide and the ten chemicals was discussed. The results suggested that sulfur dioxide-involved chemical transformation of the original components in ASR might cause large consumption of residual sulfur dioxide during sulfur-fumigation. It implies that without considering the induced chemical transformation of bioactive components, the residual sulfur dioxide content alone might be inadequate to comprehensively evaluate the safety of sulfur-fumigated herbs. PMID:26304328

  13. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. PMID:17705143

  14. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-?(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23844220

  15. HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-02-01

    Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

  16. HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated ?-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee

    2012-05-01

    Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated ?-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to ? rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

  17. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100?mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200?mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic ?-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-? production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic ?-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:25045390

  18. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4+ T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4+ T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-?+ cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4+ cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23844220

  19. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Mili?, Natasa; Milosevi?, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozi?, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

  20. Two chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, stimulate GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Fujinami, Aya; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Amano, Akiko; Ishigami, Akihito; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Sawada, Morio; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD) and xanthoangelol (XAG) are major components of n-hexane/ethyl acetate (5:1) extract of the yellow-colored stem juice of Angelica keiskei. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG have been reported to increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This present study was aimed at clarifying the detailed mechanism by which 4HD and XAG increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both 4HD and XAG increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. 4-Hydroxyderricin and XAG also stimulated the phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which acts upstream of AMPK, was also increased by 4HD and XAG treatment. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LKB1 attenuated 4HD- and XAG-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and suppressed glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that 4HD and XAG can increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake through the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26077869

  1. Identification of metabolites of Buyang Huanwu decoction in rat urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Liu, E-Hu; Yang, Jie; Li, Chang-Yin; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines. PMID:22591804

  2. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benny K H; Vanitha, J

    2004-06-01

    The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species (Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis to their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. While some of these herbaceous plants have a direct inhibitory effect on microbial organisms, we observe that each plant has at least one compound that selectively modulates cells of the immune system. The successful derivation of pure bioactive compounds from Ganoderma lucidum, ginseng and Zingiber officinale supports the traditional practice of using these plants to stimulate the immune system. As many modern drugs are often patterned after phytochemicals, studying the influence of each compound on immune cells as well as microbes can provide useful insights to the development of potentially useful new pharmacological agents. PMID:15180575

  3. Ligustilide Ameliorates Inflammatory Pain and Inhibits TLR4 Upregulation in Spinal Astrocytes Following Complete Freund's Adjuvant Peripheral Injection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Bin; Li, Feng; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Dong, Yu-Lin; Gao, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Ligustilide is a major component of Radix Angelica Sinensis and reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been shown to be expressed in the spinal cord and be involved in inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. Whether ligustilide can inhibit spinal TLR4 expression in inflammatory pain is still unknown. In the present study, we intravenously injected ligustilide daily for 4days, with the first injection given at 1h before complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection. We tested the analgesic effect of ligustilide by behavioral test and checked the expression and distribution of TLR4 in the spinal cord by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Our data showed that repeated daily intravenous treatment with ligustilide alleviated CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The same treatment also inhibited CFA-induced TLR4 mRNA and protein increase in the spinal cord. Immunofluorescence double staining showed that TLR4 was predominantly expressed in spinal astrocytes. In primary cultured astrocytes, ligustilide dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced upregulation of TLR4 mRNA expression. These data indicate that ligustilide treatment reduces TLR4 expression in spinal astrocytes and is an effective therapy for inflammatory pain. PMID:26115624

  4. Leafy vegetable mix supplementation improves lipid profiles and antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Min Hee; Son, ChanWok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Cho, YongSik; Chun, HyeKyung; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-08-01

    Daily consumption of an antioxidant-rich leafy vegetable mix (LVM) was assessed for beneficial effects on plasma lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA damage in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet (20% fat and 1% cholesterol, wt/wt) for 4 weeks. The LVM contained beet leaf, angelica, red leaf lettuce, dandelion, green cos lettuce, lollo rosso, romaine lettuce (12.5%, respectively), scotch kale, and red kale (6.25%, respectively). The mice (n = 16) were randomly divided into either the control (high fat and cholesterol diet without LVM) or the LVM (high fat and cholesterol diet with 8% LVM supplement) groups after a 1-week acclimation. Lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the plasma, liver, heart, and kidney was significantly lower. Antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) were improved in mice fed LVM diet. In the comet assay, tail extent moment, olive tail moment, and tail length were significantly less in the hepatocyte and lymphocyte DNA of the LVM group, indicating the beneficial effect of LVM on the resistance of hepatocytes and lymphocytes DNA to oxidative damage. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with LVM may be useful for protecting cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. PMID:19735190

  5. Simultaneous analysis of nine components in patch preparations of Ru-Yi-Jin-Huang-San by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lay, Horng-Liang; Chen, Chia-Chi; Huang, Shiow-Chyn; Cham, Thau-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung; Lin, I-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    A facile high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the resolution and quantitative measurement of nine marker substances, the active ingredients in patch preparations of Ru-Yi-Jin-Huang-San, was established using gradient elution in the reversed-phase mode. These marker substances included berberine (Phellodendri Cortex), curcumin (Curcumae Rhizoma), imperatorin (Angelicae Dahuricae Radix), magnolol (Magnoliae Cortex), hesperidin (Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium), glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhizae Radix), and emodin, sennoside A, sennoside B (Rhei Rhizoma). The ingredients in the water-based and oil-based patches of the formula from different manufactures were also analyzed for quality evaluation. Extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC using a reversed-phase column (Inertsil 5 ODS-2, 4.6-mm I.D. x 250 mm) at 30 degrees C and eluted with a mixture of 20 and 70% acetonitrile aqueous solution in gradient manner at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength varied with time as follows: 275 nm, 0-72 min; 250 nm, 72-105 min; 220 nm, 105-145 min. Relative coefficients of variations of intra- and interday analysis were less than 5%. All the recoveries were 93.30-113.63%. This method could be applied for the simultaneous determination of nine marker substances in Ru-Yi-Jin-Huang-San. PMID:20082147

  6. Using Complementary and Alternative Medicines to Target the Host Response during Severe Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Charles; Clark, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    It is now accepted that an overwhelming inflammatory response is the cause of human deaths from avian H5N1 influenza infection. With this in mind we sought to examine the literature for examples of complementary and alternative medicines that reduce inflammation, and to place the results of this search in the context of our own work in a mouse model of influenza disease, using a pharmaceutical agent with anti-inflammatory properties. Two Chinese herbs, Angelica sinensis (Dang Gui) and Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), have been recently shown to protect mice during lethal experimental sepsis via inhibition of the novel inflammatory cytokine High Mobility Group Box 1 protein (HMGB1). Biochanin A, a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) alpha and gamma and the active isoflavone in Trifolium pratense (red clover), has anti-inflammatory properties, and thus could be used as an influenza treatment. This is of great interest since we have recently shown that gemfibrozil, a drug used to treat hyperlipidemia in humans and a synthetic ligand of PPAR alpha, significantly reduces the mortality associated with influenza infections in mice. The inflammation-modulating abilities of these natural agents should be considered in light of what is now known about the mechanisms of fatal influenza, and tested as potential candidates for influenza treatments in their own right, or as adjunct treatments to antivirals. PMID:19779008

  7. N-butylidenephthalide attenuates Alzheimer's disease-like cytopathy in Down syndrome induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lu, Huai-En; Lai, Syu-Ming; Lai, Ping-Shan; Shen, Po-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Shen, Ching-I; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients with early-onset dementia share similar neurodegenerative features with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To recapitulate the AD cell model, DS induced pluripotent stem cells (DS-iPSCs), reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 (D10) of differentiation. Accumulated amyloid deposits, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and Tau intracellular redistribution emerged rapidly in DS neurons within 45 days but not in normal embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. N-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a major phthalide ingredient of Angelica sinensis, was emulsified by pluronic F127 to reduce its cellular toxicity and promote canonical Wnt signaling. Interestingly, we found that F127-Bdph showed significant therapeutic effects in reducing secreted A?40 deposits, the total Tau level and the hyperphosphorylated status of Tau in DS neurons. Taken together, DS-iPSC derived neural cells can serve as an ideal cellular model of DS and AD and have potential for high-throughput screening of candidate drugs. We also suggest that Bdph may benefit DS or AD treatment by scavenging A? aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:25735452

  8. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

  9. N-butylidenephthalide Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Like Cytopathy in Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lu, Huai-En; Lai, Syu-Ming; Lai, Ping-Shan; Shen, Po-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Shen, Ching-I; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients with early-onset dementia share similar neurodegenerative features with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To recapitulate the AD cell model, DS induced pluripotent stem cells (DS-iPSCs), reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 (D10) of differentiation. Accumulated amyloid deposits, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and Tau intracellular redistribution emerged rapidly in DS neurons within 45 days but not in normal embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. N-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a major phthalide ingredient of Angelica sinensis, was emulsified by pluronic F127 to reduce its cellular toxicity and promote canonical Wnt signaling. Interestingly, we found that F127-Bdph showed significant therapeutic effects in reducing secreted A?40 deposits, the total Tau level and the hyperphosphorylated status of Tau in DS neurons. Taken together, DS-iPSC derived neural cells can serve as an ideal cellular model of DS and AD and have potential for high-throughput screening of candidate drugs. We also suggest that Bdph may benefit DS or AD treatment by scavenging A? aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:25735452

  10. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

  11. Identification of marker compounds in herbal drugs on TLC with DART-MS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Jee, Eun Hye; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Choi, Hyo Sook; Jang, Young Pyo

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to provide a more versatile and specific information on Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) analysis of medicinal plants. TLC plates developed with the extract of herbal medicines were analyzed with direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source. Three well known herbal drugs were extracted and developed on a silica-coated TLC plate with the conditions pre-established in Korean Pharmacopoeia IX. The developed plate was placed between the DART ion source and TOF-MS analyzer to get real time mass spectra from the bands on the TLC plate directly. The marker coumarin compounds, decursin and decursinol were successfully identified from the TLC plate developed with Angelicae gigantis radix, along with alkaloid compounds of rutaecarpine and evodiamine from Evodiae fructus, and lignan molecules of gomisin A, N, and schisandrin from Schisandrae fructus. This hyphenation system of TLC and DART-MS could provide unique and specific information on the major constituents of crude plant drug on TLC through uncovering high resolution mass number of each band on the TLC plate directly in real time. PMID:20945134

  12. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  13. LC-DAD-APCI-MS-based screening and analysis of the absorption and metabolite components in plasma from a rabbit administered an oral solution of danggui.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Li; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Chen, Ben-Mei; He, Yong-Kang; Li, Bo-Yan; Hu, Qian-Nan

    2005-09-01

    A valid chromatographic fingerprint method using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in negative mode (LC-DAD-APCI-MS) is proposed for studying the absorption and metabolites of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Angelica sinensis (danggui) in rabbit plasma, after the rabbit is administered with danggui oral solution (DOS). More than thirty-two common components were detected in both DOS and rabbit plasma, which shows that the components in the DOS were absorbed into the body of the rabbit. Of these, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, Z-6,7-epoxyligustilide, 3-butylidene-7-hydroxyphthalide, Z-ligustilide, Z-butylidenephthalide, Diels-Alder dimers of ligustilide, linolenic acid, linoleic acid and falcarindiol were tentatively identified from their MS, UV spectra and retention behavior by comparing the results with the published literature. At least ten components were found in rabbit plasma but not in DOS, indicating that these components must be metabolites of some of the components in the original extract. The results prove that the proposed method can be used to rapidly analyze multiple constituents in TCMs, and to screen for bioactive compounds by comparing and contrasting the chromatographic fingerprints of DOS and plasma samples. PMID:16132135

  14. Ligustilide treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Weidong; Yu, Aixi; Liu, Danli; Shen, Jun; Xu, Zhigao

    2015-01-01

    Ligustilide from traditional Chinese medicine extract, angelica sinensis is one of the main active components, and has many pharmacological activities related to the effectiveness. This study sought to determine whether neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) via preventing ROS production. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced using operation for model SCI. Furthermore, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and footprint analysis of gait was used to assess the neuro-protection of ligustilide on SCI. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production levels were measured by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay kit. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expressions were detected using Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blot analyses, respectively. Interestingly, treatment with ligustilide significantly increased BBB scale and reduced recovery of coordination in SCI rats. After SCI, the iROS, PGE(2), IL-1β, TNF-α production levels and iNOS gene expression were significantly suppressed in SCI rats. These results suggest that the neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production. PMID:26722386

  15. Decursin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by downregulating NFATc1 and blocking fusion of pre-osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Jin; Yeon, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Sik-Won; Moon, Seong-Hee; Ryu, Byung Jun; Yu, Ri; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Son, Young-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Bone sustains its structure through dynamic interaction between osteoblastic cells and osteoclastic cells. But imbalance may lead to osteoporosis caused by overactivated osteoclast cells that have bone-resorbing function. Recently, herbs have been researched as major sources of medicines in many countries. In vitro and in vivo anti-osteoclastogenic activity of Angelica gigas NAKAI have been reported, but the biological activity of decursin, its major component in osteoclast differentiation is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we explored whether decursin could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. The results showed that decursin efficiently inhibited RANKL-activated osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting transcriptional and translational expression of NFATc1, a major factor in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, decursin decreased fusion and migration of pre-osteoclasts by downregulating mRNA expression levels of DC-STAMP and ?3 integrin, respectively. In addition, decursin prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone erosion in vivo. In summary, decursin could prevent osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone loss via blockage of NFATc1 activity and fusion and migration of pre-osteoclasts, and it could be developed as a potent phytochemical candidate for treating pathologies of bone diseases. PMID:26208796

  16. Protective effects of osthole against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Yue; Dong, Wen-Peng; Bi, Sheng-Hui; Pan, Zhi-Guo; Yu, Hao; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Ma, Tao; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Wei-Da

    2013-08-01

    Osthole, a bioactive simple coumarin derivative extracted from a number of medicinal plants, such as Cnidium monnieri and Angelica pubescens, has been shown to exert a variety of pharmacological activities and is considered to have potential therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of osthole against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups: the sham-oeprated control group (control), the vehicle group (vehicle), and 3 treatment groups, which were treated with osthole at the concentration of 1, 10 or 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally), respectively, upon the initiation of myocardial ischemia. Treatment with osthole suppressed the formation of lipid peroxidation products, enhanced the capacities of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines following myocardial I/R injury. Moreover, treatment with osthole reduced high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and phosphorylated nuclear factor (NF)-?B expression in ischemic myocardial tissue. These results demonstrate the protective effects of osthole against myocardial I/R injury in rats and suggest that these effects may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23695269

  17. Uncovering potential herbal probiotics in Juzen-taiho-to through the study of associated bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Diego; Kalpana, Kriti; Chrissian, Christine; Sharma, Ashutosh; Takaoka, Anna; Iacovidou, Maria; Soll, Clifford E.; Aminova, Olga; Heguy, Adriana; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) is an immune-boosting formulation of ten medicinal herbs. It is used clinically in East Asia to boost the human immune functions. The active factors in JTT have not been clarified. But, existing evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like factors contribute to the activity. To examine this possibility, JTT was subjected to a series of analyses, including high resolution mass spectrometry, which suggested the presence of structural variants of LPS. This finding opened a possibility that JTT contains immune-boosting bacteria. As the first step to characterize the bacteria in JTT, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was carried out for Angelica sinensis (dried root), one of the most potent immunostimulatory herbs in JTT. The sequencing revealed a total of 519 bacteria genera in A. sinensis. The most abundant genus was Rahnella, which is widely distributed in water and plants. The abundance of Rahnella appeared to correlate with the immunostimulatory activity of A. sinensis. In conclusion, the current study provided new pieces of evidence supporting the emerging theory of bacterial contribution in immune-boosting herbs. PMID:25547935

  18. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of ?-Ray Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in ?-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  19. Identification of metabolites of Buyang Huanwu Decoction in rat urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Liu, E-Hu; Yang, Jie; Li, Chang-Yin; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-QTOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines. PMID:22591804

  20. Screening of 20 Commonly Used Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants Against Urease

    PubMed Central

    Biglar, Mahmood; Sufi, Hessameddin; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Amanlou, Massoud; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pyloriis the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers. About more than 80 % of people are infected with H. pylori in developing countries. H. pylori uses urease enzyme product “ammonia” in order to neutralize and protect itself from the stomach acidic condition and urease enzyme activity has been shown to be essential to the colonization of H. pylori. Inhibitory activity of 20 traditional medicinal plants were examined and evaluated against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction to obtains natural sources of urease inhibitors. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol, then tested its IC50 value was determined. Eight of the whole 20 studied plants crude extracts were found the most effective with IC50 values of less than 100 μg/mL including Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Angelica archangelica, Acorus calamus, Allium sativum,Curcuma longa, and Citrus aurantium extracts, from which most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Zingiber officinale, Laurus nobilis, and Nigella sativa with IC50 values of 48.54, 48.69 and 59.10 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:24711846

  1. Caging a Beast in the Inflammation Arena: Use of Chinese Medicinal Herbs to Inhibit a Late Mediator of Lethal Sepsis, HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianhua; Sama, Andrew E.; Wang, Haichao

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection, which kills > 225,000 people annually in the U.S. alone. The high mortality of sepsis is partly mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF) and late (e.g., HMGB1) pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although early proinflammatory cytokines may be protective against infection, excessive accumulation of late-acting proinflammatory mediators (such as HMGB1) may sustain a potentially injurious inflammatory response. Agents capable of inhibiting HMGB1 activities (e.g., neutralizing antibodies) or release [e.g., Chinese herbs, Danggui (Angelica sinensis), Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Green tea (Camellia sinensis)] rescue mice from lethal sepsis even when given 24 hours after onset of the disease. Here we review emerging evidence that support a critical role for extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal sepsis, and several commonly used Chinese herbs (Danggui, Danshen and Green tea) as potential HMGB1- targeting therapeutic agents in experimental sepsis. PMID:19079688

  2. Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

  3. Houshiheisan compound prescription protects neurovascular units after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haizheng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Qiuxia

    2014-04-01

    Houshiheisan is composed of wind-dispelling (chrysanthemun flower, divaricate saposhnikovia root, Manchurian wild ginger, cassia twig, Szechwan lovage rhizome, and platycodon root) and deficiency-nourishing (ginseng, Chinese angelica, large-head atractylodes rhizome, Indian bread, and zingiber) drugs. In this study, we assumed these drugs have protective effects against cerebral ischemia, on neurovascular units. Houshiheisan was intragastrically administered in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot assays showed that Houshiheisan reduced pathological injury to the ischemic penumbra, protected neurovascular units, visibly up-regulated neuronal nuclear antigen expression, and down-regulated amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-? 42 expression. Wind-dispelling and deficiency-nourishing drugs maintained NeuN expression to varying degrees, but did not affect amyloid precursor protein or amyloid-? 42 expression in the ischemic penumbra. Our results suggest that the compound prescription Houshiheisan effectively suppresses abnormal amyloid precursor protein accumulation, reduces amyloid substance deposition, maintains stabilization of the internal environment of neurovascular units, and minimizes injury to neurovascular units in the ischemic penumbra. PMID:25206882

  4. AB166. Recovery of spermatogenesis of KH-465 herbal extract for LHRH agonist induced male infertility in rat

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Choi, Hye Min; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Park, Nam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective The development of new effective drug to stimulate the spermatogenesis on the patients with various causes of male infertility has been proposed in the clinical field. We studied the usefulness of the two herbal extract mixture, KH-465, consisted of Epimedium Koreanum and Angelica Gigas as a spermatogenesis enhancer. Methods Experimental spermatogenic failure was made by administrating leuprolide acetate (Leuprin, Takeda Pharm.) 3.75 mg intramuscular injection in 12 weeks Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided to 5 groups of control group and experimental group I, II, III & IV with Leuprin only, Leuprin & depot testosterone 10.5 mg intramuscular injection, Leuprin & 4 weeks administration of KH-465 400 mg/kg, and Leuprin & 4 weeks administration of KH-465 600 mg/kg, respectively. The weight changes of testis and epididymis, serum hormone levels of FSH, LH, T and free T, sperm count and motility within epididymis and the level of oxidative stress with SOD and OHdG were estimated. Results The weight changes of testis and epididymis were not significant among control and all experimental groups. T, free T and epididymal seminal parameters were significantly increased in groups III & IV, but FSH and LH not changed. Oxidative stress markers were improved significantly only in group IV. Conclusions The enhancing effect of KH-465 herbal extract on spermatogenesis was suggested from this result. Additionally, the separation of pure effective components from herbal extract in this study and the mechanism of its effect would be performed in the future.

  5. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper. PMID:7842869

  6. 15 CFR 995.3 - Availability of other publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... guidance you may obtain the following: (1) IEC 61174—The International Electrotechnical Commission identified and described the necessary performance tests and checks for an International Maritime... the International Hydrographic Bureau, 4 quai Antoine 1er, B.P. 445, MC 98011 MONACO CEDEX;...

  7. 15 CFR 995.3 - Availability of other publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... guidance you may obtain the following: (1) IEC 61174—The International Electrotechnical Commission identified and described the necessary performance tests and checks for an International Maritime... the International Hydrographic Bureau, 4 quai Antoine 1er, B.P. 445, MC 98011 MONACO CEDEX;...

  8. 15 CFR 995.3 - Availability of other publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... guidance you may obtain the following: (1) IEC 61174—The International Electrotechnical Commission identified and described the necessary performance tests and checks for an International Maritime... the International Hydrographic Bureau, 4 quai Antoine 1er, B.P. 445, MC 98011 MONACO CEDEX;...

  9. 15 CFR 995.3 - Availability of other publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... guidance you may obtain the following: (1) IEC 61174—The International Electrotechnical Commission identified and described the necessary performance tests and checks for an International Maritime... the International Hydrographic Bureau, 4 quai Antoine 1er, B.P. 445, MC 98011 MONACO CEDEX;...

  10. Development of a Competitive Binding Assay System with Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Multiple Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the current study, we developed a new system using full-length recombinant baculovirus-expressed estrogen receptors which allows for direct comparison of binding across species. Estrogen receptors representing five vertebrate classes were compared: human (hER?), quai...

  11. Evidence for a palaeo-oil column and alteration of residual oil in a gas-condensate field: Integrated oil inclusion and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Burruss, Robert C.; Chou, I.-Ming; Kempton, Richard; Liu, Keyu; Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2014-10-01

    In the Phuong Dong gas condensate field, Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam, hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz trapped a variety of petroleum fluids in the gas zone. Based on the attributes of the oil inclusion assemblages (fluorescence colour of the oil, bubble size, presence of bitumen), the presence of a palaeo-oil column is inferred prior to migration of gas into the reservoir. When a palaeo-oil column is displaced by gas, a residual volume fraction of oil remains in pores. If the gas does not completely mix with the oil, molecular partitioning between the residual oil and the new gas charge may change the composition and properties of the residual oil (gas stripping or gas washing). To simulate this phenomenon in the laboratory, we sealed small amounts of crude oil (42 and 30 API) and excess pure gas (methane, ethane, or propane) in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs), with and without water. These mixtures were characterized with the same methods used to characterize the fluid inclusions, heating and cooling stage microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature, mixtures of ethane and propane with the 30 API oil formed a new immiscible fluorescent liquid phase with colour that is visually more blue than the initial oil. The fluorescence of the original oil phase shifted to yellow or disappeared with formation of semi-solid residues. The blue-shift of the fluorescence of the immiscible phases and strong CH stretching bands in FT-IR spectra are consistent with stripping of hydrocarbon molecules from the oil. In experiments in FSCCs with water solid residues are common. At elevated temperature, reproducing geologic reservoir conditions, the fluorescence changes and therefore the molecular fractionation are enhanced. However, the precipitation of solid residues is responsible of more complex changes. Mixing experiments with the 42 API oil do not form a new immiscible hydrocarbon liquid although the fluorescence displays a similar yellow shift when gas is added. Solid residues rarely form in mixtures with 42 API oil. FT-IR spectra suggest that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of the original oil at short wavelengths to be due to the partitioning of low molecular weight aromatic molecules into the vapour phase and/or the new immiscible liquid phase. The decrease of fluorescence intensity at long wavelengths appears to be due to loss of high molecular weight aromatics during precipitation of solid residues by desorption of aromatics and resins from asphaltenes. Desorption of low molecular weight aromatics and resins from asphaltenes during precipitation can also increase the fluorescence intensity at short wavelengths of the residual oil. Water clearly affects the precipitation of semi-solid residues from the oil phase of the lowest API gravity oil. The change of hydrocarbon phase(s) in UV-visible fluorescence and FT-IR enclosed within the FSCCs were compared with the fluorescence patterns of natural fluid inclusions at Phuong Dong gas condensate field. The experimental results support the concept of gas-washing of residual oil and are consistent with the oil inclusion attributes from the current gas zone at Phuong Dong field. The hydrocarbon charge history of the fractured granite reservoir is interpreted to result from the trapping of residual oil after drainage of a palaeo-oil column by gas.

  12. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Luo, X. B.; Isobe, M.; Yuan, G. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  13. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Liu, Yi; Luo, X B; Isobe, M; Yuan, G L; Liu, Y Q; Hua, Y; Song, X Y; Yang, J W; Li, X; Chen, W; Li, Y; Yan, L W; Song, X M; Yang, Q W; Duan, X R

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the ?-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported. PMID:24880364

  14. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. P. Liu, Yi; Yuan, G. L.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Luo, X. B.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Isobe, M.

    2014-05-15

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team , Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  15. Study on Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (CMB) in Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Chang, C.; Wang, C. J.; Wang, B.

    2007-05-01

    The profiles of major Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sources including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, painting, asphalt, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biomass burning and petrochemical industry in Pearl River Delta were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken by using dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, laboratory simulation for biomass burning. The concentrations of 108 VOC species of sources were quantified by using canister with pre-concentration-GC/MS system, from which 52 PAMS hydrocarbons and one kind of chlorinated hydrocarbon were deployed to build the source profiles for source apportionment of VOCs. Based the measurement of source profiles, the possible tracers for various emission sources were identified, e.g 2-methylbutane and 1,3-butadiene were the tracers for motor vehicle exhaust, the characteristic compounds of architectural and furnishing coatings are aromatics such as toluene and m/p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and the nonane, decane and undecane are found to represent the asphalt emissions etc.. The CMB receptor model was applied to source apportionment of 58 hydrocarbons measured at seven sites during the PRD campaign, 2004. The 12 kinds of VOC sources include gasoline/diesel-powered vehicle exhaust, gasoline/diesel headspace vapor, vehicle evaporative emissions, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage, painting vapors, asphalt emission from paved road, biomass burning, coal burning, chemical industry and petroleum refinery. Vehicle exhaust was the largest sources contributing over half of the ambient VOCs at the three urban sites (GuangZhou, FoShan and ZhongShan). LPG leakage played an important role with the percentage of 8- 16% in most sites in PRD. Contributions from solvents usage were highest at DongGuan, an industrial site. At XinKen, the solvents and coatings had the largest percentage of 31% probably due to the influence of its upwind area of DongGuan. The local biomass burning was also found to be a noticeable source at XK.

  16. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1 to below the detection limits, respectively. The experimental results suggested that the amendment of surface coating agents can be a promising alternative for inhibition of sulfide oxidation at AMD sites.

  17. Dongsha Area Gas-hydrate Petroleum System in northern Slope of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pibo, Su; Zhibin, Sha

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in addressing key issues on the formation, occurrence,and stability of gas hydrate in nature. The concept of a gas-hydrate petroleum system, similar to the system that guides current conventional oil and gas exploration,is gaining acceptance.A gas-hydrate petroleum systems model is a digital data model of a gas-hydrate petroleum system in which the interrelated processes and their results can be simulated by numerical modeling.A new module of gas-hydrate petroleum system simulating can predict the thickness of the gas hydrate stability field, the generation and migration of biogenic and thermogenic methane gas,and its accumulation as gas hydrates in gas hydrate stability field. Dongsha area is located to eastern part of the Pearl River Mouth basin, and is one of the key hydrate-exploration areas in China. However, the gas hydrate petroleum system and basin modeling in Dongsha area haven't been paid enough attention. In the paper,geological conditions for gas hydrate formation have been naturally prepared on the Dong sha area.The paper first analyzed the geological-tectonic conditions of gas hydrate formation in Dongsha area,and selected the typical sections in Dong sha uplift area and southwest taiwan basin.The geological models of gas hydrate reservoir in the two study area were constructed through the typical seismic image.The typical seismic lines are obtained from the two study area by Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey.In combination with physical,thermal and geochemical data,the match condition of gas hydrate formation was studied.by sedimentary basin simulation technique.The research results is as followed:1.In southwest taiwan basin Basin, thermal developing history is low in deep department stratum,Source of gas of hydrate come from shallower biogenic gas;2.In Dongsha uplift areas,the thickness of Cenozoic is thin and the Sediment is limited,so biogenic gas was scarce,Source of gas of hydrate come from a nearby depression;3.Comparatively speaking,southwest taiwan basin is a better area for gas hydrate formation.

  18. Challenges in analysing ambient noise to characterise seismic slope response in complex site conditions: the case of hillslopes in Qiaozhuang (Sichuan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Vincenzo; Wasowski, Janusz; Luo, Yonghong; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Yungsheng

    2015-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 12th, 2008 shattered and induced failures on slopes of hills surroundings the centre of the town of Qiaozhuang, located 300 Km NE of the mainshock epicentre. This motivated the initial investigations on the possible occurrence of topographic amplification phenomena, which were conducted through a temporary accelerometer monitoring carried out between April and October 2009 on Weigan hill and Mount Dong, located SW and NE of the Qiaozhuang centre, respectively. In both cases, the amplification factors were found higher at sites closer to the hilltop and lower near the foot of the slope (Luo et al., 2014). However, the general characteristics of slope response also revealed that resonance phenomena were controlled by the local geological setting characterised by Silurian phyllites with sub-vertical schistosity (at Weigan) and by fractured Precambrian limestones (at Dong). To further investigate local slope response, ambient noise recordings, based on the calculation of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVNR or Nakamura method), were also conducted on several sites in the peri-urban area, including those occupied by the accelerometer stations. The latter provided the possibility to validate the outcomes of ambient noise analysis. Data interpretation has been hampered by a contingent factor, i.e. the occurrence of environmental conditions characterised by a strong E-W oriented peak at low frequencies (below 1 Hz), and by the locally complex structural setting. For example, in the case of Weigan hill the sub-vertical schistosity appeared responsible for a considerable amplification of vertical ground motion. The former problem implies the need of a repetition of measurements under different environmental conditions to distinguish permanent, site-specific properties of noise related to slope dynamic response. By altering the H/V ratio, the presence of vertical amplification represents an obstacle for a routine data analysis and a straightforward interpretation of results. Therefore, further developments in advanced techniques of noise data analysis techniques appear necessary to facilitate the extraction of reliable information on seismic response of slopes in geologically complex conditions. Reference Luo Y., Del Gaudio V., Huang R., Wang Y. & Wasowski J., 2014: Evidence of hillslope directional amplification from accelerometer recordings at Qiaozhuang (Sichuan -- China). Engineering Geology, 183, 193-207, doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.10.015.

  19. n-Butylidenephthalide Protects against Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration and α-Synuclein Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ru-Huei; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chen, Chang-Shi; Chang, Wen-Lin; Chen, Yue-Mi; Huang, Jing-En; Li, Rong-Jhu; Tsai, Sung-Yu; Hung, Huey-Shan; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Wang, Yu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills and cognitive function. To date, the disease has no effective therapies. The identification of new drugs that provide benefit in arresting the decline seen in PD patients is the focus of much recent study. However, the lengthy time frame for the progression of neurodegeneration in PD increases both the time and cost of examining potential therapeutic compounds in mammalian models. An alternative is to first evaluate the efficacy of compounds in Caenorhabditis elegans models, which reduces examination time from months to days. n-Butylidenephthalide is the naturally-occurring component derived from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis. It has been shown to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties, but no reports have yet described the effects of n-butylidenephthalide on PD. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for n-butylidenephthalide to improve PD in C. elegans models. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, we employed a pharmacological strain that expresses green fluorescent protein specifically in dopaminergic neurons (BZ555) and a transgenic strain that expresses human α-synuclein in muscle cells (OW13) to investigate the antiparkinsonian activities of n-butylidenephthalide. Our results demonstrate that in PD animal models, n-butylidenephthalide significantly attenuates dopaminergic neuron degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine; reduces α-synuclein accumulation; recovers lipid content, food-sensing behavior, and dopamine levels; and prolongs life-span of 6-hydroxydopamine treatment, thus revealing its potential as a possible antiparkinsonian drug. n-Butylidenephthalide may exert its effects by blocking egl-1 expression to inhibit apoptosis pathways and by raising rpn-6 expression to enhance the activity of proteasomes. Conclusions/Significance n-Butylidenephthalide may be one of the effective neuroprotective agents for PD. PMID:24416384

  20. Treatment with QiBaoMeiRan, a Kidney-Invigorating Chinese Herbal Formula, Antagonizes Estrogen Decline in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-ping; Ding, Jie; Liu, Zhen-li; Song, Zhi-qian; Liu, Hong-ning

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) contain multi-interactive compounds that have been used for treatment of peri-menopausal syndrome and have become a new phytoestrogens resource. The QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR), including Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Semen Cuscutae, Fructus Lycii, Poria, and Fructus Psoraleae, has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function. However, no evidence base links QBMR to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertook a characterization of estrogenic activity of QBMR using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were treated with QBMR at doses of 0.875, 1.75, and 3.5 grams/kg per day for 8 weeks. QBMR treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by vaginal cornification, reversal of atrophy of uterus, vagina, and mammary gland, and up-regulation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression in the reproductive target tissues, where ER? up-regulation was stronger than that of ER?. Meanwhile, treatment with QBMR significantly increased adrenal weight and serum estradiol levels and tended to decrease serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QBMR significantly decreased weight gain and rectal temperature increase caused by ovariectomy, and the largest changes in rectal temperature were found at the lowest dose. The data suggest that QBMR's estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QBMR components. This study demonstrates that QBMR activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QBMR treatment of post-menopausal symptoms. PMID:24773352

  1. HPLCMS/MS Analysis of a Traditional Chinese Medical Formulation of Bu-Yang-Huan-Wu-Tang and Its Pharmacokinetics after Oral Administration to Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is one of the most popular formulated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, and is widely for prevention of ischemic cardio-cerebral vascular diseases and stroke-induced disability. A specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the nine main bioactive components, i.e., astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV, formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside, ligustilide and paeoniflorin in rat plasma after oral administration of BYHWT extract. This method was applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics in conscious and freely moving rats. No significant matrix effects were observed. The overall analytical procedure was rapid and reproducible, which makes it suitable for quantitative analysis of a large number of samples. Among them, three astragalosides and four isoflavones in A. membranaceus, ligustilide in Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra were identified. This developed method was then successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of the nine bioactive constituents after oral administration of BYHWT extracts in rats. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV and ligustilide presented the phenomenon of double peaks. The other herbal ingredients of formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside and paeoniflorin appeared together in a single and plateau absorption phase. These phenomenona suggest that these components may have multiple absorption sites, regulation of enterohepatic circulation or the gastric emptying rate, or there is ingredient-ingredient interaction. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to better understand the absorption mechanism of BYHWT and to support additional clinical evaluation. PMID:22952787

  2. What has been overlooked on study of Chinese materia medica in the West?

    PubMed

    Liu, Willow J H

    2015-07-01

    Chinese materia medica (CMM), including Chinese herbal, animal, and mineral medicine, has been widely researched in the past century for their biological and pharmacological activities. However, their mechanism and clinical efficacy studies did not always give expected results. For example, the most commonly used Chinese herb for menstrual disorders, Radix Angelicae sinensis, showed neither estrogenic nor progesteronic activity in laboratory and clinical studies. Its efficacy should not be denied simply based on such results, because it is mostly used together with other herbs in formulae. Moreover, its regulation on menstruation may take effect through other mechanisms, such as regulation of blood circulation. The key difference of Chinese medicine (CM) from conventional medicine is its unique holistic view on human body and diseases. CMM is mostly applied in clinic in the form of formulae. Study on individual CMM, simply using methods for development of conventional drugs, is unable to thoroughly reveal the power of CMM formulae. The reason may partly result from improper design due to the lack understanding about application principle of CMMs in CM, and/or to current lack of knowledge about the causes of some symptoms and diseases. This paper will introduce the importance of qi and blood in CM etiology and pathology, Zheng differentiation, formulation of CMMs, and explain why one formula can treat different diseases and one disease can be treated with different formulae. Examples in the paper will demonstrate that proper studies on Zheng and its corresponding clinically proven formulae could help scientists find new direction to explain and treat symptoms and diseases that so far modern medicine has been unable to, provided that the designer properly understands CM theories, etiology and pathology of CM, as well as modern medicine. Strategy suggestions about research methods for CMM and its formulae will be given at the end. PMID:26156100

  3. n-Butylidenephthalide (BP) Maintains Stem Cell Pluripotency by Activating Jak2/Stat3 Pathway and Increases the Efficiency of iPS Cells Generation

    PubMed Central

    Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chien, Ying-Jiun; Chang, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagentleukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 g/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The gene expression levels of cytokines associated with the Jak2-Stat3 pathway were also up-regulated. Last, we used pou5f1-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following BP treatment. Our data demonstrate the ability of BP to maintain stem cell pluripotency via the Jak2-Stat3 pathway by inducing cytokine expression levels, at the same time improving iPS generation efficiency. PMID:22970157

  4. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Lu, Zhidan; Xing, Jing; Wang, Na; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra), has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group) and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days) plus conventional therapy (XBJ group). Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02) compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001) compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all P<0.05), but these values were significant improved in the XBJ group (all P<0.05). Only one patient had skin rash with itch within 30 minutes after injection and no severe adverse events were found in the XBJ group. In conclusion, XBJ treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events. PMID:25923333

  5. Effect of a Korean traditional formulation, Hwaotang, on superoxide generation in human neutrophils, platelet aggregation in human blood, and nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 production and paw oedema induced by carrageenan in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Hwan; Park, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-02-01

    Hwaotang, a traditional Korean medicinal formulation, is a dried decoctum of a mixture of 7 herbal medicines, consisting of Angelica gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae radix, Paeoniae radix, Ciniamomi cortex, Cnidii rhizoma, Persicae semen and Carthami flos. We have investigated that Hwaotang water extract (HOT) has various effects on stimulus-induced superoxide generation in human neutrophils. The effects of HOT on superoxide generation in human neutrophils were investigated. HOT significantly inhibited N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced superoxide generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but not that induced by arachidonic acid (AA). On the other hand, HOT enhanced superoxide generation induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The superoxide generation induced by PMA with HOT was suppressed by staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but was not suppressed by genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of a 58 kDa protein, which was increased by fMLP, was inhibited by HOT. HOT also inhibited the generation of a 47 kDa protein and platelet aggregation in human blood. The results suggest that protein tyrosine kinase participates in fMLP-mediated superoxide generation by HOT-treated human neutrophils. HOT inhibited neutrophil functions, including degranulation, superoxide generation, and leukotriene B4 production, without any effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. HOT reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, whereas no influence on the activity of iNOS, COX-2 or COX-1 was observed. HOT significantly reduced mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan. Western blot analysis showed that HOT reduced the expression of iNOS and COX-2. The results indicate that HOT exerts anti-inflammatory effects related to the inhibition of neutrophil functions and of NO and prostaglandin E2 production, which could be due to a decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2. PMID:15106732

  6. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows. PMID:24467962

  7. Effects of traditional herbal medicine, Hwaotang, on atherosclerosis using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic rabbits and the venous thrombosis rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Hwan; Hong, Mun-Yeob; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-10-01

    Hwaotang (HOT), a traditional Korean medicinal formulation, is a dried decoctum of a mixture of seven herbal medicines, consisting of Angelica gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae Radix, Paeoniae Radix, Ciniamomi Cortex, Cnidii Rhizoma, Persicae Semen and Carthami Flos. In the present study, the inhibitory effects and anti thrombic properties of HOT on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions were studied using the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits and rats. Changes in blood chemistry, pathology and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were measured in a control and HOT group. In the control group, the area of atheromatous plaques of the aorta progressed between week 12 (36.65%) and week 14 (46.22%). This progression of atherosclerotic lesions did not occur in the HOT-treated group after 12 (24.24%) and 14 (23.34%) weeks. Antioxidative effects on LDL were seen in the HOT in weeks 12 and 14. HOT improved the hypercholesterolemia in the KHC rabbits. On the other hand, HOT and five of the seven herbs, except Cnidii Rhizoma and Carthami Flos, inhibited the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis in high cholesterol diet-treated rats. However, Ciniamomi Cortex showed a very weak inhibitory effect on the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis. The extract also inhibited the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood platelets and fibrinogen, and endotoxin-induced increase in fibrin degradation products (FDP) on disseminated intravascular coagulation in normal rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that HOT has inhibitory effects on the development of atheromatous plaque formation in spontaneous FH rabbits. It is also suggested that the antioxidative effects of HOT on LDL led to the beneficial effects observed in this study. The protection by HOT and its herbs on the artificially induced ischemic infarction might be related to their inhibitory effects on disseminated intravascular coagulation, platelet coagulation and thrombotic action. PMID:16261513

  8. Single-dose Intramuscular Injection Toxicology of Danggui Pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, SeungHo; Jeong, JongJin; Park, Sunju; Lee, KwangHo; Yu, JunSang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, KiRok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess both the approximate lethal dose and the single dose intramuscular injection toxicity of Danggui (Angelica gigantis radix) pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The experiments were conducted at the good laboratory practice (GLP) laboratory, Biotoxtech Co., which is a laboratory approved by the ministry of food and drug safety (MFDS). The study was performed according to the GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the MFDS (2009) after approval of the institutional animal care and use committee of Biotoxtech. Single doses of DGP were injected intramuscularly into the rats in three test groups of 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per groups) in the amounts of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/animal for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and normal saline solution in the amount of 1.0 mL/animal was injected intramuscularly into the rats (5 male and 5 female rats) in the control group. Observations of the general symptoms and weight measurements were performed during the 14 day observation period after the injection. Hematologic and serum biochemical examination, necropsy, and a local tolerance test at the injection site were done after the observation period. Results: No death was observed in three test groups (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/animal group). In addition, the injection of DGP had no effect on general symptoms, weights, hematologic and serum biochemical examination, and necropsy. The results from the local tolerance tests at injection site showed no treatment related effects in the SD rats. Conclusion: The results of single dose intramuscular injection of DGP suggest that the approximate lethal dose is above 1.0 mL/animal for both male and female SD rats and that intramuscular injection of DGP may be safe. PMID:25830059

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine Xuebijing Treatment Is Associated with Decreased Mortality Risk of Patients with Moderate Paraquat Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Xing, Jing; Wang, Na

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra), has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group) and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days) plus conventional therapy (XBJ group). Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02) compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001) compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all P<0.05), but these values were significant improved in the XBJ group (all P<0.05). Only one patient had skin rash with itch within 30 minutes after injection and no severe adverse events were found in the XBJ group. In conclusion, XBJ treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events. PMID:25923333

  10. Comparative metabolomics analysis on invigorating blood circulation for herb pair Gui-Hong by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujiao; Lin, Hang; Tang, Yuping; Li, Weixia; Shen, Juan; Kai, Jun; Yue, Shijun; Shang, Guanxiong; Zhu, Zhenhua; Shang, Erxin; Zhang, Changbin; Zhang, Li; Yan, Hui; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-03-25

    The compatibility of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG) and Flos Carthami (Honghua, HH), a famous herb pair Gui-Hong (GH), can produce synergistic and promoting blood effects. Although some physiological and pathological function parameters of the acute blood stasis have been investigated, little information about the changes of small metabolites in biofluids has been reported. In present study, global metabolic profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) combined with pattern recognition method was performed to discover the underlying blood-activating regulation mechanisms of DG, HH and GH on the acute blood stasis rats induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenaline hydrochloride and ice water bath. The total 14 metabolites (10 in urine and 4 in plasma), up regulated or down regulated (P<0.05 or 0.01), were identified and contributed to the acute blood stasis progress. These promising identified biomarkers underpin the metabolic pathway including phenylalanine metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism are disturbed in the acute blood stasis rats, which identified by using pathway analysis with MetPA. The altered metabolites and hemorheological indexes could be regulated closer to normal level after DG, HH and GH intervention. In term of activate blood circulation function, GH was the most effective as shown by the relative distance in PLS-DA score plots and relative intensity of metabolomics trategy, reflecting the synergic action between Danggui and Honghua. The results demonstrated that biofluids metabolomics was a powerful tool in clinical diagnosis and treatment of syndrome of blood stasis for providing information on changes in metabolites pathways. PMID:25668798

  11. Differentiation of five species of Danggui raw materials by FTIR combined with 2D-COS IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Rui; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Xu, Chang-Hua; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Qun; Lu, Guang-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Five herbs named as Chinese Danggui (CDG), Japanese Danggui (JDG), Korea Danggui (KDG), Lovage root (LR) and Angelica root (AR) are widely and confusedly used in eastern and western countries owing to their homonym. These herbs come from different plant species resulting in the variety of bioactive components and medical efficacy. A method combing tri-step IR macro-fingerprinting techniques with statistical pattern recognition was therefore employed discriminate the five herbs in order to assure their genuineness. A total of 26 samples were collected and identified by conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-COS IR) spectroscopy. CDG and KDG were easily differentiated from others herbs by FTIR and SD-IR spectra. The characteristic peaks of CDG were located at 1068, 1051, 990, 909 and 867 cm-1, whilst KDG contained the peaks located at 1628, 1565, 1392, 1232 and 1136 cm-1. By 2D-COS IR spectra, the bands in the range of 950-1110 cm-1 could be a characteristic range to identify the five herbs. There were six auto-peaks located at 978, 991, 1028 (strongest), 1061, 1071 and 1097 cm-1 for CDG, six auto-peaks at 975, 991, 1026, 1053, 1070 (strongest) and 1096 cm-1 for KDG, five auto-peaks at 970, 1009, 1037, 1070 and 1096 (strongest) cm-1 for JDG, five auto-peaks at 973 (strongest), 1009, 1033, 1072 and 1099 cm-1 for LR, and five auto-peaks at 974 (strongest), 1010, 1033, 1072 and 1099 cm-1 for AR. Classification analysis of FTIR showed that these species located in different clusters. The results indicate the tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combines with principle component analysis (PCA) is suitable to rapidly and nondestructively differentiate these herbs.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of optic nerve injury treated by compound light granules and ciliary neurotrophic factor?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuying; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Jingxiang; Li, Peng; Wu, Yazhen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, rabbit models of optic nerve injury were reproduced by the clamp method. After modeling, rabbit models were given one injection of 50 ng recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor into the vitreous body and/or intragastric injection of 4 g/kg compound light granules containing Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Raidix Paeoniae Alba at 4 days after modeling, once per day for 30 consecutive days. After administration, the animals were sacrificed and the intraorbital optic nerve was harvested. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed that the injured optic nerve was thinner and optic nerve fibers were irregular. After treatment with recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor, the arrangement of optic nerve fibers was disordered but they were not markedly thinner. After treatment with compound light granules, the arrangement of optic nerve fibers was slightly disordered and their structure was intact. After combined treatment with recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor and compound light granules, the arrangement of optic nerve fibers was slightly disordered and the degree of injury was less than after either treatment alone. Results of tensile mechanical testing of the optic nerve showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress and maximum strain of the injured optic nerve were significantly lower than the normal optic nerve. After treatment with recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor and/or compound light granules, the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress and maximum strain of the injured optic nerve were significantly increased, especially after the combined treatment. These experimental findings indicate that compound light granules and ciliary neurotrophic factor can alleviate optic nerve injury at the histological and biochemical levels, and the combined treatment is more effective than either treatment alone. PMID:25317141

  13. A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 74 pesticides in Chinese material medica using modified QuEChERS sample preparation procedure and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Yun-Fei; Meng, Wen-Ting; Li, Dong-Xiang; Sun, Henry; Tong, Ling; Sun, Guo-Xiang

    2016-03-15

    The present study is focused on the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of seventy-four pesticides belonging to different chemical classes (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, dicarboximides, triazoles, etc.) in Chinese material medica. The samples were extracted according to the acetate QuEChERS protocol. To reduce the amount of co-extracted compounds, n-hexane instead of acetonitrile was employed as the extraction solvent. To improve the overall recoveries of problematic basic and base-sensitive compounds, sodium acetate was used to adjust the pH to a neutral condition, and florisil combined with octadecyl-modified silica (C18) were utilized in the cleanup step. The samples were analysed by GC-MS/MS, and quantified by matrix-matched calibration. The validation study was carried out on two representative herbs, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelica Sinensis Radix. In two matrices, the linearity of the calibration was good between 5 and 250ng/mL concentration ranges, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) less than 0.01mg/kg for most pesticides. At the LOQs and ten times the LOQs, the mean recoveries of almost all pesticides were within 70-120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 10%. The method was applied on twenty real samples. Seven batches of Chuanxiong and five batches of Danggui were found to contain the residues. The combination of modified QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS offers low cost of analysis as well as excellent accuracy and sensitivity. This method could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:26894850

  14. Ligustilide prevents cognitive impairment and attenuates neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging mice brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie-Jia; Zhu, Qing; Lu, Ya-Peng; Zhao, Peng; Feng, Zhan-Bo; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-21

    Ligustilide (LIG) is a principal active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine, Radix Angelica sinensis, which has versatile pharmacological activities including neuroprotection. Previous studies have demonstrated that LIG has beneficial effects on cognition deficits associated with cerebral damage or neurodegenerative disorders. In present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of LIG on cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in the brain of aging mouse induced by d-galactose (d-gal). The aging model mice were induced by subcutaneous (S.C.) injection of d-gal once daily for 8 weeks and LIG (80 mg/kg) was simultaneously administered orally. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess the spatial learning and memory abilities. The activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and the content of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain were examined. The levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), growth-associated protein GAP-43, and cleaved caspase-3 in brain were also determined by immunohistochemistry. The MWM test showed that LIG administration markedly improved behavioral performance of d-gal treated mice. This action could be partly explained by the results that LIG reduced the level of MDA as well as increased the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the brain of d-gal induced aging mice. Moreover, LIG significantly raised the expression of GAP-43 and reduced cleaved caspase-3 and GFAP levels in the brain of d-gal treated mice. These results demonstrated that LIG improves d-gal-induced cognitive dysfunction and brain toxicity, which suggests that LIG may be developed as a new medicine for the treatment of aged-related conditions. PMID:25446001

  15. Plant and Fungal Diversity in Gut Microbiota as Revealed by Molecular and Culture Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Gouba, Nina; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. Methodology/Principal Findings A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp.) species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta). Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda) are used as medicinal plants. Conclusions/Significance Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health. PMID:23555039

  16. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. Methods HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. Results In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-? secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. Conclusion HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:19292900

  17. Quantification of free coumarin and its liberation from glucosylated precursors by stable isotope dilution assays based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Michael

    2008-02-13

    A stable isotope dilution assay for the quantification of free coumarin and glucosylated coumarin precursors has been developed using [13C2]-coumarin as the internal standard. The doubly labeled coumarin was synthesized by reacting [13C2]-acetic anhydride with salicylic aldehyde and characterized by means of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The specifity of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry enabled unequivocal determination and sensitive quantitation of the odorant. Because of the very simple extraction procedure, free coumarin could be analyzed within 1h. For quantification of total coumarin, the odorant was liberated from its precursors by an incubation with hydrochloric acid or beta-glucosidase. In analyses of breakfast cereals, the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 9.9% ( n = 5) for total coumarin. When coumarin was added to butter cookies at a level of 10 microg/kg, a recovery of 94.1% was found. Further addition studies revealed a detection limit of 2.9 microg/kg and a quantification limit of 8.6 microg/kg. Application of the stable isotope dilution assay to several plants, foods, and essential oils revealed high contents in cassia products and those foods in which cassia has been used as an ingredient. In contrast to this, Ceylon cinnamon contained much less coumarin. The odorant was also quantified in woodruff, clover seeds, and the essential oils of lavender, citron, and chamomile. Only trace amounts were detected in carrots and the essential oils of peppermint and dill, whereas in bilberries, black raspberries, and Angelica roots, coumarin was below detectable levels. In Ceylon cinnamon and cassia, the odorant occurred mainly in its free form, whereas in fenugreek seeds and woodruff, 68 and 88% of the total coumarin content was liberated from glucosylated precursors, respectively. PMID:18197622

  18. Essential Oils from the Medicinal Herbs Upregulate Dopamine Transporter in Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Sun; Choi, Bang-sub; Kim, Sang Heon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jang, Chul Ho; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Dong-il; Jeon, Songhee; Koo, Byung-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, a component of the dopamine system, undergoes adaptive neurobiological changes from drug abuse. Prevention of relapse and reduction of withdrawal symptoms are still the major limitations in the current pharmacological treatments of drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of essential oils extracted from Elsholtzia ciliata, Shinchim, Angelicae gigantis Radix, and Eugenia caryophyllata, well-known traditional Korean medicines for addiction, on the modulation of dopamine system in amphetamine-treated cells and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect. The potential cytotoxic effect of essential oils was evaluated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells using cell viability assays. Quantification of DAT, p-CREB, p-MAPK, and p-Akt was done by immunoblotting. DAT was significantly reduced in cells treated with 50??M of amphetamine in a time-dependent manner. No significant toxicity of essential oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Shinchim was observed at doses of 10, 25, and 50??g/mL. However, essential oils from A. gigantis Radix at a dose of 100??g/mL and E. caryophyllata at doses of 50 and 100??g/mL showed cytotoxicity. Treatment with GBR 12909, a highly selective DAT inhibitor, significantly increased DAT expression compared with that of amphetamine only by enhancing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt. In addition, essential oils effectively induced hyperphosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), MAPK, and Akt, which resulted in DAT upregulation. Our study implies that the essential oils may rehabilitate brain dopamine function through increased DAT availability in abstinent former drug users. PMID:26295793

  19. Effects of Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine containing furanocoumarin derivatives, on the drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Junji; Takashima, Ayaka; Yoshida, Kousuke; Soraoka, Hiromi; Ding, Tong-Bin; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Motoki; Oniki, Kentaro; Miyata, Keishi; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2014-10-01

    Seijo-bofu-to, a traditional medicine used to treat acne in Asian countries, contains twelve herbal components, including Angelica dahurica root, a source of furanocoumarin derivatives. In this study, we investigated potential herb-drug interactions of seijo-bofu-to in healthy male volunteers. Thirty-two young, healthy, non-smoking males were assessed for the baseline activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase according to the urinary metabolic indices of 8-hr urine samples collected after the administration of a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan, and the ratio of urinary excretion of 6?-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. Thereafter, the volunteers received 3.75 g of seijo-bofu-to twice daily for 7 days and underwent the same tests on post-dose day 7. The geometric mean ratio of the CYP1A2 activity on day 7 to that observed at baseline was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.79, p = 0.001). The geometric mean phenotypic indices for CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 and xanthine oxidase on day 7 did not differ from the baseline values. The findings of the present study suggest that seijo-bofu-to may inhibit the activity of CYP1A2, whereas it is unlikely to participate in herb-drug interactions involving medications predominantly metabolized by CYP3A, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 or xanthine oxidase. PMID:24612940

  20. New discrimination method combining hit quality index based spectral matching and voting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanguk; Lee, Hyeseon; Chung, Hoeil

    2013-01-01

    A new discrimination method, called hit quality index (HQI)-voting, that uses the HQI for discriminant analysis has been developed. HQI indicates the degree of spectral matching between two spectra as known. In this method, a library sample yielding the highest HQI value for an unknown sample was initially searched and a group containing this sample was chosen as the group for the unknown sample. When overall spectral features of two groups are quite close to each other, many library samples with similar HQI values could be available for an unknown sample. In this situation, the simultaneous consideration of multiple votes (several library samples with close HQI values) for final decision would be more robust. In order to evaluate the discrimination performance of HQI-voting, three different near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic datasets composed of two sample groups were used: (1) domestic and imported sesame samples, (2) domestic and imported Angelica gigas samples, and (3) diesel and light gas oil (LGO) samples. For the purpose of comparison, principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as well as k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) were also performed using the same datasets and the resulting accuracies were compared. The discrimination performances improved with the use of HQI-voting in comparison with those resulted from PCA-LDA and PLS-DA. The overall results support that HQI-voting is a comparable discrimination method to that of existing factor-based multivariate methods. PMID:23245896

  1. N-Hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole presenting genotoxicity and cytotoxicity against human colon adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling-Yu; Huang, Wei-Jan; Lin, Ren-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2013-11-18

    Osthole is extracted from the Chinese herbs Cnidium monnieri and Angelica pubescens, and it was found to have antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. A series of osthole derivatives have been synthesized, and the N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole, WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 were found to have the greatest potential against human colon adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast to the parental osthole, both WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 were found to induce multinucleation and polyploidy by microscopic observation and flow cytometry. WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 significantly activated ataxia telangiectasia and rad3 related (ATR) kinase, which triggered activation of the checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) signaling pathway and then down regulated Cdc25 phosphatase and Cdc2/cyclin B kinase activities. WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 also inhibited the phosphorylation of Aurora A kinase, which is associated with important processes during mitosis. The presence of a "comet" DNA fragment and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser 15 clearly indicated that DNA damage occurred with WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 treatment. WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 ultimately induced apoptosis as evidenced by the upregulation of Bad and activation of caspases-3, -7, and -9. Furthermore, WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 also showed a great effect in attenuating tumor growth without affecting the body weight of xenograft nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the toxic activities of WJ1376-1 and WJ1398-1 were dissimilar to that of the parental osthole, which can induce cell polyploidy and G2/M cell cycle arrest in colon adenocarcinoma cells and may provide a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer treatment in the future. PMID:24127835

  2. Cluster K Mycobacteriophages: Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mycobacteriophage TM4

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Welkin H.; Ferreira, Christina M.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Benjamin, Robert C.; Davis, Ariangela J.; DeJong, Randall J.; Elgin, Sarah C. R.; Guilfoile, Forrest R.; Forsyth, Mark H.; Harris, Alexander D.; Harvey, Samuel E.; Hughes, Lee E.; Hynes, Peter M.; Jackson, Arrykka S.; Jalal, Marilyn D.; MacMurray, Elizabeth A.; Manley, Coreen M.; McDonough, Molly J.; Mosier, Jordan L.; Osterbann, Larissa J.; Rabinowitz, Hannah S.; Rhyan, Corwin N.; Russell, Daniel A.; Saha, Margaret S.; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Simon, Stephanie E.; Sims, Erika F.; Tovar, Isabel G.; Weisser, Emilie G.; Wertz, John T.; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen A.; Williamson, Kurt E.; Zhang, Bo; Cresawn, Steven G.; Jain, Paras; Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2011-01-01

    Five newly isolated mycobacteriophages Angelica, CrimD, Adephagia, Anaya, and Pixie have similar genomic architectures to mycobacteriophage TM4, a previously characterized phage that is widely used in mycobacterial genetics. The nucleotide sequence similarities warrant grouping these into Cluster K, with subdivision into three subclusters: K1, K2, and K3. Although the overall genome architectures of these phages are similar, TM4 appears to have lost at least two segments of its genome, a central region containing the integration apparatus, and a segment at the right end. This suggests that TM4 is a recent derivative of a temperate parent, resolving a long-standing conundrum about its biology, in that it was reportedly recovered from a lysogenic strain of Mycobacterium avium, but it is not capable of forming lysogens in any mycobacterial host. Like TM4, all of the Cluster K phages infect both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria, and all of them with the exception of TM4 form stable lysogens in both Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; immunity assays show that all five of these phages share the same immune specificity. TM4 infects these lysogens suggesting that it was either derived from a heteroimmune temperate parent or that it has acquired a virulent phenotype. We have also characterized a widely-used conditionally replicating derivative of TM4 and identified mutations conferring the temperature-sensitive phenotype. All of the Cluster K phages contain a series of well conserved 13 bp repeats associated with the translation initiation sites of a subset of the genes; approximately one half of these contain an additional sequence feature composed of imperfectly conserved 17 bp inverted repeats separated by a variable spacer. The K1 phages integrate into the host tmRNA and the Cluster K phages represent potential new tools for the genetics of M. tuberculosis and related species. PMID:22053209

  3. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Miao, Shui; Lehotay, Steven J; Li, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Heng; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Lu, Ji-Wei; Lan, Lan; Ji, Shen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, A. dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin and Lonicera japonica Thunb., was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background interference. For sample preparation, QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was applied. Due to the unique characteristics of TCMs, the clean-up step was optimised by adjusting amounts of primary secondary amine, C18, graphitised carbon black and silica sorbents. Validation was mainly performed by determining analyte recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 10, 50, 100 and 200 ng g(-1), with seven replicates at each concentration. Method trueness, precision, linearity of calibration curves, lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) and matrix effects were determined to demonstrate method and instrument performance. Among the 107 pesticides tested, approximately 80% gave recoveries from 80% to 110% and < 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). The LCLs for nearly all pesticides were 5 ng g(-1), and as low as 0.1 ng g(-1) for dichlofenthion, endosulfan sulphate, flumetralin, isofenphos-methyl, methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulphide and trifluralin. The results indicate that GC-NCI-MS/MS is an excellent technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of targeted GC-amenable pesticides at ultra-trace levels, especially in complex matrices such as TCMs. PMID:26125677

  4. An investigation into competence in TCM of BSN graduates from technological universities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chung, Ue-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what competences in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be possessed by Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) graduates from technological universities in Taiwan. There were two phases in this study: focus groups and expert panel discussion. First, we held four focus groups, and interviewed 31 participants, including consumers, nursing staff and clinical nursing faculty. The interview tapes were transcribed verbatim, were proofed for accuracy and the content was analyzed. The results were then discussed by four academic experts in a panel discussion. Results indicated that the TCM competences of BSN graduates from technological universities should include the following: (1) to understand the basic concepts of TCM, including Yin/Yang, the Five Evolutive Phases, holistic view, the Five Viscera and Six Bowels, Meridians, etiology, and concepts of therapy and health preservation; (2) to recognize the cold and hot nature of food; (3) to illustrate the common dietetic care for immune enhancement in the four seasons, and the foods that help postnatal and postoperative physical regeneration; (4) to illustrate the properties, indications, and administration of common Chinese medicines, including: Ginseng, Lycium, Astragalus, Angelica sinensis (danggui), Chrysanthemum, Pinellia, Zizyphi fructus; (5) to describe the properties, indications, adverse effects, and administration of Siwutang and Shenghuatang; (6) to describe basic principles of administering both Chinese medicine and Western medicine; (7) to describe the indications and cautions of the following techniques: acupuncture, scraping therapy, and cupping; (8) to implement acupressure as a measure for promoting comfort under the following conditions: pain, vomiting, insomnia, palpitations; and (9) to demonstrate an open mind and cautious attitude to respect consumers using TCM. Results of the study can serve as a reference for nurse educators when training BSN graduates from technological universities in TCM competences. PMID:18080975

  5. Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Lin, Po-Cheng; Liu, Cyong-Yue; Liu, Po-Yen; Chang, Li-Fu; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Liu, Fu-Chen; Tai, Dar-Fu; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that the natural compound z-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis, has antitumor effects. Because of the limitation of the blood-brain barrier, the Bdph dosage required for treatment of glioma is relatively high. To solve this problem, we developed a local-release system with Bdph incorporated into a biodegradable polyanhydride material, p(CPP-SA; Bdph-Wafer), and investigated its antitumor effects. On the basis of in vitro release kinetics, we demonstrated that the Bdph-Wafer released 50% of the available Bdph by the sixth day, and the release reached a plateau phase (90% of Bdph) by the 30th day. To investigate the in situ antitumor effects of the Bdph-Wafer on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we used 2 xenograft animal modelsF344 rats (for rat GBM) and nude mice (for human GBM)which were injected with RG2 and DBTRG-05MG cells, respectively, for tumor formation and subsequently treated subcutaneously with Bdph-Wafers. We observed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, with no significant adverse effects on the rodents. Moreover, we demonstrated that the antitumor effect of Bdph on RG2 cells was via the PKC pathway, which upregulated Nurr77 and promoted its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Finally, to study the effect of the interstitial administration of Bdph in cranial brain tumor, Bdph-Wafers were surgically placed in FGF-SV40 transgenic mice. Our Bdph-Wafer significantly reduced tumor size in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our study showed that p(CPP-SA) containing Bdph delivered a sufficient concentration of Bdph to the tumor site and effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the glioma. PMID:21565841

  6. Byakangelicin induces cytochrome P450 3A4 expression via transactivation of pregnane X receptors in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Luan, Xiaofei; Gui, Haiyan; Yan, Peng; Yang, Dongfang; Song, Xiulong; Liu, Wei; Hu, Gang; Yan, Bingfang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Byakangelicin is found in extracts of the root of Angelica dahurica, used in Korea and China as a traditional medicine to treat colds, headache and toothache. As byakangelicin can inhibit the effects of sex hormones, it may increase the catabolism of endogenous hormones. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of byakangelicin on the cytochrome P450 isoform cytochrome (CY) P3A4 in human hepatocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cultures of human hepatocytes and a hepatoma cell line (Huh7 cells) were used. mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Plasmid constructs and mutants were prepared by cloning and site-directed mutagenesis. Reporter (luciferase) activity was determined by transient co-transfection experiments. KEY RESULTS In human primary hepatocytes, byakangelicin markedly induced the expression of CYP3A4 both at the mRNA level (approximately fivefold) and the protein level (approximately threefold) but did not affect expression of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR). In reporter assays, byakangelicin activated CYP3A4 promoter in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50= 5 µM), and this activation was enhanced by co-transfection with hPXR. Further reporter assays demonstrated that the eNR4 binding element in the CYP3A4 promoter was required for the transcriptional activation of CYP3A4 by byakangelicin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Byakangelicin induced expression and activity of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. This induction was achieved by the transactivation of PXR and not by increased expression of PXR. Therefore, byakangelicin is likely to increase the expression of all PXR target genes (such as MDR1) and induce a wide range of drug–drug interactions. PMID:20942813

  7. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

  8. Synergistic antidepressant-like effect of ferulic acid in combination with piperine: involvement of monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Gaowen; Ruan, Lina; Chen, Ruijie; Wang, Renye; Xie, Xupei; Zhang, Meixi; Chen, Lichao; Yan, Qizhi; Reed, Miranda; Chen, Jiechun; Xu, Ying; Pan, Jianchun; Huang, Wu

    2015-12-01

    The lifetime prevalence rate for major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately 17 % for most developed countries around the world. Dietary polyphenols are currently used as an adjuvant therapy to accelerate the therapeutic efficacy on depression. Ferulic acid (FA) or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid (Fig. 1a) is a main polyphenolic component of Chinese herb Radix Angelicae Sinensis, which is found to have antidepressant-like effects through regulating serotonergic and noradrenergic function. The present study examined the synergistic effect of low doses of FA combined with subthreshold dose of piperine, a bioavailability enhancer, on depression-like behaviors in mice, and investigated the possible mechanism. The administration of FA, even in the highest dose tested, reduced immobility time by 60 % in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests (TST and FST) in mice when compared to control. The maximal antidepressant-like effect of FA was obtained with 200 mg/kg. In addition, piperine only produced a weak antidepressant-like effect in the TST and FST. However, the evidence from the interaction analysis suggested a synergistic effect when low doses of FA were combined with a subthreshold dose of piperine. Further neurochemical evidence such as monoamine levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus and measurements of monoamine oxidase activity also supported a synergistic effect of FA and piperine in the enhancement of monoaminergic function. This finding supports the concept that the combination strategy might be an alternative therapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with high efficacy and low side effects. PMID:26220010

  9. Simultaneous determination of seven coumarins by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and arthritic rats after oral administration of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan or single-herb extract.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Fenrong; Ai, Yu; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2015-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of seven coumarins, the bio-active ingredients of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), in rat plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method with ether-dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) was used to prepare the plasma samples. Analytes and internal standard (IS) of bifendate were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75mm×3.0mm, 2.2μm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.05% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 0.03-0.25ng/mL for all the analytes. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the seven analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The matrix effect and the mean extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all within satisfaction. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the seven active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and arthritic rats after oral administration of HLXLD, Angelica pubescens extract and Notopterygium incisum extract, respectively. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes among the different groups. PMID:25932790

  10. Gandhi and Mao on manual labour in the school: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariah, Mathew; Hoffman, Arlene

    1985-12-01

    Mahatma Gandhi's views on relating the world of formal education to the world of work were developed first in his experimental `Tolstoy Farm' in South Africa. On his return to India, Gandhi insisted that a required manual labour component in the curriculum would help regenerate India's village economy, develop in India's children a deeper understanding of India's cultural roots, motivate children to relate `book learning' to life in society, and destroy invidious caste distinctions. The major proposals and suggestions in Gandhi's writing will be discussed in the context of his hopes for using schooling as an agent of progress in India. Mao Ze-Dong's views, on the other hand, were developed in the context of his Yenan experience in the 1930s, i.e. the decision to consolidate a power base in the interior of China before waging a class war against the landlords and capitalists of China. Mao's views were also, to some extent, rooted in the Chinese reality of stagnant, poverty-stricken rural areas. But, Mao's writings indicate that Marxist hopes to relate theory and practice (as understood in dialectical materialism) and to ensure that everyone participated in mental as well as manual labour in a socialist society had led him to formulate his proposals. Both Gandhi's and Mao's views and proposals have been more or less abandoned in India and China respectively. The similar and dissimilar reasons which led to such a fate are examined in this retrospective analysis.

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 ; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  12. Driving experience and special skills reflected in eye movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Atvars, Aigars

    2011-10-01

    When driving a vehicle, people use the central vision both to plan ahead and monitor their performance feedback (research by Donges, 1978 [1], and after). Discussion is ongoing if making eye movements do more than gathering information. Moving eyes may also prepare the following body movements like steering. Different paradigms exist to explore vision in driving. Our perspective was to quantify eye movements and fixation patterns of different proficiency individuals, a driving learner, a novice, an experienced driver and a European level car racer. Thus for safety reasons we started by asking them to follow a video tour through a known city, remote from an infrared eye tracker sampling at 250 Hz. We report that gaze strategy of an experienced driver differs qualitatively from that of an automobile sports master. Quantitative differences only were found between the latter and a driving learner or a novice driver. Experience in a motor action provides skills different from sports training. We are aiming at testing this finding in real world driving.

  13. Dominance of the Breit interaction in the cross section and circular polarization of x-ray radiation following longitudinally-polarized-electron-impact excitation of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin; Dong, Chen-Zhong; Jiang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Longitudinally-polarized-electron-impact excitation cross sections from the ground state to the individual magnetic sublevels of the excited state 1s2s22p3/2(J = 2) of highly charged Be-like ions are calculated using a fully relativistic distorted-wave method. The contributions of the Breit interaction to the cross sections and circular polarizations of the 1s2s22p3/2(J = 2)?1s22s2(J = 0) magnetic quadrupole (M2) line for selected Be-like Ag43+, Ho63+, and Bi79+ ions are investigated systematically. It is found that the Breit interaction has a large effect and makes the cross sections increase, especially to the mf = -1 and -2 sublevels, the Breit interaction can modify the cross sections by several orders of magnitude. These dramatic influences also lead to a remarkable decrease in the circular polarization of subsequent x-ray radiation, the character of which becomes more and more evident with increasing incident energy and atomic number. And all these characteristics are very different from the conclusions for the linear polarization of radiation following the electron-impact process [S. Fritzsche, A. Surzhykov, and T. Sthlker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113001 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.113001; Z. W. Wu, J. Jiang, and C. Z. Dong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 032713 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.032713].

  14. Molecular hot electroluminescence due to strongly enhanced spontaneous emission rates in a plasmonic nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Li, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Dong, Zhen-Chao

    2015-02-14

    We have recently demonstrated anomalous relaxationless hot electroluminescence from molecules in the tunnel junction of a scanning tunneling microscope [Dong et al., Nat. Photonics, 2010, 4, 50]. In the present paper, based on physically realistic parameters, we aim to unravel the underlying physical mechanism using a multiscale modeling approach that combines classical generalized Mie theory with the quantum master equation. We find that the nanocavity-plasmon-tuned spontaneous emission rate plays a crucial role in shaping the spectral profile. In particular, on resonance, the radiative decay rate can be enhanced by three-to-five orders of magnitude, which enables the radiative process to occur on the lifetime scale of picoseconds and become competitive to the vibrational relaxation. Such a large Purcell effect opens up new emission channels to generate the hot luminescence that arises directly from higher vibronic levels of the molecular excited state. We also stress that the critical role of resonant plasmonic nanocavities in tunneling electron induced molecular luminescence is to enhance the spontaneous radiative decay through plasmon enhanced vacuum fluctuations rather than to generate an efficient plasmon stimulated emission process. This improved understanding has been partly overlooked in previous studies but is believed to be very important for further developments of molecular plasmonics and optoelectronics. PMID:25565003

  15. Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Huh, Sun; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was first described by Yamane in 1986 but the taxonomical features have been obscure due to lack of critical morphologic criteria in its larval and adult stages. In Korea, this tapeworm had long been known as Diphyllobothrium latum. In this study, we observed 62 specimens collected from Korean residents and analyzed them by morphological features and nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 gene as well as the ITS1 region. Adult tapeworms were examined after carmine or trichrome stain. Longitudinal sections of the gravid proglottids showed an obtuse angle of about 150 degree between the cirrus sac and seminal vesicle. This angle is known as a major differential point compared with that of D. latum. Nucleotide sequence differences between D. latum and the specimens from Koreans represented 17.3% in mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene. Sequence divergence of ITS1 among 4 Korean isolates was 0.3% and similarity was 99.7% with D. nihonkaiense and D. klebanovskii. All of the Korean specimens analyzed in this study were identified as being D. nihonkaiense (n = 62). We propose its Korean name as "Dong-hae-gin-chon-chung" which means 'long tapeworm of the East Sea' for this newly analyzed diphyllobothriid tapeworm in Korea. PMID:19967084

  16. Inrared Spectroscopy and Tunneling Dynamics of the Vinyl Radical in ^{4}He Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul L.; Liang, Tao; Obi, Emmanuel I.; Douberly, Gary E.

    2013-06-01

    The vinyl radical has been trapped in ^{4}He nanodroplets and probed with infrared laser spectroscopy in the CH stretch region between 2850 and 3200 cm^{-1}. The assigned band origins for the CH{_2} symmetric (?{_3}), CH{_2} antisymmetric (?{_2}), and lone ?-CH stretch (?{_1}) vibrations are in good agreement with previously reported full-dimensional vibrational configuration interaction calculations. For all three bands, a-type and b-type transitions are observed from the lowest symmetry allowed roconvibrational state of each nuclear spin isomer, which allows for a determination of the tunneling splittings in both the ground and excited vibrational levels. Comparisons to gas phase millimeter-wave rotation-tunneling and high-resolution jet-cooled infrared spectra reveal that the effect of the ^{4}He solvent is to reduce the ground and ?{_3} excited state tunneling splittings by ?20%. This solvent-induced modification of the tunneling dynamics can be reasonably accounted for by assuming either an ?2.5% increase in the effective barrier height along the tunneling coordinate or an ?5% increase in the effective reduced mass of the tunneling particles. A. R. Sharma, B. J. Braams, S. Carter, B. C. Shepler, and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. {130}, 174301 2009 K. Tanaka, M. Toshimitsu, K. Harada, and T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. {120}, 3604 2004 F. Dong, M. Roberts, and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. {128}, 044305 (2008)

  17. Egg Development and Morphology of Larva and Juvenile of the Oryzias latipes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Hun; Kim, Chun-Cheol; Koh, Soo-Jin; Shin, Lim-Soo; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor the developmental features of embryos, larvae, and juveniles of Oryzias latipes (Temminck and Schlegel), Oryzias latipes was caught in river of Shinduck-dong, Yeosu-si, Jeollanam-do, on May 2011, and experiments were carried out in Ichthyology laboratory at Chonnam National University. The blastodisc step was the first level for natural spawning. The optic vesicle, Kupffer's vesicle, myotome began to appear 75 hours 57 minutes later. After blastodisc development, the pectoral fins were made at 143 hours 37 minutes and the tail was separated started at the same time. Hatching was observed at 167 hours 27 minutes after blastodisc. The total length of the hatched larvae was 4.95~5.10 mm (mean, 5.01 mm), the mouth and anus were opened. Larvae used yolk completely after 3 days after hatching. The total length larvae was 5.45~5.56 mm (mean, 5.52 mm) after 8 days after hatching, and appeared the stems for tail. The stems pectoral, anal fin were showed after 14 days and the stems dorsal, ventral fin were appeared after 19 days. For 35 days after hatching, the total length of larvae 13.95~15.30 mm (mean, 14.64 mm), and at this time, fins and body were transferred like the adult Oryzias latipes. PMID:25949187

  18. Mechanism of Rhodium-Catalyzed Formyl Activation: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoling; Bai, Ruopeng; Liu, Song; Shan, Chunhui; Chen, Changguo; Lan, Yu

    2016-03-18

    Metal-catalyzed transfer hydroformylation is an important way of cleaving C-C bonds and constructing new double bonds. The newly reported density functional theory (DFT) method, M11-L, has been used to clarify the mechanism of the rhodium-catalyzed transfer hydroformylation reported by Dong et al. DFT calculations depict a deformylation and formylation reaction pathway. The deformylation step involves an oxidative addition to the formyl C-H bond, deprotonation with a counterion, decarbonylation, and β-hydride elimination. After olefin exchange, the formylation step takes place via olefin insertion into the Rh-H bond, carbonyl insertion, and a final protonation with the conjugate acid of the counterion. Theoretical calculations indicate that the alkalinity of the counterion is important for this reaction because both deprotonation and protonation occur during the catalytic cycle. A theoretical study into the formyl acceptor shows that the driving force of the reaction is correlated with the stability of the unsaturated bond in the acceptor. Our computational results suggest that alkynes or ring-strained olefins could be used as formyl acceptors in this reaction. PMID:26909857

  19. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in breast milk from women living in Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Tu Binh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the contamination status of PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in human and possible exposure pathways in three Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites: Trang Minh (suburb of Hai Phong city), Dong Mai and Bui Dau (Hung Yen province), and one reference site (capital city Hanoi) by analysing human breast milk samples and examining the relationships between contaminant levels and lifestyle factors. Levels of PBDEs, but not PCBs and HBCDs, were significantly higher in Trang Minh and Bui Dau than in the reference site. The recyclers from Bui Dau had the highest levels of PBDEs (20-250 ng g(-1) lipid wt.), higher than in the reference group by two orders of magnitude and more abundant than PCBs (28-59 ng g(-1) lipid wt.), and were also the only group with significant exposure to HBCDs (1.4-7.6 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). A specific accumulation, unrelated to diet, of low-chlorinated PCBs and high-brominated PBDEs was observed in e-waste recyclers, suggesting extensive exposure to these compounds during e-waste recycling activities, possibly through inhalation and ingestion of dust. The estimated infant intake dose of PBDEs from breast milk of some mothers occupationally involved in e-waste recycling were close to or higher than the reference doses issued by the U.S. EPA. PMID:20116831

  20. Ferrate(VI) as a possible oxidant on the Martian surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsapin, A. I.; Goldfeld, M. G.; McDonald, G. D.; Nealson, K. H.; Mohnke, J.; Moskovitz, B.; Solheid, P.; Kemner, K. M.; Orlandini, K.; Environmental Research; Jet Propulsion Lab.; Univ. of Minnesota

    2000-01-01

    Viking 'Biological' experiments (Oyama et al. 1976, Levin & Straat 1977) revealed an unexpected chemical activity in the surfam material, which in some ways resembled biology but was ultimately explained by a rather complex chemistry. It was shown, in these experiments that moisturizing Martian soil resulted in oxygen evolution, while addition of a bacterial nutrient solution (14G formate, glycine, lactate, etc.) released 14C02, dong with some oxygen. These observations indicated the presence of a strong oxidant on Martian surface, or, most probably, several different oxidants (Klein 1978). The nature of the oxidants in Mars soil, and their distribution, are important for choosing Martian landing sites. Iron as an one of the most abundant elements in Martian soil, deserves attention in this context, since it has a whole set of oxidation states, from 0 to +6, even though in terrestrial conditions only Fe(O), Fe(+2) and Fe(+3) are commonly found. Fe(+4, +5) are unstable, but Fe(+6) has been characterized in some detail. Though it was never identified as a natural compound on the Earth, it is stable enough under some conditions (highly alkaline solutions, lack of reductants, dry atmosphere, low temperature) that are not normally encountered in the terrestrial environment, but still can be considered as a possibility in Martian soil. Here are discussed ferrate(VI) formation and accumulation in Martian soil, and experimental data are presented on the spectral characterization and chemical behavior under conditions simulating the Viking 'biological experiments'.

  1. [The academic trend of Oriental medicine during the Japanese colonial period as observed through the publication of medical books].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Il

    2006-06-01

    This thesis examines the academical trend of Oriental Medicine in the Japanese colonial period observed through medical books published during the Japanese colonial period. This is a period in which Western Medicine was introduced, and due to the lean-to-one-side policy by the Japanese, Western Medicine became the mainstream medical science while Oriental Medicine was pushed to the outskirts. Even after all this, the academic activity was flourishing during this period compared to any other periods. This article is divided into various chapters each with its own theme in order to understand the academic trend of Oriental Medicine during the Japanese colonial period. Focusing on the publication of medical books, this article is divided and observed according to various themes such as the study of Dong-Eui-Bo-Gam (see text), the study of Bang-Yak-Hap-Pyeun (see text), the study of Sang-Han-Ron (see text), the study of Sa-sang (see text) constitutional medicine, the study of Eui-Hak-Ip-Mun (see text), the study about Bu-Yang-Ron (see text), On-Bo-Ron (see text), and pediatrics, compromise between Western and Oriental Medicine, the study of experience medicine, the study of acupuncture and moxibustion, and etc. PMID:17214426

  2. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dong, Xiquan

    2014-05-05

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  3. Relative Orientation of Imidazole Ligands in Cu(II) Model and Abeta peptides Complexes revealed by ESEEM Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Jessica; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation and fibrillization of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). The coordination of Cu(II) by peptide histidine imidazole sidechains is proposed to play an important role in determining the fibrillization ``switch'' [1]. We have developed techniques of X-band electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy to determine the molecular structure of the Cu(II)-histidine imidazole coordination in cryotrapped soluble and fibrillar forms of Abeta peptides, in order to gain insight into the factors that govern fibrillization. Focusing on the ESEEM double quantum harmonic feature, we use our hybrid optimization-based OPTESIM simulation software [2] to determine the mutual orientation of the imidazole rings in Cu(II)--bis-imidazole complexes that include cis- versus trans- coordination. The technique has been applied to Abeta(13-21) peptide to reveal the Cu(II) coordination mode in fibrils. [1] Dong , J., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2007, 104, 13313. [2] Sun, L., et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2009, 200, 21

  4. Cu(II) coordination structure determinants of the fibrillization switch in Abeta peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Guzman, Jessica; Sun, Li; Mehta, Anil; Lynn, David; Warncke, Kurt

    2010-03-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation and fibrillization of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). The coordination of Cu(II) by peptide histidine imidazole sidechains is proposed to play an important role in determining the fibrillization ``switch'' [1]. We have developed techniques of powder X-band electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy to determine the 3D molecular structure of the Cu(II)-histidine imidazole coordination in cryotrapped soluble and fibrillar forms of Abeta peptides, in order to gain insight into the factors that govern fibrillization. We use hybrid optimization-based OPTESIM [2] simulation of the double quantum harmonic feature to determine the mutual orientation of the imidazole rings in Cu(II)--bis-imidazole complexes and in Abeta(13-21) peptides. The Cu(II) coordination mode and assembly constraints in fibrils are revealed. [1] Dong , J., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2007, 104, 13313. [2] Sun, L., et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2009, 200, 21.

  5. Ca2+ Binding/Permeation via Calcium Channel, CaV1.1, Regulates the Intracellular Distribution of the Fatty Acid Transport Protein, CD36, and Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Dimitra K; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Lee, Chang Seok; Griffin, Deric M; Wang, Hui; Lagor, William R; Pautler, Robia G; Dirksen, Robert T; Hamilton, Susan L

    2015-09-25

    Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) facilitates activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase type II (CaMKII) and Ca(2+) store refilling to reduce muscle fatigue and atrophy (Lee, C. S., Dagnino-Acosta, A., Yarotskyy, V., Hanna, A., Lyfenko, A., Knoblauch, M., Georgiou, D. K., Poché, R. A., Swank, M. W., Long, C., Ismailov, I. I., Lanner, J., Tran, T., Dong, K., Rodney, G. G., Dickinson, M. E., Beeton, C., Zhang, P., Dirksen, R. T., and Hamilton, S. L. (2015) Skelet. Muscle 5, 4). Mice with a mutation (E1014K) in the Cacna1s (α1 subunit of CaV1.1) gene that abolishes Ca(2+) binding within the CaV1.1 pore gain more body weight and fat on a chow diet than control mice, without changes in food intake or activity, suggesting that CaV1.1-mediated CaMKII activation impacts muscle energy expenditure. We delineate a pathway (Cav1.1→ CaMKII→ NOS) in normal skeletal muscle that regulates the intracellular distribution of the fatty acid transport protein, CD36, altering fatty acid metabolism. The consequences of blocking this pathway are decreased mitochondrial β-oxidation and decreased energy expenditure. This study delineates a previously uncharacterized CaV1.1-mediated pathway that regulates energy utilization in skeletal muscle. PMID:26245899

  6. Understanding community beliefs of Chinese-Australians about cancer: initial insights using an ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Soo See; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Katherine; Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2005-03-01

    Ethnography was employed to investigate the hypothesis that the cultural meaning of cancer is one of the possible barriers to access of cancer services. The objectives were to identify indigenous terminologies, taxonomies and illness explanatory models of cancer in a community-based sample of 15 Chinese-Australians and a sample of 16 informants who had been recruited through two Sydney familial cancer clinics. Many of the informants included in their narrative terms that seemed to match Western biomedical explanations for cancer. The majority of informants also maintained traditional Chinese beliefs, despite high acculturation and beliefs in biomedical explanations about cancer. Explanations of illness including cancer, referred to the following concepts: (i) karma (yeh), (ii) retribution (bao ying), (iii) fate (ming yun) or Heaven's or God's will, (iv) geomancy (feng-shui), (v) touched evil (zhong chia), (vi) misfortune or bad luck (shui wan, dong hark); (vii) offending the gods or deities requiring prayers or offerings for appeasement; and (viii) kong-tau (spells invoked through human intervention). Taking into consideration the heterogeneity of the Chinese population, the findings provide an insight into Chinese illness conceptualization that may assist health professionals to develop an understanding of how the cultural explanatory models affect access to screening services, communication of diagnosis of cancer and management of treatment regimen. PMID:15386778

  7. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  8. Characterization of polymorphisms in the mitochondrial DNA of twelve ethnic groups in the Guizhou province of China.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Ren, Ling-Yan; Shan, Ke-Ren; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Chan-Juan; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the genetic profiles and relationships between ancient ethnic populations, we analyzed polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) isolated from the blood of 753 members of 12 ethnic groups (Buyi, Dong, Gelao, Hui, Man, Miao, Menggu, Mulao, Maonan, Qiang, She and Zhuang) living in the Guizhou Province of China. The 9-bp deletion of mtDNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-PAGE, and 11 SNPs by restriction fragment length polymorphism and mini-sequencing. Thereafter, these genotyping results were verified by PCR-DNA sequencing. The mtDNA of these populations exhibited considerable diversity, both with respect to the haplogroups M and N, and subgroups thereof. The differences between the major ethnic groups reflected the maternal inheritance. These ethnic groups in Guizhou demonstrated a genetic profile that differed considerably from that of other Asian populations. Our findings indicate that the matrilineal genetic profiles of Guizhou groups are relatively complex and distinct, showing relationships that reflect national history and geography. PMID:24660920

  9. Field emission driven direct current argon discharges and electrical breakdown mechanism across micron scale gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matej?ik, tefan; Radjenovi?, Branislav; Klas, Matej; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, Marija

    2015-11-01

    In this paper results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the field emission driven direct current argon microdischarges for the gaps between 1 ?m and 100 ?m are presented and discussed. The breakdown voltage curves and Volt-Ampere characteristics proved to be a fertile basis providing better understanding of the breakdown phenomena in microgaps. Based on the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields have been estimated confirming that the secondary electron emission due to high electric field generated in microgaps depends primarily on the electric field leading directly to the violation of the Paschen's law. Experimental data are supported by the theoretical predictions that suggest departure from the scaling law and a flattening of the Paschen curves at higher pressures confirming that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism leading to the breakdown. Field emission of electrons from the cathode, the space charge effects in the breakdown and distinction between the Fowler-Nordheim field emission and the space charge limited current density are also analyzed. Images and Volt-Ampere characteristics recorded at the electrode gap size of 20 ?m indicate the existence of a discharge region similar to arc at the pressure of around 200 Torr has been observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  10. Clinical Review of the Effects of Chukyu (spinehealing) Pharmacopuncture in the Treatment of Lumbago and Skelalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Yeob; Lee, Kyeong-A; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Jang, Kyung-Jun; Kim, Won-Il; Kim, Young-Gyun; Yoon, Hyun-Min

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the effects of Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture treatment in patients with lumbago and skelalgia. Methods: This clinical study included 45 patients who were treated for lumbago and skelalgia at the Department of Acupuncture and Moxibusition, Dong-Eui University College of Oriental Medicine, from July 5, 2011, to January 31, 2012. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: Chukyu (spinehealing)- pharmacopuncture-treated group (experimental group, n = 23) and normal saline-pharmacopuncture-treated group (control group, n = 22). Patients in the experimental group were treated with acupuncture and Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture while those in the control group were treated with acupuncture and normal saline pharmacopuncture. To estimate the efficacy of controlling pain, we checked the visual analog scale [VAS], and to estimate the improvement of the symptoms, we evaluated by pain rating scale [PRS] and the Oswestry low-back pain disability index [ODI]. Results: A comparison of the experimental and the control groups showed more significant improvements in the VAS, PRS, and ODI for the experimental group than for the control group. Conclusions: Chukyu (spine-healing) pharmacopuncture can be used for effective treatment in patients with lumbago and skelalgia. PMID:25780646

  11. Particle simulation of high-energy-density laser-driven reconnection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Fox, W.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, reconnection between magnetic fields, self-generated through the Biermann battery effect, has been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-driven experiments on the Vulcan, OMEGA, and Shenguang laser facilities. This is a novel regime for magnetic reconnection study, characterized by extremely high magnetic fields, high plasma beta and strong, supersonic plasma inflow. Reconnection in this regime is investigated with particle-in-cell simulations using the PSC code. Previous 2-d particle-in-cell reconnection simulations with parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments identified key ingredients for obtaining the very fast reconnection rates, namely two-fluid reconnection mediated by collisionless effects (that is, the Hall current and electron pressure tensor), strong flux pile-up of the inflowing magnetic field [1], and secondary instabilities that lead to magnetic island formation. We present further detailed simulations of reconnection in this geometry, exploring the role of binary particle collisions and examining mechanisms for particle energization and acceleration, as has been recently observed in laser-driven reconnection experiments [2].[4pt] [1] W. Fox, et al, PRL 106, 215003 (2011).[0pt] [2] Q.L.Dong, et al., PRL 108, 215001 (2012).

  12. Particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in laser-plasma experiments on Shenguang-II facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Dong, Quanli; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui; Zhu, Jianqiang; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    Recently, magnetic reconnection has been realized in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas. Plasma bubbles with self-generated magnetic fields are created by focusing laser beams to small-scale spots on a foil. The bubbles expand into each other, which may then drive magnetic reconnection. The reconnection experiment in laser-produced plasmas has also been conducted at Shenguang-II (SG-II) laser facility, and the existence of a plasmoid was identified in the experiment [Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215001 (2012)]. In this paper, by performing two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate such a process of magnetic reconnection based on the experiment on SG-II facility, and a possible explanation for the formation of the plasmoid is proposed. The results show that before magnetic reconnection occurs, the bubbles squeeze strongly each other and a very thin current sheet is formed. The current sheet is unstable to the tearing mode instability, and we can then observe the formation of plasmoid(s) in such a multiple X-lines reconnection.

  13. Marine boundary layer drizzle properties and their impact on cloud property retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we retrieve and document drizzle properties, and investigate the impact of drizzle on cloud property retrieval in Dong et al. (2014a) from ground-based measurements at the ARM Azores facility from June 2009 to December 2010. For the selected cloud and drizzle samples, the drizzle occurrence is 42.6 %, with a maximum of 55.8 % in winter and a minimum of 35.6 % in summer. The annual means of drizzle liquid water path LWPd, effective radius rd, and number concentration Nd for the rain (virga) samples are 4.73 (1.25) g m-2, 61.5 (36.4) ?m, and 0.38 (0.79) cm-3. The seasonal mean LWPd values are less than 3 % of the LWP values retrieved by the microwave radiometer (MWR). The annual mean differences in cloud-droplet effective radius with and without drizzle are 0.75 and 2.35 %, respectively, for the virga and rain samples. Therefore, we conclude that the impact of drizzle below the cloud base on cloud property retrieval is insignificant for a solar-transmission-based method, but significant for any retrievals using radar reflectivity.

  14. Particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in laser-plasma experiments on Shenguang-II facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui; Dong, Quanli; Zhu, Jianqiang; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Recently, magnetic reconnection has been realized in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas. Plasma bubbles with self-generated magnetic fields are created by focusing laser beams to small-scale spots on a foil. The bubbles expand into each other, which may then drive magnetic reconnection. The reconnection experiment in laser-produced plasmas has also been conducted at Shenguang-II (SG-II) laser facility, and the existence of a plasmoid was identified in the experiment [Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215001 (2012)]. In this paper, by performing two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate such a process of magnetic reconnection based on the experiment on SG-II facility, and a possible explanation for the formation of the plasmoid is proposed. The results show that before magnetic reconnection occurs, the bubbles squeeze strongly each other and a very thin current sheet is formed. The current sheet is unstable to the tearing mode instability, and we can then observe the formation of plasmoid(s) in such a multiple X-lines reconnection.

  15. Universal Heat Conduction in the Iron Arsenide Superconductor KFe2As2: Evidence of a d-Wave State

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Gordon, R.T.; Rene de Cotret, S.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Saito, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Kohori, Y.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C.H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Taillefer, Louis

    2012-08-21

    The thermal conductivity ? of the iron arsenide superconductor KFe2As2 was measured down to 50 mK for a heat current parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis. A residual linear term at T?0, ?0/T is observed for both current directions, confirming the presence of nodes in the superconducting gap. Our value of ?0/T in the plane is equal to that reported by Dong et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 087005 (2010)] for a sample whose residual resistivity ?0 was 10 times larger. This independence of ?0/T on impurity scattering is the signature of universal heat transport, a property of superconducting states with symmetry-imposed line nodes. This argues against an s-wave state with accidental nodes. It favors instead a d-wave state, an assignment consistent with five additional properties: the magnitude of the critical scattering rate ?c for suppressing Tc to zero; the magnitude of ?0/T, and its dependence on current direction and on magnetic field; the temperature dependence of ?(T).

  16. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ∼1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ∼0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ∼150 Myr and mass ∼4 M {sub ☉}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ∼0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ∼1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  17. Extracting Infrared Spectra of Protein Secondary Structures Using a Library of Protein Spectra and the Ramachandran Plot.

    PubMed

    Coe, James V; Nystrom, Steven V; Chen, Zhaomin; Li, Ran; Verreault, Dominique; Hitchcock, Charles L; Martin, Edward W; Allen, Heather C

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) spectra from 1200 to 1800 cm(-1) of the pure ?-helix and ?-sheet secondary structures have been extracted using a covariant least-squares procedure which relates a library of 40 infrared (IR) solution protein spectra from the work of Dong, Carpenter, and Caughey and amino acid fractions of the proteins based on assignments by STRIDE (secondary structure identification) of Eisenhaber and Argos. The excitonic splitting of the ?-sheet structures is determined for this library of solution proteins. The method is extended to find a set of spectral basis functions that analyze IR spectra of protein samples for ?-helix and ?-sheet content. A rigorous error analysis including covariance, the correlations between the input library spectra, was used to justify the results and avoid less meaningful results. The utility of the results on ?-helix and ?-sheet regions is demonstrated by detecting protein changes due to cancer in imaging Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectra of liver tissue slices. This work ends with a method to extract IR spectra of less prominent torsional angle distributions. PMID:26397941

  18. Simulated impacts of climate change on current farming locations of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh L; Dang, Vinh H; Bosma, Roel H; Verreth, Johan A J; Leemans, Rik; De Silva, Sena S

    2014-12-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these influences. In this study, water level rise and salt water intrusion for three sea level rise (SLR) scenarios (i.e., +30, +50, and +75cm) were simulated. The results showed that at SLR +50, the 3-m-flood level would spread downstream and threaten farms located in AnGiang, DongThap and CanTho provinces. Rising salinity levels for SLR +75 would reduce the window appropriate for the culture in SocTrang and BenTre provinces, and in TienGiang's coastal districts. Next to increasing dikes to reduce the impacts, the most tenable and least disruptive option to the farming community would be to shift to a salinity tolerant strain of catfish. PMID:24715387

  19. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N,N-3-phenyl-3-benzylaminopropanamide derivatives as novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongmei; Xie, Honglei; Bai, Changlin; Liu, Chunchi; Hao, Chenzhou; Zhao, Shizhen; Yuan, Hongli; Luo, Changqun; Wang, Jian; Lin, Bin; Zheng, Jiang; Cheng, Maosheng

    2016-04-15

    A series of N,N-3-phenyl-3-benzylaminopropanamide derivatives were identified as novel CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) inhibitors. In our previous study, lead compound L10 was discovered by pharmacophore-based virtual screening (Dong-Mei Zhao et al., 2014). Based on L10 (IC50 8.06μM), compound HL6 (IC50 10.7μM) was discovered following systematic structure variation and biological tests. Further optimization of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) resulted in N,N-3-phenyl-3-benzylaminopro panamides derivatives as novel CETP inhibitors. They were synthesized and evaluated against CETP by BODIPY-CE fluorescence assay. Among them, HL16 (IC50 0.69μM) was a highly potent CETP inhibitor in vitro. In addition, HL16 exhibited favorable HDL-C enhancement and LDL-C reduction in vivo by hamster. The molecular docking of HL16 into the CETP was performed. The binding mode demonstrated that HL16 occupied the CETP binding site and formed interactions with the key amino acid residues. PMID:27010500

  20. [Temporal and spatial structure of carabid community in agricultural landscape of Dongbeiwang, Beijing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Liu, Yun

    2004-01-01

    From May to October 2000, the carabid beetles in the habitats of woodland, field margin and crop field in Dong-beiwang agroecosystem in Beijing were investigated by pitfall traps, and the temporal and spatial structure of carabid community was analyzed. The results indicated that the numbers of both carabid species and individuals were much higher in the field margin and woodland than in the crop field. Both dominant species and rare species tended to live in field margin and/or woodland. Field margins had a positive effect on the diversity and richness of carabid community in their adjacent crop fields. The modest disturbance (plowing in autumn) in the field margin was beneficial for the increase of the individual number of carabid community, and the treatments of irrigation, fertilization and straw return in field had no effects on both the individual and species number of carabid community. Furthermore, the threatening condition to some carabid species was discussed, based on the analysis of the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid community. PMID:15139194

  1. New Ceratocystis species from Eucalyptus and Cunninghamia in South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, FeiFei; Mbenoun, Michael; Barnes, Irene; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Michael J; Li, GuoQing; Li, JieQiong; Chen, ShuaiFei

    2015-06-01

    During routine surveys for possible fungal pathogens in the rapidly expanding plantations of Eucalyptus and Cunninghamia lanceolata in China, numerous isolates of unknown species in the genus Ceratocystis (Microascales) were obtained from tree wounds. In this study we identified the Ceratocystis isolates from Eucalyptus and Cunninghamia in the GuangDong, GuangXi, FuJian and HaiNan Provinces of South China based on morphology and through comparisons of DNA sequence data for the ITS, partial β-tubulin and TEF-1α gene regions. Morphological and DNA sequence comparisons revealed two previously unknown species residing in the Indo-Pacific Clade. These are described here as Ceratocystis cercfabiensis sp. nov. and Ceratocystis collisensis sp. nov. Isolates of Ceratocystis cercfabiensis showed intragenomic variation in their ITS sequences and four strains were selected for cloning of the ITS gene region. Twelve ITS haplotypes were obtained from 17 clones selected for sequencing, differing in up to seven base positions and representing two separate phylogenetic groups. This is the first evidence of multiple ITS types in isolates of Ceratocystis residing in the Indo-Pacific Clade. Caution should thus be exercised when using the ITS gene region as a barcoding marker for Ceratocystis species in this clade. This study also represents the first record of a species of Ceratocystis from Cunninghamia. PMID:25840908

  2. A New Specimen of Carroll’s Mystery Hupehsuchian from the Lower Triassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A new specimen of an enigmatic hupehsuchian genus is reported. The genus was first recognized by Robert L. Carroll and Zhi-ming Dong in 1991, who refrained from naming it because of the poor quality of the only specimen known at the time. After more than two decades, we finally report a second specimen of this genus, which remained unprepared until recently. The new specimen preserves most of the skeleton except the skull, allowing us to erect a new genus and species, Eretmorhipis carrolldongi. The new species shares many characters with Parahupehsuchus longus, including the strange axial skeleton that forms a bony body tube. However, the body tube is short in the new species, being limited to the pectoral region. The vertebral count and limb morphology considerably differ between the new species and P. longus. The forelimb of E. carrolldongi is markedly larger than its hind limb as in Hupehsuchus nanchangensis but unlike in P. longus. The new species is unique among hupehsuchians in a list of features. It has manual and pedal digits that spread radially, forming manus and pes that are almost as wide as long. The third-layer elements of the dermal armor are unusually large, spanning four vertebral segments, yet there are substantial gaps among them. With the addition of the unique paddle, it is now clear that Hupehsuchia had diverse forelimb morphologies spanning from paddles to flippers, unlike ichthyopterygians that were taxonomically more diverse yet only had flippers. PMID:26017585

  3. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. PMID:24704609

  4. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (<50%; X111), environmental factors like population density (148-169 pop/km2; X73), and land use as wetland (X64), were correlated with the liver fluke disease distribution at 0.000, 0.034, and 0.006 levels, respectively. Multiple regression analysis, by equations OV=-0.599+0.005(population density (148-169 pop/km2); X73)+0.040 (human attitude (<50%); X111)+0.022 (land used (wetland; X64), was used to predict the distribution of liver fluke. OV is the patients of liver fluke infection, R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures. PMID:25824758

  5. Discovery of CREBBP Bromodomain Inhibitors by High-Throughput Docking and Hit Optimization Guided by Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Unzue, Andrea; Dong, Jing; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Nevado, Cristina; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2016-02-25

    We have identified two chemotypes of CREBBP bromodomain ligands by fragment-based high-throughput docking. Only 17 molecules from the original library of two-million compounds were tested in vitro. Optimization of the two low-micromolar hits, the 4-acylpyrrole 1 and acylbenzene 9, was driven by molecular dynamics results which suggested improvement of the polar interactions with the Arg1173 side chain at the rim of the binding site. The synthesis of only two derivatives of 1 yielded the 4-acylpyrrole 6 which shows a single-digit micromolar affinity for the CREBBP bromodomain and a ligand efficiency of 0.34 kcal/mol per non-hydrogen atom. Optimization of the acylbenzene hit 9 resulted in a series of derivatives with nanomolar potencies, good ligand efficiency and selectivity (see Unzue , A. ; Xu , M. ; Dong , J. ; Wiedmer , L. ; Spiliotopoulos , D. ; Caflisch , A. ; Nevado , C. Fragment-Based Design of Selective Nanomolar Ligands of the CREBBP Bromodomain . J. Med. Chem. 2015 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00172 ). The in silico predicted binding mode of the acylbenzene derivative 10 was validated by solving the structure of the complex with the CREBBP bromodomain. PMID:26125948

  6. Discharge processes and an electrical model of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi; Shao, Tao; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma discharge in argon was generated using a needle-to-ring electrode configuration driven by a sinusoidal excitation voltage. The electric discharge processes and discharge characteristics were investigated by inspecting the voltage-current waveforms, Lissajous curves and lighting emission images. The change in discharge mode with applied voltage amplitude was studied and characterised, and three modes of corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and jet discharge were identified, which appeared in turn with increasing applied voltage and can be distinguished clearly from the measured voltage-current waveforms, light-emission images and the changing gradient of discharge power with applied voltage. Based on the experimental results and discharge mechanism analysis, an equivalent electrical model and the corresponding equivalent circuit for characterising the whole discharge processes accurately was proposed, and the three discharge stages were characterised separately. A voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) associated with a resistance and a capacitance were used to represent the DBD stage, and the plasma plume and corona discharge were modelled by a variable capacitor in series with a variable resistor. Other factors that can influence the discharge, such as lead and stray capacitance values of the circuit, were also considered in the proposed model. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  7. The spatial distribution of vulnerability to the health impacts of flooding in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, Dung; Rutherford, Shannon; Dwirahmadi, Febi; Chu, Cordia; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Thuy; Duong, Nam Chi

    2015-10-01

    Flooding causes significant public health issues. The Mekong Delta has been considered the region to be the most vulnerable to flooding in Vietnam. This study assessed the spatial vulnerability of the health impacts of flooding in the Mekong Delta region, Vietnam. This study applied a vulnerability assessment framework which was computed as the function of three dimensions: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The indicators for each dimension were derived from the relevant literature, consultations with experts, and data availability. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the weight of indicators. Vulnerability indexes (VIs) were then computed for each province. A total of 29 indicators (sensitivity index, 14; adaptive capacity index, 13; and exposure index, 2) were employed to evaluate the vulnerability to the health impacts of flooding at a provincial level. The results of AHP revealed that the highest VIs were found in the Dong Thap and An Giang provinces (VI, 1.948 and 1.574, respectively). VIs were distributed with higher indexes in upstream provinces close to a river than in coastal provinces. PCA generated three components from the 29 indicators, and the VIs computed from the PCA method are in substantial agreement with the AHP method (ICC = 0.71, p < 0.05). The vulnerability to the health impacts of flooding varies from province to province in the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam. Individual plans for health preparedness and adaption to flooding should be developed for each province in the Mekong Delta region.

  8. Growth-temperature-dependent optical and acetone detection properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shewale, P. S.; Yu, Y. S.

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared onto glass substrates at moderately low growth temperature by two-stage spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of growth temperature on structural, optical and acetone detection properties were investigated with X-ray diffractometry, a UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and a homemade gas sensor testing unit, respectively. All the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and exhibit a preferential orientation along [002] direction. The film crystallinity is gradually enhanced with an increase in growth temperature. The optical measurements show that all the films are physically highly transparent with a transmittance greater than 82% in the visible range. The band gap of the film is observed to exhibit a slight red shift with an increasing growth temperature. The PL studies on the films show UV/violet PL band at ˜ 395 nm. Among all the films investigated, the film deposited at 250 °C demonstrates a maximum sensitivity of 13% towards 20 ppm of acetone vapors at 300 °C operating temperature. Project supported by the Dong-Eui University Grant (No. 2014AA342).

  9. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  10. Complication rates in patients using absorbable collagen sponges in third molar extraction sockets: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. Materials and Methods From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. Results A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Conclusion Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction. PMID:25741465

  11. Investigation on fabrication of nanoscale patterns using laser interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinnil; Chung, Myung-Ho; Dong, Ki-Young; Park, Eun-Mi; Ham, Dae-Jin; Park, YunKwon; Song, In Sang; Pak, James Jungho; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale patterns are fabricated by laser interference lithography (LIL) using Lloyd's mirror interferometer. LIL provides a patterning technology with simple, quick process over a large area without the usage of a mask. Effects of various key parameters for LIL, with 257 nm wavelength laser, are investigated, such as the exposure dosage, the half angle of two incident beams at the intersection, and the power of the light source for generating one or two dimensional (line and dot) nanoscale structures. The uniform dot patterns over an area of 20 mm x 20 mm with the half pitch sizes of around 190, 250, and 370 nm are achieved and by increasing the beam power up to 0.600 mW/cm2, the exposure process time was reduced down to 12/12 sec for the positive photoresist DHK-BF424 (DongJin) over a bare silicon substrate. In addition, bottom anti-reflective coating (DUV-30J, Brewer Science) is applied to confirm improvements for line structures. The advantages and limitations of LIL are highlighted for generating nanoscale patterns. PMID:21446544

  12. Dielectrophoresis of graded microparticles in suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Dong; Ji-Ping, Huang; Wah, Yu Kin; Q, Gu G.

    2003-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis of graded microparticles in suspensions L. Dong, J. P. Huang, K. W. Yu and G. Q. Gu Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, NT, HK. Dielectrophoresis is an AC electrokinetic phenomenon that employs the difference in the electric polarizability of microparticles and the suspending media. Under the action of an external electric field, these particles polarize, and experience a force in a nonuniform field. The degree of polarizability can depend on the frequency of the applied AC field. In this work, we consider graded spherical particles in which the material properties can vary continuously in space. These inhomogeneous particles can be more useful and interesting than the homogeneous inclusions. A new theory has been established to study the effective properties of graded composite materials under externally applied field, namely, the differential effective dipole approximation (DEDA). The theory has been applied to two model dielectric profiles, namely, the power-law and linear profiles. Moreover, we have shown that these profiles actually admit exact solutions for the local electric field. We have compared the DEDA results with the exact results for the two model profiles and the agreement is excellent. Based on the DEDA, we investigate the DEP spectrum of a colloidal suspension of graded spherical particles, and compare the results with the DEP spectrum derived from the homogeneous particles.

  13. Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lusan; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Binghui; Cai, Wenqian; Lin, Kuixuan; Tang, Jingliang

    2013-07-15

    Between 1972 and 2009, evidence of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters was collected. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of these red tides, and it was subsequently used to map the distribution of these events. The results show that the following findings. (1) There were three red tide-prone areas: outside the Yangtze River Estuary and the eastern coast of Sheshan, the Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi waters, and the Zhoushan areas and eastern coast of Zhujiajian. In these areas, red tides occurred 174 total times, 25 of which were larger than 1000 km(2) in areal extent. After 2000, the frequency of red tide outbreaks increased significantly. (2) During the months of May and June, the red tide occurrence in these areas was 51% and 20%, respectively. (3) Outbreaks of the dominant red tide plankton species Prorocentrum dong-haiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, and Noctiluca scientillan occurred 38, 35, 15, and 10 times, respectively, during the study interval. PMID:23628547

  14. Song I-Yeong's Armillary Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (???, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (??) Kim Seong-Su (???, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.

  15. Study of the tensile constrained recovery behavior of a Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujoreanu, L. G.; Dia, V.; Stanciu, S.; Susan, M.; Baciu, C.

    2008-05-01

    Free- and constrained recovery behaviors of a Fe-23.3 Mn-2.8 Si (wt.%) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) were revealed by uncoiling experiments and tensile tests, respectively. With the enhancement of plastic deformation degree, including by additionally elongating the hot rolled specimens, the increase of the amount of ? stress induced martensite (SIM) plates in the detriment if ? austenite, was emphasized by means of optical microscopy and XRD. The tensile-stress variation was analyzed during complex cycling by constrained recovery of the alloy under study, with a tensile strength of 670 MPa and an ultimate strain of 8%. The cycles were composed of: (i) room temperature (RT) loading; (ii) RT partial unloading; (iii) constant strain heating and (iv) constant strain cooling to RT. During the cycles, characterized by average maximum stresses above 500 MPa and recovery stresses above 260 MPa, the observed stress-temperature evolution confirmed the four stage stress variation reported in literature [Z.Z. Dong et al., Acta Mater. 53, 4009 (2005)]. In order to maintain the above stress levels, constrained-recovery strain had to be increased with an average of 1.1% per cycle, between 1 and 3%.

  16. On representations of conformal field theories and the construction of orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, P. S.

    1996-09-01

    We consider representations of meromorphic bosonic chiral conformal field theories and demonstrate that such a representation is completely specified by a state within the theory. The necessary and sufficient conditions upon this state are derived and, because of their form, we show that we may extend the representation to a representation of a suitable larger conformal field theory. In particular, we apply this procedure to the (untwisted) lattice conformal field theories (i.e. corresponding to the propagation of a bosonic string on a torus), and deduce that Dong's proof of the uniqueness of the twisted representation for the reflection-twisted projection of the Leech lattice conformal field theory generalises to an arbitrary even (self-dual) lattice. As a consequence, we see that the reflection-twisted lattice theories of Dolan, Goddard and Montague are truly self-dual, extending the analogies with the theories of lattices and codes which were being pursued. Some comments are also made on the general concept of the definition of an orbifold of a conformal field theory in relation to this point of view.

  17. [The Gurhigae Jejoongwon: its size and activities].

    PubMed

    Wang, H J; Lee, K L; Park, H W

    2001-12-01

    This article explores the location, size of the site, and medical activities of the Gurhigae Jejoongwon. Relevant documents such as reminiscences, diplomatic notes, newspaper accounts, maps, and photographs were referred for this study. The Gurhigae Jejoongwon located on a hill that, at present, covers the area from Ulchi-ro to MyungDong Cathedral. Its main entrance was towards Ulchi-ro. Real estate including the buildings of the Gurhigae Jejoongwon was returned to the Chosun government in 1905, and the estimated size of its site varied from 1,810 pyung to 5,036 pyung. The site of the Gurhigae Jejoongwon was 2 - 5 times larger than the 862.16-pyung-site of the Jejoongwon in its Jaedong days. With such larger size, the Jejoongwon could take care of more patients. Dr. Avison started medical education again. The Gurhigae Jejoongwon took the central part in medical treatment activities for public in Seoul, as it carried out the prevention activities against Cholera in 1895. The Chosun government highly recognized its medical treatment activities for the common people. PMID:12190071

  18. An Adam15 amplification loop promotes vascular endothelial growth factor-induced ocular neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bing; Shen, Jikui; Dong, Aling; Swaim, Mara; Hackett, Sean F.; Wyder, Lorenza; Worpenberg, Susanne; Barbieri, Samuel; Campochiaro, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins with a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase domain (ADAMs) are a family of membrane-bound proteinases that bind integrins through their disintegrin domain. In this study, we have found modest expression of ADAM15 in pericytes in normal retina and strong up-regulation of ADAM15 in retinal vascular endothelial cells in ischemic retina. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina in the absence of ischemia also increased ADAM15 levels, and knockdown of Vegf mRNA in ischemic retina reduced Adam15 mRNA. Mice deficient in ADAM15 showed a significant reduction in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization, choroidal neovascularization at rupture sites in Bruch’s membrane, and VEGF-induced subretinal neovascularization. ADAM15-deficient mice also showed reduced levels of VEGF164, VEGF receptor 1, and VEGF receptor 2 in ischemic retina. These data suggest that ADAM15 and VEGF participate in an amplification loop; VEGF increases expression of ADAM15, which in turn increases expression of VEGF and its receptors. Perturbation of the loop by elimination of ADAM15 suppresses ocular neovascularization in 3 different model systems, and thus ADAM15 provides a new therapeutic target for diseases complicated by neovascularization.—Xie, B., Shen, J., Dong, A., Swaim, M., Hackett, S. F., Wyder, L., Worpenberg, S., Barbieri, S., Campochiaro, P. A. An Adam15 amplification loop promotes VEGF-induced ocular neovascularization. PMID:18381816

  19. A shallow water depth extraction model based on high resolution multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jun; Gu, Dongqi; Yang, Huiliang

    2009-10-01

    Shallow water depth extraction by remote sensing is an important research. Optical remote sensing can provide an alternative means for obtaining bathymetric data in areas where a traditional hydrographic survey may be difficult to obtain. IKONOS imagery can perform an important function in shallow water depth extraction because of its ability to provide data within three unique portions of the visible spectrum as well as a high spatial resolution of roughly four meters. But experiments indicated that, the bathymetric precision of high-resolution imagery is much lower than that of mid-resolution imagery such as TM imagery. In this paper, the affect factors of bathymetric precision of high-resolution imagery are presented. Moreover, on the basis of the conventional multi-band linear regression model , we develop an improved model by introducing a series of techniques including data processing by group averaging, image smooth, piece wise linear regression, data normalization, etc.. The improved model is more reasonable and accurate and suitable for high-resolution imagery. Using this improved mode, the shallow underwater topography of Dong-Sha Islands and nearby sea area is detected by IKONOS image. The results have preferable precision.

  20. Personalized Medicine: Monogenic Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goulden, Peter A; Vengoechea, Jaime; McKelvey, Kent

    2015-09-01

    Personalized medicine in diabetes is a topic which has gained significant momentum in recent years (Raz et al. 2013). A rapid rise in the number and combinations of diabetes therapies coupled with an unprecedented rise in diabetes prevalence rates has necessitated diabetes guidelines which emphasize the need for personalized patient-centered care (ADA 2014). There are many questions regarding the role genetics may be able to play in guiding therapy. Recent pharmacogenetic research has revealed polymorphisms that may impact patient response to metformin (Dong et al 2011) and glucagon-like-polypeptide-1 therapies (Smushkin et al. 2012). This may hold promise for helping identify patients who will better respond to specific agents and in the longer-term may help ensure a smooth journey along the therapeutic pathway. Monogenic or "single-gene" diabetes comprises nearly 2% of all cases of type 2 diabetes and provides a model for individualizing care. This review will discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:26390534

  1. Improved version of a binding energy formula for heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z{>=}90 and N{>=}140

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Tiekuang; Ren Zhongzhou

    2008-06-15

    A local formula of binding energy for heavy and superheavy nuclei has very recently been proposed [Dong and Ren, Phys. Rev. C 72, 064331 (2005)]. In this paper, the limit of the predictive ability of this local formula is investigated. It is found that the neutron-proton correlations should be considered when higher precision is required. On the one hand, we introduce a new term |N-Z-50|/A, and on the other hand we consider the different strengths of proton-proton, neutron-neutron, and neutron-proton pairing correlations. For the first time, the standard deviation {radical}({sigma}{sup 2}) of the binding energies for 117 nuclei with Z{>=}90 and N{>=}140 is reduced to 0.105 MeV. The {alpha} decay energies Q{sub {alpha}} and half-lives T{sub {alpha}} of nuclei with Z=102-118 are reproduced quite well. The proton drip line of superheavy elements from Md (Z=101) to Ds (Z=110) are predicted.

  2. A New Specimen of Carroll's Mystery Hupehsuchian from the Lower Triassic of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A new specimen of an enigmatic hupehsuchian genus is reported. The genus was first recognized by Robert L. Carroll and Zhi-ming Dong in 1991, who refrained from naming it because of the poor quality of the only specimen known at the time. After more than two decades, we finally report a second specimen of this genus, which remained unprepared until recently. The new specimen preserves most of the skeleton except the skull, allowing us to erect a new genus and species, Eretmorhipis carrolldongi. The new species shares many characters with Parahupehsuchus longus, including the strange axial skeleton that forms a bony body tube. However, the body tube is short in the new species, being limited to the pectoral region. The vertebral count and limb morphology considerably differ between the new species and P. longus. The forelimb of E. carrolldongi is markedly larger than its hind limb as in Hupehsuchus nanchangensis but unlike in P. longus. The new species is unique among hupehsuchians in a list of features. It has manual and pedal digits that spread radially, forming manus and pes that are almost as wide as long. The third-layer elements of the dermal armor are unusually large, spanning four vertebral segments, yet there are substantial gaps among them. With the addition of the unique paddle, it is now clear that Hupehsuchia had diverse forelimb morphologies spanning from paddles to flippers, unlike ichthyopterygians that were taxonomically more diverse yet only had flippers. PMID:26017585

  3. The sonication of graphite in various solvents and surfactants to synthesize high quality graphene as well as the nitrogen doping of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soden, Daniel R.; Bai, Jincheng; Dong, Lifeng

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of graphene in the scientific community has been the cause of much excitement among material scientists due to its unusual physical and photovoltaic properties. However, the much sought after monolayer graphene has proven to be difficult to produce in sufficient quantities This experiment aims to correct some of these problems, concerning itself with the synthesis of high quality graphene through continuous sonication with surfactant or solvent added throughout, as well as the issue of graphene quality as a function of sonication time. This was accomplished through the creation and addition of a solvent or surfactant solution to a graphite suspension during sonication lasting for 50, 80, 110,140, 170, and 200 minutes. The resulting suspension was then filtrated to separate out the graphene. Following this, the graphene was then doped through various methods with nitrogen to alter its properties. This completely physical method of graphene synthesis and doping provides a much simpler and more environmentally safe way to achieve the highly desired few layer graphene, and will hopefully allow for greater use of the substance in industry and its implementation into new technology. L. F. Dong acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (DMR-1126375 and DMR-1126375), the Faculty Research Grant and the Sabbatical Leave Award from Missouri State University.

  4. Thimet oligopeptidase: similarity to 'soluble angiotensin II-binding protein' and some corrections to the published amino acid sequence of the rat testis enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    McKie, N; Dando, P M; Rawlings, N D; Barrett, A J

    1993-01-01

    The deduced amino acid sequence of pig liver soluble angiotensin II-binding protein [Sugiura, Hagiwara and Hirose (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 18067-18072] is similar over most of its length to that reported for rat testis thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) by Pierotti, Dong, Glucksman, Orlowski and Roberts [(1990) (Biochemistry 29, 10323-10329]. We have found that homogeneous rat testis thimet oligopeptidase binds angiotensin II with the same distinctive characteristics as the pig liver protein. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences reported for the two proteins pointed to the likelihood that sequencing errors had caused two segments of the amino acid sequence of the rat protein to be translated out of frame, and re-sequencing of selected parts of the clone (kindly provided by the previous authors) confirmed this. The revised deduced amino acid sequence of rat thimet oligopeptidase contains 687 residues, representing a protein of 78,308 Da, and is more closely related to those of the pig liver protein and other known homologues of thimet oligopeptidase than that described previously. Images Figure 1 PMID:8216239

  5. Design of cloaking metamaterials using spectral representation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai Leung, Lai; Fung, Tai Hang; Yu, Kin Wah

    2008-03-01

    Controlling the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, for instance in cloaking problem, has become an important topic in nanophotonics. So far, following the cloaking model proposed by Pendry et al. [1], the experimental realization was only limited to the microwave region [2]. Since practical application lies in the visible range, we have extended the investigation to that region by utilizing nanocomposites with reference to the material parameters proposed by Pendry et al. and Shalaev et al. [3]. The calculations can be made much simpler by invoking the spectral representation theory [4]. The loss and dispersion effects, as well as the propagation of EM waves are assessed for the designed cloaking models in order to investigate the cloaking performance. Further analyses show that our models can accomplish the desired cloaking effect in the visible range. Moreover, the loss and dispersion effects are found to be small and acceptable.[1] J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006). [2] D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, D. R. Smith Science 314, 5801 (2006). [3] Wenshan Cai, Uday K. Chettiar, Alexander V. Kildishev and Vladimir M. Shalaev, Nature photonics 1 (2007). [4] L. Dong, Mikko Karttunen, K. W. Yu, Phys. Rev. E 72, 016613 (2005).

  6. Investigation of chemical and physical properties of carbon nanotubes and their effects on cell biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chenbo

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used for a variety of applications from nanocircuits, to hydrogen storage devices, and from designing optical fibers to forming conductive plastics. Recently, their functionalization with biomolecules led to exciting biological and biomedical applications in drug delivery or bioimaging. However, because of CNTs interactions with biological systems and their ability to translocate and persist into the circulatory and lymphatic systems and biological tissues, concerns about CNTs intrinsic toxicity have risen. It is thus necessary to develop and implement sensitive analysis technologies that allow investigation of CNTs toxicity upon uptake into a biological system. This thesis provides a comprehensive guide of experiments that have been performed during my Ph.D. tenure at West Virginia University in the Department of Chemical Engineering, in the group of Prof. Cerasela Zoica Dinu. Briefly: Chapter one presents a systematic study of the CNTs physical and chemical properties and how these properties are changed upon exposure to chemical agents normally used during their cleaning and purification processes. Also, this chapter shows how acid oxidation treatment leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity making CNTs feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors. (Publication: Chenbo Dong, Alan S Campell, Reem Eldawud, Gabriela Perhinschi, and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes, Applied Surface Science, 2013, 268, 261-268.) Chapter two shows how exposure to CNTs changes the biomechanical properties of fixed human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). Specifically, by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation technology, we demonstrated that cellular exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for 24h induces significant changes in cellular biomechanics leading to increased cellular stiffness. The MWCNTs incubation also seemed to alter the surface area of the cells. Consequently, measures of the mechanical properties of the exposed cell could be used as indicators of its biological state and could offer valuable insights into the mechanisms associated with CNTs-induced genetic instability. (Publication: Chenbo Dong, Linda Sargent, Michael L Kashon, David Lowry, Jonathan S. Dordick, Steven H. Reynolds, Yon Rojanasakul and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Expose to carbon nanotubes leads to change in cellular biomechanics, Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2013, 7, 945-951.) Chapter three links together the MWCNTs exposure duration, internalization and induced biomechanical changes in fixed cells. Our findings indicated that changes in biomechanical properties of the fixed cells are a function of the uptake and internalization of the MWCNTs as well as their uptake time. Specifically, short exposure time did not seem to lead to considerable changes in the elastic properties in the cellular system. However, longer cellular exposure to CNTs leads to a higher uptake and internalization of the nanotubes and a larger effect on the cell mechanics. Such changes could be related to CNTs interactions with cellular elements and could bring information on the CNT intrinsic toxicity. Chapter four talks about the potential of purified forms of CNTs with increased hydrophilicity to affect live human lung epithelial cells when used at occupational relevant exposure doses for particles not otherwise regulated. Specifically, our results showed that exposure to MWCNTs affects the dynamics and the biomechanical properties of live cells by reducing the activity of the mitochondria and inducing cell cycle arrest. Our analysis emphasized that cellular toxicity observed upon exposure to MWCNTs is a synergism resulting from multiple types of interactions that could be analyzed by means of intracellular mechanical changes. This thesis contains Appendices of additional projects/publications for which I served as the first author: (1) Chenbo Dong, and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Molecular trucks and complementary tracks for bionanotechnological applications, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2013, 24, 612-619. (2) Chenbo Dong, Zijie Yan, Jacklyn Kokx, Douglas B. Chrisey and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of AgCl cubes synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid, Applied Surface Science, 2012, 258(10), 9218-9222.

  7. Impact of the irregular microgeometry of polyurethane foam on the macroscopic acoustic behavior predicted by a unit-cell model.

    PubMed

    Doutres, O; Ouisse, M; Atalla, N; Ichchou, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the macroscopic sound absorption behavior of highly porous polyurethane foams using two unit-cell microstructure-based models recently developed by Doutres, Atalla, and Dong [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064901 (2011); J. Appl. Phys. 113, 054901 (2013)]. In these models, the porous material is idealized as a packing of a tetrakaidecahedra unit-cell representative of the disordered network that constitutes the porous frame. The non-acoustic parameters involved in the classical Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (i.e., porosity, airflow resistivity, tortuosity, etc.) are derived from characteristic properties of the unit-cell and semi-empirical relationships. A global sensitivity analysis is performed on these two models in order to investigate how the variability associated with the measured unit-cell characteristics affects the models outputs. This allows identification of the possible limitations of a unit-cell micro-macro approach due to microstructure irregularity. The sensitivity analysis mainly shows that for moderately and highly reticulated polyurethane foams, the strut length parameter is the key parameter since it greatly impacts three important non-acoustic parameters and causes large uncertainty on the sound absorption coefficient even if its measurement variability is moderate. For foams with a slight inhomogeneity and anisotropy, a micro-macro model associated to cell size measurements should be preferred. PMID:25324070

  8. Transition disks as signposts of multi-planet systems? Constraints from orbital stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Dawson, Rebekah

    2015-08-01

    One in ten proto-planetary disks is a transition disk, with a cavity at its center. The sizes of such cavities, measured in resolved observations at both near infrared and mm wavelengths, can be huge, tens of AU or larger. It is an outstanding question whether these cavities are gaps cleared by planets or depletion of the inner disk by another mechanism, such as photo-evaporation. Many of the cavities are too large to be attributed to a single planet and would require multiple planets to open a common gap. Duffell and Dong (arXiv:1412.3560) recently showed that the combination of multiple planets produces only a shallow cavity, requiring much larger planet masses than previously assumed to account for the observations. However, in the regime of massive, closely-spaced planets, dynamical interactions among the planets become important and can quickly destabilize the system. Here we explore the overlap between stability requirements and common gap opening requirements. We discuss the implications for whether it's plausible that the planet gap clearing mechanism is responsible for most cavities. Our results provide guidelines for interpreting cavities as the signposts of planetary systems and for searches for planets in transitional disks via direct imaging.

  9. THE ORIGIN OF THE NEGATIVE TORQUE DENSITY IN DISK-SATELLITE INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Petrovich, Cristobal

    2012-03-01

    Tidal interaction between a gaseous disk and a massive orbiting perturber is known to result in angular momentum exchange between them. Understanding astrophysical manifestations of this coupling such as gap opening by planets in protoplanetary disks or clearing of gas by binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) embedded in accretion disks requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of the torque exerted on the disk by a perturber. Recent hydrodynamical simulations by Dong et al have shown evidence for the tidal torque density produced in a uniform disk to change sign at the radial separation of Almost-Equal-To 3.2 scale heights from the perturber's orbit, in clear conflict with the previous studies. To clarify this issue, we carry out a linear calculation of the disk-satellite interaction putting special emphasis on understanding the behavior of the perturbed fluid variables in physical space. Using analytical as well as numerical methods, we confirm the reality of the negative torque density phenomenon and trace its origin to the overlap of Lindblad resonances in the vicinity of the perturber's orbit-an effect not accounted for in previous studies. These results suggest that calculations of the gap and cavity opening in disks by planets and binary SMBHs should rely on more realistic torque density prescriptions than the ones used at present.

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

  11. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, William E.; Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J.; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results. PMID:26587532

  12. High levels of contamination and antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars on pig and poultry farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tu, L T P; Hoang, N V M; Cuong, N V; Campbell, J; Bryant, J E; Hoa, N T; Kiet, B T; Thompson, C; Duy, D T; Phat, V V; Hien, V B; Thwaites, G; Baker, S; Carrique-Mas, J J

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and associated risk factors on 341 pig, chicken, and duck farms in Dong Thap province (Mekong Delta, Vietnam). Sampling was stratified by species, district (four categories), and farm size (three categories). Pooled faeces, collected using boot swabs, were tested using ISO 6575: 2002 (Annex D). Isolates were serogrouped; group B isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect S. Typhimurium and (monophasic) serovar 4,[5],12:i:- variants. The farm-level adjusted NTS prevalence was 64·7%, 94·3% and 91·3% for chicken, duck and pig farms, respectively. Factors independently associated with NTS were duck farms [odds ratio (OR) 21·2], farm with >50 pigs (OR 11·9), pig farm with 5-50 pigs (OR 4·88) (vs. chickens), and frequent rodent sightings (OR 2·3). Both S. Typhimurium and monophasic S. Typhimurium were more common in duck farms. Isolates had a high prevalence of resistance (77·6%) against tetracycline, moderate resistance (20-30%) against chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ampicillin and nalidixic acid, and low resistance (<5%) against ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins. Multidrug resistance (resistance against ⩾3 classes of antimicrobial) was independently associated with monophasic S. Typhimurium and other group B isolates (excluding S. Typhimurium) and pig farms. The unusually high prevalence of NTS on Mekong Delta farms poses formidable challenges for control. PMID:25778282

  13. Persistent decadal-scale rainfall variability in the tropical South Pacific Convergence Zone through the past six centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maupin, C. R.; Partin, J. W.; Shen, C.-C.; Quinn, T. M.; Lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Banner, J. L.; Thirumalai, K.; Sinclair, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    Observations and reconstructions of decadal-scale climate variability are necessary to place predictions of future global climate change into temporal context (Goddard et al., 2012). This is especially true for decadal-scale climate variability that originates in the Pacific Ocean (Deser et al., 2004; Dong and Lu, 2013). We focus here on the western tropical Pacific (Solomon Islands; ~ 9.5° S, ~ 160° E), a region directly influenced by: the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), the Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC), and the Hadley Circulation. We calibrate δ18O variations in a fast growing stalagmite to local rainfall amount and produce a 600 yr record of rainfall variability from the zonally oriented, tropical portion of the SPCZ. We present evidence for large (~ 1.5 m), persistent and decade(s)-long shifts in total annual rainfall amount in the Solomon Islands since 1416 ± 5 CE. The timing of the decadal changes in rainfall inferred from the 20th century portion of the stalagmite δ18O record coincide with previously identified decadal shifts in Pacific ocean-atmosphere behavior (Clement et al., 2011; Deser et al., 2004). The 600 yr Solomons stalagmite δ18O record indicates that decadal oscillations in rainfall are a robust characteristic of SPCZ-related climate variability, which has important implications to water resource management in this region.

  14. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  15. Gravity Anomalies and Depths of Sedimentary of Mekong Delta Area, South of Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang Van, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is the region in the south of Vietnam with the total area of about 40.000 km2 and almost of this area is covered by water. Gravity measurement of this area was performed by Cuu Long Petroleum Agency (Vietnam) in 1980's and the Bouguer anomaly map of this area at the scale of 1/500.000 was established.We used the Bouguer anomaly map to study the geological structure of this area. This paper is divided into two parts. Firstly, we split the Mekong Delta area into two basins (CanTho-DongThap and TraCu basins) and two swells (Saigon and SocTrang swells) and delineated their boundaries by using the characteristics of Bouguer anomalies. Secondly, we used the second polynomial formula to separate the Bouger anomaly map into the regional and residual gravity anomaly maps. With this residual anomaly map, the 3D basemenf of Cenozoic-Mesozoic sediments of this area was computed by using the Parker-Oldenburg method.

  16. Traditional Chinese and Indian medicine in the treatment of opioid-dependence: a review

    PubMed Central

    Doosti, Fatemeh; Dashti, Saeedeh; Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the current literatures on the use of herbs and herbal preparations of Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicine for the treatment of opioid addiction were reviewed. Matherials and Methods: Search was done in databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and Google Scholar. Results: Among 18 retrieved studies, 3 studies were about asafetida extract, an approved preparation for ameliorating drug abstinence in China. Chinese preparations including Composite Dong Yuan Gao, Qingjunyin and TJ-97 (a water extract of dai-bofu-to) as well as Indian ones, Mentate and Shilajit, were reported to have positive effects against opioid withdrawal, dependence, and tolerance. Moreover, Levo-tetrahydropalmatine and L-Stepholidine, in addition to extracts of Caulis Sinomenii and Sinomenium acutum showed similar effects. Banxia Houpu Decoction, Fu-Yuan pellet, Jinniu capsules, Qingjunyin, Tai-Kang-Ning capsule, and Xuan Xia Qudu Jiaonang (WeiniCom) from Chinese preparations, showed anti-addiction effects in randomized, double-blind and, in some studies, multicenter clinical trials. Conclusion : Traditional herbal preparations of China and India have anti-addiction effects with less adverse effects than alpha2-adrenergic or opioid agonists. PMID:25050276

  17. The Radio/X-Ray Correlation and Black Hole Fundamental Plane for Young Radio Sources: Implications for X-Ray Origin and Accretion Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xu-Liang; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2016-02-01

    We find that the young radio sources (gigahertz-peaked spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio sources) follow in the radio/X-ray correlation with b=0.61+/- 0.07 ({L}R\\propto {L}Xb), and the fundamental plane of black hole activity with the form {log}{L}R={0.58}-0.03+0.03{log}{L}X+{0.42}-0.07+0.09{log}{M}{BH}+{13.83}-0.97+0.91 and the intrinsic scatter ? =0.29. The flatter coefficient between radio and X-ray bands denies the jet origin of the X-ray emission in these types of sources. Meanwhile, the higher ratio of X-ray luminosity to Eddington luminosity ({L}X/{L}{Edd}) suggests that the X-ray emission is produced by the hot corona coupling with the standard thin disk. The deviation with the radiative efficient fundamental plane proposed by Dong et al. is mainly due to the extended radio emission in young radio sources. This fundamental plane manifests that even the kiloparsec-scaled radio emission has a tight connection with the accretion process, and could be suitable for the radio-loud active galactic nuclei whose radio and X-ray emission are dominated by the extended jets and the radiative efficient accretion flow, respectively. Otherwise, the high-excitation galaxies and low-excitation galaxies do not have obvious distinctions in the radio/X-ray correlation and the fundamental plane.

  18. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Wolf, Sonya J; Samulski, R J

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV's high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package "large" genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161-169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568-8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002). This method involves "splitting" the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15(4):750-755, 2007). The other major strategy for AAV-mediated large gene delivery is the use of fragment AAV (fAAV) (Dong et al., Mol Ther 18(1):87-92, 2010; Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 21(12):2205-2216, 2013; Lai et al., Mol Ther 18(1):75-79, 2010; Wu et al., Mol Ther 18(1):80-86, 2010). This strategy developed following the observation that the attempted encapsidation of transgenic cassettes exceeding the packaging capacity of the AAV capsid results in the packaging of heterogeneous single-strand genome fragments (<5 kb) of both polarities (Dong et al., Mol Ther 18(1):87-92, 2010; Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 21(12):2205-2216, 2013; Lai et al., Mol Ther 18(1):75-79, 2010; Wu et al., Mol Ther 18(1):80-86, 2010). After transduction by multiple fAAV particles, the genome fragments can undergo opposite strand annealing, followed by host-mediated DNA synthesis to reconstruct the intended oversized genome within the cell. Although, there appears to be growing debate as to the most efficient method of rAAV-mediated large gene delivery, it remains possible that additional factors including the target tissue and the transgenomic sequence factor into the selection of a particular approach for a specific application (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 21(12):2205-2216, 2013; Trapani et al., EMBO Mol Med 6(2):194-211, 2014; Ghosh et al., Hum Gene Ther 22(1):77-83, 2011). Herein we discuss the design, production, and verification of the leading rAAV large gene delivery strategies. PMID:26611576

  19. (When and where) Do extreme climate events trigger extreme ecosystem responses? - Development and initial results of a holistic analysis framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, Eva K.; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-04-01

    In the context of ongoing climate change, extremes are likely to increase in magnitude and frequency. One of the most important consequences of these changes is that the associated ecological risks and impacts are potentially rising as well. In order to better anticipate and understand these impacts, it therefore becomes more and more crucial to understand the general connection between climate extremes and the response and functionality of ecosystems. Among other region of the world, Europe presents an excellent test case for studies concerning the interaction between climate and biosphere, since it lies in the transition region between cold polar and warm tropical air masses and thus covers a great variety of different climatic zones and associated terrestrial ecosystems. The large temperature differences across the continent make this region particularly interesting for investigating the effects of climate change on biosphere-climate interactions. However, previously used methods for defining an extreme event typically disregard the necessity of taking seasonality as well as seasonal variance appropriately into account. Furthermore, most studies have focused on the impacts of individual extreme events instead of considering a whole inventory of extremes with their respective spatio-temporal extents. In order to overcome the aforementioned research gaps, this work introduces a new approach to studying climate-biosphere interactions associated with extreme events, which comprises three consecutive steps: (1) Since Europe exhibits climatic conditions characterized by marked seasonality, a novel method is developed to define extreme events taking into account the seasonality in all quantiles of the probability distribution of the respective variable of interest. This is achieved by considering kernel density estimates individually for each observation date during the year, including the properly weighted information from adjacent dates. By this procedure, we obtain a seasonal cycle for each quantile of the distribution, which can be used for a fully data-adaptive definition of extremes as exceedances above this time-dependent quantile function. (2) Having thus identified the extreme events, their distribution is analyzed in both space and time. Following a procedure recently proposed by Lloyd-Hughes (2012) and further exploited by Zscheischler et al. (2013), extremes observed at neighboring points in space and time are considered to form connected sets. Investigating the size distribution of these sets provides novel insights into the development and dynamical characteristics of spatio-temporally extended climate and ecosystem extremes. (3) Finally, the timing of such spatio-temporally extended extremes in different climatic as well as ecological variables is tested pairwise to rule out that co-occurrences of extremes have emerged solely due to chance. For this purpose, the recently developed framework of coincidence analysis (Donges et al., 2011; Rammig et al. 2014) is applied. The corresponding analysis allows identifying potential causal linkages between climatic extremes and extreme ecosystem responses and, thus, to study their mechanisms and spatial as well as seasonal distribution in great detail. In this work, the described method is exemplified by using different climate data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as remote sensing-based land surface temperature data. References: Donges et al., PNAS, 108, 20422, 2011 Lloyd-Hughes, Int. J. Climatol., 32, 406, 2012 Rammig et al., Biogeosc. Disc., 11, 2537, 2014 Zscheischler et al., Ecol. Inform., 15, 66, 2013

  20. Absorptive constituents and their metabolites in drug-containing urine samples from Wuzhishan miniature pigs orally administered with Buyang Huanwu decoction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Hui; Ren, Xiang-Liang; Xu, Feng; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Guang-Xue; Li, Cang-Hai; Li, Chen; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, is composed of seven commonly used Chinese herbs--Astragali Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Carthami Flos, Persicae Semen and Pheretima. To determine the main absorptive constituents and the metabolites of BYHWD in vivo, urine samples from Wuzhishan (WZS) miniature pigs orally administered with BYHWD (13.6 g crude drugs/kg) were collected to investigate the characteristic compounds. By comparing the high-performance liquid chromatography of a drug-containing urine sample with that of a drug-free sample, 17 characteristic compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of a drug-containing urine sample by column chromatography. Their structures, including 11 isoflavanoids, 2 pterocarpanoids and 4 isoflavonoids, were identified by spectroscopic means. Of the 17 compounds, 8 (1-8) were new compounds with the following structures: 3S-7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-3'-O-?-D-glucuronide (1), 3S-7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-4'-O-?-D-glucuronide (2), 3S-7,2',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide (3), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide (4), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (5), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-7-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (6), 3R-7,2',3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan-3'-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (7), and 3S-7,4',5'-trihydroxy-2',3'-dimethoxyisoflavan-5'-O-?-D-glucuronide (8). Based on the possible relationship and metabolic pathways of the 17 compounds in vivo, 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan (isomucronulatol, 11), 6aR,11aR-3-hydroxy-9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan (methylnissolin, astrapterocarpan, 13), 7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (calycosin, 16) and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (formononetin, 17) were thought to be the most important absorptive original isoflavonoid constituents of BYHWD in vivo, which underwent reactions of glucuronidation, hydroxylation, demethylation and reduction. The other 13 compounds were deduced to be their metabolites. PMID:23516044

  1. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  2. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Cui-Hong; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and orthogonal experimental design, the small formula (SHZHSD) was determined from the original formula (HZHSD). SHZHSD exhibited superior antitumor activity compared with the original formula both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26421050

  3. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jie; Liu, Xiao-hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Cui-hong; Wu, Xiong-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and orthogonal experimental design, the small formula (SHZHSD) was determined from the original formula (HZHSD). SHZHSD exhibited superior antitumor activity compared with the original formula both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26421050

  4. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P?=?0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P?=?0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P?=?0.05) and acetate was higher (P?=?0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P?=?0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P?=?0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

  5. Tissue distribution study of columbianadin and its active metabolite columbianetin in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Columbianadin, one of the main bioactive constituents of the roots of Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan, has been found to possess obvious pharmacological effects in previous studies. In this study, a valid and sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was established and validated for the determination of columbianadin (CBN) and its active metabolite columbianetin (CBT) in rat tissue samples. Sample separation was performed on an RP-HPLC column using a mobile phase of MeOH-H2 O (75:25, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0?mL/min. The UV absorbance of the samples was measured at the wavelength 325?nm. The calibration curves for CBN were linear over the ranges of 0.5-20?g/g for brain, testes and muscle, 1.0-10.0?g/g for stomach and intestine, and 0.2-20.0?g/g for heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. The calibration curves for CBT were linear over the ranges of 0.5-25?g/g for stomach and intestine, and 0.1-10.0?g/g for heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. The analysis method was successfully applied to a tissue distribution study of CBN and CBT after intravenous administration of CBN to rats. The results of this study indicated that CBN could be detected in all of the selected tissues after i.v. administration. CBN was distributed to rat tissues rapidly and could be metabolized to CBT in most detected tissues. Of the detected tissues, heart had the highest uptake of CBN, which suggested that heart might be one of the main target tissues of CBN. Concentrations of CBT were obviously higher in the digestive system than in other assayed tissues. The information provided by this research is very useful for gaining knowledge of the capacities of CBN and CBT to access different tissues. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26115176

  6. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species. PMID:26630034

  7. A modified preparation (LMK03) of the oriental medicine Jangwonhwan reduces Abeta(1-42) level in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Seon; Jung, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Hye; Lyu, Yeoung-Su; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kang, Hyung-Won

    2010-06-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The oriental medicine Jangwonhwan, which is a boiled extract of 12 medicinal herbs/mushroom, has been prescribed for patients with cognitive dysfunction. Recently, a modified recipe of Jangwonhwan (LMK02-Jangwonhwan) consisting of seven medicinal plants/mushroom, was shown to have a therapeutic potential to ameliorate AD-like pathology. AIM OF THE STUDY: It was investigate whether a further reduction of Jangwonhwan (LMK03-Jangwonhwan) retains the potency to suppress the AD-like pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The transgenic mice of Alzheimer disease, Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9, were fed LMK03-Jangwonhwan consisting of two of the herbs, white Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf and Angelica gigas Nakai, could protect the AD-like pathology at 300mg/Kg/day of dose for 3 month. In vitro cell biological study, immunohistological and ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) analyses were used to assess its neuroprotective effects against Abeta-induced cell death, and the Abeta accumulation and plaque deposition in the brain. RESULTS: In vitro study with SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells showed that LMK03-Jangwonhwan could protect from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide or oligomeric Abeta(1-42). Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice were administered LMK03-Jangwonhwan at 300mg/Kg/day for 3 months from 4.5 months of age. Immunohistological and ELISA analyses showed that LMK03-Jangwonhwan partially reduced Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(1-40) levels and beta-amyloid plaque deposition in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. However, LMK03-Jangwonhwan poorly suppressed accumulation of reactive oxidative stress in the hippocampus of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and inefficiently improved the expression of phospho-CREB and calbindin, the cellular factors that were downregulated in AD-like brains. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LMK03-Jangwonhwan has a potency to inhibit AD-like pathology at a detectable level, but LMK03 is not likely to retain the major ability of LMK02-Jangwonhwan to modify AD pathology in several AD-related molecular parameters. PMID:20685330

  8. Single Oral Dose Pharmacokinetics of Decursin and Decursinol Angelate in Healthy Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Hale, Thomas W.; Chee, Wayne; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH) in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY) in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax) of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax) of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h) and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h). The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h) for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957 PMID:25695490

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  10. A computational and functional study elicits the ameliorating effect of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan on experimental ischemia-induced myocardial injury in rats via inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Wei; Ye, Hang-Cheng; Xu, Ying-Zi; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and remains a major life-threatening factor in humans. Apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IHD. The Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), one of the commonly used Chinese herbal formulas, consists of Salviae miltiorrhizae, Angelica sinensis, Gummi olibanum, and Commiphora myrrha, with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. However, the mechanism of action and molecular targets of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD are unclear. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD and key regulators of apoptosis and then examine the effect of HLXLD on coronary artery ligation-induced acute myocardial ischemia in rats. The molecular interactions between the major active components of HLXLD, including ferulic acid, ligustilide, succinic acid, vanillic acid, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone IIB, danshensu, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, protocatechuic aldehyde, and ?-boswellic acid and human protein molecules including B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), B cell lymphoma 2 antagonist/killer 1 (Bak1), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), procaspase 3, and caspase 9 with regard to hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and ?-? stacking using Discovery Studio() program 3.1. The 12 HLXLD components were predicted by ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) Predictor to have favorable pharmacokinetic and low hepatotoxicity profiles. The acute myocardial ischemia was established by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats were divided into a sham operative group, a model group, a positive control group treated with 0.2 mg/kg isosorbide mononitrate, and groups treated with 2.7, 5.4, or 10.8 g/kg HLXLD. The results showed that administration of HLXLD increased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate, and maximal rate of rise/descent of left ventricular pressure levels. Administration of HLXLD significantly ameliorated coronary artery ligation-induced tissue damage in the left ventricle, with restored arrangement of myocardial fibers and recovered myoplasm in rats. Furthermore, HLXLD markedly increased the expression level of Bcl-2 but decreased the level of cleaved caspase 3. Taken together, administration of HLXLD attenuated acute myocardial ischemia-induced damage in cardiomyocytes and inhibited apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes, thereby exerting a cardioprotective effect in rats with IHD. These findings suggest that HLXLD may represent a promising herbal formula for the treatment of cardiovascular disease by counteracting apoptotic cell death via multiple active compounds. More studies are warranted to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action, identify the therapeutic targets, and validate the efficacy and safety of HLXLD in the treatment of IHD. PMID:25733819

  11. Towards a more robust molecular phylogeny of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: additional evidence from nrDNA ITS and cpDNA intron (rpl16 and rps16) sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Gong, Xun; Downie, Stephen R; Peng, Hua

    2009-10-01

    China contains some of the world's greatest diversity of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), with ten endemic genera. Our previous investigation into the phylogenetic relationships of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae, based exclusively on nrDNA ITS sequences, revealed several major clades heretofore unrecognized in the subfamily and confirmed the phylogenetic placements of five endemic genera. To further elucidate relationships among Chinese Apioideae, ascertain the phylogenetic placements of the remaining endemic genera, and test hypotheses of relationships proposed in our earlier study, additional taxa were examined for ITS and, for smaller sets of accessions, cpDNA rpl16 and rps16 intron sequence variation. These ITS and cpDNA data matrices comprised 158 and 131 accessions, respectively, with 110 accessions included in the analysis of combined ITS and cpDNA data. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of partitioned ITS and chloroplast data sets resulted in highly consistent phylogenies, whereas analyses of combined molecular data resulted in trees of greatest resolution and overall branch support. Two major clades identified in our previous study are recognized at the tribal level: Komarovieae J. Zhou & S. R. Downie trib. nov. and Chamaesieae J. Zhou & F. D. Pu trib. nov. The monotypic tribe Chamaesieae represents one of the earliest diverging lineages of subfamily Apioideae in Asia. The Acronema and East Asia clades of previous circumscription are each expanded. Of the five Chinese endemic genera not examined previously, Chaerophyllopsis finds affinity within tribe Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae, Chuanminshen allies with Changium and Cyclorhiza in tribe Komarovieae, Harrysmithia falls within the Acronema Clade, Melanosciadium embeds in Angelica in tribe Selineae, and Dickinsia is confirmed as a member of Apiaceae subfamily Azorelloideae. The cpDNA-based phylogenies are not sufficiently resolved in their distal portions to elucidate the tribal placement of the endemic genus Nothosmyrnium, whereas the ITS trees strongly indicate an affinity with tribe Pimpinelleae. The affinities of several Chinese endemic species are also addressed. Peucedanum delavayi, for example, is phylogenetically distant from Sinodielsia and Meeboldia, genera with which it has been allied previously, and shows close affinity to three Chinese species of Ligusticum in tribe Selineae. Aside from providing a framework for taxonomic revisions, the phylogenetic structure recovered in this study for subfamily Apioideae will lay the foundation for future investigations of evolutionary patterns of morphological characters and biogeography. PMID:19501179

  12. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.

  13. Research on Earthquake Precursor in E-TEC: A Study on Land Surface Thermal Anomalies Using MODIS LST Product in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. Y.; Wu, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan has been known as an excellent natural laboratory characterized by rapid active tectonic rate and high dense seismicity. The Eastern Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (E-TEC) is established on 2013/09/24 in National Dong Hwa University and collaborates with Central Weather Bureau (CWB), National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR), Institute of Earth Science of Academia Sinica (IES, AS) and other institutions (NCU, NTU, CCU) and aims to provide an integrated platform for researchers to conduct the new advances on earthquake precursors and early warning for seismic disaster prevention in the eastern Taiwan, as frequent temblors are most common in the East Taiwan rift valley. E-TEC intends to integrate the multi-disciplinary observations and is equipped with stations to monitor a wide array of factors of quake precursors, including seismicity, GPS, strain-meter, ground water, geochemistry, gravity, electromagnetic, ionospheric density, thermal infrared remote sensing, gamma radiation etc, and will maximize the value of the data for researches with the range of monitoring equipment that enable to predict where and when the next devastated earthquake will strike Taiwan and develop reliable earthquake prediction models. A preliminary study on earthquake precursor using monthly Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) data before 2013/03/27 Mw6.2 Nantou earthquake in Taiwan is presented. Using the statistical analysis, the result shows the peak of the anomalous LST that exceeds a standard deviation of LST appeared on 2013/03/09 and became less or none anomalies observed on 2013/03/16 before the main-shock, which is in consist with the phenomenon observed by other researchers. This preliminary experimental result shows that the thermal anomalies reveal the possibility to associate surface thermal phenomena before the strong earthquakes.

  14. Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy of NbW- and W2-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepper, D. Alex; Baudhuin, Melissa A.; Leopold, Doreen; Casey, Sean M.

    2015-06-01

    The 488 nm vibrationally-resolved photoelectron spectra of NbW- and W2- are reported. The electron affinity of W2 ( 1?g+ ? 2?u+ ) is found to be 1.118 0.007 eV, which differs from the value reported in a previous anion photoelectron spectroscopic study of W2- (1.46 eV), but was accurately predicted by density functional calculations (1.12 eV). The fundamental vibrational frequency of W2 is measured to be 345 15 wn, in agreement with the value previously reported in matrix resonance Raman studies (337 wn). The W2- anion is measured to have a fundamental frequency of 320 15 wn. Several weak transitions to excited electronic states are seen and tentatively assigned based on calculated energies. NbW has an electron affinity of 0.856 0.007 eV. Vibrational frequencies are found, by Franck-Condon fitting of overlapping transitions, to be 365 20 cm-1 for NbW- and 410 20 cm-1 for NbW. This increase in vibrational frequency upon photodetachment suggests that the extra electron is in an antibonding orbital, leading to ground state assignments of 3? and 2? for the anion and neutral, respectively. These results are compared to those obtained for other Group V and Group VI transition metal dimers and trends are discussed. H. Weidele et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 237 (1995) 425-431 Z. J. Wu, X. F. Ma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 371 (2003) 35-39 Z. Hu, J.-G. Dong, J. R. Lombardi, D. M. Lindsay, J. Chem. Phys. 97 (1992) 8811-8812

  15. Characterizing the physical and demographic variables associated with heavy metal distribution along urban-rural gradient.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shubo; Qiao, Yajun; Yin, Chunsheng; Yang, Xiaoying; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a study of how the demographic and physical variables affected the heavy metal (HM) contamination along the urban-rural gradient in PuDong New District, Shanghai. The road density (RDi) and the percentage of built-up areas (BAi) were calculated for various widths of buffers around the soil sampling sites. Through distance allocation, the demographic values of the population change index (PCI) were assigned, with the value being associated with the nearest town. We initiated the use of the population migration rate from 2000 to 2010, i.e., PCI, to represent the urbanization rate. Regression analysis between the soil HM concentrations and the PCI, the RD, and the BA was estimated. The results indicated that the PCI significantly affected the Cd and Cu distribution (p < 0.05), while the RD of the 3-km buffer affected the Pb concentrations. The BA of 2-km buffers affected the spatial distribution of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Zn was also affected by the RD within the 4-km buffer. Using the median values of the PCI and the BA of the 2-km buffer, and the RD of the 3-km buffer, logistic analysis was performed to identify the priority areas for managing HM hazards. The two identified priority areas were the towns of Kangqiao and Zhuqiao, both of which were rapidly urbanized areas with higher PCI values. Our research demonstrated that understanding the rate of urbanization may be as important as the degree of urbanization when examining associated HM contamination patterns. PMID:26269103

  16. Principal component filtering of DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Gonzlez, P.; Samsonov, S. V.; Fernandez, J.

    2013-12-01

    Geodetic data, the spatial and temporal surface expression of complex geophysical processes in the earth, is being acquired today at unprecedented rates and accuracies. Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) is a satellite remote sensing technique that is used extensively today for mapping ground deformation with a high spatial resolution and sub-centimeter precision over a large area (Massonnet and Feigl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000; Hooper et al., 2012). Spatial resolution of the modern SAR sensors ranges from 1 to 20 m over areas from 10x10 km to 200x200 km. Typical images produced with advanced DInSAR techniques can contain more than 100,000 data points. Previous research has demonstrated that an eigenpattern decomposition technique known as Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) analysis can be used to identify a unique, finite set of correlated deformation patterns for a given regional network of GPS stations (Tiampo et al., 2004; Tiampo et al., 2012). Similar in nature to the empirical orthogonal functions historically employed in the analysis of atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena, the method derives the eigenvalues and eigenstates from the diagonalization of the correlation matrix (Fukunaga, 1970; Preisendorfer, 1988; Penland, 1989; Vautard and Ghil, 1989). After decomposing large data sets into their orthonormal eigenvectors and associated time series, based upon the spatiotemporal relationships that exist in the data, that decomposition can be used to study those modes most responsible for these correlations and their sources (Tiampo et al., 2004) or to remove those uninteresting modes in the system (Dong et al., 2006). One additional benefit is that these modes are ordered naturally by the predominant spatial wavelength of the signal. Here we demonstrate its application to DInSAR data in several different regions and its ability to isolate the handful of important signals in the thousands of data points and to identify the potential anthropogenic, volcanic and tectonic sources in the vertical and horizontal deformation modes.

  17. The effect of electrical properties for InGaN and InN by high-energy particle irradiation (notice of removal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shao-guang; Fan, Guang-han

    2008-03-01

    This paper (SPIE Paper 68411H) was removed from the SPIE Digital Library on 8 August 2008 upon discovery that the paper has substantially plagiarized the following two papers: R.E. Jones, S.X. Li, L. Hsu, K.M. Yu, W. Walukiewicz, Z. Liliental-Weber, J.W. Ager III, E.E. Haller, H. Lu, and W.J. Schaff, "Native-defect-controlled n-type conductivity in InN," Physica B 376-377 (2006) 436-439 and S.X. Li, K.M. Yu, J. Wu, R.E. Jones, W. Walukiewicz, J.W. Ager III, W. Shan, E.E. Haller, Hai Lu, and William J. Schaff, "Native defects in InxGa1-xN alloys," Physica B 376-377 (2006) 432-435. As stated in the SPIE Publication Ethics Guidelines, "SPIE defines plagiarism as the reuse of someone else's prior ideas, processes, results, or words without explicit attribution of the original author and source, or falsely representing someone else's work as one's own. Unauthorized use of another researcher's unpublished data or findings without permission is considered to be a form of plagiarism even if the source is attributed. SPIE considers plagiarism in any form, at any level, to be unacceptable and a serious breach of professional conduct." It is SPIE policy to remove such papers and to provide citations to original sources so that interested readers can obtain the information directly from those sources. One of the authors, Shao-guang Dong, accepts full responsibility and apologizes for this plagiarism and has absolved the second author, Guang-han Fan, of any prior knowledge of or professional misconduct in this matter. Guang-han Fan also states that he had not previously seen the paper or given permission to include his name as an author.

  18. Determining changes in the average minimum winter temperature of Horqin Sandy Land using tree ring records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Liu, TingXi; Wang, JingRu; Ji, LanHong; Gao, RuiZhong

    2015-02-01

    Horqin Sandy Land, a region in China that suffers from desertification, has become a primary economic zone in Inner Mongolia MengDong. Ecological and environmental problems continue to affect the local environment and human survival, becoming one of the bottlenecks to economic and social development. Thus, research on the characteristics of climatic variation is urgently required. This study used the comprehensive timeline for the regional tree wheel width of Horqin Sandy Land to reconstruct the average minimum winter temperatures of the study area. The timeline, which has been in use for 183 years, was established using core samples from the annual growth rings of elm trees in 10 sampling sites. For 181 years (1826-2006), varying minimum temperatures were observed: a gentle wave stage (1826-1923), an intense cooling stage (1923-1957), and a considerable heating stage (1957-2006). The longest continuous heating stage was observed from 1957 to 2006, during which time the average minimum temperature was -16.81 C, a value greater than the mean temperature over the entire study period. The coldest 10 years occurred during the 1950s, until 1957, at which point the temperature sharply increased. The next 50 years exhibited a general warming trend until 2000. This period reflected a time span with the warmest minimum temperature and displayed a warming trend rate of 0.575 C/10 years and an overall increase of up to 1.5 every 50 years. A continued rise in temperature is predicted to cause a wider range and longer time scale of ecological and environmental problems.

  19. Gender training in aquaculture in northern Vietnam. A report.

    PubMed

    Voeten, J; Ottens, B J

    1997-01-01

    Described is a pilot project that integrated gender and technology in training and analysis in Vietnam. Many farmers in Vietnam use the VAC system of fishing, farming, and animal husbandry, which makes efficient use of resources and requires low inputs. Excess products are sold locally. Plants are used for food, fiber, and fuel. Waste products are recycled. Small ponds (under 0.5 ha) are created using rainwater. 2-8 tons/ha/year of fish are produced. The dug-out soil is used to build up gardens and house foundations as protection against flooding. Fresh water for the household comes from wells. Garden plots contain various intercropped species. Fruit trees and tuber crops are cultivated in shady areas. Timber trees and rattan are planted to form tree fences. Taro is planted around the ponds, and marsh lentils are planted on pond surfaces. Various fish feed in the top, middle, and bottom portions of ponds. Gourd is grown on trellises above the ponds. Pig manure is used for plant and fish food. Pond water, which is rich in nutrients and sludge, is used to fertilize gardens. During 1995-96, a pilot program provided training in aquaculture for poor rural women in the villages of My Xa and My Tan in Nam Ha province and Tuan Chinh and Yen Dong in Vihn Phu province in the north. The analysis identified gender relations in management, control of aquaculture, decision-making, and use of benefits. The concept of gender was explained to women in the training program. Women were more concerned with the technical training. The position of women improved in participation, decision-making, and control over benefits. The technical transfer of knowledge was viewed as less important than gender awareness. The aim to improve women's position should be clearly identified. Community participation in the training of trainers was beneficial. Follow-up activities continued during 1997-99. PMID:12179940

  20. Terrestrial soil pH and MAAT records based on the MBT/CBT in the southern South China Sea: implications for the atmospheric CO2 evolution in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Liang Dong1, Li Li1, Qianyu Li1,2, Chuanlun L. Zhang1,3 1State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China 2School of Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia 3Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and/or the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) are derived from the branched glycerol dialkyl Glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of bacterial origin and are widely used to reconstruct the terrestrial soil pH and mean annual air temperature (MAAT); however, these proxies are less frequently used in the oceanic settings. Here we provide the first high resolution records of soil pH and MAAT since the last glacial maximum based on the sedimentary core of MD05-2896 in the southern South China Sea. The MAAT record exhibited typical glacial and interglacial cycles and was consistent with the winter insolation variation. The pH values were lower (6.4-7) in the glacial time and higher (7-8.4) in the interglacial time. Changes in soil pH allowed the evaluation of changes in soil CO2 based on the atmosphere-soil CO2 balance. The results imply that the lower winter MAAT variation with a lower winter atmospheric CO2 concentration might have resulted in a higher pH in the interglacial period. Our records provide a new insight into the evolution of atmospheric CO2 between glacial and interglacial cycles in East Asia. Key words: South China Sea, MBT/CBT, b-GDGTs, MAAT, pH

  1. Tectonic significance of the Dongqiao ophiolite in the north-central Tibetan plateau: Evidence from zircon dating, petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Zhai, Qing-guo; Wang, Jun; Bao, Pei-sheng; Qiangba, Zhaxi; Tang, Suo-han; Tang, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The Dongqiao ophiolite occurs in the central segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, in north-central Tibet, China. It is still debated on the tectonic setting of the Dongqiao ophiolite despite after more than 30 years' studies. The Dongqiao ophiolite has a complete section of a typical ophiolite, composed of harzburgite, dunite, layered and isotropic gabbros, pillow and massive basalts, as well as radiolarian chert. Whole-rock geochemical analyses show that harzburgite displays a broad U-shaped REE pattern and has a fore-arc affinity, whereas basalts show affinities of E-MORB, OIB and IAB. The basalts were probably formed in different tectonic settings, that is, mid-ocean ridge, oceanic island and island arc. The gabbros and basalts are characterized by positive εNd(t) (+1.6 to +6.7) and εHf(t) (+8.1 to +13.9) values. Zircon U-Pb dating yielded ages of 188 ± 1 Ma for the layered gabbro and 181 ± 1 Ma for the amphibole gabbro. The new ages and the published age data of the Dingqing and Dong Co ophiolites led us to conclude that the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean existed from the Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The new geochemical data also suggested that the Dongqiao ophiolite was a typical SSZ-type ophiolite formed in an initial fore-arc oceanic basin. Fore-arc ophiolites are probably widely distributed along the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone. If so, the Tethys Ocean of the Bangong-Nujiang area probably existed as a fore-arc oceanic basin during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

  2. A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.

    2006-03-30

    In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

  3. Erysipelothrix larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Bang, Byung-Ho; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Park, Doo-Sang; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2015-02-01

    A novel, Gram-stain positive, facultative anaerobic, non-motile and straight to curve rod shaped bacterium, strain LV19(T) was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, which was collected from Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea. The colonies of the new isolate were convex, circular, cream white in color and 1-2 mm in diameter after 3 days incubation on Tryptic Soy Agar at 37 C. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the new isolate was most closely related to Erysipelothrix inopinata MF-EP02(T), E. rhusiopathiae ATCC 19414 (T) and E. tonsillarum T-305(T) (94.8, 93.8 and 93.7 % similarity, respectively). Strain LV19(T) grew optimally at 37 C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were negative. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C18:2 cis-9,12 (28.9 %), C18:1 cis-9 (22.3 %), C16:0 (22.2 %) and C18:0 (18.5 %). The cell-wall hydrolysates contained ribose as a major sugar. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and three unidentified glycolipids. No quinone was detected. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.3 mol%. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain LV19(T) and all the reference strains were less than 20 %. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Erysipelothrix, for which the name Erysipelothrix larvae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LV19(T) (=KCTC 33523(T) = DSM 28480(T)). PMID:25534074

  4. THE STRUCTURE OF PRE-TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF THE DISK+CAVITY IN THE PDS 70 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruobing; Rafikov, Roman; Zhu Zhaohuan; Brandt, Timothy; Hashimoto, Jun; Whitney, Barbara; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, S.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Muto, Takayuki; McClure, Melissa K.; Wisniewski, John; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Carson, J.; Grady, C.; Hayashi, M.; and others

    2012-12-01

    Through detailed radiative transfer modeling, we present a disk+cavity model to simultaneously explain both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and Subaru H-band polarized light imaging for the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk PDS 70. In particular, we are able to match not only the radial dependence but also the absolute scale of the surface brightness of the scattered light. Our disk model has a cavity 65 AU in radius, which is heavily depleted of sub-micron-sized dust grains, and a small residual inner disk that produces a weak but still optically thick near-IR excess in the SED. To explain the contrast of the cavity's edge in the Subaru image, a factor of {approx}1000 depletion for the sub-micron-sized dust inside the cavity is required. The total dust mass of the disk may be on the order of 10{sup -4} M {sub Sun }, only weakly constrained due to the lack of long-wavelength observations and the uncertainties in the dust model. The scale height of the sub-micron-sized dust is {approx}6 AU at the cavity edge, and the cavity wall is optically thick in the vertical direction at H-band. PDS 70 is not a member of the class of (pre-)transitional disks identified by Dong et al., whose members only show evidence of the cavity in the millimeter-size dust but not the sub-micron-sized dust in resolved images. The two classes of (pre-)transitional disks may form through different mechanisms, or they may simply be at different evolution stages in the disk-clearing process.

  5. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. Method A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. Results The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24?679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The governments contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Conclusions Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. PMID:25512430

  6. Simple Fecal Flotation Is a Superior Alternative to Guadruple Kato Katz Smear Examination for the Detection of Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders; Marti, Hanspeter; Traub, Rebecca J.; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia. Methods/Principle Findings Fecal samples collected from 205 people in Dong village, Rovieng district, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia were subjected to KK, SNF and PCR for the detection (and in case of microscopy-based methods, quantification) of hookworm eggs in stool. The prevalence of hookworm detected using a combination of three techniques (gold standard) was 61.0%. PCR displayed a highest sensitivity for hookworm detection (92.0%) followed by SNF (44.0%) and quadruple KK smears (36.0%) compared to the gold standard. The overall eggs per gram feces from SNF tended to be higher than for quadruple KK and the SNF proved superior for detecting low egg burdens. Conclusion/Significance As a reference, PCR demonstrated the higher sensitivity compared to SNF and the quadruple KK method for detection of hookworm in human stool. For microscopic-based quantification, a single SNF proved superior to the quadruple KK for the detection of hookworm eggs in stool, in particular for low egg burdens. In addition, the SNF is cost-effective and easily accessible in resource poor countries. PMID:25521997

  7. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T. K.; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted. PMID:26452338

  8. Optical broad-band photometry and reference image for APMUKS(BJ) B215839.70-615403.9 / ASASSN-15lh from the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, Peter; Drlica-Wagner, Alexander; Bechtol, Keith; Rykoff, Eli; Hartley, William; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We report optical broad-band photometry of the host galaxy APMUKS(BJ) B215839.70-615403.9 of SLSN ASASSN-15lh (ATel #7642; Dong et al., arXiv:1507.03010). The images were obtained using the DECam imager on the Blanco 4-m telescope at NOAO's Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory during Year-2 observations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). A preliminary reduction of the images was performed by the DES Data Management pipeline (Mohr et al. 2012, SPIE Conference Series, 84510D; Desai et al. 2012, ApJ, 757, 83). The photometry was measured using SExtractor with additional calibration via stellar locus regression to provide magnitude zero points with 2-3% calibration uncertainty for point sources (relative to 2MASS) and mildly increased uncertainties for extended sources. We fit the DES g-r, r-i, and i-z colors to a red-sequence model from redMaPPer (Rykoff et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 104) and obtain a redshift 0.250.02, consistent with the spectroscopic redshift of z = 0.2326 (ATel #7774). Fixed to that redshift, the host photometry is fully consistent with a red-sequence galaxy. We combine photometry from DES grizY with VHS NIR (ATel #7776) and WISE IR and fit a linear combination of single stellar populations with a variety of ages. We find that the fit is dominated by an old (5 Gyr) component, consistent with those of elliptical galaxies. We further compare with dusty SEDs taken from the latest set of templates in EAZY (Brammer, van Dokkum & Coppi, 2008, ApJ, 686, 1503). The combined host photometry is not well described by any of the dusty templates.

  9. Rodents and Risk in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: Seroprevalence of Selected Zoonotic Viruses in Rodents and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Vo Be, Hien; An, Nguyen Ngoc; Tue, Ngo Tri; Anh, Nguyet Lam; Anh, Pham Hong; Phuc, Nguyen The; Baker, Stephen; Voutilainen, Liina; Jskelinen, Anne; Huhtamo, Eili; Utriainen, Mira; Sironen, Tarja; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Chaval, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam, rats are commonly traded in wet markets and sold live for food consumption. We investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine seropositivity to representative reference strains of hantaviruses (Dobrava virus [DOBV], Seoul virus [SEOV]), cowpox virus, arenaviruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]), flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), and rodent parechoviruses (Ljungan virus), using sera from 245 humans living in Dong Thap Province and 275 rodents representing the five common rodent species sold in wet markets and present in peridomestic and farm settings. Combined seropositivity to DOBV and SEOV among the rodents and humans was 6.9% (19/275) and 3.7% (9/245), respectively; 1.1% (3/275) and 4.5% (11/245) to cowpox virus; 5.4% (15/275) and 47.3% (116/245) for TBEV; and exposure to Ljungan virus was 18.8% (46/245) in humans, but 0% in rodents. Very little seroreactivity was observed to LCMV in either rodents (1/275, 0.4%) or humans (2/245, 0.8%). Molecular screening of rodent liver tissues using consensus primers for flaviviruses did not yield any amplicons, whereas molecular screening of rodent lung tissues for hantavirus yielded one hantavirus sequence (SEOV). In summary, these results indicate low to moderate levels of endemic hantavirus circulation, possible circulation of a flavivirus in rodent reservoirs, and the first available data on human exposures to parechoviruses in Vietnam. Although the current evidence suggests only limited exposure of humans to known rodent-borne diseases, further research is warranted to assess public health implications of the rodent trade. PMID:25629782

  10. Rodents and risk in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: seroprevalence of selected zoonotic viruses in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Vo Be, Hien; An, Nguyen Ngoc; Tue, Ngo Tri; Anh, Nguyet Lam; Anh, Pham Hong; Phuc, Nguyen The; Baker, Stephen; Voutilainen, Liina; Jskelinen, Anne; Huhtamo, Eili; Utriainen, Mira; Sironen, Tarja; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Bryant, Juliet E

    2015-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam, rats are commonly traded in wet markets and sold live for food consumption. We investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine seropositivity to representative reference strains of hantaviruses (Dobrava virus [DOBV], Seoul virus [SEOV]), cowpox virus, arenaviruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]), flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), and rodent parechoviruses (Ljungan virus), using sera from 245 humans living in Dong Thap Province and 275 rodents representing the five common rodent species sold in wet markets and present in peridomestic and farm settings. Combined seropositivity to DOBV and SEOV among the rodents and humans was 6.9% (19/275) and 3.7% (9/245), respectively; 1.1% (3/275) and 4.5% (11/245) to cowpox virus; 5.4% (15/275) and 47.3% (116/245) for TBEV; and exposure to Ljungan virus was 18.8% (46/245) in humans, but 0% in rodents. Very little seroreactivity was observed to LCMV in either rodents (1/275, 0.4%) or humans (2/245, 0.8%). Molecular screening of rodent liver tissues using consensus primers for flaviviruses did not yield any amplicons, whereas molecular screening of rodent lung tissues for hantavirus yielded one hantavirus sequence (SEOV). In summary, these results indicate low to moderate levels of endemic hantavirus circulation, possible circulation of a flavivirus in rodent reservoirs, and the first available data on human exposures to parechoviruses in Vietnam. Although the current evidence suggests only limited exposure of humans to known rodent-borne diseases, further research is warranted to assess public health implications of the rodent trade. PMID:25629782

  11. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  12. In errata.

    PubMed

    Pain Physician Journal, Journal

    2016-02-01

    In Response: The Cause of Fatal Respiratory Depression Is Combination of Clindamycin and Fentanyl, Rather than TramadolHanbin Wu, MM, and Gao Wu, MMDepartment of Clinical Pharmacy150 Jimo RoadShanghai 200120, China.E362CRPS: Early Lumbar Sympathetic Block is Better Compared to Other Interventions"Shikha Awal MD, Rajashree Madabushi MD, Anil Agarwal MD, and Varun Singla MDDepartment of AnaesthesiologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences,Rae Bareilly Road, LucknowE363There was a typo in the names of the authors in Coxib Safety in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Meta-analysis Pain Physician 2015; 18:599-607. Correct spelling is:Claudio De Angelis, MDSharmila Fagoonee, PhDThere was an error in author affiliations for the manuscript: Ultrasound-Guided Injection of the Adductor Longus and Pectineus in a Cadaver Model. Pain Physician 2015; 18:E1111-E1117Author affiliation should be:1Dong-wook Rha, MD, PhD, 2Sang-Hee Lee, DDS, 2Hyung-Jin Lee, 2You-Jin Choi, BSDH, 2Hee-Jin Kim, DDS, PhD, and 1Sang Chul Lee, MD, PhD1. Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, South Korea2. Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, South Korea.There was an error in author spelling in the artlce: Carbamazepine Withdrawal-induced Hyperalgesia in Chronic Neuropathic Pain. Pain Physician 2015;18:E1127-E1130.The correct spellingshould be"Bing Yang". PMID:26815245

  13. Laboratory measurements of emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from biomass burning in Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; PAN, X.; Taketani, F.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency by the laboratory experiments. The VOCs including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Two samples, wheat straw and rape plant, were burned in dry conditions and for some experiments wheat straw was burned under wet conditions. We compared the present data to the field data reported by Kudo et al. [2014]. The agreement between the field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics for relatively more smoldering data of dry samples but the field data were slightly underestimated compared with the laboratory data for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and acetonitrile. When the EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the underestimations for OVOCs and acetonitrile were improved compared with the data of dry samples. It may be a property of the burning of crop residue in the region of high temperature and high humidity that some inside parts of piled crop residue and/or the crop residue facing on the ground are still wet. But the ratios for acetic acid/glycolaldehyde was still lower than 1. This may suggest that strong loss processes of acetic acid/glycolaldehyde are present in the fresh plume.Kudo S., H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Saito, X. L. Pan, Y. Kanaya, F. Taketani, Z. F. Wang, H. Chen, H. Dong, M. Zhang, and K. Yamaji (2014), Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 7684-7698, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021044.

  14. High quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium rivuli type strain WB 3.3-2(T) (DSM 21788(T)), a valuable source of polysaccharide decomposing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hahnke, Richard L; Stackebrandt, Erko; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Tindall, Brian J; Huang, Sixing; Rohde, Manfred; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Trong, Stephan; Haynes, Matthew; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Gker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium rivuli Ali et al. 2009 emend. Dong et al. 2013 is one of about 100 species in the genus Flavobacterium (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) with a validly published name, and has been isolated from the spring of a hard water rivulet in Northern Germany. Including all type strains of the genus Myroides and Flavobacterium into the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny revealed a clustering of members of the genus Myroides as a monophyletic group within the genus Flavobacterium. Furthermore, F. rivuli WB3.3-2(T) and its next relatives seem more closely related to the genus Myroides than to the type species of the genus Flavobacterium, F. aquatile. The 4,489,248bp long genome with its 3,391 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The genome of F. rivuli has almost as many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (151 CAZymes) as genes encoding peptidases (177). Peptidases comprised mostly metallo (M) and serine?(S) peptidases. Among CAZymes, 30 glycoside hydrolase families, 10glycosyl transferase families, 7 carbohydrate binding module families and 7 carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Furthermore, we found four polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) and one large CAZy rich gene cluster that might enable strain WB 3.3-2(T) to decompose plant and algae derived polysaccharides. Based on these results we propose F. rivuli as an interesting candidate for further physiological studies and the role of Bacteroidetes in the decomposition of complex polymers in the environment. PMID:26380634

  15. A Conserved Negative Regulatory Region in ?PAK: Inhibition of PAK Kinases Reveals Their Morphological Roles Downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhou-Shen; Manser, Edward; Chen, Xiang-Qun; Chong, Claire; Leung, Thomas; Lim, Louis

    1998-01-01

    ?PAK in a constitutively active form can exert morphological effects (E. Manser, H.-Y. Huang, T.-H. Loo, X.-Q. Chen, J.-M. Dong, T. Leung, and L. Lim, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:11291143, 1997) resembling those of Cdc42G12V. PAK family kinases, conserved from yeasts to humans, are directly activated by Cdc42 or Rac1 through interaction with a conserved N-terminal motif (corresponding to residues 71 to 137 in ?PAK). ?PAK mutants with substitutions in this motif that resulted in severely reduced Cdc42 binding can be recruited normally to Cdc42G12V-driven focal complexes. Mutation of residues in the C-terminal portion of the motif (residues 101 to 137), though not affecting Cdc42 binding, produced a constitutively active kinase, suggesting this to be a negative regulatory region. Indeed, a 67-residue polypeptide encoding ?PAK83-149 potently inhibited GTP?S-bound Cdc42-mediated kinase activation of both ?PAK and ?PAK. Coexpression of this PAK inhibitor with Cdc42G12V prevented the formation of peripheral actin microspikes and associated loss of stress fibers normally induced by the p21. Coexpression of PAK inhibitor with Rac1G12V also prevented loss of stress fibers but not ruffling induced by the p21. Coexpression of ?PAK83-149 completely blocked the phenotypic effects of hyperactive ?PAKL107F in promoting dissolution of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. These results, coupled with previous observations with constitutively active PAK, demonstrate that these kinases play an important role downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1 in cytoskeletal reorganization. PMID:9528787

  16. Recent Advances in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Epitaxial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    1997-03-01

    While pulsed laser deposition became popular with the emergance of high temperature superconductors the technique has been rapidly deployed in the development of a number of other oxide materials such as ferroelectric titanates, colossal magneto-resistive manganites, electro-optic tantalates and niobates(Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films, eds. D.B. Chrisey and G.K. Hubler, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1994.). Most recently this technique has also been used succesfully for the fabrication of a variety of semiconductor materials such as sulfides and nitrides with the Group II and Group III cationic species respectively. Details on the fabrication of a hetero-epitaxial family of AlN (Eg = 6.2 eV), GaN (Eg = 3.6 eV) and TiN (metallic with ? = 14 ??-cm) on sapphire substrates will be discussed. Interesting results in the integration of oxides both as buffer layers for improved epitaxy on sapphire as well as conducting layers for both Ohmic and Schottky contacts on the nitrides will be discussed. Some recent details on the elimination of particles in the fabricated films by the use of off-axis deposition and by the use of a shadow mask and scalling issues will be elaborated on. Work in collaboration with R. Ramesh, R. P. Sharma, M. Rajeswari, Z. W. Dong, Z. Trajanovic, V. Talyanski, R. D. Vispute, L. Salamanca-Riba, (UMD); K. Jones, M. Wood, R. Lareau (ARL-SEDD, Fort Monmouth); M. Spenser (Howard U); S. M. Green, S. Harshavardhan and A. Pique (Neocera, Inc.).

  17. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed. PMID:25195419

  18. [Cultural hegemony of medicine in modern China].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-06-01

    The paper is to explore into how cultural hegemony had been established in modern China, focused on ideological debates and political conflicts between modernists and traditionalists. Relying upon historical, anthropological, and medico-historical researches respectively by Paul Cohen, Judith Farquhar and Paul Unschuld, I criticize free research paradigms that had prevailed in modern Chinese History: (i)the 'Chinese response to Western impact' perspective fails to explain how Chinese Western medical practitioners founded their own independent organization; (ii) a dichotomy of 'tradition versus modernity' is, from an epistemological viewpoint, incompatible with an ontological view of illness shared between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine; and (iii) while those Weberian social scientists tend to consider culture as the system of meanings and symbols, separated from their temporal and spatial matrix, they neglect political and historical spheres that are inevitably represented in cultural hegemony. My arguments are divided into two parts. The first part investigates that whereas Chinese modernists aggressively supported an immediate institutionalization of Western medicine for getting adapted to social Darwinian world, neo- traditionalists tried to maintain medical identity through national essence backed up by Chinese civilization. In the second part, the paper illuminates how having emerged as a conceptual idea for moving beyond 'tradition versus modernity', 'state medicine' became popularized to solve public health problems in 1930s' rural China. In conclusion, cultural hegemony-oriented debates that were seriously staged in the 1920s and 1930s between modernists and neo-traditionalists were transformed to "scientification of traditional Chinese medicine and popularization of Western medicine" a slogan proposed by Mao Ze-Dong. PMID:14565199

  19. Airborne synthetic aperture radar observations of spiral eddy slick patterns in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Holt, Benjamin; Molemaker, M. Jeroen; Digiacomo, Paul M.; Sletten, Mark A.

    2010-05-01

    Repeat sampling on hourly time scales using an airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to investigate the occurrence and evolving characteristics of spiral-shaped slick patterns, commonly presumed to be indicators of submesoscale ocean eddies, in the area around Santa Catalina Island, California (33.4N, 118.4W). Simultaneous SAR imagery and boat survey data are examined over two 5 h long periods spaced 3 days apart in April 2003. The SAR imagery reveals several spiral-like patterns, roughly 5 km in diameter, occurring downstream of the western end of Catalina. We believe that the most likely formation mechanism for these patterns is current-wake instability related to the flow of the Southern California Countercurrent along the north shore of Catalina. In one case, there is an observed cold-core eddy and vortex sheet attached to the tip of the island, similar to island-wake simulations done by Dong and McWilliams (2007). In another case, the SAR imagery shows a series of slick patterns that, at least initially, resemble spiral eddies, but the data show no clear evidence of actual ocean eddies being present either at depth or through a rotating surface expression. A speculation is that such features signify island-wake eddies that are relatively weak and dissipate quickly. An unexpected finding was how quickly a spiral slick pattern could deteriorate, suggesting a time scale for the surface feature of the order of only several hours. An implication of this result is that care is needed when interpreting a single satellite SAR imagery for evidence of active submesoscale eddies. Recommendations are made for future field studies.

  20. Large-scale screening and characterization of enteroviruses and kobuviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Sharp, C; Rabaa, M; Berto, A; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E; Bryant, Juliet E; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A recent survey of pigs in Dong Thap province, Vietnam identified a high frequency of enterovirus species G (EV-G) infection (144/198; 72.7 %). Amongst these was a plethora of EV-G types (EV-G1, EV-G6 and four new types EV-G8-EV-G11). To better characterize the genetic diversity of EV-G and investigate the possible existence of further circulating types, we performed a larger-scale study on 484 pig and 45 farm-bred boar faecal samples collected in 2012 and 2014, respectively. All samples from the previous and current studies were also screened for kobuviruses. The overall EV infection frequency remained extremely high (395/484; 81.6 %), but with comparable detection rates and viral loads between healthy and diarrhoeic pigs; this contrasted with less frequent detection of EV-G in boars (4/45; 8.9 %). EV was most frequently detected in pigs ≤ 14 weeks old (∼95 %) and declined in older pigs. Infections with EV-G1 and EV-G6 were most frequent, whilst less commonly detected types included EV-G3, EV-G4 and EV-G8-EV-G11, and five new types (EV-G12-EV-G16). In contrast, kobuvirus infection frequency was significantly higher in diarrhoeic pigs (40.9 versus 27.6 %; P = 0.01). Kobuviruses also showed contrasting epizootiologies and age associations; a higher prevalence was found in boars (42 %) compared with domestic pigs (29 %), with the highest infection frequency amongst pigs >52 weeks old. Although genetically diverse, all kobuviruses identified belonged to the species Aichivirus C. In summary, this study confirms infection with EV-G was endemic in Vietnamese domestic pigs and exhibits high genetic diversity and extensive inter-type recombination. PMID:26653281