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Dong Quai (angelica sinensis) in the treatment of hot flashes for men on androgen deprivation therapy: results of a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether Dong Quai, a Chinese herbal compound purported to be efficacious in treating menopausal vasomotor symptoms, has a therapeutic benefit in treating hot flashes among prostate cancer patients receiving androgen depri - vation therapy. Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was conducted involving 22 men receiving luteinizing hormone-releas - ing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer

Reem J. Al-Bareeq; A. Andrew Ray; Linda Nott; Stephen E. Pautler; Hassan Razvi



Dong Quai (angelica sinensis) in the treatment of hot flashes for men on androgen deprivation therapy: results of a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether Dong Quai, a Chinese herbal compound purported to be efficacious in treating menopausal vasomotor symptoms, has a therapeutic benefit in treating hot flashes among prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was conducted involving 22 men receiving luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer with bothersome hot flashes. After recording a baseline log of the frequency, duration and severity of daily hot flashes, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive daily placebo or Dong Quai for 3 months. Vasomotor and adverse events were recorded daily. Blood work including serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), international normalized ratio of prothrombin time and partial thromoboplastin time were recorded at baseline and at the termination of the study. Results: Seventeen of the 22 patients enrolled completed the trial. Baseline vasomotor duration and severity were equivalent between the groups, however the number of hot flashes were significantly more in the Dong Quai group (p = 0.02). With respect to the change in number of hot flashes per day, there was a slight decrease in the mean number among the Dong Quai group which was insignificant. The absolute change and average percentage change in perceived hot flash severity was similar in both groups. There was no significant decrease in the duration of the hot flashes between the 2 groups. Disease progression based on either PSA increase or change in digital rectal exam was not observed in any patient. Conclusion: In this small pilot study, there were no significant differences in the severity, frequency or duration of hot flashes among men receiving placebo or Dong Quai.

Al-Bareeq, Reem J.; Ray, A. Andrew; Nott, Linda; Pautler, Stephen E.; Razvi, Hassan



Vox Angelica  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY of your readers may be acquainted with the nature of the Vox Angelica stop on a good organ. It consists of two ranks of pipes of small scale and delicate quality of tone, one of which is tuned slightly sharp, so that a wavy (hence called Unda Maris) sound is produced. Now it is possible to obtain very similar

George Rayleigh Vicars



Natural medicine: the genus Angelica.  


More than 60 species of medicinal plants belong to the genus Angelica (Family: Apiaceae). Many of these species have long been used in ancient traditional medicine systems, especially in the far-east. Various herbal preparations containing Angelica species are available over-the-counter, not only in the far-eastern countries, but also in the western countries like USA, UK, Germany, etc. For centuries, many species of this genus, e.g. A. acutiloba, A. archangelica, A. atropupurea, A. dahurica, A. japonica, A. glauca, A. gigas, A. koreana, A. sinensis, A. sylvestris, etc., have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and diaphoretic, and remedy for colds, flu, influenza, hepatitis, arthritis, indigestion, coughs, chronic bronchitis, pleurisy, typhoid, headaches, wind, fever, colic, travel sickness, rheumatism, bacterial and fungal infections and diseases of the urinary organs. Active principles isolated from these plants mainly include various types of coumarins, acetylenic compounds, chalcones, sesquiterpenes and polysaccharides. This review evaluates the importance of the genus Angelica in relation to its traditional medicinal uses, alternative medicinal uses in the modern society and potential for drug development, and summarises results of various scientific studies on Angelica species or Angelica-containing preparations for their bioactivities including, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. PMID:15180579

Sarker, S D; Nahar, L



A fluorescence spectroscopy study of traditional Chinese medicine Angelica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By measuring the fluorescence spectra of Chinese medicine (CM) Angelica water solutions with different concentrations from 0.025 to 2.5 mg/mL, results showed that the fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration. Through fluorescence spectra of Angelica solution under different pH values, results indicated coumarin compounds were the active ingredients of Angelica. We also observed fluorescence quenching of the Angelica solution in the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles with radius of 12 nm. Keeping a certain value for the volume of the silver nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity at 402 nm was linearly proportional to the Angelica in the range of 1-3 mg/mL.

Zhao, Hongyan; Song, Feng; Liu, Shujing; Chen, Guiyang; Wei, Chen; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Jiadong



Spreading of energy in the Ding-Dong model  

SciTech Connect

We study the properties of energy spreading in a lattice of elastically colliding harmonic oscillators (Ding-Dong model). We demonstrate that in the regular lattice the spreading from a localized initial state is mediated by compactons and chaotic breathers. In a disordered lattice, the compactons do not exist, and the spreading eventually stops, resulting in a finite configuration with a few chaotic spots.

Roy, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Pikovsky, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)



Bioactivities of major constituents isolated from Angelica sinensis (Danggui)  

PubMed Central

Danggui, also known as Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Apiaceae), has been used in Chinese medicine to treat menstrual disorders. Over 70 compounds have been isolated and identified from Danggui. The main chemical constituents of Angelica roots include ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, butylidenephthalide and various polysaccharides. Among these compounds, ferulic acid exhibits many bioactivities especially anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects; Z-ligustilide exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, neuroprotective and anti-hepatotoxic effects; n-butylidenephthalide exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular effects.



Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction  

PubMed Central

Radix Angelica Sinensis, the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui), is a herb used in Chinese medicine to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and modulate the immune system. It is also used to treat chronic constipation of the elderly and debilitated as well as menstrual disorders. Research has demonstrated that Danggui and its active ingredients, as anti-arthrosclerotic, anti-hypertensive, antioxidant anti-inflammatory agents which would limit platelet aggregation, are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores.



Two phthalide dimers from the radix of Angelica sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytochemical investigation of extracts from the radix of Angelica sinensis yielded a new phthalide dimer, 3,3?Z-6.7?,7.6?-diligustilide (1), along with a known dimer, levistolide A (2). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data, particularly using 1D-NMR and several 2D shift-correlated NMR pulse sequences (H–H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY).

Xing-Nuo Li; Yuan-Yi Chen; Dong-Ping Cheng; Sheng-Qiang Tong; Hai-Bin Qu; Ji-Zhong Yan



Effect of extracts of Angelica polymorpha on reaginic antibody production.  


An aqueous extract of Angelica polymorpha was examined for its immunoregulating properties. Its effect on the production of antibodies was tested in (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 mice. When the animals were treated daily with the extract, the serum titers of reaginic antibodies normally observed after a single injection dinitrophenylovalbumin (DNP3-OA) were significantly lower, and the higher and more sustained reaginic titers induced by booster injections of DNP3-OA were also inhibited. The immunosuppressive activity was observed both by oral and intraperitoneal administration of the extract, and it was not removed by dialysis. In contrast, the serum titers of IgG were not significantly altered by the administration of the extract. The extract had little or no effect on the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction or the release of histamine from sensitized rat lung fragments. PMID:7130985

Sung, C P; Baker, A P; Holden, D A; Smith, W J; Chakrin, L W


Dendritic cell activation by polysaccharide isolated from Angelica dahurica.  


Angelica dahurica is used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. In the present study, we examined the effect of A. dahurica polysaccharide (ADP) on dendritic cell (DC) maturation. ADP increased the expressions of CD86 and MHC-II molecules, the production of IL-12, IL-1?, and TNF-?, and allogeneic T cell activation ability of DCs, and reduced DC endocytosis. As a mechanism of action, the knockdown of TLR4 with small interfering RNA decreased the ADP-induced production of nitric oxide and IL-12 by DCs, suggesting the membrane receptor candidate of ADP. After binding to TLR4, ADP increased the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs, and the nuclear translocation of NF-?B p50/p65. These results indicate that ADP activates DCs through TLR4 and downstream signalings. PMID:23246459

Kim, Hyung Sook; Shin, Bo Ram; Lee, Hong Kyung; Park, Yun Soo; Liu, Qing; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae



Organic petrography and geochemistry of three samples from Dong Ho, Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an organic petrographic and geochemical study of three outcrop samples from Dong Ho, northern Vietnam. The objective of the study is to assess the composition and source rock potential of the organic matter. The analyti...

H. Ingermann Petersen A. Bojesen-Koefoed L. H. Nielsen H. P. Nytoft



Herb-drug interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin,

Adriane Fugh-Berman


Source identification and mass balance studies of mercury in Lake An-dong, S. Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, mercury and methylmercury were measured in atmospheric, tributary, open-lake water column, sediment, planktons and fish samples in the catchments area of Lake An-dong, S. Korea. Lake An-dong, an artificial freshwater lake is located on the upstream of River Nak-dong. It has 51.5 km2 of open surface water and 1.33 year of hydraulic residence time. It is a source of drinking water for 0.3 million S. Koreans. Recently, the possibilities of its mercury contamination became an issue since current studies showed that the lake had much higher mercury level in sediment and certain freshwater fish species than any other lakes in S. Korea. This catchments area has the possibilities of historical mercury pollution by the location of more than 50 abandoned gold mines and Young-poong zinc smelter. The objective of this study was to develop a mercury mass balance and identify possible mercury sources in the lake. The results of this study are thus expected to offer valuable insights for the sources of mercury loading through the watershed. In order to estimate the mercury flux, TGM, RGM and particulate mercury were measured using TEKRAN 2537 at the five sites surrounding Lake An-dong from May, 2009 with wet and dry deposition. The fate and transport of mercury in water body were predicted by using EFDC (Environmental Dynamic Fluid Code) and Mercury module in WASP7 (Water quality analysis program) after subsequent distribution into water body, sediments, followed by bioaccumulation and ultimate uptake by humans. The mercury mass balance in Young-poong zinc smelter was also pre-estimated by measuring mercury content in zinc ores, emission gases, sludge, wastewater and products.

Han, J.; Byeon, M.; Yoon, J.; Park, J.; Lee, M.; Huh, I.; Na, E.; Chung, D.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y.




Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based surveillance for typhoid fever was conducted in three rural communes of Dong Thap Province in southern Vietnam (population 28,329) for a 12-month-period starting on December 4, 1995. Cases of typhoid fever were detected by obtaining blood for culture from residents with fever 3 days. Among 658 blood cultures, 56 (8.5%) were positive for Salmonella typhi with an overall



Optimized conditions for the extraction of secondary volatile metabolites in Angelica roots by accelerated solvent extraction.  


Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of three common Angelica species found in Asia: Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels from China, Angelica acutiloba (Sieb. et Zucc.) Kitagawa from Japan, and Angelica gigas Nakai from Korea was investigated. Preliminary experiments, including the selection of the solvent, extraction time, pressure, static cycle and time were investigated to optimize experimental parameters. Kováts indices and mass spectra were used to identify the components in the various fractions. These were then confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 18 compounds were identified, with qualitative differences and similarities observed among the cultivars. From the 18 compounds found in the ASE extract of danggui cultivars, the major components were decursin, decursinol angelate (A. gigas); butylidene dihydrophthalide, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (A. sinensis); and 9,12-octadecanoic acid in Angelica acutiloba. The optimum ASE operating conditions were n-hexane as extraction solvent, extraction temperature and pressure of 80 degrees C and 1500 atm, respectively, static cycle of 2 min, and static time of 10 min. Under these conditions, the percentages of main analytes were increased. PMID:17446029

Cho, S-K; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, J-H; Kim, M R; Shim, J H



Identification and characterization of a new virus in the genus Potyvirus from wild populations of Angelica lucida L. and A. genuflexa Nutt., family Apiacea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel potyvirus was discovered in Angelica livida L. (wild celery) and Angelica genuflexa Nutt. (kneeling Angelica) (family Apiaceae) in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska. The experimental plant host range of the virus included species in three families: Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium amaranticolo...


Decursin from Angelica gigas mitigates amnesia induced by scopolamine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that a total methanolic extract of the underground part of Angelica gigas Nakai (Umbelliferae) (hereinafter abbreviated AG) significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. We characterized 12 coumarin derivatives including both decursin and decursinol from extracts of AG. In this study, we evaluated the anti-amnestic activity of decursin, a major coumarin constituent isolated from AG, in vivo using ICR

So Young Kang; Ki Yong Lee; Mi Jung Park; Young Chul Kim; George J Markelonis; Tae H Oh; Young Choong Kim



Ultrafine Angelica gigas Powder Normalizes Ovarian Hormone Levels and Has Antiosteoporosis Properties in Ovariectomized Rats: Particle Size Effect  

PubMed Central

Abstract The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500?mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake.

Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon



Bioactivity-guided fractionation and GC/MS fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica root components for antifungal and mosquito deterrent activity.  


Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract from the roots of Angelica sinensis led to isolation and characterization of (Z)-ligustilide using direct-bioautography with Colletotrichum species. The structure of (Z)-ligustilide was confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS. (Z)-Ligustilide deterred the biting of two mosquito species more effectively than DEET. Three different A. sinensis accessions and one Angelica archangelica root oil were evauated by GC and GC/MS, and the dominant component in A. sinensis was 61-69% (Z)-ligustilide. Two other prominent compounds in A. sinensis oils were 5.7-9.8% (E)-3-butylidene phthalide and 1.5-2.3% (Z)-3-butylidene phthalide. The main constituents that comprised A. archangelica oil were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as 24.5% alpha-pinene, 13.8% delta-3-carene, 10.1% beta-phellandrene, 8.8% p-cymene, 8.4% limonene, and 6.3% sabinene. Phthalides and monoterpene hydrocarbons were determined to be good systematic markers or chemical fingerprints for A. sinensis and A. archangelica root oils. Chemical fingerprinting by GC/MS of A. sinensis also confirmed the misidentification of one A. archangelica sample sold in the Chinese market. PMID:19113871

Wedge, David E; Klun, Jerome A; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Ozek, Temel; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can; Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Sui; Cantrell, Charles L; Zhang, Jian



Population study of three STR loci — HUMTH01, TPOX and CSF1PO in Dong-xiang, Hui and Han from northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiplex amplification system of three tetrameric short tandem repeats loci (HUMTH01, TPOX and CSF1PO) were studied in Dong-xiang, Hui and Han ethnic groups from northwest China. All loci meet the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium by three tests. The allelic frequency data are statistically similar for three ethnic groups. This is the first time that Chinese Dong-xiang and Hui population data of

Xie Xiaodong Wang Xunling; He Xiaolin; Ren Guifang Li Xiaolin



Persistent Organic Pollutants in Sediments from Sai Gon–Dong Nai River Basin, Vietnam: Levels and Temporal Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial sediment samples were collected from Hochiminh City canals, the Sai Gon–Dong Nai River, and its estuary, one of\\u000a the most predominant industrial areas in Hochiminh City, southern Vietnam, for determination of selected persistent organic\\u000a pollutants (POPs). Contamination pattern was as follows: PCBs ? DDTs > HCB > CHLs > HCHs. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs\\u000a ranged from 0.50–150 ng\\/g

Nguyen Hung Minh; Tu Binh Minh; Hisato Iwata; Natsuko Kajiwara; Tatsuya Kunisue; Shin Takahashi; Pham Hung Viet; Bui Cach Tuyen; Shinsuke Tanabe



Antiobesity activity of fermented Angelicae gigantis by high fat diet-induced obese rats.  


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Monascus purpureus-fermented Angelicae gigantis Radix (FAG) on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, biochemical markers of obesity, and the mRNA expression levels of various genes involved in adipogenesis in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced rat model of obesity. Effect of nodakenin isolated from Angelicae gigantis on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation was also investigated in vitro. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n?=?6 per group) based on five dietary categories: HFD control, HFD + 2.5% (w/w) AG, HFD + 5% AG, HFD + 2.5% FAG, and HFD + 5% FAG. Present study investigated nodakenin isolated from AG and FAG roots by measuring fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte using Oil Red O staining. FAG administration effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and hepatic and serum lipid and leptin concentrations in obese rats. In addition, FAG administration significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of adipose tissue genes encoding adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? 2 (PPAR?2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) as compared with HFD group. Furthermore, nodakenin reduced the fat accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. FAG ameliorates HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis in the visceral fat tissue of rats. Accordingly, fermented Angelicae gigantis may be an ideal candidate for obesity relief. PMID:21961649

Cha, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Park, Chang-Su; Ahn, Hee-Young; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su



The Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Angelica archangelica L. Roots Growing Wild in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roots of Angelica archangelica L. were collected in three habitats (12 samples) in 1995–2002. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The dominant component was ?-pinene (15.7–20.8%) for two localities. Other three main constituents were ?-3-carene (15.4–16.9%), limonene (8.0–9.2%), sabinene (5.0–7.5%) for the first locality, and ?-phel-landrene (13.5–15.4%), ?-3-carene (13.2–14.2%) and ?-phellandrene (8.0–9.1%) for the second locality. The

Ona Nivinskien?; Rita Butkien?; Danut? Mockut?



In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Radix angelicae pubescentis , Fructus bruceae , Caulis spatholobi , Semen aesculi , and Semen pharbitidis against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish ( Carassius auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of a natural antiparasitic, in vivo anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol,\\u000a and aqueous extracts of Angelica pubescens roots (Radix angelicae pubescentis), Brucea javanica fruits (Fructus bruceae), Spatholobus suberectus stems (Caulis spatholobi), Aesculus chinensis Bge. seeds (Semen aesculi), and Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt seeds (Semen pharbitidis) were tested against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius

You-Tao Liu; Fan Wang; Gao-Xue Wang; Jing Han; Yong Wang; Yong-Hua Wang



Capabilities of three satellite images to map coral reefs at Dong-Sha Atoll  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are complex marine ecosystems and environment-sensitive that are constructed and maintained by biological communities that thrive in the warm tropical ocean. Remote sensing provides a more efficient way to observe and monitor shallow coral reefs than alternative field survey. Dong-Sha Atoll is located at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. The area of the atoll is more than 300 km2 with an average depth of 10 m, and has being abused by destructive fishing during recent decades. In this paper, three satellite broadband multi-spectral imageries (Quickbird2, ETM+, and SPOT5) are used to survey this area. In the preprocessing, low-resolution images are geometrically corrected to high-resolution imagery. For information extraction, unsupervised classification functions are adopted for ETM+ and SPOT5 data, and supervised classification method for Quickbird2. The classification results are (or not) merged into coral reef, and operated by vectorization, simplification, and topological analysis. There are 1331 coral reefs larger than 100 m2 with the detection limitation of 3×3 pixels at multi-band data of Quickbird2. The results extracted from SPOT5 data are better than that of ETM data at silty lagoon due to its higher resolution, and less at atoll reef bodies in the absence of blue waveband.

Chen, Jianyu; Mao, Zhihua; Pan, Delu; He, Xianqiang



Fifteen Years After the Gozan-Dong Glass Fiber Outbreak, Incheon in 1995  

PubMed Central

Objectives In 1995, an outbreak survey in Gozan-dong concluded that an association between fiberglass exposure in drinking water and cancer outbreak cannot be established. This study follows the subjects from a study in 1995 using a data linkage method to examine whether an association existed. The authors will address the potential benefits and methodological issues following outbreak surveys using data linkage, particularly when informed consent is absent. Methods This is a follow-up study of 697 (30 exposed) individuals out of the original 888 (31 exposed) participants (78.5%) from 1995 to 2007 assessing the cancer outcomes and deaths of these individuals. The National Cancer Registry (KNCR) and death certificate data were linked using the ID numbers of the participants. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from cancers were calculated by the KNCR. Results The SIR values for all cancer or gastrointestinal cancer (GI) occurrences were the lowest in the exposed group (SIR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.10 to 5.21; 0.00 for GI), while the two control groups (control 1: external, control 2: internal) showed slight increases in their SIR values (SIR, 1.18 and 1.27 for all cancers; 1.62 and 1.46 for GI). All lacked statistical significance. All-cause mortality levels for the three groups showed the same pattern (SMR 0.37, 1.29, and 1.11). Conclusions This study did not refute a finding of non-association with a 13-year follow-up. Considering that many outbreak surveys are associated with a small sample size and a cross-sectional design, follow-up studies that utilize data linkage should become standard procedure.

Cho, Soo-Hun; Kim, Jonghoon; Ju, Young-Su; Han, Minji; Jung, Kyu-Won



Simultaneous determination of five coumarins in Angelicae dahuricae Radix by HPLC/UV and LC-ESI-MS/MS.  


Rapid, simple and reliable HPLC/UV and LC-ESI-MS/MS methods for the simultaneous determination of five active coumarins of Angelicae dahuricae Radix, byakangelicol (1), oxypeucedanin (2), imperatorin (3), phellopterin (4) and isoimperatorin (5) were developed and validated. The separation condition for HPLC/UV was optimized using a Develosil RPAQUEOUS C(30) column using 70% acetonitrile in water as the mobile phase. This HPLC/UV method was successful for providing the baseline separation of the five coumarins with no interfering peaks detected in the 70% ethanol extract of Angelicae dahuricae Radix. The specific determination of the five coumarins was also accomplished by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive mode was used to enhance the selectivity of detection. The LC-ESI-MS/MS methods were successfully applied for the determination of the five major coumarins in Angelicae dahuricae Radix. These HPLC/UV and LC-ESI-MS/MS methods were validated in terms of recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra- and inter-day validation). Taken together, the shorter analysis time involved makes these HPLC/UV and LC-ESI-MS/MS methods valuable for the commercial quality control of Angelicae dahuricae Radix extracts and its pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:19402180

Park, Ah Yeon; Park, So-Young; Lee, Jaehyun; Jung, Mihye; Kim, Jinwoong; Kang, Sam Sik; Youm, Jeong-Rok; Han, Sang Beom



Simultaneous quantification of six main active constituents in Chinese Angelica by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector  

PubMed Central

Background: Angelica sinensis is a famous traditional Chinese medicinalherb, which is predominantly used in the treatment of gynecological conditions. It is the first report for the simultaneous determination of six major active components in Chinese Angelica, which is important for quality control. Objective: A validated HPLC-PAD method was first developed to evaluate the quality of crude and processed Radix Angelica through simultaneous determination of six bioactive compounds, namely ferulic acid, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, coniferyl ferulate, Z/E-ligustilide and Z/E-butylidenephthalide. Materials and Methods: Samples were separated on a Xtimate™C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) and detected by PAD. Mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.02%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile (MeCN) (including 10% tetrahydrofuran, v/v) using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9963) within the tested ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 91.927–105.859%. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and reproducible and could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for the quantification of Radix Angelica.

Ying, Li; Si-Wang, Wang; Hong-Hai, Tu; Wei, Cao



Antiasthmatic effects of Angelica dahurica against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation via upregulation of heme oxygenase-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma is a chronic immune inflammatory disease characterized by variable airflow obstruction. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of an Angelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker ethanolic extract (AD) on airway inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation model. Mice that received AD displayed significantly lower airway eosinophilia, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor

Mee-Young Lee; Chang-Seob Seo; Jin-Ah Lee; Nam-Hun Lee; Jung-Hoon Kim; Heykyung Ha; Ming-Shan Zheng; Jong-Keun Son; Hyeun-Kyoo Shin



Extraction optimization of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and its antioxidant activity in vivo.  


Extraction of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) was optimized by the utilization of response surface methodology, RSM. Through the analysis, extraction time and water/solid were found to be the most significant factors. Based on contour plots and variance analysis, optimum operational conditions for maximizing polysaccharides yield (5.6%) were found to be extraction time 130 min, water/solid 5, and extraction number 5. A. sinensis polysaccharides (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered for 15 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransfere (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were significantly restored toward normalization by the extracts (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight). ASP (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes. It can be concluded that ASP possesses significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). This protective effect appears due to ASP antioxidant properties. PMID:23544518

Yu, Fang; Li, Huali; Meng, Yu; Yang, Di



Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.  


The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur


Geomorphological diversity of Dong-Sha Atoll based on spectrum and texture analysis in high resolution remote sensing imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are complex marine ecosystems that are constructed and maintained by biological communities that thrive in tropical oceans. The Dong-Sha Atoll is located at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. It has being abused by destructive activity of human being and natural event during recent decades. Remote sensing offers a powerful tool for studying coral reef geomorphology and is the most cost-effective approach for large-scale reef survey. In this paper, the high-resolution Quickbird2 imageries which covered the full atoll are used to categorize the current distribution of coral reefs geomorphological structure therein with the auxiliary SPOT5 and ASTER imageries. Spectral and texture analysis are used to distinguish the geomorphological diversity during data processing. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices is adopted for texture feature extraction and atoll geomorphology mapping in the high-resolution pan-color image of Quickbird2. Quickbird2 is considered as the most appropriate image source for coral reefs studies. In the Dong-Sha Atoll, various dynamical geomorphologic units are developed according to wave energy zones. There the reef frame types are classified to 3 different types according as its diversity at the image. The radial structure system is the most characteristic and from high resolution imagery we can distinguish the discrepancy between them.

Chen, Jianyu; Mao, Zhihua; He, Xianqiang



Enhanced accumulation of decursin and decursinol angelate in root cultures and intact roots of Angelica gigas Nakai following elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angelica gigas root cultures were elicited with various elicitors, including yeast extract, chitin, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and\\u000a copper, with the aim of increasing the production of decursin and decursinol angelate. The treatment of A. gigas root cultures with a combination of yeast extract (2 g l?1) and copper ion (0.5 mM) at the late exponential growth phase increased decursinol angelate accumulation up

Hong Soon Rhee; Hwa-Young Cho; Seok Young Son; Sung-Yong H. Yoon; Jong Moon Park



Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional chinese medicine,Angelica sinensis,Lycium barbarum andPoria cocos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of three popular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine, namely Angelica sinensis (AS), Lycium barbarum (LB) and Poria cocos (PC) were evaluated in this study. The results showed that aqueous extracts of these crude drugs exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent man- ner. All extracts displayed an inhibitory effect on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver

Sue-Jing Wu; Lean-Teik Ng; Chun-Ching Lin



Hepatoprotective and nitric oxide production inhibitory activities of coumarin and polyacetylene constituents from the roots of Angelica furcijuga  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extract from the roots of Angelica furcijugaKitagawa was found to exhibit protective effects on liver injury induced by d-galactosamine (d-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). From the methanolic extract, seventeen coumarins, two phenylpropanoids, and two polyacetylenes were isolated and examined their in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects and inhibitory activity of NO production in macrophages. A acylated khellactone, isoepoxypteryxin,

Hisashi Matsuda; Toshiyuki Murakami; Tadashi Kageura; Kiyofumi Ninomiya; Iwao Toguchida; Norihisa Nishida; Masayuki Yoshikawa



[Case-control study on the risk factors of type 2 diabetes of Dong nationality in Western Hunan].  


Objective: To explore the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of Dong nationality in Western Hunan, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of T2DM in the district. Methods: In the case-control study, the subjects were divided into a T2DM group, an impaired glucose regulation (IGR) group and a normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A questionnaire survey was conducted, and physical measurements and the detection of blood glucose, blood lipids and serum insulin were done. Results: Univariate analysis found significant difference in age, fasting insulin (FINS), HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IRI), HOMA ?-cell function index (HOMA-?C), trigalloyl glycerol (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in the glucose metabolism among different groups (P<0.05). Body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), family history of diabetes, number of physical activities per week, dinner taste, fat and protein-rich foods, fresh vegetables and fruits intake were associated with T2DM. Multifactor non-conditional ordinal logistic regression indicated that age was the risk factor of T2DM and IGR. Compared with the group whose age was?50, the odds ratios of the groups of 5070 were 1.85, 2.83 and 2.64 respectively, P<0.05. The risk of suffering from diabetes of the overweighted or obese people was 2.13 times that of a normal BMI group, P<0.01. The other influencing factors included WHR (OR=2.06), family history of diabetes (OR=11.36), and fat and protein-rich foods (OR=1.90). Conclusion: The main influencing factors of T2DM of Dong nationality in Western Hunan include age, BMI, WHR, family history of diabetes, fat and protein-rich foods. We must strengthen the health eduation of T2DM of Dong nationality in Western Hunan to reduce the risk of T2DM. PMID:24164874

Liu, Liya; Chen, Lizhang; Dai, Jinxiong; Chen, Jiaxiong; Liang, Ying; Pei, Tingli; Huang, Yongbin



Serotonergic Activity-Guided Phytochemical Investigation of the Roots of Angelica sinensis  

PubMed Central

Serotonin receptor (5-HT7) binding assay-directed fractionation of a methanol extract of the dried roots of Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and identification of twenty-one compounds including a new phenolic ester, angeliferulate (1), and three new phthalides, 10-angeloylbutylphthalide (2), sinaspirolide (3) and ansaspirolide (4), along with seventeen known compounds, p-hydroxyphenethyl trans-ferulate (5), Z-ligustilide (6), Z-butylidenephthalide (7), senkyunolide I (8), Z-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-dihydroligustilide (9), N-butylbenzenesulphonamide (10), 11(S),16(R)-dihydroxy-octadeca-9Z,17-dien-12,14-diyn-1-yl acetate (11), (3R,8S)-falcarindiol (12), heptadeca-1-ene-9,10-epoxy-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol (13), oplopandiol (14), 8-hydroxy-1-methoxy-, Z-9-heptadecene-4,6-diyn-3-one (15), imperatorin, ferulic acid, vanillin, stigmasterol, sucrose, and 1,3-di-linolenin. This is the first report of a sulfonamide (10) identified from a higher plant source, although its presence needs further investigation. Biosynthetic pathways for dimeric phthalides 3 and 4 are proposed. Compound 5, 7, 11, 12, 15, and imperatorin exhibited affinity toward 5-HT7 receptors in a competitive binding assay.

Deng, Shixin; Chen, Shao-Nong; Yao, Ping; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Bolton, Judy L.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.



Polysaccharide Isolated from Angelica sinensis Inhibits Hepcidin Expression in Rats with Iron Deficiency Anemia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A novel polysaccharide named Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was obtained from the powdered and defatted roots of A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. The molecular weight of ASP was determined to be 78?kDa and was 95.0% sugars consisting of mostly arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1:5.68:3.91. A previous study indicated that ASP may increase plasma iron levels by suppressing the expression of hepcidin, a negative regulator of body iron metabolism, in the liver. The present study aims to clarify the inhibitory effect of ASP on hepcidin expression in rat models of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and clarify the mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that ASP significantly reduced hepcidin expression by inhibiting the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4) in liver and stimulating the secretion of erythropoietin, which further downregulated hepcidin by repressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5. The results indicate that ASP can suppress the expression of hepcidin in rats with IDA, and may be useful for the treatment of IDA.

Liu, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Zeng, Fang; Guo, Dan



Extraction and chemical characterization of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and its antioxidant activity.  


In the present study, the Angelica sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) extraction procedure was optimized by an L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experimental design (OAD) with four factors at three levels. Under the optimal extraction condition (extraction time 180 min, ratio of water to solid 6, extraction temperature 100°C, and extraction number 4), extraction yield of ASP was 5.6%. Rabbits were fed for 40 days with A. sinensis polysaccharides at a dose of 150 or 300 mg/kg body weight, respectively. At the end of 40 days, animals received cerebral ischemia reperfusion operation. CT perfusion imaging (CTP) analysis showed that rCBF and rCBV were significantly increased, whereas rMTT and rTTP were decreased in the ischemia cerebral tissue compared to CIR group rabbits. ASP significantly decreased oxidative damage, and increased antioxidant enzymes activities in brains of CIR animals. Moreover, ASP significantly enhanced the Ach, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+),Mg2(+)-ATPase and glucose levels, decreased AChE activity in brain tissue of the experimental animals. These results suggest a potent role of ASP in protection of brain oxidative injury in CIR animals. PMID:23544627

Ai, Songtao; Fan, Xindong; Fan, Linfeng; Sun, Qi; Liu, Yu; Tao, Xiaofeng; Dai, Kerong



An Experimental Novel Study: Angelica sinensis Prevents Epidural Fibrosis in Laminectomy Rats via Downregulation of Hydroxyproline, IL-6, and TGF-?1  

PubMed Central

With laminectomy being widely accepted as the treatment for lumbar disorders, epidural fibrosis (EF) is a common complication for both the patients and the surgeons alike. Currently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy or after discectomy. Angelica sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine which has shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica sinensis on the prevention of post-laminectomy EF formation in a rat model. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in sixty healthy adult Wistar rats that underwent laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups according to the treatment method, with 20 in each group: (1) Angelica sinensis treatment group, (2) saline treatment group, and (3) sham group (laminectomy without treatment). All rats were euthanized humanely 4 weeks after laminectomy. The hydroxyproline content, Rydell score, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, inflammatory cells density, and inflammatory factors expressions all suggested better results in Angelica sinensis group than the other two groups. Topical application of Angelica sinensis could inhibit fibroblasts proliferation and TGF-?1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural scar adhesion in postlaminectomy rat model.

Kong, Xiaohong; Zhao, Xuechao; Zhou, Xianhu; Su, Yanhua; Sharma, Hari S.; Feng, Shiqing



Mucilaginibacter herbaticus sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of the medicinal plant Angelica sinensis.  


A strictly aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, DR-9(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the medicinal herb Angelica sinensis. Strain DR-9(T) grew at 20-40 °C, at pH 4.0-9.0 and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?7c and/or C16 : 1?6c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), MK-7 was the major isoprenoid quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminophospholipid were the major polar lipids. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DR-9(T) formed a lineage within the genus Mucilaginibacter and was closely related to Mucilaginibacter polysacchareus DRP28(T) (96.1 % sequence similarity), Mucilaginibacter myungsuensis HMD1056(T) (95.9 % sequence similarity), Mucilaginibacter ximonensis XM-003(T) (95.8 %) and Mucilaginibacter boryungensis BDR-9(T) (95.1 %). The status of strain DR-9(T) as a representative of a separate species was confirmed by DNA hybridization, with 38.6, 36.3 and 29.9 % DNA-DNA relatedness with M. polysacchareus DRP28(T), M. ximonensis XM-003(T) and M. boryungensis BDR-9(T), respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain DR-9(T) was 49.8 %. These data suggest that strain DR-9(T) should be considered as a representative of a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter herbaticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DR-9(T) ( = KACC 16469(T) = NBRC 108839(T)). PMID:23291898

Lee, Hae-Ran; Han, Song-Ih; Rhee, Ki-Hyeong; Whang, Kyung-Sook



Liquid chromatographic–electrospray mass spectrometric study of the phthalides of Angelica sinensis and chemical changes of Z-ligustilide  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry has been applied to analyze the chemical constituents of Danggui (the rhizome of Angelica sinensis) and to study chemical changes of Z-ligustilide. Twelve phthalides were unambiguously identified as senkyunolide I (3), senkyunolide H (4), sedanenolide (8), butylphthalide (9), E-ligustilide (13), Z-ligustilide (14), Z-butylidenephthalide (15), Z,Z?-6.8?,7.3?-diligustilide (16), angelicide (17), levistolide A (18), Z-ligustilide dimer E-232 (19)

Long-Ze Lin; Xian-Guo He; Li-Zhi Lian; Wayne King; Jerry Elliott



A comparison of the chemical composition and bioactive ingredients of the Chinese medicinal mushroom DongChongXiaCao, its counterfeit and mimic, and fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese herbal drug DongChongXiaCao, a medicinal and edible mushroom originating from the fungus Cordyceps sp., has been developed into health foods. Counterfeit and mimic types are frequently found in markets. Mycelial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, via submerged fermentation, have been commercialized and also named DongChongXiaCao. This investigation endeavours to characterize the proximate composition, amino acid profiles, and contents of

Tai-Hao Hsu; Li-Hua Shiao; Chienyan Hsieh; Der-Ming Chang



Antioxidant activities of methanolic and hot-water extracts from leaves of three cultivars of Mai-Men-Dong (Liriope spicata L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

dipheny-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities of the 80% methanolic leaf extracts of three cultivars (small leaf, SL; big leaf, BL; thin leaf, TL) of Mai-Men-Dong (Liriope spicata L.) are analyzed by spectrophotometry. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition (IC50) of DPPH radicals were 81.08, 96.97, and 53.78 µg\\/mL, respectively. The methanolic extracts were further partitioned into three n-hexane-, ethylacetate-, and water-soluble

Wen-Chi HOU; Wen-Chung WU; Chih-Yuan YANG; Hsien-Jung CHEN; Sin-Yie LIU



Petroleum potential of Oligocene lacustrine mudstones and coals at Dong Ho, Vietnam — an outcrop analogue to terrestrial source rocks in the greater Song Hong Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcrop of Oligocene age at Dong Ho, northern Vietnam, may constitute an immature analogue to offshore terrestrial source rocks in the greater Song Hong Basin. The outcrop includes an interval with two source rocks: (1) highly oil-prone carbonaceous mudstones containing kerogen types IIA and IIA\\/I, and with TOC contents from 6.48 to 16.89 wt%, and HI values from 472

H. i. Petersen; C. Andersen; P. h. Anh; J. a. Bojesen-koefoed; L. h. Nielsen; H. p. Nytoft; P. Rosenberg; L. Thanh



Disappearance of Sea Floor of the Paleo-asian Ocean: Geological Evidence from the Dong Ujimqin, Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) formed by the Paleozoic collision of the Siberia and the North China plates and the simultaneous closure of the Paleo-Asian Sea, but the location of the suture zone is still very debatable. Three proposed hypotheses of where the suture zone is are: Solonker-Sonid Zuoqi-Hegenshan, Ophiolite belt along Solonker-Xar Moron River, and the Main Mongolian Lineament in Mongolia. Our mapping, geochronology and geochemistry work in Dong Ujimqin (about 240 km to the NE of Hegan Shan) support the third hypothesis the best. Paleozoic stratigraphy in the research area was studied in detail. From Ordovician to middle Permian, local stratigraphy from bottom to top includes: Ordovician echinodermmeta fossil bearing crystalline limestone, sandstone and argillite; Middle Devonian coarse grained sandstone and argillite; Lower Middle Permian interlayerred sandstone and siltstone. There is an angular unconformity between the Middle Devonian and the overlying Permian strata. The Permian strata contain fossils of Cathaysia flora which include Cladophlebis sp.1,Cladophlebis sp. 2, Pterophyllum daihoense Kawasaki, Calamites suckowiiBrongniart, Sphenopteris sp., Cladophlebis nystroemii Halle, Cladophlebis ozakii Yabe et Oishi, Emplectopteris triangularis Halle, Lepidophylloides sp., Mariopteris hallei (Stockmans et Mathieu), Cladophlebis manchuica (Kawasaki). Structurally, Ordovian strata thrust over the Middle Devonian from NW to SE, and the Middle Devonian thrust over Upper Devonian from NW to SE too. The strike of the axial plane of the folds associated with the thrusts is NE. Two Carboniferous magmatic belts were discovered in the research area. U-Pb zircon geochronology using LA-ICP-MS gave ages of 325-326Ma and 298-311Ma for the North and South belts respectively. The magamatic activities moved from NW to SE. Whole rock, trace element and REE geochemistry tell us that all these magmatic rocks are of syn-collisional characteristics. The discovery of the Cathaysia flora fossils, the NW to SE thrust faults, the syn-collisional magmatic rocks plus the shift of magmatic activities from NW to SE all indicate that the sea floor of the Paleo-Asian Ocean must located somewhere to the north of our research area, which could be the proposed Main Mongolian Lineament area.

Zhou, Z.; Zhang, T.; Wang, B.; Yu, Y.



Association between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Bone Mineral Density: The Dong-gu Study and the Namwon Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). Two large cohort studies were performed: the Dong-gu Study (3,621 men and 5,409 women) and the Namwon Study (3,703 men and 5,672 women). We assessed lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between MTHFR C677T and BMD, adjusting for age, weight and height. The MTHFR C677T genotype frequencies for CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 34.5, 48.7, and 16.8%, respectively, in the Dong-gu Study and 33.6, 49.2, and 17.2%, respectively, in the Namwon Study. There are no significant differences between the MTHFR C677T genotype and the BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in men or women in both cohorts.

Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Song, Hye-Rim; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A.



The natural compound n-butylidenephthalide derived from Angelica sinensis inhibits malignant brain tumor growth in vitro and in vivo 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naturally-occurring compound, n-butylidenephthalide (BP), which is isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-C), has been investigated with respect to the treatment of angina. In this study, we have examined the anti- tumor effects of n-butylidenephthalide on glioblastoma multi- forme (GBM) brain tumors both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, GBM cells were treated with BP, and

Nu-Man Tsai; Yi-Lin Chen; Chau-Chin Lee; Po-Chen Lin; Yeung-Leung Cheng; Wen-Liang Chang; Shinn-Zong Lin; Horng-Jyh Harn



Anthelmintic activity of the crude extracts, fractions, and osthole from Radix angelicae pubescentis against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioassay-guided fractionation was performed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the crude extract fractions and osthole\\u000a from Radix angelicae pubescentis against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vivo. Among four extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol), only ethanol extract exhibited the\\u000a best anthelmintic efficacy with 100% mortality of Dactylogyrus and no death of fish at the

Kai-yu Wang; Lu Yao; Yong-hua Du; Jia-bing Xie; Jin-lu Huang; Zhong-qiong Yin



In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Radix angelicae pubescentis, Fructus bruceae, Caulis spatholobi, Semen aesculi, and Semen pharbitidis against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).  


In search of a natural antiparasitic, in vivo anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Angelica pubescens roots (Radix angelicae pubescentis), Brucea javanica fruits (Fructus bruceae), Spatholobus suberectus stems (Caulis spatholobi), Aesculus chinensis Bge. seeds (Semen aesculi), and Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt seeds (Semen pharbitidis) were tested against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Among the extracts tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of S. aesculi were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts with EC(50) and EC(90) values of 5.23 and 7.33 mg/L and 6.48 and 12.29 mg/L after 48 h, respectively, followed by methanolic extracts of Fructus bruceae, Radix angelicae pubescentis, Caulis spatholobi, and Semen pharbitidis with EC(50) 49.96, 57.45, 64.92, and 309.47 mg/L. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of S. aesculi exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural antiparasitic for the control of D. intermedius. PMID:20191290

Liu, You-Tao; Wang, Fan; Wang, Gao-Xue; Han, Jing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yong-Hua



Cytotoxic activities and anti-tumor-promoting effects of microbial transformation products of prenylated chalcones from Angelica keiskei.  


Three prenylated chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin (1), xanthoangelol (2), and xanthoangelol F (3), isolated from Angelica keiskei, were transformed by the fungus Aspergillus saitoi. These chalcones were converted to flavanones (i.e., 4, 8, and 12), and prenyl-chain-hydrated (i.e., 5, 7, 9-11, and 13) and ring-B-hydroxylated (i.e., 6) chalcones. The structures of three new metabolites, 7, 9, and 13, were established as 2?,3?-dihydro-4,3?-dihydroxyderricin, 6?,7?-dihydro-7?-hydroxyxanthoangelol, and 6?,7?-dihydro-7?-hydroxyxanthoangelol F, respectively. Upon evaluation of cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-13, the metabolite 7 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HL60 cells, and this cell death was revealed to be mostly due to apoptosis. In addition, compounds 1-4, 7-10, 12, and 13 were examined for their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. All compounds tested showed inhibitory effects against EBV-EA activation with potencies higher than that of ?-carotene. Furthermore, the metabolite 13 exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator, and with TPA as promoter. PMID:22344908

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Motoi, Toshihiro; Seki, Akihito; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Kimura, Yumiko



Ferulic Acid, an Angelica sinensis-Derived Polyphenol, Slows the Progression of Membranous Nephropathy in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of adult nephrotic syndrome but lacks adequate treatment. Different extracts of Angelica sinensis (AS) and one of its active compounds, ferulic acid (FA), were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects in a MN mouse model. The MN model was grouped into three subgroups: no treatment (N-T), treatment at induction of MN (Pre-T), and treatment after full-blown MN (Post-T). The results showed that the methanol (ME) layer of AS extract exhibited a therapeutic effect on MN-induced proteinuria. The ME layer-enriched compound, FA, improved the hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in both Pre-T and Post-T groups. Ferulic acid also reduced the formation of oxidative protein products and increased the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in groups Pre-T and Post-T. Regarding angiogenesis factors, the antiangiogenic factors in renal glomeruli were increased in group N-T, but, after FA treatment, only one of the antiangiogenic factors, thrombospondin-1, showed a significant decrease. Furthermore, the expression of Th2 predominant showed significant decrease in both Pre-T and Post-T groups when compared to that of N-T group. In summary, FA retarded the progression of MN, and the mechanisms involved the regulation of oxidative stresses, angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, and attenuation of Th2 response.

Cheng, Chao-Wen; Chang, Wen-Liang; Chang, Li-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Jin-Shuen



Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Inhibits Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice  

PubMed Central

We examined whether Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (AR) suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice. To investigate the effect of AR, we measured the AD severity score, measured plasma levels of IgE and histamine, and performed histological analysis in NC/Nga mice. We also confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of AR by measuring TARC/CCL17 production from LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells and mRNA levels of TARC and MDC/CCL22 in TNF-?/IFN-?-treated HaCaT cells. 10?mg/day of AR extract was applied for 4 weeks to NC/Nga mice. Both the AR extract and 0.1% tacrolimus suppressed the development of AD-like skin lesions and reduced dermatitis scores of the back and ear skin. AR extracts caused an inhibition of histological changes induced by repeated application of D. farinae and a reduction of IgE and histamine levels in plasma (P < 0.05). Furthermore, NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells was diminished in a dose-dependent manner, and hTARC production and TARC and MDC mRNA levels in TNF-?/IFN-?-treated HaCaT cells were diminished by AR. The inhibitory effect of AR on NO, TARC and MDC production may be associated with the suppression of AD-like skin lesions in D. farinae-induced NC/Nga mice.

Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun Kyoo



Radix Angelica Sinensis that Contains the Component Z-Ligustilide Promotes Adult Neurogenesis to Mediate Recovery from Cognitive Impairment.  


Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) has beneficial effects in patients suffering from cognitive impairment associated with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. It has previously been demonstrated that RAS prevents the neurotoxic effects of ?-amyloid (A?) in vitro, protects from injuries due to oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis and ameliorates scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Here, we studied the effects of RAS on cognitive improvement and neurogenic enhancement and examined the possible underlying mechanisms in a rat model with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, which serves as a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-related neurodegenerative diseases. RAS enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and improves the cognitive decline associated with hypoperfusion. Long-term ablation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis through cranial irradiation abolishes the protective effects of RAS on cognition. Furthermore, administration of RAS restores the decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, the phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) staining intensity in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. The present study supports the hypothesis that adult neurogenesis is required for RAS to facilitate recovery from the cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, while neurogenic enhancement secondary to RAS treatment may be due to increased BDNF and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB) levels and increased ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) expression. Based on the possible mechanisms suggested by the present study, this well-known traditional medicine may represent a candidate therapeutic agent for the treatment of dementia associated with vascular injury. PMID:23937197

Xin, Jiawei; Zhang, Junjian; Yang, Ying; Deng, Min; Xie, Xiaofeng



In vitro permeability analysis, pharmacokinetic and brain distribution study in mice of imperatorin, isoimperatorin and cnidilin in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.  


Coumarins are important constituents of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine possess several known bioactivities with potentials in the treatment of central nervous system diseases. By using an HPLC-MS/MS method, we analyzed the in vivo plasma and brain pharmacokinetics of three ingredients of coumarins, including imperatorin, isoimperatorin and cnidilin in mice after oral administration of Dahuricae extract at doses of 800mg/kg. The biosamples were prepared using acetonitrile precipitation and the separation was achieved on an XDB-C18 column by gradient elution. The BBB permeability and P-gp-mediated efflux were further examined in Madin Canine kidney cells transfected with full length cDNA for human multidrug resistance gene1 (MDCKII-MDR1). Our results demonstrate that the method has excellent and satisfactory selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy for simultaneous determination of imperatorin, isoimperatorin and cnidilin. The pharmacokinetics parameters were determined by using noncompartmental analyses, including the AUC(0-t) in plasma (1695.22, 1326.45 and 636.98mg*h/L), the AUC(0-t) in brain (1812.35, 2125.17 and 1145.83ng*h/g) as well as the T1/2 in plasma (0.66, 0.82, 0.97h) and brain (0.96, 1.1, 0.99h) for imperatorin, isoimperatorin and cnidilin, respectively, suggesting that the three coumarins could easily pass through the BBB in vivo. In the in vitro model we observed high permeability of imperatorin and isoimperatorin with the P-gp-mediated efflux ratios of 0.53 and 0.06, as well as medium permeability of cnidilin with 0.82. All data suggest that these three coumarins have high BBB permeability and have pharmacokinetic potentials for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. PMID:23353658

Lili, Wan; Yehong, Sun; Qi, Yu; Yan, Huo; Jinhui, Zhu; Yan, Li; Cheng, Guo



cDNA-AFLP analysis of gene expression differences between the flower bud and sprout-shoot apical meristem of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels  

PubMed Central

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Umbelliferae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly distributed in Gansu Province of China. Its local and global demand is significant because of its food and medicinal applications. However, the early bolting rate of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels reaches 20%–60%, which seriously affects its food and medicinal qualities. Thus, differences in gene expression between the flower bud and sprout-shoot apical meristem underwent analysis, by means of cDNA-amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism, to better understand the flowering mechanism. 64 primer sets, each of which amplified to 60 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), were used. Among these TDFs, 26 were expressed specifically in the flower bud. After cloning and sequencing, 32 distinct sequences were obtained from these 26 TDFs, and 25 were found with homologous sequences in databases. Confirmation of differential expression of 13 sequences was obtained by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, their showing higher expression levels in flower buds. These homologous sequences encode transposable elements, pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, DNA-binding transcription factors, zinc finger (B-box type) family proteins, NADP-dependent sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (S6PDH), amongst others.

Yu, Guang; Duan, Jinao; Yan, Hui; Song, Bingsheng; He, Ziqing



Anthelmintic activity of the crude extracts, fractions, and osthole from Radix angelicae pubescentis against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vivo.  


A bioassay-guided fractionation was performed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the crude extract fractions and osthole from Radix angelicae pubescentis against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vivo. Among four extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol), only ethanol extract exhibited the best anthelmintic efficacy with 100% mortality of Dactylogyrus and no death of fish at the optimal anthelminthic concentration of 120 mg/L. Therefore, ethanol extract was subjected to column chromatography to obtain sixteen fractions. The activity was found in fraction F with 100% mortality of Dactylogyrus and no toxicity to fish at dose of 2.0 mg/L. A white crystal was isolated from fraction F and identified as osthole which exhibited the optimal activity with 100% mortality of Dactylogyrus at 1.6 mg/L had and no toxicity to fish at dose up to 6.2 mg/L. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of anthelmintic active compound from R. angelicae pubescentis against D. intermedius in goldfish (C. auratus) in vivo. PMID:20878184

Wang, Kai-yu; Yao, Lu; Du, Yong-hua; Xie, Jia-bing; Huang, Jin-lu; Yin, Zhong-qiong



Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3??M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy.

Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing



[Comrade Mao Ze-dong's contribution to Marxist theory on population--in commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the birth of the Chinese Communist Party].  


Is it good or bad to have a large population in China? Comrade Mao Ze-dong said "it is good and it is also bad." Our population is an asset, and we should use this asset and wisdom in our nation's "Four Modernizations" program. On the other hand we should control the population growth and reduce the resulting burden. Marxism recognizes 2 types of production, material production and human production. Both are interrelated, mutually dependent, and beneficial. Comrade Mao criticized concepts and practices that disregard the interrelationship of these 2 types of production. According to Comrade Mao both types of production should be included in the national economic plan, and the proportions of material production and human production should be the basic proportions of our socialistic economic development. Comrade Mao mentioned that population growth should be planned to fit and benefit social development. He suggested establishment of a series of family planning offices or committees to study and implement the family planning program, to develop a longterm plan, to consider the people's wishes in family planning, to meet the people's requirements and desires, to educate people about family planning, and to recommend government funds for the program. PMID:12264239

Wen, T Z



Chinese Medicine Formula "Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction" Attenuates Tourette Syndrome via Downregulating the Expression of Dopamine Transporter in Mice.  


Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) is dedicated to the treatment for Tourette syndrome (TS) with the guidance of the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This study aims to investigate the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and stereotyped behavior of TS mice model by intervention of JPZDD. Mice were induced by 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN, 350?mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.p.) for 7 days and divided into 4 groups (n = 20, each): control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups with Tiapride (Tia, 50?mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and JPZDD (20?g kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The results showed that the scores of stereotyped behavior in IDPN+JPZDD group were significantly reduced. A noticeably increased (11)C-?-CFT binding at bilateral striatum was observed after administration of JPZDD versus that of IDPN or Tia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies manifested higher levels of DAT protein and mRNA in IDPN+JPZDD group. These findings not only demonstrated that JPZDD could effectively inhibit the abnormal behaviors of TS mice model, but also increase the level of DAT in striatum. Therefore, JPZDD could be one of potential treatments of patients with TS. PMID:23431337

Wang, Dao-Han; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Su-Mei



A Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis induces the expression of erythropoietin in cultured Hep3B cells.  


Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction used commonly for treating women's ailments, contains Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS). According to Chinese medicinal theory, this decoction is to nourish the blood function; this, however, has not been demonstrated on the molecular level. In order to reveal the hematopoietic effect of this decoction, DBT was applied to cultured Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The treatment of DBT induced mRNA expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in a dose-dependent manner and peaked at approximately 2.5-fold induction. The secreted EPO in cultured Hep3B cells was quantified by ELISA: the treatment of DBT potentiated the effect of hypoxia-induced EPO expression in the cultured cells. In addition, the DBT-induced EPO expression could be abolished by pre-treatment with U0126, a mitogen-activated kinase inhibitor. The current results verified the hematopoietic function of this ancient herbal decoction. PMID:18484529

Gao, Qiu T; Cheung, Jerry K; Choi, Roy C; Cheung, Anna W; Li, Jun; Jiang, Zhi Y; Duan, Ran; Zhao, Kui J; Ding, An W; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W



ESP-102, a combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, protects against glutamate-induced toxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical cells.  


It was reported previously that ESP-102, a combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and protected primary cultured rat cortical cells against glutamate-induced toxicity. To corroborate this effect, the action patterns of ESP-102 were elucidated using the same in vitro system. ESP-102 decreased the cellular calcium concentration increased by glutamate, and inhibited the subsequent overproduction of cellular nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to the level of control cells. It also preserved cellular activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase reduced in the glutamate-injured neuronal cells. While a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in glutamate treated cells, the mitochondrial membrane potential was maintained by ESP-102. These results support that the actual mechanism of neuroprotective activity of ESP-102 against glutamate-induced oxidative stress might be its antioxidative activity. PMID:19367657

Ma, Choong Je; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ki Yong; Oh, Taehwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong



Inhibitory effects of coumarin and acetylene constituents from the roots of Angelica furcijuga on d-galactosamine\\/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice and on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extract (200mg\\/kg, p.o. and i.p.), principal coumarin constituents (isoepoxypteryxin, anomalin, and praeroside IV), and a polyacetylene constituent (falcarindiol) (25mg\\/kg, i.p.) from the roots of Angelica furcijuga protected the liver injury induced by d-galactosamine (d-GalN)\\/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. In in vitro experiments, coumarin constituents (hyuganins A–D, anomalin, pteryxin, isopteryxin, and suksdorfin) and polyacetylene constituents [(?)-falcarinol and falcarindiol] substantially inhibited

Masayuki Yoshikawa; Norihisa Nishida; Kiyofumi Ninomiya; Teruki Ohgushi; Mizuho Kubo; Toshio Morikawa; Hisashi Matsuda



Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress by Angelica dahuricae radix extract decreases apoptotic cell death and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.  


Inflammation and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we examined the neuroprotective effects of Angelica dahuricae radix (ADR) extract after SCI. ADR extract significantly decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial cell line, BV2 cells. ADR extract also significantly alleviated the level of reactive oxygen species in LPS-activated BV2 cells. To examine the neuroprotective effect of ADR extract after SCI, spinally injured rats were administered ADR extract orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 14 days. ADR extract treatment significantly reduced the levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2·)(-)) and protein nitration were also significantly decreased by ADR extract. In addition, ADR extract inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and pronerve growth factor expression in microglia after SCI. Furthermore, ADR extract significantly inhibited caspase-3 activation following apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes, thereby improving functional recovery after injury. Thus, our data suggest that ADR extract provides neuroprotection by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress and can be used as an orally administered therapeutic agent for acute SCI. PMID:21922518

Moon, Youn Joo; Lee, Jee Youn; Oh, Myung Sook; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Park, Kang-Sik; Oh, Tae Hwan; Yune, Tae Young



The effects of isoimperatorin isolated from Angelicae dahuricae on cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.  


Isoimperatorin (4-[(3-Methyl-2-butenyl)oxy]-7H-furo[3,2-g][1]benzopyran-7-one) is a medicinal herbal product that is isolated from the dried roots of Angelicae dahuricae. Isoimperatorin inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-1-dependent phases of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 10.7 microM and 24 microM, respectively. However, this compound was not able to inhibit COX-1 and 2 protein expression in BMMC that were treated with concentrations of up to 50 microM, which indicates that isoimperatorin directly inhibits COX-2 activity. Furthermore, this compound consistently inhibited the production of leukotriene C4 (LTC4), as well as the degranulation reaction in BMMC, with an IC50 value of 5.7 microM and 9 microM, respectively, and these effects occurred in a dose dependent fashion. These results demonstrate that isoimperatorin has a dual cyclooxygenase-2 selective/5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity, and therefore may provide the basis for novel anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:18365692

Moon, Tae Chul; Jin, Meihua; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook



The effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin.

Choi, Jinho; Yeo, Ikhyun



Chemical changes of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma by wine treatment: chemical profiling and marker selection by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR) can be treated with wine to promote their biological functions in Chinese medicine. Both ASR and CR contain similar volatile chemicals that could be altered after wine treatment. This study aims to identify the differential chemical profiles and to select marker chemicals of ASR and CR before and after wine treatment. Methods Chemical analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Characterization of the compositions of essential oils was performed by automated matching to the MS library and comparisons of their mass spectra (NIST08 database). For ferulic acid, butylphthalide, Z-butylidenephthalide, senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide, the mass spectrometer was operated in electron ionization mode, the selection reaction monitoring mode was used and an evaluation of the stability and sensitivity of the chromatographic system was performed for the tested extraction. Results Principal component analysis (PCA) simultaneously distinguished ASR and CR from different forms. Ferulic acid, Z-butylidenephthalide, Z-ligustilide, butylphthalide and senkyunolide A were screened by PCA loading plots and can be used as chemical markers for discrimination among different groups of samples. Conclusion Different chemical profiles of ASR and CR after wine treatment could be identified by GC-QQQ-MS/MS. The five marker chemicals selected by PCA, namely ferulic acid, butylphthalide, Z-butylidenephthalide, senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide, were sufficient to distinguish between the crude and corresponding wine-treated forms of ASR and CR.



ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.  


We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:15698848

Kang, So Young; Lee, Ki Yong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun



Effects of zinc and cadmium ions on cell growth and production of coumarins in cell suspension cultures of Angelica archangelica L.  


The plant cell may respond to the excess of heavy metals in its environment by various mechanisms, including enhanced biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, zinc (0 to 1500 ?M) and cadmium ions (0 to 100 ?M) were tested as potential elicitors of the production of coumarins in angelica cell suspension cultures. In addition, the toxicity of both metals was assessed by evaluating their effect on cell growth (characterized by fresh and dry biomass at the end of a two-week subculture). It has been found that fresh biomass was not influenced up to zinc concentrations of 150 and 300 ?M in the dark-grown and light-grown cultures, resp. Then it declined with an increasing zinc level. Zinc at 1500 ?M diminished it by 54% and 24% in the dark-grown and light-grown cultures, resp. Dry biomass was influenced in a similar way. Zinc at 1500 ?M reduced dry cell weight by 30% and 20% in cultures in the dark and in the light, resp. Cadmium ions did not affect fresh and dry weights of cells up to concentrations of 10 ?M and 50 ?M in cultures in the dark and in the light, resp. Toxic concentrations of cadmium are by an order of magnitude lower than those of zinc. Cadmium at 50 ?M reduced fresh and dry cell weights by 66% and 59%, resp., in the dark-grown cultures. Cadmium at 100 ?M caused a decrease in fresh and dry biomass by 40% and 44%, resp., in the light-grown cultures. Neither zinc nor cadmium improved production of coumarins. PMID:23387854

Siatka, Tomáš; Kašparová, Marie; Spilková, Ji?ina



Observation des influences du changement du couvert forestier sur le comportement hydrologique de grands bassins versants tropicaux a l'aide de la teledetection numerique: Cas du bassin versant de Dong Nai, Viet Nam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring hydrological behavior of a large tropical watershed following a forest cover variation has an important role in water resource management planning as well as for forest sustainable management. Traditional methods in forest hydrology studies are Experimental watersheds, Upstream-downstream, Experimental plots, Statistical regional analysis and Watershed simulation. Those methodes have limitations for large watersheds concerning the monitoring time, the lack of input data especially about forest cover and the capacity of extrapolating results accurately in terms of large watersheds. Moreover, there is still currently a scientific debate in forest ecology on relation between water and forest. The reason of this problem comes from geographical differences in publication concerning study zones, experimental watershed size and applied methods. It gives differences in the conclusions on the influence of tropical forest cover change on the changes of outlet water and yet on the yearly runoff in terms of large watershed. In order to exceed the limitations of actual methods, to solve the difficulty of acquiring forest cover data and to have a better understanding of the relation between tropical forest cover change and hydrological behavior evolution of a large watershed, it is necessary to develop a new approach by using numeric remote sensing. We used the watershed of Dong Nai as a case study. Results show that a fusion between TM and ETM+ Landsat image series and hydro-meteorologic data allow us to observe and detect flooding trends and flooding peaks after an intensive forest cover change from 16% to 20%. Flooding frequency and flooding peaks have clearly decreased when there is an increase of the forest cover from 1983 to 1990. The influence of tropical forest cover on the hydrological behavior is varying with geographical locations of watershed. There is a significant relation between forest cover evolution and environmental facteurs as the runoff coefficient (R = 0,87) and the yearly precipitation (R = 0,93).

Pham, Trinh Hung


A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang, Prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by A High-Fructose Diet in Rats.  


Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction contains Radix Angelicae sinensis (Danggui) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi) at a ratio of 1?:?5, is used commonly for treating women's ailments. This study was conducted to explore the effects of this preparation on insulin resistance in rats fed with 6-week diet containing 60% fructose. Similar to the action of rosiglitazone (4?mg?kg(-1) per day by an oral administration), repeated oral administration of DBT (2.5?g?kg(-1) per day) for 14 days was found to significantly alleviate the hyperglycemia but made no influence on plasma lipid profiles nor weight gain in fructose chow-fed rats. Also, the higher degree of insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance in fructose chow-fed rats was significantly decreased by repeated DBT treatment. DBT displays the characteristic of rosiglitazone by increasing the whole-body insulin sensitivity in fructose chow-fed rats after 2-week treatment, as evidenced by the marked elevation of composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index during the oral glucose tolerance test. DBT improves insulin sensitivity through increased post-receptor insulin signaling mediated by enhancements in insulin receptor substrate-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase step and glucose transporter subtype 4 translocation in soleus muscles of animals exhibiting insulin resistance. DBT is therefore proposed as potentially useful adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance and/or the patients who wish to increase insulin sensitivity. PMID:19233878

Liu, I-Min; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii



Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Rescues PC12 Cells from Amyloid ?-Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity through Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Potential Roles of MAPK  

PubMed Central

Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed that D reduced A?25?35-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Our study explored the underlying mechanisms by which D mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with D diminished intracellular generation of ROS in response to A?25?35. Western blot revealed that D significantly increased the expression and activity of HO-1, which was correlated with its protection against A?25?35-induced injury. Addition of ZnPP, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly attenuated its protective effect in A?25?35-treated cells, indicating the vital role of HO-1 resistance to oxidative injury. Moreover, D induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the upstream of HO-1 expression. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for HO-1 induction, D activated ERK and dephosphorylated p38 in PC12 cells. Addition of U0126, a selective inhibitor of ERK, blocked D-induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction and meanwhile reversed the protection of D against A?25?35-induced cell death. These findings suggest D augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through both intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of MAPK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction, thereby protecting the PC12 cells from A?25?35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity.

Li, Li; Du, Ji-kun; Zou, Li-yi; Wu, Tie; Lee, Yong-woo; Kim, Yong-ho



Families of quai-bi-Hamiltonian systems and separability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how to construct an infinite number of families of quasi-bi-Hamiltonian (QBH) systems by means of the constrained flows of soliton equations. Three explicit QBH structures are presented for the first three families of the constrained flows. The Nijenhuis coordinates defined by the Nijenhuis tensor for the corresponding families of QBH systems are proved to be exactly the

Yunbo Zeng; Wen-Xiu Ma



Herbal Supplements May Not Mix with Heart Medicines  


... affect warfarin: Danshen Dong quai Evening primrose oil Garlic Ginkgo Ginseng St. John's wort That's why it's ... supplements you take. Herbal supplement Medication Potential effect Garlic Aspirin Clopidogrel (Plavix) Warfarin (Coumadin) Increases risk of ...


Nutritional approaches to late toxicities of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors.  


Adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer reduces recurrence rates and prolongs survival at the cost of both acute and chronic toxicities. Breast cancer survivors who have received adjuvant chemotherapy may suffer from late effects of chemotherapy including congestive heart failure, neuropathy, premature menopause, and osteoporosis. Nutritional approaches to these problems are distinct in their orientation and success. Study of free radical scavengers for anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy was born from known pathogenetic mechanisms of cardiotoxicity but has been universally disappointing thus far in clinical trials. Application of agents used for diabetic neuropathy suggests that evening primrose oil, alpha-lipoic acid, and capsaicin may all play a role in the empiric options available to patients with chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Plant-derived preparations including black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), and red clover (Trifolium pretense) are used by patients experiencing hot flashes due to premature menopause despite a paucity of clinical trial data demonstrating either safety or efficacy. Calcium and vitamin D are widely accepted as an effective means to retard bone loss leading to osteoporosis. Nutritional approaches to late effects of breast cancer chemotherapy offer the prospect of preventing or ameliorating these sequelae of treatment. However, except for vitamin D and calcium for prevention of bone loss, current clinical evidence supporting use of nutritional agents remains sparse. PMID:14608115

Rock, Edwin; DeMichele, Angela



Moored Observations of Nonlinear Internal Waves Near DongSha.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of internal waves and ocean mixing is important for advancing the performance of operational and climate models, as well as for understanding local problems such as pollutant dispersal and biological productivity. Nonlinear internal waves' (NLIW...

M. H. Alford



Moored Observations of Nonlinear Internal Waves near DongSha.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I am interested in the general problems of internal waves and the ocean mixing. Knowledge of these is important for advancing the performance of operational and climate models, as well as for understanding local problems such as pollutant dispersal and bi...

M. H. Alford



Moored Observations of Nonlinear Internal Waves Near DongSha.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I am interested in the general problems of internal waves and ocean mixing. Knowledge of these is important for advancing the performance of operational and climate models, as well as for understanding local problems such as pollutant dispersal and biolog...

M. H. Alford



The Quai Branly MuseumPolitical Transition, Memory and Globalisation in Contemporary France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Parisian landscape was repeatedly altered during the second half of the twentieth century by various presidential `grands projets' or `grands travaux', most notably the Grande Arche of La Défense, the Bastille Opera, and the Institut du Monde Arabe. In June 2006, during Jacques Chirac's final months in office, the latest of these projects (and the first of the twenty-first

Dominic Thomas



Narrated Landscape as Counterweight to Perception of Placelessness in Contemporary Urban Landscape: Re-Visioning Place in Gwangbok-Dong and Nampo-Dong, Busan, South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the contemporary commercial urban landscape is often assessed as placeless, this research proposes that even these seemingly anonymous places are repositories of thriving community values and meanings. Seeking a more complex reading, this research extends the scope of analysis from physical space to human use in order to reveal the…

Lee, Sungkyung



Narrated Landscape as Counterweight to Perception of Placelessness in Contemporary Urban Landscape: Re-Visioning Place in Gwangbok-Dong and Nampo-Dong, Busan, South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the contemporary commercial urban landscape is often assessed as placeless, this research proposes that even these seemingly anonymous places are repositories of thriving community values and meanings. Seeking a more complex reading, this research extends the scope of analysis from physical space to human use in order to reveal the…

Lee, Sungkyung



Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements.  


Since the release of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) findings, an increasing number of dietary supplement products specifically targeting women in menopause have appeared in the American marketplace. This growth highlights the need for a critical evaluation of the tolerability and effectiveness of these products. The purpose of this article is to assess the evidence for safety and benefit of botanical monopreparations used for relief of menopause-related symptoms. The Cochrane Library and Medline databases were searched from January 1966 to October 2004, using a detailed list of terms related to botanicals and menopausal symptoms. Studies were considered eligible (1) if they were controlled trials of a botanical monopreparation administered orally for a minimum of 6 weeks to perimenopausal or postmenopausal women with hot flashes and (2) if they included a placebo or comparative treatment arm. Topical preparations, botanical combinations, and dietary interventions, such as soy food or protein, were not included. No language restrictions were imposed on the search. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies indicate that extract of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) improves menopause-related symptoms; however, methodologic shortcomings in the trials were identified. To date, 4 case reports of possible hepatotoxicity have been published, although previous safety reviews suggest that black cohosh is well tolerated and that adverse events are rare when it is used appropriately. The results of 6 clinical studies on soy (Glycine max L.) isoflavone extracts are mixed. Moreover, the composition and dose of soy supplements varies widely across studies, making comparisons and definitive conclusions difficult. One study challenged the long-term safety of high-dose soy isoflavone extract (150 mg/day for 5 years) on the uterine endometrium. Clinical data from 5 controlled trials assessing the efficacy of semipurified isoflavone red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) leaf extracts to reduce hot flash frequency and severity or to relieve symptoms associated with the domains of the Greene Menopausal Symptom Scale are contradictory. The largest study showed no benefit for reducing symptoms associated with menopause for 2 different red clover isoflavone products compared with placebo. No significant adverse events have been reported in the literature. Single clinical trials do not support the use of dong quai (Angelica sinensis L.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey), or evening primrose seed oil (Oenothera biennis L.) for improving menopausal symptoms. We conclude that black cohosh extracts appear to ease menopausal symptoms; ongoing studies funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will provide more definitive safety and efficacy data. Soy isoflavone extracts appear to have minimal to no effect, although definitive conclusions are difficult given the wide variation in product composition and dose. Long-term safety of higher dosage (150 mg/day) soy isoflavone extracts is uncertain. Semipurified isoflavone red clover leaf extracts have minimal to no effect in reducing menopausal symptoms. Dong quai, ginseng extract, and evening primrose seed oil appear to be ineffective in ameliorating menopausal symptoms at the dosages and in the preparations used in these studies. PMID:16414334

Low Dog, Tieraona



Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei


Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There\\u000a are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community\\u000a and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community\\u000a scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness

Lei Fang; Xiaomei Zhang



Application of 3S Techniques in the Study of Wetland Environment of Dong Ting Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland is a multifunctional ecosystem in the earth, wetlands possess irreplaceable and enormous ecological functions and serve as an essential life supporting system. how to apply the new and high technology to the study of wetland has become the key point in wetland study area in our country. RS, GIS and GPS technology provide a new method for resource and ecological environment monitor. In this paper, the problem and development trend of 3S technology are discussed. Application of 3S technique in the study of wetland environment of Dongting Lake are described. The wetland monitor ways and technique route are introduced. The beach and water area information were gained.the dynamic changes of water were evaluated objective and quantitative. Finally, we point out the difficulties of wetland monitor of Dongting Lake.

Xie, Baicheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Shuai, Xiqiang; Luo, Boliang


Effectiveness of lifesaving skills training and improving institutional emergency obstetric care readiness in Lam Dong, Vietnam.  


Essential obstetric care is promoted as the prime strategy to save women's lives in developing countries. We measured the effect of improving lifesaving skills (LSS) capacity in Vietnam, a country in which most women deliver in health facilities. A quasi-experimental study was implemented to assess the impact of LSS training and readiness (availability of essential obstetric equipment, supplies, and medication) on the diagnosis of life-threatening obstetric conditions and appropriate management of labor and birth. The intervention (LSS training and readiness) was provided to all clinics and hospitals from 1 of 3 demographically similar districts in southcentral Vietnam, to hospitals only in another district, with the third district serving as the comparison group. Detection of life-threatening obstetric conditions increased in both experimental clinics and hospitals, but the intervention only improved the management of these conditions in hospitals. Management of life-threatening obstetric conditions is most effective in hospitals. The intervention did not clearly benefit women delivering in clinics. PMID:15973269

Sloan, Nancy L; Nguyen, Thi Nhu Ngoc; Do, Trong Hieu; Quimby, Charlotte; Winikoff, Beverly; Fassihian, Goli


How do we sell the hygiene message? With dollars, dong or excreta?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In North and Central Vietnam it is common among farmers to use excreta from the family double vault composting latrine (DVC) as fertilizer in the fields. The official Vietnamese health guidelines stipulate a six-month period of composting before applying excreta to two of their three annual crops. However, farmers in this region cannot afford to follow these guidelines and this

Peter Kjær Mackie Jensen; Pham Duc Phuc; Line Gram Knudsen West



Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of the herbal formula Phyto-Female Complex (SupHerb, Netanya, Israel; ingredients: standardized extracts of black cohosh, dong quai, milk thistle, red clover, American ginseng, chaste-tree berry) for the relief of menopausal symptoms. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 50 healthy pre and postmenopausal women, aged 44- 65 years, to whom oral Phyto-Female Complex

Carmela Rotem; Boris Kaplan



Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Angelica sinensis Essential Oil Against Three Colletotrichum Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical fungicides are an important component in disease management for most crops. As part of a program to discover natural product-based fungicides, several sensitive assay systems have been developed for the evaluation of naturally occurring antifungal agents. In this study, we focused on the di...


Comparison of elevation derived from insar data with dem from topography map in Son Dong, Bac Giang, Viet Nam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are used in many applications in the context of earth sciences such as in topographic mapping, environmental modeling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, seismic source modeling, etc. During the last years multitude of scientific applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques have evolved. It has been shown that InSAR is an established technique of generating high quality DEMs from space borne and airborne data, and that it has advantages over other methods for the generation of large area DEM. However, the processing of InSAR data is still a challenging task. This paper describes InSAR operational steps and processing chain for DEM generation from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR data and compare a satellite SAR estimate of surface elevation with a digital elevation model (DEM) from Topography map. The operational steps are performed in three major stages: Data Search, Data Processing, and product Validation. The Data processing stage is further divided into five steps of Data Pre-Processing, Co-registration, Interferogram generation, Phase unwrapping, and Geocoding. The Data processing steps have been tested with ERS 1/2 data using Delft Object-oriented Interferometric (DORIS) InSAR processing software. Results of the outcome of the application of the described processing steps to real data set are presented.

Nguyen, Duy



Educational and Social Development in Doi Ang Khang: A Comparative Study of the Khob Dong and Nor Lae Villages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northern Thailand is home to many hill tribes, who have lived for hundreds of years as subsistence farmers or nomadic hunters. In the 1940s, communist insurgencies drove many hill tribes from China, Burma, and other nations south into northern Thailand. Uprooted from their native lands, the hill tribes left behind ties to economic resources and,…

Frost, Timothy; Gray, Lauren; Lake, John; Roy, Jessica



HLA polymorphism of the Zhuang population reflects the common HLA characteristics among Zhuang-Dong language-speaking populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic characteristics in the Zhuang, the largest ethnic population in China,\\u000a would provide insight into Zhuang history and give a useful tool for disease associations, transplantation, and anthropology.\\u000a In the present study, we report the comprehensive HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1 alleles and haplotypes in the Zhuang population\\u000a of southern China for

Li Shi; Xiao-qin Huang; Lei Shi; Yu-fen Tao; Yu-feng Yao; Liang Yu; Ke-qin Lin; Wen Yi; Hao Sun; Katsushi Tokunaga; Jia-you Chu



Study on Angelica and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy

Hong-Xia Liu; Su-Qin Sun; Guang-Hua Lv; Kelvin K. C. Chan



Jing Dong Yuan - The Dragon and the Elephant: Chinese-Indian Relations in the 21st Century - The Washington Quarterly 30:3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although China and India have enjoyed 10 years of progress in bilateral relations, a series of challenges ahead remain daunting. How the world's most populous and fastest-growing states handle them will be critical for regional and global peace and prosperity in the coming years.

Jing-dong Yuan



On the Effectiveness of Movement Prediction To Reduce Energy Consumption in Wireless Communication Srijan Chakraborty Yu Dong David K. Y. Yau John C. S. Lui  

Microsoft Academic Search

Node movement can be exploited to reduce the energy consumption of wireless network communication. The strategy consists in delaying communication until a mobile node moves close to its target peer node, within an application-imposed deadline. We evaluate the performance of various heuristics that, based on the movement history of the mobile node, estimate an optimal time (in the sense of

Y. Dong; D. K. Y. Yau


Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.  


A large number of women will pass through menopause each year. Women in menopausal transition experience a variety of menopausal symptoms. Although hormonal therapy remains the most effective treatment, side effects have been reported by several large studies. An increased number of women seek the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treating menopausal symptoms. This review analyzes the evidence from systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and epidemiological studies of using herbal medicine (Black cohosh, Dong quai, St John's wart, Hops, Wild yam, Ginseng, and evening primrose oil) and acupuncture for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of most CAM for relief of menopausal symptoms are limited. Future larger and better controlled studies testing the effectiveness of these treatments are needed. PMID:22139538

Shou, Chong; Li, Justin; Liu, Zitao



Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Abundances in Sharp-Lined A-Type Stars Takeda, Yoichi; Kang, Dong-Il; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Kang-Min; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ohishi, Naoko;  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundances of alkali elements (Li, Na, and K) were determined from the Li I 6708, Na I 5682/5688, and K I 7699 lines by taking into account the non-LTE effect for 24 sharp-lined A-type stars (ve sin i ? 50 km s-1, 7000 K &lesssim Teff &lessim 10000 K, many showing Am peculiarities to different degrees), based on high-dispersion and high-S/N spectral data secured at BOAO (Korea) and OAO (Japan). We found a significant trend that A(Na) tightly scales with A(Fe) irrespective of Teff, which means that Na becomes enriched similarly to Fe in accordance with the degree of Am peculiarity. Regarding lithium, A(Li) mostly ranges between ˜ 3 and ˜ 3.5 (i.e., almost the same as or slightly less than the solar system abundance of 3.3) with a weak decreasing tendency with a lowering of Teff at Teff &lesssim 8000 K, though several stars exceptionally show distinctly larger depletion. The abundances of potassium also revealed an apparent Teff-dependence in the sense that A(K) in late-A stars tends to be mildly subsolar [possibly with a weak anti-correlation with A(Fe)] systematically decreasing from ˜ 5.0 (Teff ˜ 8500 K) to ˜ 4.6 (Teff ˜ 7500 K), while those for early-A stars remain near-solar around ˜ 5.0-5.2. These observational facts may serve as important constraints for any theory aiming to explain chemical anomalies of A-type stars.




Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Seattle, Washington 98108 Angelica Walden (Patient Representative) Augusta, Georgia ... MS. WALDEN: Good morning. I'm Angelica Walden. ... More results from


Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis): an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT

Qiutao Gao; Jun Li; Jerry Ka Hei Cheung; Jinao Duan; Anwei Ding; Anna Wing Han Cheung; Kuijun Zhao; Winnie Zhuoming Li; Tina Tingxia Dong; Karl Wah Keung Tsim



The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design.  


We designed a randomized double-blind randomized trial to examine the short and long-term effects of alternative approaches commonly used to manage menopause symptoms. Women were randomly assigned to: (1) black cohosh 160 mg daily; (2) multibotanical (50 mg black cohosh, alfalfa, chaste tree, dong quai, false unicorn, licorice, oats, pomegranate, Siberian ginseng, boron) four capsules daily; (3) multibotanical plus telephone counseling to increase dietary soy; (4) conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg +/- 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate; or (5) placebo. Working with a skilled CAM provider helped us choose interventions that reflected naturopathic practices worthy of study. Mass mailing, with careful tracking and rapid responses to recruitment rates, was an effective and cost-effective recruitment strategy. Creativity was necessary to construct methods for blinding capsules and the dietary soy intervention. Independent testing of herbal products was vital to confirming their constituents. The Data and Safety and Monitoring Committee, and project officers at the funding agency, were critical partners in designing responses to unanticipated Women's Health Initiative findings published during the HALT trial. Careful monitoring of adverse events may provide much needed information about side effects of herbal products and supplements. Despite inherent challenges, the study of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms is a rewarding and important area deserving of further inquiry. PMID:16186076

Newton, Katherine M; Reed, Susan D; Grothaus, Lou; Ehrlich, Kelly; Guiltinan, Jane; Ludman, Evette; Lacroix, Andrea Z



Reprint of The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design.  


We designed a randomized double-blind randomized trial to examine the short and long-term effects of alternative approaches commonly used to manage menopause symptoms. Women were randomly assigned to: (1) black cohosh 160 mg daily; (2) multibotanical (50 mg black cohosh, alfalfa, chaste tree, dong quai, false unicorn, licorice, oats, pomegranate, Siberian ginseng, boron) four capsules daily; (3) multibotanical plus telephone counseling to increase dietary soy; (4) conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg +/- 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate; or (5) placebo. Working with a skilled CAM provider helped us choose interventions that reflected naturopathic practices worthy of study. Mass mailing, with careful tracking and rapid responses to recruitment rates, was an effective and cost-effective recruitment strategy. Creativity was necessary to construct methods for blinding capsules and the dietary soy intervention. Independent testing of herbal products was vital to confirming their constituents. The Data and Safety and Monitoring Committee, and project officers at the funding agency, were critical partners in designing responses to unanticipated Women's Health Initiative findings published during the HALT trial. Careful monitoring of adverse events may provide much needed information about side effects of herbal products and supplements. Despite inherent challenges, the study of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms is a rewarding and important area deserving of further inquiry. PMID:19434890

Newton, Katherine M; Reed, Susan D; Grothaus, Lou; Ehrlich, Kelly; Guiltinan, Jane; Ludman, Evette; LaCroix, Andrea Z


Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: mechanisms of action?  


Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats, which can affect quality of life. Although it has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, hormone therapy has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief have been controversial, and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report a reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 ligands or inhibit serotonin reuptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women's health could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L



Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause.  


Numerous reports in the medical literature and popular media have discussed the effectiveness of various nonhormonal agents in reducing menopausal hot flash symptoms. Data for these therapies are limited, and most of the studies have been conducted in women with a history of breast cancer. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine have been shown to reduce hot flashes by 19 to 60 percent and were well tolerated by study participants. Soy isoflavones reduced hot flashes by 9 to 40 percent in some trials, but most trials showed no difference compared with placebo. Black cohosh and red clover also have had inconsistent results, with some trials showing benefit and some no difference compared with placebo. Soy isoflavones, black cohosh, and red clover were well tolerated in clinical trials. Other agents that have been used to alleviate hot flashes include belladonna/ergotamine tartrate/phenobarbital combination, dong quai, evening primrose oil, gabapentin, ginseng, mirtazapine, trazodone, vitamin E, and wild yam, but few data regarding their effectiveness have been published. Further randomized controlled trials are needed. PMID:16477892

Carroll, Dana G



US-Led Cooperative Theater Missile Defense in Northeast Asia challenges and Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 31 August 1998, North Korea flight-tested a new, three-stage, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM)/space launch vehicle (SLV) referred to by Western analysts and reporters as the Taepo Dong- 1. The Taepo Dong- 1 traversed a range of approximately 1,00...

R. R. Kiriah



Influence of Cell Volume in Multicell Transplant Flats on the Growth of Organically Grown Seedlings of Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-cell transplant flats were compared to determine the influence of cell volume on the growth and nutritional condition of seedlings of angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) grown in organic media. Plant growth and mineral concentration generally increased with cell volume, though the effect varied with different plant species. An increase in cell

E. Herrera; N. Tremblay; A. Gosselin



An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.  


Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and treatment. Dental hygienists should inform themselves about herbal supplements in order to offer appropriate oral health care to individuals who take these substances. PMID:12704968

Abebe, Worku



Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs.  


The use of herbal supplements in the US has increased dramatically in recent years. These products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the same scrutiny as conventional drugs. Patients who use herbal supplements often do so in conjunction with conventional drugs. This article is a review of potential adverse interactions between some of the commonly used herbal supplements and analgesic drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, have the potential to interact with herbal supplements that are known to possess antiplatelet activity (ginkgo, garlic, ginger, bilberry, dong quai, feverfew, ginseng, turmeric, meadowsweet and willow), with those containing coumarin (chamomile, motherworth, horse chestnut, fenugreek and red clover) and with tamarind, enhancing the risk of bleeding. Acetaminophen may also interact with ginkgo and possibly with at least some of the above herbs to increase the risk of bleeding. Further, the incidences of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity may be augmented by acetaminophen when concomitantly used with the potentially hepatotoxic herbs Echinacea and kava, and with herbs containing salicylate (willow, meadowsweet), respectively. The concomitant use of opioid analgesics with the sedative herbal supplements, valerian, kava and chamomile, may lead to increased central nervous system (CNS) depression. The analgesic effect of opioids may also be inhibited by ginseng. It is suggested that health-care professionals should be more aware of the potential adverse interactions between herbal supplements and analgesic drugs, and take appropriate precautionary measures to avoid their possible occurrences. However, as most of the interaction information available is based on individual case reports, animal studies and in vitro data, further research is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions. PMID:12472978

Abebe, W



Rapid screening of commercially available herbal products for the inhibition of major human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes using the N-in-one cocktail.  


Self-administration of complementary products concurrently with conventional medication is increasingly common. The potential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition requires investigation. The N-in-one assay with ten probe substrates for nine CYPs was used with human liver microsomes to investigate ten products. CYP inhibition was measured in a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analysis. Estimated IC(50)-values were determined for the extracts that produced significant inhibition (less than 100 microg ml(-1)). Inhibition of CYP2C19 by dong quai (IC(50) = 13.7-14.3 microg ml(-1) for the methanolic extract) and CYP2D6 by goldenseal (IC(50) = 6.7 and 6.3 microg ml(-1) for the aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively), are of particular concern as the potential for adverse interactions is high. The inhibition of CYP2C8 by horsetail (IC(50) = 93 microg ml(-1) for the aqueous extract) requires further investigation, as the potential for concurrent use with products that require CYP2C8 for metabolism is significant. CYP3A4 inhibition varied depending on the probe reaction being monitored. The earlier reported findings of inhibition by black cohosh, goldenseal and gotu kola were confirmed. The present work has shown that the N-in-one cocktail is a rapid and reliable method that can be used as an initial screen to help prioritize products that require more detailed investigations and it can also be applied to monitor product variability. PMID:20218935

Sevior, D K; Hokkanen, J; Tolonen, A; Abass, K; Tursas, L; Pelkonen, O; Ahokas, J T



Application of the Deming Management Method to Implement Total Quality Management in the DOD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study looked for DOD logistics organizations using the Deming management method to implement TQM. A total of 21 organizations were identified that claim to be following Deming. These organizations were then questioned on what they are dong to impleme...

S. P. Lyman



Untangling the Source of Ouch and Itch  


... endings transmit the signal through circuits of multiple nerve cells toward the brain. But pain is not limited ... sensation. They started looking for answers in the nerve cells. Finding Pain and Itch Xinzhong Dong and his ...


Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, Volume 32, No. 2, June 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Three Species of Nothobomolchus Vervoort, 1962 (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) Parasitic on Marine Fishes Landed at Dong-shih Fishing Port in Central Taiwan; The Effects of Feeding Frequency, Stocking Density and Fish Size on Growth, Food Consumption, ...

S. T. Jiang



77 FR 2758 - Certain Portable Communication Devices; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ltd, 1320-10, Seocho 2-dong Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-857, South Korea. Samsung Electronics America, Inc., 105 Challenger Rd., Ridgefield Park, NJ 07660. Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC, 1301 East Lookout Drive, Richardson, TX...



75 FR 39971 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Taiwan; HTC America, Inc., 13920 SE Eastgate Way, Suite 400, Bellevue, WA 98005; LG Electronics, Inc., LG Twin Towers, 20, Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul, 157-721, South Korea; LG Electronic U.S.A., Inc.,...



77 FR 38288 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Qualifying Individual). Huaihai Dong, Secretary. Application Type: New NVO License. RD International Forwarder Corp. (NVO), Amelia Industrial Park, Lot C, Guaynabo, PR 00969. Officers: Rebeca Negron, President (Qualifying Individual). Daniel...



Purification of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceutical Compounds by Sub- and Supercritical Chromatography and Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis discusses the use of sub- and supercritical fluids as the medium in extraction and chromatography. Super- and subcritical extraction was used to separate essential oils from herbal plant 'Angelica archangelica'. The effect of extraction parame...

M. Alkio



27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...also type designations for grape wines are Angelica, Burgundy, Claret, Chablis, Champagne, Chianti, Malaga, Marsala, Madeira, Moselle, Port, Rhine Wine (syn. Hock), Sauterne, Haut Sauterne, Sherry, Tokay. (c)(1) A name of...



27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...also type designations for grape wines are Angelica, Burgundy, Claret, Chablis, Champagne, Chianti, Malaga, Marsala, Madeira, Moselle, Port, Rhine Wine (syn. Hock), Sauterne, Haut Sauterne, Sherry, Tokay. (c)(1) A name of...



27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...names shall be treated as semi-generic: Angelica, Burgundy, Claret, Chablis, Champagne, Chianti, Malaga, Marsala, Madeira, Moselle, Port, Rhine Wine or Hock, Sauterne, Haut Sauterne, Sherry, Tokay. (See: 26 U.S.C. 5368, 5388,...



Horse chestnut  


... include alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and ... some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, and others.


76 FR 37150 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...4128-4150 Glasgow Ave., 2141-2325 Angelica St., 4111-4220 N. 22nd St., St. Louis (Independent City), 11000444 Twain, Mark, Elementary School, (St. Louis Public Schools of William B. Ittner MPS) 5316 Ruskin Ave., St. Louis...




SciTech Connect

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to estimate the fractional latent heat release during phase changes. There are temperature lags inherent to the instruments due to the temperature measurement at a different location than that of the sample and reference materials. Recently, Dong and Hunt[1] showed that significant improvement in estimating the fractional latent heat can be obtained when detailed simulations of the heat transfer within the instrument are performed. The Netzsch DSC 404C instrument, with a high accuracy heat capacity sensor, is considered in this study. This instrument had a different configuration than that studied by Dong and Hunt[1]. The applicability of Dong and Hunt's approach to this instrument is investigated. It was found that the DSC instrument could be described by numerous parameters but that model parameters were difficult to estimate. Numerical simulation results are presented and compared with experimental results for the fractional latent heat of a commercial A356 aluminum alloy.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL



Practice in photonics education and training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonics and photon technology play an important role in information technology and life science in the 21st Century. Jinan University always devotes itself to the training of the technicians in optics and photonics. We have founded the system of undergraduate and postgraduate courses and also built up the photonics technology major lab of Guang Dong Education Bureau. The research involves the optoelectronics detection, the image processing, laser biological effects, optical communications, and so on. Jinan University works hard to promote the industrial application of photonics technology. Jinan University is making its great contribution to the construction of Photon Valley of Guang Dong Province.

Zhang, Yong-Lin; Di, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Jingang



Consumer price sensitivity and price thresholds 14 14 Sangman Han is Associate Professor, School of Business Administration Sungkyunkwan University, 53 3-ga, Myongnyun-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (phone: 82-2-760-0456, email: Sunil Gupta is Meyer Feldberg Professor of Business (phone: 212-854-3467, email: and Donald R. Lehmann is George E. Warren Professor (phone: 212-854-3465, email:, both at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027. All correspondence should be directed to Sunil Gupta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine consumers’ price sensitivity using a new approach that incorporates probabilistic thresholds for price gains and price losses in the reference price models. We model the threshold as a function of company, competitor and consumer specific factors. Model application to scanner panel data for coffee shows that our model is superior in fit compared to ordinary logit and two

Sangman Han; Sunil Gupta; Donald R. Lehmann



Organ Site-Specific SPOREs | Translational Research Program (TRP)

Skip to Content Search this site Organ Site-Specific SPOREs By State By Organ Location Last Updated: 01/27/12 Emory University Head & Neck SPORE Dong M. Shin, MD, F.A.C.P. [Click Here] Professor of Hematology/Oncology and Otolaryngology Director,


English as a Third Language in Rural China: Lessons from the Zaidang Kam-Mandarin Bilingual Education Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the findings of a study that compared 2 groups of 5th-grade first-language Kam-Dong minority students as they learned English as a third language (L3) in the remote mountain village of Zaidang, in Rongjiang county, Guizhou Province, P.R. China. One group had previously been taught using Mandarin only (MO), whereas the other…

Finifrock, Jacob E.



More Chinese Students Abroad Are Deciding Not To Return Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 18 years, over 260,000 Chinese students have left China to study abroad, and only about one-third have returned. Their flight is compounding the devastation of China's knowledge and talent pool that began with Mao Ze-dong. China is encouraging study abroad, to rectify the loss of a generation of academics, and is most interested in science and…

Hertling, James



Carbon motivated regional trade arrangements: Analytics and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents both analytics and numerical simulation results relevant to proposals for carbon motivated regional trade agreements summarized in Dong and Whalley (2010). Unlike traditional regional trade agreements, by lowing tariffs on participant's low carbon emission goods and setting penalties on outsiders to force them to join such agreements, carbon motivated regional trade agreements reflect an effective merging of

Yan Dong; John Whalley



North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews North Korea's ballistic missile program. On July 4-5, 2006, North Korea test-launched seven ballistic missiles, including a new Taepo Dong 2 that failed soon after launch. Apparently successful shorter-range missile tests at the time i...

S. A. Hildreth



North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. Updated October 18, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report updates recent information concerning, specifically, North Korea's long-range ballistic missile program. On July 4-5, 2006, North Korea test-launched seven ballistic missiles, including a new Taepo Dong 2 that failed soon after launch. Apparen...

S. A. Hildreth



Asia-Pacific Security: China's Conditional Multilateralism and Great Power Entente.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph provides an analysis of the People's Republic of China's evaluation of multilateralism and its place in Chinese foreign relations in the Asia-Pacific region. In contrast to conventional scholarly wisdom, the author, Dr. Jing-dong Yuan, cont...

J. Yuan



Striped Multiferroic Phases in Narrow Bandwidth Hole-Doped Manganites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel phase with diagonal charge stripes and a complex spin arrangement that allows for ferroelectricity to develop has been recently reported in a model for hole-quarter-doped manganites (S. Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 107204 (2009)). The study of this \\

Shuhua Liang; Shuai Dong; Cengiz Sen; Maria Daghofer; Elbio Dagotto



The peasant as counter-revolutionary: The rural origins of the Afghan insurgency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of Third World politics have frequently stressed the revolutionary character of the peasantry. It is clear that the peasantry has played an important role in most twentieth century revolutions? Revolutionary leaders, such as Mao Ze Dong, Vo Nguyen Giap, and Ernesto \\

David Gibbs



?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? Growth, survival, and water use by Eucalyptus camaldulensis in a saline discharge area in Northeast Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh were planted on moderately and strongly saline soil in a groundwater discharge area near Ban Dong Bung, in Kalasin Province, Northeast Thailand in July 1992. Tree heights and diameters were measured at 6 monthly intervals. Weather conditions, soil salinity and water table depth were intensively monitored from March 1995 to March 1996. The depth

Jim Moris; Jesada Luangiame; Manop Tantatemee


Investigation on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at Liaodong Bay in northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on the effect of various microbes on degradation was carried out as part of the study on bioremediation of oil-polluted wetland at LiaoDong Bay in northeast China. The method used involved direct inoculation of selected bacteria, which were capable of degrading oil, to the soil samples. The combination of various bacteria showed better results in terms of oil

Ye Shuhong; Huang Leichang; Yao Olive Li; Ding Ming; Hu Yingying; Ding Dewen



Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects and other arthropods appear in pharmacopoeias of Korean traditional medicine, but little was known about their use in modern South Korea. Interviews were conducted with 20 traditional medicine doctors at clinics in South Korea's Kyeong Dong Shijang in Seoul—one of the world's largest traditional drug markets—to learn about current patterns of usage. Seventeen products are prescribed and the use

Robert W. Pemberton



Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi



Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen



Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi




EPA Science Inventory

Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero. HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2 1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects and other arthropods appeared in pharmacopeias of traditional Korean medicine, but little was known about their use in modern South Korea. Interviews were conducted with 20 traditional medicine doctors at clinics in South Korea's Kyeong Dong Shijang in Seoul (one of the world's largest tradi...


77 FR 1725 - Certain Blu-Ray Disc Players, Components Thereof and Products Containing Same; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1320-10, Seocho 2-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-857, South Korea. Samsung Electronics America, Inc., 105 Challenger Road, Ridgefield Park, NJ 07660. Sharp Corporation, 22-22 Nagaike-cho, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8522, Japan....



SAX-7 and Menorin Light the Path for Dendrite Morphogenesis.  


Environmental and cellular cues pattern dendritic growth and direct dendrites to their targets. However, little is known about the signals regulating interactions with the surrounding substrate. Dong et al. and Salzberg et al. now identify a tripartite ligand-receptor complex that conveys cues from the substrate necessary for the patterning of complex dendrites in C. elegans. PMID:24120127

Ziegenfuss, Jennifer S; Grueber, Wesley B



Recent developments in China's export controls: New regulations and new challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Jing-dong Yuan is a Senior Research Associate in the East Asia Nonproliferation Program (EANP) at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies of the Monterey Institute of International Studies. He is co-author of the forthcoming study, China- India Relations: Cooperation or Conflict? (Lynne Rienner, 2003). Dr. Phillip C. Saunders is Director of EANP. He has worked on Asian security issues for

Phillip C. Saunders; Stephanie Lieggi



Confucian Views on War as Seen in the Gongyang Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores Confucian views on war as seen in the Spring and Autumn Annals. The interpretation is based mainly on the Gongyang Zhuan, supplemented by other authoritative sources in the Gongyang tradition, such as Dong Zhongshu (179-104 BCE) and He Xiu (129-182). The Spring and Autumn Annals contains three components: facts, words, and principles. This essay explicates the principles

Kam-por Yu



How to improve the design of the electrical system in future wind power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIS paper presents three topics which are important for better performance of future wind farms. The topics are investigated in three coordinated Ph.D. projects ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Aalborg University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of all projects is to improve the understanding of the main electrical components in wind farms, based on available information,

I. Arana; L. Kocewiak; J. Holbøll; C. L. Bak; A. H. Nielsen; A. Jensen; J. Hjerrild; T. Sørensen


Modelling bed level change at Nhat Le estuary and structural impacts using Delft3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Nhat Le estuary has been accreted due to the development of a spit bar in the south bank, which obstructs the waterway navigation, the flood drainage and causes erosion in the north bank endangering the infrastructures of Dong Hoi city. This study shows the simulation of short-term and long- term bed level changes in 10, 50 and

Nguyen Quang Luong



Impacts of land use and water quality on macroinvertebrate communities in the Pearl River drainage basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East River (Dong Jiang), a major tributary of the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang, the second largest river in China by discharge), is situated in southern China, which has the highest rates of urbanization and development on Earth. The East River also provides 80% of Hong Kong’s water supply. However, there have been no ecological studies to examine the combined

Yixin Zhang; David Dudgeon; Dongsheng Cheng; Wai Thoe; Lincoln Fok; Zaoyin Wang; Joseph H. W. Lee



A nonmeromorphic extension of the moonshine module vertex operator algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a natural structure of an abelian intertwining algebra (in the sense of Dong and Lepowsky) on the direct sum of the untwisted vertex operator algebra constructed {}from the Leech lattice and its (unique) irreducible twisted module. When restricting ourselves to the moonshine module, we obtain a new and conceptual proof that the moonshine module has a natural structure

Yi-Zhi Huang



Are Modern Concepts of Complex Systems Science Useful for Earth Sciences? (Lewis Fry Richardson Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of methods of complex systems science has a rich tradition in Earth sciences and has enabled substantially new insights into various complex processes there. However, some approaches and findings have been controversially discussed over the last decades. One reason is that they are often basing on strong restrictions and their violation may lead to pitfalls and misinterpretations. Here, we discuss three general concepts of complex systems science: synchronization, recurrence and complex networks and explain that they are indeed useful for better understanding phenomena as recent and past monsoon or El Nino, to detect paleoclimate-variability transitions which are related to human evolution and to identify teleconnections. References Marwan, N., Romano, M., Thiel, M., Kurths, J., Physics Reports 438, 237-329 (2007). Arenas, A., Diaz-Guilera, A., Kurths, J., Moreno, Y., Zhou, C., Physics Reports 469, 93-153 (2008). Marwan, N., Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Donner, R. and Kurths, J., Phys. Lett. A 373, 4246 (2009). Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J. Europhys. Lett. 87, 48007 (2009). Donner, R., Zou, Y., Donges, J.F., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J., Phys. Rev. E 81, 015101(R) (2010). Mokhov, I. I., D. A. Smirnov, P. I. Nakonechny, S. S. Kozlenko, E. P. Seleznev, and J. Kurths, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L00F04 (2011). Donges, J., H. Schultz, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, J. Kurths, Eur. J. Phys. B 84, 635-651 (2011). Donges, J., R. Donner, M. Trauth, N. Marwan, H.J. Schellnhuber, and J. Kurths, PNAS 108, 20422-20427 (2011). Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Climate Dynamics 39, 971 (2012). Runge, J. , J. Heitzig, V. Petoukhov, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 258701 (2012). Menck, P., J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, J. Kurths, Nature Physics (2013).

Kurths, Jürgen



Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese" (Maria Cecilia…

Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.



"Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would…

Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.



Candidates for cognitive enhancer extracted from medicinal plants: paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional Chinese medicine, Shimotsu-to, consisting of four herbs: Japanese angelica root, cnidium rhizome, peony root and rehmannia root, has been reported to improve spatial working memory in rats. The present results indicate that Paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) extracted from peony root and cnidium rhizome, respectively, are candidates for cognitive enhancer.

Hiroshi Watanabe



‘Hay que seguir luchando’: struggles that shaped English language learning of four Cuban immigrant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would improve their quality of life in their new country. Struggles included personal factors

John S. Butcher; Jane S. Townsend



‘Hay que seguir luchando’: struggles that shaped English language learning of four Cuban immigrant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would improve their quality of life in their new country. Struggles included personal factors

John S. Butcher; Jane S. Townsend



Genetic Diversity and Molecular Markers in Introduced and Thai Native Apple Snails (Pomacea and Pila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity and species-diagnostic markers in the introduced apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata and in the native Thai apple snails; Pila ampullacea, P. angelica, P. pesmei, and P. polita, were investigated by restriction analysis of COI and are reported for the first time. Twenty- one composite haplotypes showing non-overlapping distributions among species were found. Genetic heterogeneity analysis indicated significant differences

Bungorn Thaewnon-ngiw; Sirawut Klinbunga; Nitsri Sangduen; Nitaya Lauhachinda; Piamsak Menasveta



In vitro anti-microbial and in vivo cytokine modulating effects of different prepared Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity, antimicrobial and cytokine modulating effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases were evaluated in this study. Using the broth dilution method and disc agar diffusion test, in individual and combined decocted preparations, different concentrations of Ching–Wei–San and its individual herbal components, Coptidis rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix, Rehmanniae radixet rhizom, Moutan radicis cortex, and Cimicifuga foetida, were tested

Shyh-Jye Lin; Chung-Shih Chen; Shih-Shen Lin; Ming-Yung Chou; Hung-Che Shih; I-Pang Lee; Chia-Tze Kao; Chuan-Chen Ho; Fong-Lin Chen; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Kuang-Hui Hsieh; Chi-Ruei Huang; Chi-Chiang Yang



Chinese pipeline. 1; Automating hot-oil line first step in nationwide system  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that design and installation of a pipeline automation system in China by Novacorp International Consulting Inc., Calgary, illustrates the experience of a North American company in that country. Automation of Shengli Oil Pipeline Co.'s 153 mile, 28 in. hot oil pipeline from Dongying to Huangdao (Dong-Huang) in Shandong Province, China, consisted of a dual redundant configuration, hot scada (supervisory control and data acquisition) system and a programmable logic controller (PLC) based station control for three pumping stations, one terminal station, and one meter station. During the final year of the project the Chinese Pipeline Bureau (PLB) commissioned a central scada system for all the pipelines in the country. The system center is located at the PLB headquarters in Langfang, Hebei near Beijing. The first link was to the Dong-Huang pipeline's scada system. The PLB has pipeline design personnel and was ultimately responsible for the pipeline design.

Blair, J.T. (Novacorp International Consulting Inc., Calgary (CA))



Science Signaling Podcast: 14 May 2013  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Podcast features an interview with Chen Dong, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 14 May 2013 issue of Science Signaling. A group led by Dong found that the deubiquitinase USP25 modulates inflammatory signaling initiated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Activation of TLR4 by the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates two signaling pathways that promote the production of various cytokines that control inflammation. Zhong et al. report that USP25 affected signaling through one of these pathways to prevent excessive inflammation, which can damage tissues. Compared to wild-type controls, mice lacking USP25 exhibited an excessive inflammatory response and were more susceptible to septic shock following LPS treatment. Understanding the mechanisms that ensure balance in the inflammatory response is important for developing strategies to treat diseases that result from excessive inflammation.

Chen Dong (Houston;MD Anderson Cancer Center REV); Annalisa M. VanHook (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Science Signaling REV)



CaCu3Ti4O12: One-step internal barrier layer capacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much recent interest in a so-called ``giant-dielectric phenomenon'' displayed by an unusual cubic perovskite-type material, CaCu3Ti4O12; however, the origin of the high permittivity has been unclear [M. A. Subramanian, L. Dong, N. Duan, B. A. Reisner, and A. W. Sleight, J. Solid State Chem. 151, 323 (2000); C. C. Homes, T. Vogt, S. M. Shapiro, S. Wakimoto,

Derek C. Sinclair; Timothy B. Adams; Finlay D. Morrison; Anthony R. West



Effects of L-carnitine and Dietary Protein on Body Composition and Liver Lipid Content in Juvenile New GIFT Strain Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chen, G., Zhang, M., Zhang, J., Dong, H., Zhou, H., Tang, B., Huang, J., Shi, G., Jiang, L., Wu, Z. and Gu, B. 2010. Effects of L-carnitine and dietary protein on body composition and liver lipid content in juvenile new GIFT strain Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Appl. Anim. Res., 37: 141–144.To assess the effects of different levels of dietary

Gang Chen; Minghui Zhang; Jiandong Zhang; Hongbiao Dong; Hui Zhou; Baogui Tang; Jiansheng Huang; Gang Shi; Ling Jiang; Zaohe Wu; Binhe Gu



The Israeli initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea has begun testing a new 1,000-kilometer-range missile called the No Dong. The missile appears to be nearing production and North Korea appears to be close to selling it to Iran. This article describes Israel's intentions to prevent North Korea from exporting missiles through negotiations. Obstacles to an Israeli-North Korean agreement are discussed and are compared with the Israeli-Chinese




2006 Bibliography — CBIIT: Welcome to the NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology

Bakay M, Wang Z, Melcon G, Schiltz L, Xuan J, Zhao P, Sartorelli V, Seo J, Pegoraro E, Angelini C, Shneiderman B, Escolar D, Chen YW, Winokur ST, Pachman LM, Fan C, Mandler R, Nevo Y, Gordon E, Zhu Y, Dong Y, Wang Y, Hoffman EP. Nuclear envelope dystrophies show a transcriptional fingerprint suggesting disruption of Rb-MyoD pathways in muscle regeneration. Brain.


Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease.

S. P. Li; F. Q. Yang; Karl W. K. Tsim



Molecular dynamics in a mixture of 8OCB-d17 and 6OCB showing nematic and reentrant nematic phases: A deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deuteron NMR study of the molecular dynamics of 4-n-octyloxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8OCB) in the mixture of 72 wt % of 8OCB and 28 wt % of 4-n-hexyloxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl is presented. The mixture has the same composition as the one used before (Shen and Dong, 1998) except in the deuteration of the component molecule. The deuteron Zeeman and quadrupolar spin-lattice times and quadrupolar

Ronald Y. Dong; M. Cheng



Molecular dynamics in a mixture of 8OCB-d 17 and 6OCB showing nematic and reentrant nematic phases: A deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deuteron NMR study of the molecular dynamics of 4-n-octyloxy-48-cyanobiphenyl ~8OCB! in the mixture of 72 wt % of 8OCB and 28 wt % of 4-n-hexyloxy-48-cyanobiphenyl is presented. The mixture has the same composition as the one used before ~Shen and Dong, 1998! except in the deuteration of the component molecule. The deuteron Zeeman and quadrupolar spin-lattice times and quadrupolar

Ronald Y. Donga; M. Cheng



Identification of the Endonuclease Domain Encoded by R2 and Other Site-Specific, Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposable Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, R2, encodes a sequence-specific endonuclease responsible for its insertion at a unique site in the 28S rRNA genes of arthropods. Although most non-LTR retrotransposons encode an apurinic-like endonuclease upstream of a common reverse transcriptase domain, R2 and many other site-specific non-LTR elements do not (CRE1 and 2, SLACS, CZAR, Dong, R4). Sequence comparison of

Jin Yang; Harmit S. Malik; Thomas H. Eickbush



Control of disinfection by-product formation using ozone-based advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ozone dosage, water temperature and catalyst addition in an ozonation-fluidized bed reactor (O3\\/FBR) on treated water quality and on the control of chlorinated and ozonated disinfection by-products (DBPs) were investigated. A biofiltration column was used to evaluate its removal efficiency on biodegradable organic matter and to reduce DBP formation. The Dong-Gang River, polluted by agricultural and domestic

Kuan-Chung Chen; Yu-Hsiang Wang



Control of disinfection by-product formation using ozone-based advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ozone dosage, water temperature and catalyst addition in an ozonation-fluidized bed reactor (O3\\/FBR) on treated water quality and on the control of chlorinated and ozonated disinfection by-products (DBPs) were investigated. A biofiltration column was used to evaluate its removal efficiency on biodegradable organic matter and to reduce DBP formation. The Dong-Gang River, polluted by agricultural and domestic

Kuan-Chung Chen; Yu-Hsiang Wang



Chances for Sino-American accommodation after the founding of PRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. recognition of the People's Republic of China has become the most pressing issue in U.S. policy in the early 1950s. The Truman administration has been so inveterately anticommunist that it interpreted MAO Ze-dong's new China as a soviet advance in Asia and passed up China's overtures for negotiations. Strong Chinese anti-Americanism and attractions to Soviet Communism made chances of



Zinc finger protein 1 (ThZF1) from salt cress ( Thellungiella halophila ) is a Cys2\\/His2-type transcription factor involved in drought and salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play important roles in growth and development in both animals and plants. Recently, some Arabidopsis\\u000a genes encoding distinct ZFPs have been identified. However, the physiological role of their homologues with putative zinc\\u000a finger motif remains unclear. In the present study, a novel gene, ThZF1, was characterized from salt stressed cress (Thellungiella halophila, Shan Dong), encoding a

ShouMing Xu; XueChen Wang; Jia Chen



Tectonics, granitoids and mesozoic gold deposits in East Shandong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesozoic granitoids in East Shandong1East Shandong gold province is also called Jiaodong gold province, where “Jiao” refers to the Jiaozhou Peninsula, and “dong” stands for east.1 contain some 30 Moz gold, making East Shandong the largest granitoid-hosted gold province in the world. The gold province is located along the northern boundary of the suture zone between the North China and

Taihe Zhou; Guxian Lü



PAM1616, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? modulator with preserved anti-diabetic efficacy and reduced adverse effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? is known to be a key regulator of insulin resistance. PAM-1616 is a novel, non-thiazolidinedione small molecule compound synthesized in Dong-A Research Center. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological and safety profiles of PAM-1616 as a selective PPAR? modulator. PAM-1616 selectively binds to human PPAR? (IC50, 24.1±5.6nM) and is a partial agonist for human

Mi-Kyung Kim; Yu Na Chae; Song-hyen Choi; Ho Sang Moon; Moon-Ho Son; Myung-Ho Bae; Hyun-ho Choi; Youn Hur; Eunkyung Kim; Yoo Hoi Park; Chan Sun Park; Jae Gyu Kim; Joong In Lim; Chang Yell Shin



Wing-wing Flow Interaction of the AeroTrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Wing-wing Flow Interaction of the Aero-Train Authors: Dong-hee Yoon, Yasuaki Kohama and Takuma Kato Affiliations: Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan This paper presents a simple numerical method for controlling the wing-wing interaction of the flow for the Aero-Train, a new concept of the high-speed transport system. Aero-Train has a set of vertical wings

Dong-Hee Yoon; Yasuaki Kohama; Takuma Kato



Is there a Climate Network - A Backbone of the Climate System? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This technique is then applied to reanalysis and model surface air temperature data. Parameters of this network, as betweenness centrality, uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. We especially study the role of hubs and of long range connections, called teleconnections, in the flows of energy and matter in the climate system. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. References Arenas, A., A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Kurths, Y. Moreno, and C. Zhou, Phys. Reports 2008, 469, 93. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europ. Phys. J. ST 2009, 174, 157-179. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europhys. Lett. 2009, 87, 48007. Nawrath, J. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010, 104, 038701. Donner, R., Y. Zou, J. Donges, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 2010, 81, 015101(R ).

Kurths, J.



Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth by medical plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 18 plants and two fungi used in the Chinese and Mediterranean traditional medicines on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The extracts were tested against epimastigote of T. cruzi Bra C15C2 clone in vitro at 27 °C and at a concentration of 250 ?g\\/ml in axenic culture. Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A.

G. R Schinella; H. A Tournier; J. M Prieto; J. L R??os; H Buschiazzo; A Zaidenberg



Single oral dose pharmacokinetics of decursin, decursinol angelate, and decursinol in rats.  


Decursin and decursinol angelate are the major components in the alcoholic extract of the root of Angelica gigas Nakai. Our previous work convincingly demonstrated that both decursin and decursinol angelate were rapidly converted to decursinol in mice after administration by either oral gavage or i. p. injection. In the current study, we compared for the first time the plasma profiles of decursinol, when equal moles of decursin/decursinol angelate or decursinol were given to rats by oral gavage, and investigated the effect of different formulas and other chemicals in Angelica gigas extract on the bioavailability of decursinol. Our results show that gavage of decursinol led to a faster attainment of plasma decursinol peak (Tmax ~ 0.7 h) and much higher peak levels than an equal molar amount administered as decursin/decursinol angelate mixture or as Angelica gigas ethanol extract, resulting in 2-3 fold higher bioavailability as estimated by the area under the curve of the respective regimens (65 012 vs. 27 033 h · ng/mL for decursinol and decursin/decursinol angelate treatment groups, respectively). Compared to a formula based on ethanol-PEG400-Tween80, carboxyl methyl cellulose was a less optimized vehicle. In addition, we detected peak levels of decursin and decursinol angelate in the plasma of rats administered with decursin/decursinol angelate or Angelica gigas extract in the nM range (Tmax ~ 0.5 h) with a newly established sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method. Furthermore, our data support the liver, instead of intestine, as a major organ site where decursin and decursinol angelate were hydrolyzed to decursinol with a S9 microsomal in vitro metabolism assay. Taken together, our study provided important PK, LC-MS/MS methodology, formulation and metabolism insights in a rodent model for the rational design of in vivo efficacy studies of the corresponding chemicals in the future. PMID:23364885

Li, Li; Zhang, Jinhui; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lü, Junxuan



Brefeldin A: a specific inhibitor of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in oat coleoptile segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of brefeldin A (BFA) on the synthesis and incorporation of polysaccharides, proteins and glycoproteins into the cell wall of subapical coleoptile segments isolated from etiolated oat seedlings (Avena sativa L. cv. Angelica) has been investigated. In the presence of D-[U-14C]-glucose, the incorporation of radioactive glycosyl residues into buffer-soluble, membrane (matrix polysaccharides) and cell wall polysaccharides was drastically inhibited

Gabriella Piro; Anna Montefusco; Daniela Pacoda; Giuseppe Dalessandro



Effects of crude herbal ingredients on intrauterine infection in a rat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of crude ingredients that compose Juzen-taiho-to (Shi-quan-da-bu-tang) and Ryutan-shakan-to (Long-dan-xie-gan-tang) using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Juzen-taiho-to consists of 10 crude ingredients extracted from herbs: Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Cinnamomi Cortex, Rehmanniae Radix, Paeoniae Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma, Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma, Angelicae Radix, Ginseng Radix, and Hoelen. Ryutan-shakan-to consists of 9 crude ingredients extracted from

Hiroshige Mikamo; Kyoko Kawazoe; Koji Izumi; Yasumasa Sato; Teruhiko Tamaya



Distribution of Pila polita in a southern province of Thailand.  


This field study investigated the distribution of the freshwater snails of the family Ampullariidae in 18 provinces of Thailand. The introduced Pomacea canaliculata has wide distribution in the studied provinces. Pila angelica, P. ampullacea and P. pesmei still have limited distribution. Pila polita, which is absent in the south, now can be found in Phangnga, a southern province of Thailand. Moreover, P. polita is currently used as a traditional medicine of the local people for the treatment of a skin disease. PMID:19230583

Thaewnon-ngiw, B; Lauhachinda, N; Sri-Aroon, P; Lohachit, C



Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried roots of the plants Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis are used in traditional oriental medicine and reportedly possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we investigated the efficacy and mode of action of an extract from these three plants in crystal-induced inflammation. Air pouches were raised on the backs of 8-week-old BALB\\/c mice.

Sung Mun Jung; H Ralph Schumacher; Hocheol Kim; Miyeon Kim; Seoung Hoon Lee; Frank Pessler



Antioxidant properties of selected Oriental non-culinary\\/nutraceutical herb extracts as evaluated in raw and cooked meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extracts of white peony (WP), red peony (RP), sappanwood (SW), Moutan peony (MP), rehmania (RE) or angelica (AN) were individually added to ground goat meat at 0.5–2.0% (g dry extract\\/100 g final meat sample), and raw and cooked samples were aerobically refrigerated for 0, 3 or 6 days. These extracts and rosemary extract (RO) were also individually added to

J. Han; K. S. Rhee



Genetic diversity and molecular markers in introduced and Thai native apple snails (Pomacea and Pila).  


The genetic diversity and species-diagnostic markers in the introduced apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata and in the native Thai apple snails; Pila ampullacea, P. angelica, P. pesmei, and P. polita, were investigated by restriction analysis of COI and are reported for the first time. Twenty-one composite haplotypes showing non-overlapping distributions among species were found. Genetic heterogeneity analysis indicated significant differences between species (P < 0.0001) and within P. pesmei (P < 0.0001) and P. angelica (P < 0.0004). No such heterogeneity was observed in Pomacea canaliculata (P > 0.0036 as modified by the Bonferroni procedure), P. ampullacea (P = 0.0824-1.000) and P. polita (P = 1.0000). A neighbor-joining tree based on genetic distance between pairs of composite haplotypes differentiated all species and indicated that P. angelica and P. pesmei are closely related phylogenetically. In addition, the 16S rDNA of these species was cloned and sequenced. A species-specific PCR for P. canaliculata was successfully developed with a sensitivity of detection of approximately 50 pg of the target DNA template. The amplification of genomic DNA (50 pg and 25 ng) isolated from the fertilized eggs, and juveniles (1, 7, and 15 d after hatching) of Pomacea canaliculata was also successful, and suggested that Pomacea canaliculata and Pila species can be discriminated from the early stages of development. PMID:15469739

Thaewnon-ngiw, Bungorn; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Phanwichien, Kantimanee; Sangduen, Nitsri; Lauhachinda, Nitaya; Menasveta, Piamsak



Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.  


Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils. PMID:20411238

Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong



Literary reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diminutive epicThe Remains of the Day Kazuo Ishiguro London: Faber & Faber. 1989. 245pp. £10.99hbThe Floating World Cynthia Kadohata London: Secker & Warburg. 1989. 196pp. £11.95hbIn the shadow of warThe Shaman Sorceress Kim Dong?ni Translated from the Korean by Hyun Song Shin and Eugene Chung London\\/New York: Kegan Paul International. 1989. 156pp. £12.95hbThe Book of Masks Hwang Sun?won Edited

Fred Daguiar; Agnita Tennant; Aamer Hussein; David Dabydeen; Victor J Ramraj



Eight-flavor QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past year and one half, the group at Columbia has studied eight-flavor QCD with a dynamical quark mass ma = 0.015 on 163 × Nt and 324 lattices with Nt = 4, 6, 8, 16, and 32. On lattices with Nt >= 16 we have also computed hadron masses or correlation lengths for a variety of valence quark masses. In this paper we discuss three topics related to this work. This work was done in collaboration with Frank R. Brown, Hong Chen, Zhihua Dong, Robert D. Mawhinney, Wendy Schaffer, and Alessandro Vaccarino and was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Christ, Norman H.



Simulations of 2-flavor QCD on a 324 lattice at ? = 5.7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the large volume, hadron mass calculations in full QCD with 2-flavor staggered fermions currently being performed on the Columbia 256-node parallel supercomputer. The calculations are being done at ? = 5.7 with quark masses of ma = 0.01 and 0.025 on a 324 volume using the hybrid algorithm. This work was done in collaboration with Frank Brown, Frank Butler, Hong Chen, Norman Christ, Zhihua Dong, Robert Mawhinney, Leo Unger and Alessandro Vaccarino and partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Schaffer, Wendy


Estrogen and Stroke Risk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"New study shows that a long period of estrogen deprivation can lead to loss of sensitivity and protective effects in the brain and can weaken areas normally resistant to stroke damage." This press release describes the experimental design and findings from the published study "Estrogen Attenuates Ischemic Oxidative Damage via an Estrogen Receptor alpha-Mediated Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Activation" by Quang-Guang Zhang, Limor Raz, Ruimin Wang, Dong Han, Liesl De Sevilla, Fang Yang, Ratna K. Vadlamudi, and Darrell W. Brann in The Journal of Neuroscience, November 2009.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Communications, customs, organization slowed project  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that completion of a recently commissioned pipeline automation system in China overcame delays caused by serious difficulties in communications, organization, customs, and distance. The 153 mile, 28 in. hot-oil pipeline is located in the Shangdong Province, east of Beijing, China, and runs from Dongying, in the Shengli oil field, to the port of Huangdao on the Yellow Sea. The Shengli Oil Pipeline Co. (SOPC) now operates the fully automated Dong-Huang liquid pipeline with capability for central control in Weifang.

Blair, J.T. (Novacorp International Consulting Inc., Calgary (CA))



Decomposition of the vertex operator algebra V_{\\\\sqrt{2}A_3}  

Microsoft Academic Search

For vertex operator algebra V_{\\\\sqrt{2}A_l} associated to the even lattice \\\\sqrt{2}A_l which is \\\\sqrt{2} times root lattice of type A_l, it was shown by Dong-Li-Maosn-Norton that the Virasoro vector is a sum of l+1 mutually orthogonal conformal vectors with central charges c_i=1-6\\/(i+2)(i+3) for i=1,...,l and c_{l+1}=2l\\/(l+3) and the subalgebra T generated by these vectors is a tensor product of Virasoro

Chongying Dong; Ching Hung Lam; Hiromichi Yamada



STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY: Flipping Lipids: Is the Third Time the Charm?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Certain membrane-spanning proteins expel hydrophobic molecules such as lipids and drugs from cells, but just how they accomplish this has been unclear. As Davidson and Chen describe in their Perspective, two new studies (Dong et al., and Reyes et al.) explain how a transporter protein called MsbA expends energy and changes its organization to flip a molecule from one side of the membrane to the other.

Amy L. Davidson (Baylor College of Medicine;Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology); Jue Chen (Purdue University;Department of Biological Sciences)



Ab initio study of the intrinsic exchange bias at the SrRuO3/SrMnO3 interface  

SciTech Connect

In a recent publication [S. Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 127201 (2009)], two (related) mechanisms were proposed to understand the intrinsic exchange bias present in oxides heterostructures involving G-type antiferromagnetic perovskites. The first mechanism is driven by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which is a spin-orbit coupling effect. The second is induced by the ferroelectric polarization, and it is only active in heterostructures involving multiferroics. Using the SrRuO3/SrMnO3 superlattice as a model system, density- functional calculations are here performed to verify the two proposals. This proof-of-principle calculation provides convincing evidence that qualitatively supports both proposals.

Dong, Shuai [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing; Zhang, Qinfang [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing; Yunoki, Seiji [RIKEN, Japan; Liu, J.-M. [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL



DISCUSSÃO SOBRE INTOXICAÇÕES POR MEDICAMENTOS E AGROTÓXICOS NO BRASIL DE 1999 A 2002 Discussion about Medication and Pesticide Poisonings in Brazil from 1999 to 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Medicamentos e agrotóxicos são intensamente consumidos e os contextos produtivos e mercadológico nos quais estes estão inseridos aproximam os riscos à saúde e ao meio ambiente relacionados à sua utilização, dentre os quais estão as intoxicações, cujos principais agentes são os medicamentos e agrotóxicos. Objetivos. Discutir o padrão de intoxicações por medicamentos e agrotóxicos no Brasil, mostrando a aproximação

Reginaldo T. Mendonça; Jaqueline L. Marinho


Agrotóxicos e seus efeitos sócio-culturais: Zona Rural doValão de São Lourenço, Santa Teresa, ES, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Neste trabalho, foram investigados fatores sócio- culturais dos trabalhadores rurais da região do Valão de São Lourenço que provavelmente poderiam influenciar na incidência de doenças relacionadas ao uso inadequado de agrotóxicos. A amostra populacional foi de 10 famílias, nas quais 25 indivíduos foram entrevistados e aos quais foram aplicados questionários individuais. Entre os homens maiores de 25 anos, apenas

Lorena CC Fehlberg; Leonardo V Lutz; Adriana H Moreira


Screening of the wormicidal Chinese raw drugs on Clonorchis sinensis.  


The wormicidal effect on Clonorchis sinensis in boiled water extracts of 223 species (vegetable origin 206, animal origin 10, mineral origin 7) of raw drugs prescribed in Oriental medicine was observed in vitro. The wormicidal substances were detected from 31 of the above-mentioned species. The wormicidal substances extracted from Platycodon grandiflorum (radix), Schizandra chinensis (fruit), Polygala tenuifolia (herb) and Aster tataricus (radix) were most effective. Those from Smilax glabra (radix), Pueraria thunbergiana (flower, radix), Polygala tenuifolia (radix), Scutellaria baicalensis (radix), Prunus mume (fruit), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (radix), Angelica koreana (radix), Phytolacca esculenta (radix) and Cyrtomium fortunei (rhizoma) were effective. The rest of the raw drugs were less effective. PMID:6764091

Rhee, J K; Woo, K J; Baek, B K; Ahn, B J



An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones  

PubMed Central

Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades.

Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin



Magnetic Interactions in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent developmentootnotetextA. Dong, J. Chen, P. M. Vora, J. M. Kikkawa, and C. B. Murray, Nature 466, 474 (2010). of highly ordered three-dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanocrystals (NCs) poses new questions for the study of collective magnetic dipolar interactions. Prior literature has focused on changes in blocking temperature in infinite, random assemblies. Here, we study ordered assemblies with two different magnetic NCs and complex superlattice unit cells. Monte Carlo simulations are compared with data to clarify magnetic behaviors in AB13 superlattices consisting of two different-sized (14.3 nm and 7.2 nm) Fe3O4 NCs, which are superparamagnetic in isolation. This strategy illuminates the individual sublattice properties and their interaction. We show that under certain circumstances, the magnetic response of smaller magnetic NCs may be quenched by the random magnetic field of larger magnetic NCs,ootnotetextJ. Chen, A. Dong, J. Cai, X. Ye, Y. Kang, J. M. Kikkawa, and C. B. Murray, Nano. Lett. 10, 5103 (2010). and that trends in blocking temperature with interaction strength depend strongly on both unit cell geometry and boundary conditions.

Cai, Jing; Chen, Jun; Dong, Angang; Ye, Xingchen; Kang, Yijin; Murray, Christopher B.; Kikkawa, James M.



Magnetic and orbital order in (RMnO3)n/(AMnO3)2n superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic and orbital orders in (RMnO3)n/(AMnO3)2n (R: rare earths; A: alkaline earths, n=1 and 2) superlattices have been studied using both the double-exchange model and density functional theory calculations. For large bandwidth manganites, the A-type antiferromagnetic order is found to be robust when the superlattices are grown on a SrTiO3 substrate, as in recent experiments on (LaMnO3)n/(SrMnO3)2n. In addition, a C-type antiferromagnetic state is predicted for these superlattices when using substrates like LaAlO3 with smaller lattice constants. The physical mechanism for the stabilization of the A- and C- magnetic transitions is driven by the orbital splitting of the x2-y2 and 3z2-r2 orbitals, which is induced by the Q3 mode of Jahn-Teller distortions created by the strain induced by the substrates. If the superlattices were prepared employing narrow bandwidth manganites, several non-homogeneous magnetic profiles are predicted to exist, highlighting the importance of carrying out investigations in this mostly unexplored area of research. [1] S. Dong, Q.F. Zhang, S. Yunoki, J.-M. Liu, and E. Dagotto, Phys. Rev. B in press. (ArXiv: 1211.1943) [2] Q.F. Zhang, S. Dong, B.L. Wang, and S. Yunoki, Phys. Rev. B 86, 094403 (2012).

Dong, Shuai; Zhang, Qinfang; Dagotto, Elbio



Electromechanics: An analytic solution for graded biological cell.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanics of graded material has been established recently to study the effective response of inhomogeneous graded spherical particles under an external ac electric field.[1, 2]Such particles having a complex dielectric profile varies along the radius of the particles. The gradation in the colloidal particles is modeled by assuming both the dielectric and conductivity vary along the radius. More precisely, both the dielectric and conductivity function are assumed to be a isotopic linear function dependence on the radius variable r, namely, ?(r)=?(0)+A1r, ?(r)=?(0)+A2r.In this talk, we will present the exact analytical solutions of the dipole moment of such particle in terms of the hypergeometric functions, and the effective electric response in dilute limit. Moreover, we applied the dielectric dispersion spectral representation (DDSR) to study the Debye Behavior of the cell. Our exact results may be applied to graded biological cell suspensions, as their interior must be inhomogeneous in nature. [1] En-Bo Wei, L. Dong, K. W. Yu, Journal of Applied Physics 99, 054101(2006) [2] L. Dong, Mikko Karttunen, K. W. Yu, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 72, art. no. 016613 (2005)

Chan, Kin Lok; Yu, K. W.



Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Pearl River of Southern China.  


An intensive campaign was conducted in September 2012 to collect surface water samples along the tributaries of the Pearl River in southern China. Thirteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C11) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs, C4, C6-C8, and C10), were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). The concentrations of total PFAAs (?PFAAs) ranged from 3.0 to 52ngL(-1), with an average of 19±12ngL(-1). The highest concentrations of ?PFAAs were detected in the surface water of the Dong Jiang tributary (17-52ngL(-1)), followed by the main stream (13-26ngL(-1)) and the Sha Wan stream (3.0-4.5ngL(-1)). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 20%, 24%, and 19% of ?PFAAs, respectively. PFBS was the most abundant PFAA in the Dong Jiang tributary, and PFOA was the highest PFAA in the samples from the main stream of the Pearl River. A correlation was found between PFBS and PFOA, which suggests that both of these PFAAs originate from common source(s) in the region. Nevertheless, the slope of PFBS/PFOA was different in the different tributaries sampled, which indicates a spatial difference in the source profiles of the PFAAs. PMID:23973287

Zhang, Yingyi; Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Fobang; Chen, Hongwei; Zou, Shichun; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf



Coping with health care expenses among poor households: evidence from a rural commune in Vietnam.  


With the 1980s "Doi Moi" economic reforms, Vietnam transitioned from state-funded health care to a privatized user fee system. Out-of-pocket payments became a major source of funding for treatments received at both public and private health facilities. We studied coping strategies used by residents of Dai Dong, a rural commune of Hanoi, for paying health care costs, assessing the effects of such costs on economic and health stability. We developed a 2008 survey of 706 households (166 poor, 184 near-poor, 356 non-poor; 100% response rate). Outcome measures were reported episodes of illness; inpatient, outpatient, and self-treatments; out-of-pocket expenditures; and funding sources for health care costs. Households of all income levels borrowed to pay for inpatient treatments; loans are also more heavily used by the poor and near-poor than the non-poor for outpatient treatments. Compared to low cost treatments, the use of loans is intensified for extremely high cost health treatments for all poverty levels, but especially for the poor and near-poor. The likelihood of reducing food consumption to pay for extremely high cost treatment versus low cost treatments increased most for the poor in both inpatient and outpatient contexts. Decreased funding and increased costs in health care rendered Dai Dong's population vulnerable to the consequences of detrimental coping strategies such as debt and food reduction. Future reforms should focus on obviating these funding measures among at-risk populations. PMID:22305805

Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Ma, Shuangge; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah



Application research for 4D technology in flood forecasting and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to monitor the region which disaster flood happened frequently in China, satisfy the great need of province governments for high accuracy monitoring and evaluated data for disaster and improve the efficiency for repelling disaster, under the Ninth Five-year National Key Technologies Programme, the method was researched for flood forecasting and evaluation using satellite and aerial remoted sensed image and land monitor data. The effective and practicable flood forecasting and evaluation system was established and DongTing Lake was selected as the test site. Modern Digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and GIS technology was used in this system, the disastrous flood could be forecasted and loss can be evaluated base on '4D' (DEM -- Digital Elevation Model, DOQ -- Digital OrthophotoQuads, DRG -- Digital Raster Graph, DTI -- Digital Thematic Information) disaster background database. The technology of gathering and establishing method for '4D' disaster environment background database, application technology for flood forecasting and evaluation based on '4D' background data and experimental results for DongTing Lake test site were introduced in detail in this paper.

Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yutong; Cao, Hongjie



The Backbone of the Climate Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system, relying on the nonlinear mutual information of time series analysis and betweenness centrality of complex network theory. We show, that this approach reveals a rich internal structure in complex climate networks constructed from reanalysis and model surface air temperature data. Our novel method uncovers peculiar wave-like structures of high energy flow, that we relate to global surface ocean currents. This points to a major role of the oceanic surface circulation in coupling and stabilizing the global temperature field in the long term mean (140 years for the model run and 60 years for reanalysis data). We find that these results cannot be obtained using classical linear methods of multivariate data analysis. Furthermore, we introduce significance tests to quantify the robustness of measured network properties to uncertainties. References: [1] J.F. Donges, Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths. Complex networks in climate dynamics -- -- Comparing linear and nonlinear network construction methods. European Physical Journal -- Special Topics, 174, 157-179, 2009. [2] J.F. Donges, Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths. Backbone of the climate network. Europhysics Letters, in press, 2009.

Zou, Y.; Donges, J. F.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.



Inhibition of sulfide mineral oxidation by surface coating agents: batch and field studies.  


The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH(2)PO(4), MgO and KMnO(4) as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2) or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) production in the presence of KMnO(4) (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO(4)(2-) production was observed in presence of KH(2)PO(4) (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH(2)PO(4) decreased SO(4)(2-) production from 200 to 13 mg L(-1) and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L(-1), respectively to <0.05 mg L(-1) (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites. PMID:22727481

Ji, Min-Kyu; Gee, Eun-Do; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Young-Tae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung



Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


The influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation from Astragalus Root (Radix astragalin seu Hedysari) and Chinese Angelica Root (R. Angelicae Sinensis) at a ratio of 5:1 (w/w) on non-specific immunity of Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian was investigated. The number of NBT-positive cells in the blood and lysozyme and complement activities in the serum of Carp fed with commercial feed supplemented with 1.0% (diet 1) and 1.5% (diet 2) TCM at 10 day of post-feeding were not different from those of the control group fed with feed unsupplemented TCM 10 days post-feeding (P>0.05), but at 20 and 30 days they increased significantly (P<0.05). The values of diet 1 group and diet 2 group at 20 day and at 30 day were not significantly different (P>0.05) from each other. In addition, the TCM formula increased body weight of experimental fish by about 16.84% (diet 1) and 19% (diet 2) above that of the control group. Therefore, these data suggest that the TCM formula could elevate the function of non-specific immunity of Jian carp. The optimal dosage added to commercial carp feed was 1.0% (w/w) and the oral administration time as a course of treatment was 20 days. PMID:15123322

Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe



Influence of traditional Chinese anti-inflammatory medicinal plants on leukocyte and platelet functions.  


The enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and elastase are therapeutic targets in dermatological disorders such as psoriasis. Fifteen extracts from traditional Chinese medicinal plants used to treat topical inflammations were screened for their inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase and elastase activity in intact leukocytes and platelets. Astragalus membranaceus, Forsythia suspensa and Poria cocos inhibited 5-lipoxygenase, with IC50 values of 141, 80 and 141 microg mL(-1), respectively. The latter two species, along with Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescens, also inhibited elastase (IC50 values of 80, 123, 68 and 93 microg mL(-1), respectively), while A. pubescens, Atractylodes macrocephala, Lentinus edodes, Rehmannia glutinosa and Paeonia lactiflora selectively inhibited 12-(S)-HHTrE production, a valid marker of cyclooxygenase activity. The inhibition of phospholipase A(2) activity by P. cocos is discussed. Dehydrotumulosic and pachymic acids, which have been isolated from P. cocos, were shown to inhibit leukotriene B(4) release. The results indicate that both P. cocos and F. suspensa are potentially valuable species in the management of skin pathologies involving chronic inflammation. PMID:14604471

Prieto, J M; Recio, M C; Giner, R M; Máñez, S; Giner-Larza, E M; Ríos, J L



A New Herbal Formula, KSG-002, Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Targeting NF-?B-Dependent TNF? Production in Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor microenvironment regulate cancer progression and metastases. In breast cancer, macrophage infiltration is correlated with a poor prognosis. While metastatic breast cancer is poor prognostic with a severe mortality, therapeutic options are still limited. In this study, we demonstrate that KSG-002, a new herbal composition of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas, suppresses breast cancer via inhibiting TAM recruitment. KSG-002, an extract of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas at 3?:?1 ratio, respectively, inhibited MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in nude mice, while KSG-001, another composition (1?:?1 ratio, w/w), enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis, in vivo. KSG-002 further decreased the infiltrated macrophage numbers in xenograft tumor cohorts. In Raw264.7 cells, KSG-002 but not KSG-001 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and reduced TNF-alpha (TNF?) production by inhibiting NF-?B pathway. Furthermore, a combinatorial treatment of KSG-002 with TNF? inhibited a proliferation and migration of both MDA-MB-231 and Raw264.7 cells. Taken together, we conclude that KSG-002 suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through targeting NF-?B-mediated TNF? production in macrophages.

Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Park, Sunju; Ko, Seong-Gyu



Prescription pattern of chinese herbal products for breast cancer in taiwan: a population-based study.  


Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der



Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers.

Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der



A parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effect of SagaPro on nocturia in men  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SagaPro, a product derived from Angelica archangelica leaf, on nocturia. Material and methods. Sixty-nine male patients 45 years or older with at least two nocturnal voids were randomized to receive SagaPro or placebo in a double-blind design for 8 weeks. Voiding diaries were assessed before and after the treatment. Results. The results indicate that SagaPro is safe. The actual number of nocturnal voids (ANV), nocturnal polyuria index (NPi) and nocturnal bladder capacity index (NBC index) decreased in the test population, but there was no significant difference between the treatment groups. Subsequent subgroup analysis showed that SagaPro significantly reduced the NBC index and nocturnal voids per sleeping hour in comparison to the placebo in participants with baseline NBC index above 1.3. When participants with sleep disorders were excluded from this group, ANV was also significantly reduced for the SagaPro group in comparison to the placebo group. Conclusion. SagaPro, made from an extract of the medicinal herb Angelica archangelica, is safe. This study did not show that SagaPro improved nocturia overall compared to placebo. Subgroup analysis suggested a beneficial effect in individuals with decreased nocturnal bladder capacity, which warrants further study.

Geirsson, Gudmundur; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Egilsdottir, Perla B.; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur



Modulation of exogenous glutathione in antioxidant defense system against Cd stress in the two barley genotypes differing in Cd tolerance.  


Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the modulation of exogenous GSH (reduced glutathione) in antioxidant defense system against the Cd-induced toxicity in plants exposed to 5 muM Cd using two barley genotypes differing in Cd tolerance. Addition of 20 mg L(-1) GSH in 5 muM Cd culture medium significantly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition, especially for the sensitive genotype Dong 17 and dramatically depressed O(2)(-), H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. GSH mediated intracellular GSH content to keep the level over the control especially in the case of Cd-induced GSH reduction. External GSH counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, e.g. brought root dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities of the both genotypes down towards the control level, but elevated the depressed ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities in Dong 17 after 10-15 d treatment. The examination of APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes revealed GSH significantly increased MnSOD, sAPX and tAPX activities in the both genotypes, and strongly stimulated Cd-induced decrease in cAPX in the sensitive genotype. Furthermore, External GSH up-regulated root cAPX and leaf cAPX, CAT1, and CAT2 expression at transcript level in Dong 17 to achieve stimulation. These data, especially from the results of depressed O(2)(-), H(2)O(2) and MDA accumulation and elevated Cd-induced decrease in GSH content and APX (strongly stimulated cAPX, sAPX and tAPX) and CAT activities by GSH addition in the sensitive genotype, suggest that elevated intracellular GSH and stimulated APX (especially cAPX, sAPX and tAPX iosenzymes) and CAT activities, when concerning ROS scavenging systems, play an important role in GSH-induced alleviation of oxidative stress. PMID:20605723

Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Wu, Feibo; Mao, Weihua; Zhang, Guoping; Zhou, Meixue



Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.  


Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed. PMID:16504449

Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K



Distribution of charged nanograins in the Enceladus plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged nanometer sized grains in the Enceladus south-pole eruptive plume have been detected by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) during the two encounters E3 and E5 (Jones et al., 2009). A much weaker signal of negatively charged nanograins (but no positively charged ones) was also detected by CAPS during E7 (Hill et al., 2011 MOP conference). We will analyze the observations of the nanograins during these three encounters and compare the nanograin measurements with our previous analysis of the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements of the water vapor plumes (Dong et al., 2011). We will also study the motion and the charging mechanism of the nanograins, and analyze the corresponding results from the upcoming E14 encounter (Oct. 1, 2011).

Dong, Y.; Hill, T. W.



[Comments on the Confucian physician].  


Confucianism gradually permeated and influenced the development of TCM from the Song dynasty, and the term "Confucian physician" is still in use today. With the impact of Confucianism, whether in the compilation of the medical classics or the explanation and conclusion of the medical theories as well as in medical education and ethics, all developed dramatically. But the Confucianism had also a negative effect on the development of medicine. For example, SU Dong-po cured the epidemics with "Sheng san zi", but he exaggerated its action and recorded it. The later intellectuals learnt from him without differentiation and many people suffered. Another example is, with the influence of ideas of "serve the parents" and "help the public", adult children treated their parents by cutting their own thigh. Even some wealthy and intelligent people blindly applied the prescription without differentiation. PMID:19930954

Li, Jian-xiang



Recent results from the 256-node columbia machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two major calculations currently underway on the Columbia machine are a two flavor simulation using staggered fermions on a 324 lattice with quark masses of 0.025 and 0.01 and an eight flavor calculation on 163 × Nt lattices for Nt = 4, 8, 16 and 32 using a dynamical quark mass of 0.015 and a variety of valence quark masses. These eight flavor calculations suggest a quite complex phase structure for eight flavor QCD including a strong, first order bulk transition for ? = 4.59(2). Questions related to the zero quark mass limit of our earlier 163 × 32 hadron mass calculations are also discussed. The work described here was done in collaboration with Frank R. Brown, Frank Butler, Hong Chen, Zhihua Dong, Robert Mawhinney, Wendy Schaffer, Leo Unger and Alessandro Vaccarino and partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Christ, Norman H.


PACIAE 2.1: An updated issue of the parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have updated the parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE 2.0 (cf. Ben-Hao Sa, Dai-Mei Zhou, Yu-Liang Yan, Xiao-Mei Li, Sheng-Qin Feng, Bao-Guo Dong, Xu Cai, Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 333.) to the new issue of PACIAE 2.1. The PACIAE model is based on PYTHIA. In the PYTHIA model, once the hadron transverse momentum pT is randomly sampled in the string fragmentation, the px and py components are originally put on the circle with radius pT randomly. Now it is put on the circumference of ellipse with half major and minor axes of pT(1+?p) and pT(1-?p), respectively, in order to better investigate the final state transverse momentum anisotropy.

Sa, Ben-Hao; Zhou, Dai-Mei; Yan, Yu-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Cai, Xu



Optical preparation of H2 rovibrational levels with almost complete population transfer.  


Using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (SARP), it is possible, in principle, to transfer all the population in a rovibrational level of an isolated diatomic molecule to an excited rovibrational level. We use an overlapping sequence of pump (532 nm) and dump (683 nm) single-mode laser pulses of unequal fluence to prepare isolated H2 molecules in a molecular beam. In a first series of experiments we were able to transfer more than half the population to an excited rovibrational level [N. Mukherjee, W. R. Dong, J. A. Harrison, and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys. 138(5), 051101-1-051101-4 (2013)]. Since then, we have achieved almost complete transfer (97% ± 7%) of population from the H2 (v = 0, J = 0) ground rovibrational level to the H2 (v = 1, J = 0) excited rovibrational level. An explanation is presented of the SARP process and how these results are obtained. PMID:23968084

Dong, Wenrui; Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N



Response to ``Comment on `Heating of ions by low-frequency Alfvén waves in partially ionized plasmas''' [Phys. Plasmas 18, 084703 (2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of temperature in a plasma system that is not in thermal equilibrium remains a topic of debate. In our article [Dong and Paty, Phys. Plasmas 18, 030702 (2011)] we use the average kinetic energy to calculate the ``kinetic temperature'' in a non-equilibrium system to quantify the heating of ions by low-frequency Alfvén waves in a partially ionized plasma (i.e., where collisions with neutrals can not be ignored). We implement a method previously used by Wang, Wu and Yoon [Wang, Wu and Yoon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125001 (2006)] and several others studying the effects of low frequency Alfvén waves in collisionless plasmas. This method is appropriate for several reasons discussed in this response. Most notably, we implement it to investigate heating of the plasma population since the bulk velocity of the particle ensemble perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field remains zero during the numerical experiment.

Dong, Chuanfei; Paty, Carol S.



Danish projects reveal characteristics and limits of gas cavern storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Danish projects which have revealed the characteristics of underground gas storage caverns, their limits, and some uncertainties. The subsurface part of such a storage facility takes the longest time to develop and accounts for most of the uncertainty and risk involved in an underground storage project. These are some of the conclusions reached by Dansk Olie OG Naturgas AS (DONG) as a result of on going research into underground gas storage. The research also revealed that the productivity of an aquifer gas-storage cavern is uncertain until late in the project when large-scale withdrawal tests have been conducted. And the most important limitation on initial capacity is the risk of plugging as a result of hydrate formation caused by cooling of the gas in the cavern during high rates of withdrawal. Several factors limit aquifer storages, the most important being the maximum storage pressure and water production.

Magtengaard, J. (Dansk Olie OG Naturgas A/S, Horsholm (DK))



Advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps.  


Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese, is a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine. In 2006, we wrote a review for discussing the markers and analytical methods in quality control of Cordyceps (J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 41 (2006) 1571-1584). Since then this review has been cited by others for more than 60 times, which suggested that scientists have great interest in this special herbal material. Actually, the number of publications related to Cordyceps after 2006 is about 2-fold of that in two decades before 2006 according to the data from Web of Science. Therefore, it is necessary to review and discuss the advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps since then. PMID:23688494

Zhao, J; Xie, J; Wang, L Y; Li, S P



Global Performing Arts Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Performing Arts Database (GloPAD) is a trove of "detailed, multilingual descriptions of digital images, texts, video clips, sound recordings, and complex media objects related to the performing arts around the world." Currently, the site contains over 4,500 records and was made possible by funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services. New visitors may wish to peruse the About GloPAD area, though detailed search information can be found via the Using GloPAD section. The homepage contains some fine Suggested Searches, including Show Boat, The Government Inspector, and Bernard Shaw. The Production Records area is quite a find, as it contains detailed information for shows as diverse as the 1944 Broadway production of the "On the Town" and the 1996 water puppetry show from the Kim Dong Theatre in Hanoi. [KMG



Defects, bandtail states, and the localized to extended transition in amorphous diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic density of states of a large (4096 atoms) and realistic model of amorphous diamond(B.R. Djordjevic and M.F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. B, 52) 5685, (1995) . is studied. Because of the size of the system, we use two linear scaling electronic structure methods: the maximum entropy methodfootnote D.A. Drabold and O.F. Sankey , Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 3631, (1993), D.A. Drabold, P. Ordejón, J. Dong and R.M. Martin , Solid State Commun., 96 833 (1995). , and the shifted Lanczos methodfootnote G. Grosso , L. Martinelli and G. Pastori Parravicini , II Nuovo Cimento D 15 269 (1993) .. We compute the full electronic state density, and individual electronic eigenvectors in the gap and bandtail region. We elucidate the origin of the defect states in the bandgap region and study the evolution of the localization of electronic eigenvectors as we move from midgap energies through the bandtails into the valence or conduction bands.

Dong, Jianjun; Drabold, David



Control of T Helper Cell Differentiation--in Search of Master Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nai¨ve T helper (TH0) cells can differentiate into one of two distinct populations: TH1 and TH2. Each population is characterized by the expression of specific cytokines and their ability to participate in cell-mediated or humoral immune responses. Recent efforts at identifying the molecular mechanisms through which TH0 cells become TH1 or TH2 cells have been promising. A number of transcription factors, including GATA-3 and T-bet, have been identified that promote the differentiation of TH0 cells and the maintenance of the differentiated cell phenotype. Dong and Flavell review recent findings on proteins that control the fate of TH0 differentiation, whether by promotion or inhibition, and discuss the role of epigenesis in the differentiation process.

Chen Dong (Yale University School of Medicine;Section of Immunobiology REV); Richard A. Flavell (Yale University School of Medicine;Section of Immunobiology REV)



Comment on "Reactive force fields for surface chemical reactions: a case study with hydrogen dissociation on Pd surfaces" [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014704 (2010)].  


In a recent paper [Y. Xiao, W. Dong, and H. F. Busnengo, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014704 (2010)], two of us (Y.X. and W.D.) and H. F. Busnengo reported the parameterization of some reactive force fields (RFF) for describing the dissociative adsorption of H2 on Pd surfaces. They obtained a sufficiently accurate RFF by using the reactive bond order (REBO) formalism of Brenner and showed that the simpler RFF based on the second moment approximation (SMA) failed in giving reliable results. It was concluded that the failure is due to the oversimplified expressions of RFF based on SMA and hence the lack of necessary flexibility. The results of our more recent investigation show that this conclusion needs to be corrected. A more suitable choice of the parameterization conditions allows, in fact, for obtaining a reliable RFF from SMA also. PMID:22047270

Shen, X J; Dong, W; Xiao, Y; Yan, X H



Response to ''Comment on 'Heating of ions by low-frequency Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas''' [Phys. Plasmas 18, 084703 (2011)  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of temperature in a plasma system that is not in thermal equilibrium remains a topic of debate. In our article [Dong and Paty, Phys. Plasmas 18, 030702 (2011)] we use the average kinetic energy to calculate the ''kinetic temperature'' in a non-equilibrium system to quantify the heating of ions by low-frequency Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma (i.e., where collisions with neutrals can not be ignored). We implement a method previously used by Wang, Wu and Yoon [Wang, Wu and Yoon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125001 (2006)] and several others studying the effects of low frequency Alfven waves in collisionless plasmas. This method is appropriate for several reasons discussed in this response. Most notably, we implement it to investigate heating of the plasma population since the bulk velocity of the particle ensemble perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field remains zero during the numerical experiment.

Dong Chuanfei [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Paty, Carol S. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)



Nova Scorpii 2012 = MOA 2012 BLG-320  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nova Scorpii 2012 = MOA 2012 BLG-320 discovered by: R. M. Wagner (Ohio State University (OSU) and Large Binocular Telescope Observatory), S. Dong (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton), T. Bensby (Lund Observatory), J. Prieto (Princeton University), I. Bond (Massey University), P. Tristram (Mt. John University Observatory), D. Bennett (University of Notre Dame), K. Wada and T. Sumi (Osaka University), and the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) collaboration; A. Gould (OSU), and the Microlensing Follow-Up Network (microFUN) collaboration; and S. Starrfield (Arizona State University) Discovery Magnitude: magnitude I = 18.5 Discovery date: 2012 May 22.80 UT Coordinates: RA 17 50 53.90, Dec -32 37 20.5 (2000.0) Spectra: A high-resolution optical spectrum obtained June 4.08 UT with the Very Large Telescope (+ UVES) indicates the object is most likely a slow Fe II-type nova. Report observations to the AAVSO International Database.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.



Optical preparation of H2 rovibrational levels with almost complete population transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (SARP), it is possible, in principle, to transfer all the population in a rovibrational level of an isolated diatomic molecule to an excited rovibrational level. We use an overlapping sequence of pump (532 nm) and dump (683 nm) single-mode laser pulses of unequal fluence to prepare isolated H2 molecules in a molecular beam. In a first series of experiments we were able to transfer more than half the population to an excited rovibrational level [N. Mukherjee, W. R. Dong, J. A. Harrison, and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys. 138(5), 051101-1-051101-4 (2013)]. Since then, we have achieved almost complete transfer (97% +/- 7%) of population from the H2 (v = 0, J = 0) ground rovibrational level to the H2 (v = 1, J = 0) excited rovibrational level. An explanation is presented of the SARP process and how these results are obtained.

Dong, Wenrui; Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N.



Study of Multiferroic Manganites using Double-Exchange Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double exchange (DE) model, supplemented by lattice distortions and superexchange between the t2g spins, has been very successful in describing the physics of manganites, such as La1-xCaxMnO3, including the presence of colossal magnetoresistance in Monte Carlo simulations [1]. In this presentation, we describe the first steps toward the application of the theoretical framework previously used for CMR manganites now to the study of multiferroic manganites. An encouraging result was recently obtained when S. Dong et al. [2] showed that the addition to the DE model of a next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic t2g coupling J2 was found to produce a phase diagram that correctly predicts a transition from an A-type AF to a spiral phase and finally to an E-type AF state with increasing J2, as in experiments. This result paves the way for a variety of investigations and theoretical predictions now varying both the hole doping x and J2. Other issues in the area of multiferroics will also be addressed in this presentation, including the prediction of ferroelectricity in the spin zigzag E-type AF state [3]. 0.2cm [1] C. Sen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 127202 (2007); R. Yu et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 214434 (2008); and references therein. 0.1cm [2] S. Dong, R. Yu, S. Yunoki, J.-M. Liu, and E. Dagotto, Phys. Rev. B 78, 155121 (2008). 0.1cm [3] I. A. Sergienko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 227204 (2006); S. Picozzi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 227201 (2007).

Dagotto, Elbio



Community-based IEC campaign. TFR has dropped to 2.15 in Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City.  


Binh Thanh District of Ho Chin Minh City in 1989 had a crude birth rate (CBR) of 20.3 per 1000 population and an average of 5.5 persons per household. The rate of total fertility (TFR) in the district was one of the highest among the city's 18 districts in 1990. Concerned about these demographics, the Binh Thanh District Committee for Population and Family Planning reviewed the family planning program with the goal of developing a special information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign. The following incentive scheme for sterilization was developed: each poor entrepreneur in need of seed money for new business ventures who allows himself to be sterilized receives dong 120,000 (US$11) from the National Committee for Population and Family Planning and dong 220,000 from the District Committee for Population and Family Planning to buy medicine and supplementary food. An IEC room was established in each commune health center to disseminate the relevant information. The results of the campaign have been positive, with 910 people requesting sterilization in 1994, 34% of whom were male. Over the period January-April 1995, the proportion of male sterilization increased dramatically, such that men accounted for 68% of the 153 people who underwent sterilization. The district now ranks the lowest among the 18 districts with regard to the percentage of couples with three children, the CBR is 15.3/1000, TFR is 2.15, the contraceptive prevalence rate is 68%, and sterilization is the fourth most popular method of contraception (13%) behind the IUD (37%), condom (30%), and oral pill (18.5%). PMID:12320321

Nguyen Ngoc Lich



[Estimation of the effect derived from Tianjin suburban wind erosion open source on central district].  


In some Chinese cities air pollution is serious, and the major pollutant is still PM10. The source apportionment results show: wind erosion dust is an important source of particulate matter. So the contribution of this source should be calculated. The suburban land of Tianjin was classified based on Landsat TM satellite image, and samples of different land use types were taken. The soil textures were determined with the analysis of soil samples by the laser particle analyzer and GIS-based interpolation computation. The wind erosion modulus, wind erosion fluxes, dust release modulus and dust release fluxes were calculated in four seasons in suburban of Tianjin (Beichen, Xiqing, Jinnan and Dongli). The wind erosion fluxes in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 21236.31, 4435.21, 7272.13 and 17204.4 t in 2009; the wind erosion fluxes in Beichen, Xiqing, Jinnan and Dongli were 6380.23, 32 881.13, 8 340.67 and 2 546.02 t in 2009; the wind erosion fluxes from cultivated land and forest grassland were 49 599.2 and 548.85 t, respectively. The soil dust release fluxes in Tianjin suburban were 9 352.92 t (particle size < 10 microm), 20 587.99 t (particle size 10-15 microm)and 13 873.74 t (particle size 15-20 microm). In 2009, there were 20 592.91 t soil dusts with particulate diameter of 20 microm or less that were transmitted from suburban to central district, and 4 395.89 t with particulate diameter of 10 microm or less, about 21.35%. PMID:22165250

Chen, Li; Ji, Ya-Qin; Liu, Ai-Xia; Bai, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Bin; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Wu, Li-Ping



The oldest flora of the South China Block, and the stratigraphic bearings of the plant remains from the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several outcrops of the Late Silurian and Devonian of the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam, yielded plant remains. The Late Silurian localities delivered the earliest known flora of the South China block. Although the fossils are fragmentary, they complement our knowledge about the global composition of the flora. The major components of the flora are plants with dichotomous habit and terminal bivalvate sporangia, which are close relatives to zosterophylls, and zosterophylls. Plants with possible euphyllophyte affinities and bryophytes are occasionally present. This floral composition is similar to that of the rich, younger South China block assemblages from the Posongchong and Xujiachong Formations of China, considered Pragian in age. The South China block flora is therefore likely to have been dominated by zosterophylls and pre-zosterophylls at least from the Late Silurian to the Pragian (i.e. a 20 million years long period). It also strengthens the hypothesis that more derived plants were present on eastern Gondwana earlier that elsewhere, in the first steps of tracheophyte evolution. The Devonian localities of the Ngoc Vung Series delivered a thick fibrous stem fragment and a basal euphyllophyte. These latter plant remains provide some stratigraphic data. The large stem fragment is consistent with an Eifelian age for the Duong Dong Formation (part of the Ngoc Vung Series), as suggested by the brachiopod fauna. The accompanying basal euphyllophyte displays a combination of characters (axes 3-4 mm wide and lateral branchings) that is also consistent with an Eifelian age, but possibly more characteristic of the Emsian flora. It is therefore suggested that the stratigraphic range of the Duong Dong Formation might be extended down to the Emsian.

Gonez, Paul; Nguyên Huu, Hung; Ta Hoa, Phuong; Clément, Gaël; Janvier, Philippe



Preliminary studies on methane flux from the ornithogenic soils on Xi-sha atoll, South China Sea.  


Methane flux from the ornithogenic soils was preliminarily measured by closed chamber method on Xi-sha atoll, South China Sea during March 10 to April 11, 2003 for the first time. The CH4 flux ranged from -4226.7 microg/(m2 x h) to 226.3 microg/(m2 x h) at the observation sites on Dong Island. High atmospheric CH4 consumption was observed from the ornithogenic soils on sunny days. CH4 uptake rates showed the highest value after the midday and they had a strong positive correlation with soil temperatures. Under the same weather conditions, the CH4 fluxes were also observed from the intact and disturbed soils on Yongxing Island. Results showed that the intact soils with natural vegetation also showed high atmospheric CH4 consumption and the average flux was -141.8 microg/(m2 x h). However, disturbed soils via anthropogenic reclamation showed CH4 emissions and the average flux was 441.7 microg/(m2 x h). Therefore land use changes may have an important effect on the CH4 fluxes from the tropical ornithogenic soils. In addition, different observation sites show a high spatial variation in CH4 fluxes. The wetland in salt marsh showed the CH4 emission on Dong Island, and the dry soil sites all showed high atmospheric CH4 consumption, suggesting that CH4 fluxes were predominantly controlled by soil water regime. The effects of soil chemical properties on CH4 fluxes were also analyzed and discussed in this paper. PMID:16313004

Zhu, Ren-bin; Sun, Li-guang; Zhao, San-ping; Xie, Zhou-qing; Liu, Xiao-dong; Yin, Xue-bin



Structure of the Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein Revealed by X-ray Crystallography, Small-angle X-ray Scattering, and Electron Microscopy*  

PubMed Central

The nucleoprotein (NP) of Lassa virus (LASV) strain AV was expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system. The crystal structure of full-length NP was solved at a resolution of 2.45 ?. The overall fold corresponds to that of NP of LASV strain Josiah (Qi, X., Lan, S., Wang, W., Schelde, L. M., Dong, H., Wallat, G. D., Ly, H., Liang, Y., and Dong, C. (2010) Nature 468, 779–783) with a root mean square deviation of 0.67 ? for all atoms (6.3% difference in primary sequence). As the packing in the crystal offers two different trimer architectures for the biological assembly, the quaternary structure of NP in solution was determined by small-angle x-ray scattering and EM. After classification and averaging of >6000 EM raw images, trimeric centrosymmetric structures were obtained, which correspond in size and shape to one trimer in the crystal structure formed around a crystallographic 3-fold rotation axis (symmetric trimer). The symmetric trimer is also a good model for the small-angle x-ray scattering data and could be well embedded into the ab initio model. The N-terminal domain of NP contains a deep nucleotide-binding cavity that has been proposed to bind cellular cap structures for priming viral mRNA synthesis. All residues implicated in m7GpppN binding were exchanged, and the transcription/replication phenotype of the NP mutant was tested using a LASV replicon system. None of the mutants showed a specific defect in mRNA expression; most were globally defective in RNA synthesis. In conclusion, we describe the full-length crystal structure and the quaternary structure in solution of LASV NP. The nucleotide-binding pocket of NP could not be assigned a specific role in viral mRNA synthesis.

Brunotte, Linda; Kerber, Romy; Shang, Weifeng; Hauer, Florian; Hass, Meike; Gabriel, Martin; Lelke, Michaela; Busch, Carola; Stark, Holger; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Betzel, Christian; Perbandt, Markus; Gunther, Stephan



Effect of pH and soybean cultivars on the quantitative analyses of soybean rhizobia populations.  


Quantitative analyses of fast- and slow-growing soybean rhizobia populations in soils of four different provinces of China (Hubei, Shan Dong, Henan, and Xinjiang) have been carried out using the most probable number technique (MPN). All soils contained fast- (FSR) and slow-growing (SSR) soybean rhizobia. Asiatic and American soybean cultivars grown at acid, neutral and alkaline pH were used as trapping hosts for FSR and SSR strains. The estimated total indigenous soybean-rhizobia populations of the Xinjiang and Shan Dong soil samples greatly varied with the different soybean cultivars used. The soybean cultivar and the pH at which plants were grown also showed clear effects on the FSR/SSR rations isolated from nodules. Results of competition experiments between FSR and SSR strains supported the importance of the soybean cultivar and the pH on the outcome of competition for nodulation between FSR and SSR strains. In general, nodule occupancy by FSRs significantly increased at alkaline pH. Bacterial isolates from soybean cultivar Jing Dou 19 inoculated with Xinjiang soil nodulate cultivars Heinong 33 and Williams very poorly. Plasmid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles and PCR-RAPD analyses showed that cultivar Jing Dou 19 had trapped a diversity of FSR strains. Most of the isolates from soybean cultivar Heinong 33 inoculated with Xinjiang soil were able to nodulate Heinong 33 and Williams showed very similar, or identical, plasmid, LPS and PCR-RAPD profiles. All the strains isolated from Xinjiang province, regardless of the soybean cultivar used for trapping, showed similar nodulation factor (LCO) profiles as judged by thin layer chromatographic analyses. These results indicate that the existence of soybean rhizobia sub-populations showing marked cultivar specificity, can affect the estimation of total soybean rhizobia populations indigenous to the soil, and can also affect the diversity of soybean rhizobial strains isolated from soybean nodules. PMID:11566395

Yang, S S; Bellogín, R A; Buendía, A; Camacho, M; Chen, M; Cubo, T; Daza, A; Díaz, C L; Espuny, M R; Gutiérrez, R; Harteveld, M; Li, X H; Lyra, M C; Madinabeitia, N; Medina, C; Miao, L; Ollero, F J; Olsthoorn, M M; Rodríguez, D N; Santamaría, C; Schlaman, H R; Spaink, H P; Temprano, F; Thomas-Oates, J E; Van Brussel, A A; Vinardell, J M; Xie, F; Yang, J; Zhang, H Y; Zhen, J; Zhou, J; Ruiz-Sainz, J E



Mantle dynamics with the post-perovskite phase change: Numerical simulations with the latest constraints from mineral physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of numerical simulations of mantle convection with the perovskite-postperovskite phase change. Using the extended Boussinesq approximation for a fluid with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity, we perform an extensive sensitivity study of characteristic post-perovskite parameters and investigate their effects on the convective planform, heat transport, temperature and viscosity profiles. Since post-perovskite is expected to have both a large electrical (Ohta et al., 2008) and thermal (Hofmeister, 2007, Dong and Li, 2009) conductivity, we assume that the transition from perovskite to this phase is accompanied by both a reduction in viscosity by 1 to 2 orders in magnitude and by an increase in thermal conductivity by a factor of 2. Furthermore, we investigate the combined effects of decreasing pressure-dependent thermal expansivity, by considering the most recent finding by T. Katsura and colleagues (2009), and steeply increasing thermal conductivity (Hofmeister, 2009, Dong and Li, 2009). In general, the presence of post-perovskite destabilizes the D" region, focussing the heat-flux peaks and increasing the average mantle temperature and the temporal and spatial frequency of upwellings. In particular, using depth dependent thermal expansivity, the latest thermal conductivity models and no post-perovskite results in a very sluggish convective regime in the lower mantle with few and large sized up- and downwellings. Taking into account post-perovskite helps to reduce the viscosity of the lower mantle and to create a more realistic dynamical slab regime and stable narrow plumes rising from the bottom thermal boundary layer.

Tosi, N.; Yuen, D. A.; Cadek, O.



Two novel Talaromyces species isolated from medicinal crops in Korea.  


Two novel biverticillate Talaromyces species, T. angelicus and T. cnidii, were collected from the medicinal crops Angelica gigas and Cnidium officinale, respectively, in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the ?-tubulin gene as well as morphological analyses revealed that the two species differ from any known Talaromyces species. Talaromyces angelicus is related to T. flavovirens in the phylogeny of the ITS region, but the new species is grouped together with Penicillium liani and T. pinophilus in terms of its ?-tubulin phylogeny, and its growth rate on Czapek yeast autolysate differs from that of T. flavovirens. Talaromyces cnidii is phylogenetically similar to T. siamensis, but exhibits differences in the morphologies of the colony margin, metulae, and conidia. PMID:24173649

Sang, Hyunkyu; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang Sun; Shin, Gyu-Sub; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yu, Seung Hun



Discrimination of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines using saccharide mapping--enzymatic digestion followed by chromatographic analysis.  


Polysaccharides isolated from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. However, quality control of polysaccharides is a challenge because of their complicate structure and macro-molecular mass. In this study, saccharide mapping based on specific enzymatic digestion of polysaccharides and chromatographic analysis was proposed to discriminate the polysaccharides from different TCMs. Endo-carbohydrase such as glucanase, arabinanase, xylanase, galactanase, cellulase, amylase and pectinase were used for enzymatic digestion of polysaccharides from 9 TCMs namely Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng, P. quinquefolium, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, Ganoderma lucidum, G. sinense, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis. By using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) as well as derivatization with 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) and HPLC analysis, the enzymatic hydrolysis properties of polysaccharides and their saccharide mapping were determined. The polysaccharides from 9 TCMs were firstly successfully distinguished based on their characteristic saccharide maps, which is helpful to improve the quality control of polysaccharides. PMID:19850432

Guan, J; Li, S P



[Regulative mechanisms of tubular epithelial to mesenchymal transition and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].  


Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a key role leading to the progressive tubulo-interstitial fibrosis (TIF). The tubular EMT is an highly regulated process involving four key steps including: loss of epithelial cell adhesion, de novo smooth muscle actin expression and actin reorganization, disruption of tubular basement membrane,and enhanced cell migration and invasion. These crucial processes are closely connected to the relative actions on many signaling pathways in EMT. Additionally, increasing evidences suggest that some Chinese herbal medicines and their extracts, such as Astragali Radix, Cordyceps, Salvia miltiorrhiza, as well as Chinese. herbal prescriptions including Astragalus Angelica mixture and Supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation decoction, could intervene the related events controlling EMT both in vitro and in vivo. Chinese herbal medicines could ameliorate TIF by intervening the course of EMT. PMID:23724667

Yin, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Wei; Wan, Yi-Gang; Tu, Yue; Liu, Hong; Yu, Bing-Yin



Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.  


This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID:17486680

Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho



Surveys of new and rare microfungi in the Düsseltal (North Rhine-Westphalia)--Germany.  


In the years 2003 and 2004 we have observed an about 70 hectare large area in the Düsseltal, the eastern part of the Neandertal in North Rhine-Westphalia. There we collected on trees, bushes and herbs and found about 150 microfungi of which some are new for Germany or the entire world. E.g.: Pseudocercospora populigena N. ALE-AGHA, U. BRAUN & G.B. FEIGE on Populus berolinensis; Vialaea insculpta (FR.) SACC. on Ilex aquifolium L.; Passalora amelopsidis (PECK.) U. BRAUN on Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) PLANCH.: Pleiochaeta setosa (KIRCHN.) HUGHES on Genista angelica L.; Cercospora mercurialis PASS. on Mercurialis perennis L. (new for NRW); Pleurocytospora vestita PETRAK on Ribes aureum PURSH.; Gonatobotrys simplex CORDA on Lolium perenne L.; Phomatospora berckleyi SACC. on Dactylis glomerata L. and so on. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:16637187

Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kricke, R



The Effect of Z-Ligustilide on the Mobility of Human Glioblastoma T98G Cells  

PubMed Central

Z-ligustilide (LIG), an essential oil extract from Radix Angelica sinensis, has broad pharmaceutical applications in treating cardio-vascular diseases and ischemic brain injury. Recently, LIG has been connected to Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) because of its structural similarity to 3-n-alkyphthalide (NBP), which is specifically cytotoxic to GBM cells. Hence, we investigated LIG’s effect on GBM T98G cells. The study shows that LIG can significantly reduce T98G cells’ migration in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the attenuation of cellular mobility can be linked to the activity of the Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42), the three critical molecular switches governing cytoskeleton remodeling; thus, regulating cell migration. LIG significantly reduces the expression of RhoA and affects in a milder manner the expression of Cdc42 and Rac1.

Yin, Jun; Wang, Chengyuan; Mody, Aaron; Bao, Lin; Hung, Shen-Hsiu; Svoronos, Spyros A.; Tseng, Yiider



Target profiling of 4-hydroxyderricin in S. aureus reveals seryl-tRNA synthetase binding and inhibition by covalent modification.  


4-Hydroxyderricin is a heat labile bioactive chalcone isolated from the plant Angelica keiskei. It received attention due to its antibiotic potency against several strains of bacteria including pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Despite these promising pharmacological properties, the exact mode of action or the biological targets are still unknown. Here we report the synthesis and the application of a 4-hydroxyderricin probe for activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) in S. aureus. Due to the heat sensitivity of the natural product we utilize a chemical tool for the mild and selective enrichment of labile probe-protein conjugates and report seryl-tRNA synthetase (STS) to be covalently modified by our probe. This modification results in inhibition of the amino acylation of tRNAs catalyzed by S. aureus STS which is an essential enzymatic pathway for bacterial viability. PMID:23295910

Battenberg, Oliver A; Yang, Yinliang; Verhelst, Steven H L; Sieber, Stephan A



Pharmaceutical prerequisites for a multi-target therapy.  


The quality of a phytomedicine is defined by the quality of the herbal drug, the manufacturing of the drug preparations and the properties of the finished product, taking into account the special requirements of the individual herbal species in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards [2003. Medicinal Products for Human and Veterinary Use. Eudralex, vol. 4 (2003/94/EC)]. The quality control of the complete process is based on pharmacognostic methods, characteristic fingerprint chromatograms, defined amounts of marker substances, physicochemical characteristics and microbiological monitoring. For a herbal multi-component preparation used in multi-target therapy, these pharmaceutical prerequisites have to be ensured for all components and for their combination, as is exemplified by Iberogast((R)) (STW 5) a fixed combination of hydroethanolic extracts of bitter candytuft (Iberis amara), angelica root (Angelicae radix), milk thistle fruit (Silybi mariani fructus), celandine herb (Chelidonii herba), caraway fruit (Carvi fructus), liquorice root (Liquiritiae radix), peppermint herb (Menthae piperitae folium), balm leaf (Melissae folium) and chamomile flower (Matricariae flos) using in the therapy of gastrointestinal complaints (Rösch et al., 2006). The prerequisites for the quality of each of its components according to actual standards are at first the cultivation of the plant material according to the Guidelines for Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) conditions of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants [1998. Z. Arzn. Gew. Pfl. 3, 166-178] to yield a defined raw material of high quality. Characteristic compounds of the extracts had to be identified and different analytical methods such as HPLC, with low coefficients of variation had to be developed to analyze each of the standardized ethanolic extracts and the finished product. At the example of the extract of I. amara these necessary investigations are described. The variability of the plant material in its natural habitats, the identification of characteristic compounds and exemplary chromatograms for fingerprint evaluation and quantification are shown. These data are required for characterization of the profile of the active substances in the finished product. PMID:16857355

Kroll, U; Cordes, C



Development, optimization, and use of an APCI source with temperature-controlled vaporization of solid and liquid samples.  


A trend is observed in mass spectrometry, in which solid samples without prior dissolution and chromatographic separation are brought directly into the ion source and are ionized, e.g., by corona discharge (Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe) or plasma (Direct Analysis in Real Time). The Direct Inlet Probe-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source presented here, which was coupled to a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometer, differs from most of the other ion sources in having temperature-programmed heating of the sample. The resulting possibility to reduce ion suppression and ion-molecule reactions in the ion source was shown by the separation of two fatty acid methyl esters as a result of their boiling point difference. Using caffeine as sample, certain source parameters such as the auxiliary gas flow, the drying gas flow, and the position of the probe tip in the ion source were optimized. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was shown by the linear concentration response (R(2) = 0.9984) observed when analyzing different caffeine concentrations. An extract of a Chinese medicinal herb was used to examine the reproducibility (relative standard deviations of the most abundant m/z signals were ?8.1 %). It was also possible to distinguish milled samples of Radix Angelicae sinensis and Radix Angelicae gigas from each other and to identify the coumarins they contain without sample preparation. Supplying synthetic air instead of nitrogen to the ion source makes APCI in the negative mode possible as well; this was proven by the analysis of n-nonyl-?-D-maltoside. PMID:23180078

Krieger, Sonja; von Trotha, Alexandra; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Schmitz, Oliver J



Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1 to below the detection limits, respectively. The experimental results suggested that the amendment of surface coating agents can be a promising alternative for inhibition of sulfide oxidation at AMD sites.

Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.



Petrology of metabasic and peridotitic rocks of the Songshugou ophiolite, Qinling orogen, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proterozoic Songshugou ophiolite outcrops as a rootless nappe which was emplaced into the southern margin of the Qinling Group. It consists mainly of amphibolite facies metamafic and -ultramafic rocks. Trace element geochemistry and isotope composition show that the mafic rocks are mainly E-MORB and T-MORB metabasalts (Dong et al., 2008b). Within the ophiolite sequence, ultramafic rocks consist mainly of peridotites and serpentinites. Particularly, extremely fresh dunites and harzburgites, are found which do not display a conspicuous metamorphic overprint. The low CaO (<0.39 wt.%) and Al2O3 (<0.51 wt.%) as well as high MgO (41-48 wt.%) contents classify them as depleted non-fertile mantle rocks. Chromite is found as disseminated phase but can sometimes form massive chromite bands. The platinumgroup mineral Laurite (RuS2) could be identified as inclusion in chromites. Usually part of Ru is substituted by Os and Ir. The metamafic rocks consist of garnet, amphibole, symplectitic pyroxenes, ilmenite, apatite, ±zoisite, ±sphene and show a strong metamorphic overprint. Garnet contains numerous inclusions in the core but are nearly inclusion free at the rim. The cores have sometimes snowball textures indicating initially syndeformative growth. Pure albite and prehnite were found in the central parts of the garnets. In the outer portions, pargasitic amphibole, rutile and rarely glaukophane were found. The symplectitic pyroxenes are of diopsidic composition which enclose prehnite and not albite, as common in retrograde eclogitic rocks. Different stages of garnet breakdown to plagioclase and amphibole, from thin plagioclase rims surrounding the garnets to plagioclase rich pseudomorphs, can be observed in different samples. Based on the glaukophane inclusions and symplectitic pyroxenes a high pressure metamorphic event can be concluded. The garnet breakdown to plagioclase and the symplectites clearly indicate a rapid exhumation phase. The age of the metamorphic event is unclear but probably related to the closure of the Shangdan ocean during the early Paleozoic. The financial support by Eurasia-Pacific Uninet is gratefully acknowledged. Dong, Y.P., Zhou, M.F., Zhang, G.W., Zhou, D.W., Liu, L., Zhang, Q., 2008. The Grenvillian Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling Mountains, Central China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. Journal of Asian Earth Science 32 (5-6), 325-335.

Belic, Maximilian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Dong, Yunpeng



Study on Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (CMB) in Pearl River Delta region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profiles of major Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sources including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, painting, asphalt, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biomass burning and petrochemical industry in Pearl River Delta were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken by using dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, laboratory simulation for biomass burning. The concentrations of 108 VOC species of sources were quantified by using canister with pre-concentration-GC/MS system, from which 52 PAMS hydrocarbons and one kind of chlorinated hydrocarbon were deployed to build the source profiles for source apportionment of VOCs. Based the measurement of source profiles, the possible tracers for various emission sources were identified, e.g 2-methylbutane and 1,3-butadiene were the tracers for motor vehicle exhaust, the characteristic compounds of architectural and furnishing coatings are aromatics such as toluene and m/p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and the nonane, decane and undecane are found to represent the asphalt emissions etc.. The CMB receptor model was applied to source apportionment of 58 hydrocarbons measured at seven sites during the PRD campaign, 2004. The 12 kinds of VOC sources include gasoline/diesel-powered vehicle exhaust, gasoline/diesel headspace vapor, vehicle evaporative emissions, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage, painting vapors, asphalt emission from paved road, biomass burning, coal burning, chemical industry and petroleum refinery. Vehicle exhaust was the largest sources contributing over half of the ambient VOCs at the three urban sites (GuangZhou, FoShan and ZhongShan). LPG leakage played an important role with the percentage of 8- 16% in most sites in PRD. Contributions from solvents usage were highest at DongGuan, an industrial site. At XinKen, the solvents and coatings had the largest percentage of 31% probably due to the influence of its upwind area of DongGuan. The local biomass burning was also found to be a noticeable source at XK.

Liu, Y.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Chang, C.; Wang, C. J.; Wang, B.




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma análise espacial da Mobilidade Sustentável (MS) dentro de uma região urbana. Para tanto, foram utilizados indicad ores de MS a partir dos quais foram definidos os índices de mobilidade sustentável (IMS) de cada sub-região (setores) dentro da região de análise. Com base nestes índices foram utilizadas f erramentas de estatística espacial que permitiram avaliar a

Denise de Miranda; Silva Correia; Vânia Barcellos; Gouvêa Campos



Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo desse artigo é discutir o que leva o agricultor a aplicar ou não os agrotóxicos, bem como ressaltar quais são os elementos que estão por traz dessa decisão. O presente trabalho abordará o problema a partir de uma análise integrada entre agricultura, meio ambiente e saúde pública, estabelecendo elementos que dão legitimidade à agricultura sustentável como geradora de

Wagner Lopes Soares; Firpo De Souza Porto



Gestão curricular em Matemática 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. A gestão curricular realizada pelo professor implica uma (re)construção do currículo, tendo em conta os seus alunos e as suas condições de trabalho. Esta gestão curricular assenta, de modo central, em dois elementos. Um deles é a criação de tarefas, a partir das quais os alunos se possam envolver em actividades matematicamente ricas e produtivas. As tarefas podem ser

João Pedro da Ponte


Avaliação de Processo de um Programa de Manejo de Estresse Ocupacional The Process Evaluation of an Occupational Stress Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este artigo descreve metas intermediárias alcançadas e atitudes dos participantes frente a um programa de manejo de estresse ocupacional. Participaram 74 funcionários de uma universidade, dos quais 42 foram designados para uma intervenção multimodal de manejo de estresse e 32 para um treinamento em habilidades sociais. Os resultados, coletados por medidas observacionais, evidenciaram que as metas intermediárias foram alcançadas

Sheila Giardini Murta


The chemistry of flower rewards -- Oncidium (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maioria dos estudos sobre polinização focalizam as interações que envolvem recompensas como néctar e pólen. Nosso grupo de pesquisa, entretanto tem se dedicado à química de recompensas florais como resinas e óleos florais. Neste trabalho, estamos relatando a composição química dos óleos florais de Oncidium pubes que contêm di e triacilglicerois nos quais o glicerol está esterificado com um

Mariza G. Reis; Aparecida D. de Faria; Volker Bittrich; Maria do Carmo; Anita J. Marsaioli




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: No Protágoras de Platão, Sócrates discute o problema fundamental da educação: a virtude pode ser ensinada? A questão pode ser reformulada como segue: virtude pode ser ensinada nos termos da pedagogia sofística, isto é, uma aprendizagem dos valores, normas e padrões pelos quais uma cidade é organizada, e o ensino de como manipular estes valores e normas para benefício

José Lourenço Pereira da Silva




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: foram participantes deste estudo seis crianças da escola regular, das quais três apresentavam distúrbios atencionais associados a dificuldades de aprendizagem escolar. Todas as crianças foram submetidas a sete experimentos visando avaliar a formação de classes de equivalência. O procedimento incluiu a manipulação de diferentes variáveis tais como estrutura de treino, aspectos dimensionais dos estímulos e contingências de reforçamento, com

Gladys Mabel DUARTE; Júlio Cesar; Coelho DE ROSE



The nature of the chemical bond  

Microsoft Academic Search

As condições básicas que devem ser satisfeitas por qualquer função de onda representando um sistema polieletrônico são apresentadas e discutidas. Em seguida, examinamos como construir funções de onda para sistemas polieletrônicos que satisfaçam àquelas condições e analisamos as condições sob as quais os conceitos clássicos de estrutura molecular, estrutura química e de ligação química podem ser traduzidos para a mecânica

Marco Antonio Chaer Nascimento



Teoria das Ondas de Elliott- Uma aplicação ao mercado de ações aa Bm&Fbovespa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os preços dos ativos negociados em bolsas de valores, assim como qualquer outro tipo de commodity do mercado financeiro, oscilam naturalmente com a procura por esses produtos. Essas oscilações, juntamente com a assimetria das informações acerca dos preços desses produtos geram processos de volatilidade. Charles Dow, no início do século XX criou índices setoriais, nos quais reunia papéis da mesma

Daniele Ferreira de Sousa



Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a ocorrência de surtos naturais de fotossensibilização que vêm ocorrendo em diversas espécies animais na região semi-árida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram visitadas 17 propriedades nas quais estavam ocorrendo casos naturais desta patologia. Foram realizadas entrevistas com os tratadores, exames clínicos e provas séricas bioquímicas de função hepática nos animais afetados. Também

M. F. Macedo; M. B. Bezerra; B. Soto Blanco



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Investigações detalhadas das práticas alimentares dos consumidores permitem o acesso a informações importantes quanto às diferentes maneiras pelas quais os consumidores interpretam seus comportamentos. Reconhecendo que os indivíduos têm objetivos e preocupações distintas em relação a sua alimentação (diferentes representações dos alimentos), resultando modelos alimentares distintos, uma tipologia de consumidores de produtos light e ou diet foi proposta neste

Thelma Lucchese; Mario Otavio Batalha; Jean Louis Lambert


A modernização do sistema editorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Encerramos mais um ano de intenso trabalho na Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem (RLAE), marcado pelo contínuo e crescente fluxo de manuscritos recebidos para publicação. Em 2005 recebemos 248 manuscritos, dos quais 10% foram aceitos para publicação, 78% estão em processo de avaliação, 12% foram recusados. Compondo o volume 13 da RLAE, foram publicados 143 artigos em seis números regulares

Maria Helena Palucci Marziale; Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes



Avaliação da função motora em crianças com distrofia muscular congênita com deficiência da merosina  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A distrofia muscular congênita (DMC) compõe um grupo de miopatias caracterizadas por hipo- tonia e fraqueza muscular notadas até o primeiro ano de vida. Em torno de 40% a 50% dos casos são decor- rentes de deficiência primária da proteína merosina (DM), os quais apresentam um fenótipo mais homogêneo, com grave comprometimento motor e respiratório. Foram avaliadas neste

Fernanda M. Rocco; Fernanda H. Gianini Luz; Alexsander Junquera Rossato; Antônio Carlos Fernandes; Acary S. B. Oliveira; Javier Toledano Beteta; Edmar Zanoteli



As gurias do Sul: representações das jovens gaúchas em ar- tefatos culturais midiáticos impressos Girls from the South of Brazil: representations of the young girls from Rio Grande do Sul in cultural media printed artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Minha intenção, no presente artigo, é analisar as representações de jovens gaúchas em determinados artefatos culturais midiáticos impressos, os quais podem ser interpelativos, podem governar e subjetivar os sujeitos. Essa análise é realizada na perspectiva dos Estudos Culturais, que consideram a cultura como um dos principais lócus onde são estabelecidas e, ao mesmo tempo, contestadas divisões desiguais própri- as

Rossana Cassanta ROSSI


Inhibitory effect and mechanism on antiproliferation of khellactone derivatives from herbal suitable for medical or food uses.  


Angelica genus (umbelliferae) has traditionally been used as the medicine and health food considered alleviating several used in the treatment of cancer as well as non-cancerous diseases. Angelica purpuraefolia Chung is an endemic species and a folk medicine in Korea. We have previously reported that two natural khellactone isolated from the rhizomes of A. purpuraefolia has significant antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, we scientifically evaluated the effect of (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone and (+)-3'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone from A. purpuraefolia on cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death. The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone and (+)-3'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone (10-50 ?g/ml) were subjected to in vitro evaluation using four breast (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HS578T, and T47D), three cervical (HeLa, SiHa, and C33A) cancer cell lines, and NIH 3T3 normal cells using FACS and western analyses. Our in vitro experiments showed that (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone and (+)-3'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone suppress the growth and proliferation of cancer cells at a relatively low concentration (<10 ?g/ml) and induce apoptosis at a high concentration (>50 ?g/ml). FACS analysis showed that the cell cycle arrest in the S/G2 phase was induced by the treatment with 10 ?g/ml of (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone and (+)-3'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone in MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blot analysis also showed that concentration higher than 50 ?g/ml of (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone induced a time-dependent increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, our results showed that (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone uses both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways but (+)-3'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone uses only an intrinsic pathway for the apoptosis. More importantly, (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone and (+)-3'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone inhibited the in vitro proliferation of six other human breast and cervical cancer cell lines. Our data strongly suggest that (+)-4'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone and (+)-3'-decanoyl-cis-khellactone act as an anti-cancer supplement particularly against breast and cervical cancers by inducing cell cycle arrest in the S/G2 phase and caspase-dependent apoptosis at relatively low and high concentrations, respectively. PMID:22107989

Jung, Samil; Li, Chengping; Lee, Soonduck; Ohk, Jiyeon; Kim, Soo-ki; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Moon, Hyung-In



Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 ?M Trolox for a 6.25 ?g aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 ?M Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 ?g = 13 ?M Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 ?g = 10 ?M Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82.05%) and rose aqueous (73.86%). Conclusion From a panel of twenty three plant extracts, some one dozen exhibit high or satisfactory anti-collagenase or anti-elastase activities, with nine having inhibitory activity against both enzymes. These included white tea which was found to have very high phenolic content, along with high TEAC and SOD activities.

Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P



Inrared Spectroscopy and Tunneling Dynamics of the Vinyl Radical in ^{4}He Nanodroplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vinyl radical has been trapped in ^{4}He nanodroplets and probed with infrared laser spectroscopy in the CH stretch region between 2850 and 3200 cm^{-1}. The assigned band origins for the CH{_2} symmetric (?{_3}), CH{_2} antisymmetric (?{_2}), and lone ?-CH stretch (?{_1}) vibrations are in good agreement with previously reported full-dimensional vibrational configuration interaction calculations. For all three bands, a-type and b-type transitions are observed from the lowest symmetry allowed roconvibrational state of each nuclear spin isomer, which allows for a determination of the tunneling splittings in both the ground and excited vibrational levels. Comparisons to gas phase millimeter-wave rotation-tunneling and high-resolution jet-cooled infrared spectra reveal that the effect of the ^{4}He solvent is to reduce the ground and ?{_3} excited state tunneling splittings by ?20%. This solvent-induced modification of the tunneling dynamics can be reasonably accounted for by assuming either an ?2.5% increase in the effective barrier height along the tunneling coordinate or an ?5% increase in the effective reduced mass of the tunneling particles. A. R. Sharma, B. J. Braams, S. Carter, B. C. Shepler, and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. {130}, 174301 2009 K. Tanaka, M. Toshimitsu, K. Harada, and T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. {120}, 3604 2004 F. Dong, M. Roberts, and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. {128}, 044305 (2008)

Raston, Paul L.; Liang, Tao; Obi, Emmanuel I.; Douberly, Gary E.



Different sensitivity of the transforming growth factor-beta cell cycle arrest pathway to c-Myc and MDM-2.  


Recently, the oncoprotein MDM-2 was implicated in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) growth inhibitory pathway by the finding that prolonged, constitutive expression of MDM-2 in mink lung epithelial cells could overcome the antiproliferative effect of TGF-beta (Sun, P., Dong, P., Dai, K., Hannon, G. J., and Beach, D. (1998) Science 282, 2270-2272). However, using Mv1Lu cells conditionally expressing MDM-2, we found that MDM-2 does not overcome TGF-beta-mediated growth arrest. No detectable changes were observed in various TGF-beta responses, including cell cycle arrest, activation of transcriptional reporters, and TGF-beta-dependent Smad2/3 nuclear accumulation. This finding was in direct contrast to the effect of forcing c-Myc expression, a bona fide member of the TGF-beta growth inhibitory pathway, which renders cells refractory to TGF-beta-induced cell cycle arrest. Our results suggest that an MDM-2-dependent increase in cell cycle progression may allow the acquisition of additional mutations over time and that these alterations then allow cells to evade a TGF-beta-mediated growth arrest. Our conclusion is that, whereas c-Myc down-regulation by TGF-beta is a required event in the cell cycle arrest response of epithelial cells, MDM-2 is not a direct participant in the normal TGF-beta antiproliferative response. PMID:10906337

Blain, S W; Massagué, J



Quantum Phases of Atom-Molecule Mixtures of Fermionic Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nicolas Lopez (University of California, Riverside, USA) Chi-Yong Lin (National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan) Shan-Wen Tsai (University of California, Riverside, USA) Cold atom experiments have realized a variety of multicomponent quantum mixtures, including Bose-Fermi atomic mixtures. Mixtures of fermionic atoms and diatomic molecules, which are boson, have also been obtained by tuning of the interactions with external fields [1]. We study many-body correlations in such a system where the molecules are weakly bound and therefore pairs of fermionic atoms easily convert into and dissociate from the bound molecule state and this exchange mediates a long-range interaction between the fermions. We consider a simple many-body Hamiltonian that includes the destruction of fermionic atom pairs to form single bosonic molecules and vice versa [2]. We employ a functional renomalization-group approach and calculate the renormalized frequency-dependent interaction vertices and fermion self-energies. We find an instability from the disordered quantum liquid phase to a BCS phase and calculate the energy scale for the transition. The unusual frequency-dependence of this mediated interaction leads to strong renormalization of the self-energy, and also affects the couplings in the BCS channel. [1] M. Greiner, C. A. Regal, J. T. Stewart, and D. S. Jin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110401 (2005) [2] E. Timmermans, K. Furuya, P. W. Milonni, and A. K. Kerman, Phys. Lett. A 285, 228 (2001)

Lopez, Nicolas



Contribution of Tyr712 and Phe716 to the activity of human RNase L.  


Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is a key enzyme in the 2-5A host defense system, and its activity is strictly regulated by an unusual 2',5'-linked oligoadenylate (2-5A). A bipartite model, in which the N-terminal half of RNase L is responsible for the 2-5A binding and the C-terminal half alone is able to hydrolyse the substrate RNA, has been proposed on the basis of the results of deletion mutant analyses [Dong, B. & Silverman, R.H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem.272, 22236-22242]. Above all, the region between Glu711 and His720 was revealed to be essential for RNA binding and/or hydrolysis. To dissect the function of the region, we performed scanning mutagenesis over the 10 residues of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion RNase L. Among the single amino acid mutants examined, Y712A and F716A resulted in a significant decrease of RNase activity with a reduced RNA binding acitivity. The losses of the RNase activity were not restored by its conservative mutation, whereas the RNA binding activity was enhanced in the case of Y712F. These results indicate that both Tyr712 and Phe716 provide the enzyme with a RNA binding activity and catalytic environment. PMID:15206938

Nakanishi, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Akihiro; Ishida, Norihisa; Ueno, Yoshihito; Kitade, Yukio



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle in southern China  

PubMed Central

Background As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. The consumption of raw or undercooked beef and milk is considered a risk for T. gondii infection in humans. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in dairy cattle in metropolitan Guangzhou, southern China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle in Guangzhou, southern China. Findings Serum samples were collected from 350 dairy cattle on five farms in Guangzhou, China from 2009 to 2010, and all of the 350 serum samples were examined for specific antibodies to T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination antibody test (IHA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cattle was 5.7% (20/350). Among these examined dairy cattle, dairy cattle which were < 6 year old or ? 5 year old had the highest seroprevalence of 12.5% followed by those dairy cattle which were < 5 year old or ? 4 year old (8%); dairy cattle with 3 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (11.5%), among the examined dairy cattle, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii infection is prevalent in dairy cattle of all age ranges in Guangzhou, southern China, which may be a risk factor for human infection with T. gondii in this region. Dong-Hui Zhou and Fu-Rong Zhao contributed equally.



High Household Economic Burden Caused by Hospitalization of Patients with Severe Dengue Fever Cases in Can Tho Province, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

During 2006–2007, a cohort of 144 confirmed dengue cases in Can Tho Province, Vietnam were compared with a matching set of 144 households that had no dengue cases. Approximately 6–9 months after sickness, there were no significant differences in terms of knowledge of the etiology of dengue, mosquito breeding habitats, and prevention measures in respondents from both sets of households. There was also no difference in the abundance of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) adults but the average numbers of late instar and pupal Ae. aegypti per household were greater in the negative control houses. Thus, the risk seemed to be no higher in case households, although it is conceivable that changes may have occurred in either group over the intervening period. The average cost for a dengue patient was 2,798,000 Vietnamese Dong (VND) (US$167.77), 2,154,000 VND for direct costs, and 644,000 VND for indirect costs. There was a 22% difference in cost for those with and without health insurance. In terms of impact on family economies, 47.2% had to borrow money for treatment, and after 6 months, 71.7% had not begun or had only managed part repayments. Approximately 72.9% indicated that the cost of supporting a dengue patient had impacted on the family economy, with the loss averaging 36% of the annual income in the lowest economic quartile.

Tam, Pham Thi; Dat, Nguyen Tan; Huu, Le Minh; Thi, Xuan Cuc Pham; Duc, Hoang Minh; Tu, Tran Cong; Kutcher, Simon; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.



Role of the F spin-orbit excited state in the F+HD reaction: contributions to the dynamical resonance.  


We report quantum mechanical calculations of excitation functions (relative reaction cross sections) for the F+HD reaction. We include three potential energy surfaces and an accurate treatment of all couplings (non-adiabatic, spin-orbit, and Coriolis). Comparison with experimental results [Dong, Lee, and Liu, J. Chem. Phys., 113, 3633 (2000)] show excellent agreement for the DF product channel and an improved but not perfect agreement for the HF product channel. In the former case, when weighted by the (16%) fractional population of the spin-orbit excited state (F(*)) in the beam, the overall reactivity of the F(*) is small (approximately 5%). For the HF product channel and with the same (16%) fractional weight, F(*) reactivity makes a contribution of approximately 12% in the high-energy tail of the resonance peak. As a result, averaging over the population of F spin-orbit states in the beam changes the shape of the resonance. The greater the fraction of F(*) in the beam, the less pronounced will be the resonance modulation of the reaction excitation function. PMID:15352811

Tzeng, Yi-Ren; Alexander, Millard H



Raman scattering evidence of hydrohalite formation on frozen yeast cells.  


We studied yeast cells in physiological solution during freezing by Raman microspectroscopy technique. The purpose was to find out the origin of a sharp peak near ?3430cm(-1) in Raman spectrum of frozen mammalian cells, observed earlier (J. Dong et al., Biophys. J. 99 (2010) 2453), which presumably could be used as an indicator of intracellar ice appearance. We have shown that this line (actually doublet of 3408 and 3425cm(-1)) corresponds to Raman spectrum of hydrohalite (NaCl?2H(2)O), which is formed as the result of the eutectic crystallization of the liquid solution around the cells. We also show that the spatial distribution of hydrohalite in the sample significantly depends on the cooling rate. At lower cooling rate (1°C/min), products of eutectic crystallization form layer on the cell surface which thickness varies for different cells and can reach ?1?m in thickness. At higher cooling rate (20°C/min), the hydrohalite distribution appears more homogeneous, in the sample, and the eutectic crystallization layer around the cells was estimated to be less than ?20nm. These experimental results are consistent with scenarios predicted by the two-factor hypothesis for freezing induced cell injury. This work demonstrates a potential of Raman microspectroscopy to study peculiarities of the eutectic crystallization around single cells in vivo with the high spatial resolution. PMID:23165247

Okotrub, K A; Surovtsev, N V



Striped Multiferroic Phases in Narrow Bandwidth Hole-Doped Manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel phase with diagonal charge stripes and a complex spin arrangement that allows for ferroelectricity to develop has been recently reported in a model for hole-quarter-doped manganites (S. Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 107204 (2009)). The study of this "spin-orthogonal stripe" (SOS) phase is here generalized to other hole doping fractions x=1/N (N=3, 5, 6, ...), to search for analogous multiferroic states. In this effort, the two-orbital double-exchange model for manganites is studied, employing variational, Monte Carlo, and zero temperature optimization techniques. The phase diagrams obtained by varying the electron-lattice and superexchange couplings also contains exotic CxE1-x phases. A systematic procedure to construct new CxE1-x/SOSx phases is discussed. Both the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and exchange-striction effect may work in these CxE1-x/SOSx phases, giving rise to ferroelectricity. In addition, these SOSx/CxE1-x phases can be extended into many other similar states, with (almost) degenerate energies but different multiferroic properties.

Liang, Shuhua; Dong, Shuai; Sen, Cengiz; Daghofer, Maria; Dagotto, Elbio



Novel Striped Multiferroic Phases in Hole-Doped Manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the discovery of a so-called ``spin-orthogonal stripe'' (SOS) phase in models for quarter-doped hole manganites [1], our group carried out additional computational work at other doping fractions to search for analogous multiferroic phases. Here we report the discovery of similar SOS phases at several hole dopings x=1/N (N=3,5,6...) using a double exchange model with spin frustration, and applying variational and Monte Carlo techniques. The full phase diagram created by varying electron-lattice and superexchange couplings also contains an exotic CxE1-x phase. The new SOSx phases are intuitively explained via a rotation from the CxE1-x zig-zag spin configuration. This creates stripes separating domains containing orthogonal spins. Because of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, it is conjectured that these SOS states should be ferroelectric as well. For N even the spin states are similar to N odd but there is a cancellation of the net ferroelectric moment. [4pt] [1] Shuai Dong et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 107204 (2009).

Liang, Shuhua; Dong, Shuai; Dagotto, Elbio



Electrochemical Charging of Carbon Nanotubes for Tunable Electron Field Emission Cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have very promising applications as electron field emitters. Work function of CNTs greatly affects the performance of such cold electron emitters. It is possible to change emission currents by several orders of magnitude by electrochemical charging. Electrochemical charging changes work function of CNTs by creating so called double layer. It was recently demonstrated that double layer structure remains for several hours after removing the CNTs from an electrolyte [1]. The extensive study of charging single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) paper in different electrolytes has been performed at different charging potentials Vch. Field emission currents and threshold fields dependence on the charging potential and polarity is studied for various ions, with different valency and size: Na, Mg, Cs. Clear dependence of work function on Vch is demonstrated. AFM micro-imaging with a Kelvin probe allowed to study the micropatterns of work function modulation. Also dissipation of positive charge in air was investigated and its stability was significantly increased. 1. Suh Dong-Seok, Baughman Ray, Zakhidov Anvar, US Patent 20070170071 (2007)

Kuznetsov, Alexander; Barisci, Norman; Zakhidov, Anvar; Zakhidov, Alexander



Persistent decadal-scale rainfall variability in the tropical South Pacific Convergence Zone through the past six centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and reconstructions of decadal-scale climate variability are necessary to place predictions of future global climate change into temporal context (Goddard et al., 2012). This is especially true for decadal-scale climate variability that originates in the Pacific Ocean (Deser et al., 2004; Dong and Lu, 2013). We focus here on the western tropical Pacific (Solomon Islands; ~ 9.5° S, ~ 160° E), a region directly influenced by: the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), the Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC), and the Hadley Circulation. We calibrate ?18O variations in a fast growing stalagmite to local rainfall amount and produce a 600 yr record of rainfall variability from the zonally oriented, tropical portion of the SPCZ. We present evidence for large (~ 1.5 m), persistent and decade(s)-long shifts in total annual rainfall amount in the Solomon Islands since 1416 ± 5 CE. The timing of the decadal changes in rainfall inferred from the 20th century portion of the stalagmite ?18O record coincide with previously identified decadal shifts in Pacific ocean-atmosphere behavior (Clement et al., 2011; Deser et al., 2004). The 600 yr Solomons stalagmite ?18O record indicates that decadal oscillations in rainfall are a robust characteristic of SPCZ-related climate variability, which has important implications to water resource management in this region.

Maupin, C. R.; Partin, J. W.; Shen, C.-C.; Quinn, T. M.; Lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Banner, J. L.; Thirumalai, K.; Sinclair, D. J.



Cu(II) coordination structure determinants of the fibrillization switch in Abeta peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation and fibrillization of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). The coordination of Cu(II) by peptide histidine imidazole sidechains is proposed to play an important role in determining the fibrillization ``switch'' [1]. We have developed techniques of powder X-band electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy to determine the 3D molecular structure of the Cu(II)-histidine imidazole coordination in cryotrapped soluble and fibrillar forms of Abeta peptides, in order to gain insight into the factors that govern fibrillization. We use hybrid optimization-based OPTESIM [2] simulation of the double quantum harmonic feature to determine the mutual orientation of the imidazole rings in Cu(II)--bis-imidazole complexes and in Abeta(13-21) peptides. The Cu(II) coordination mode and assembly constraints in fibrils are revealed. [1] Dong , J., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2007, 104, 13313. [2] Sun, L., et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2009, 200, 21.

Hernandez-Guzman, Jessica; Sun, Li; Mehta, Anil; Lynn, David; Warncke, Kurt



Relative Orientation of Imidazole Ligands in Cu(II) Model and Abeta peptides Complexes revealed by ESEEM Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation and fibrillization of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). The coordination of Cu(II) by peptide histidine imidazole sidechains is proposed to play an important role in determining the fibrillization ``switch'' [1]. We have developed techniques of X-band electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy to determine the molecular structure of the Cu(II)-histidine imidazole coordination in cryotrapped soluble and fibrillar forms of Abeta peptides, in order to gain insight into the factors that govern fibrillization. Focusing on the ESEEM double quantum harmonic feature, we use our hybrid optimization-based OPTESIM simulation software [2] to determine the mutual orientation of the imidazole rings in Cu(II)--bis-imidazole complexes that include cis- versus trans- coordination. The technique has been applied to Abeta(13-21) peptide to reveal the Cu(II) coordination mode in fibrils. [1] Dong , J., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2007, 104, 13313. [2] Sun, L., et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2009, 200, 21

Hernandez, Jessica; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt



Wing-wing Flow Interaction of the Aero-Train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Title: Wing-wing Flow Interaction of the Aero-Train Authors: Dong-hee Yoon, Yasuaki Kohama and Takuma Kato Affiliations: Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577, Japan This paper presents a simple numerical method for controlling the wing-wing interaction of the flow for the Aero-Train, a new concept of the high-speed transport system. Aero-Train has a set of vertical wings at end of each main wings, which like a winglet of an airplane, were arranged in tandem to regulate the longitudinal stability and the lateral stability in a U-shape guide way. The flow analysis is carried out by CFD of ANSYS program in accordance to the k-A~model. In addition, the structural analysis is performed to find out lift, drag, using the FEM method of ANSYS. The results indicate that the flow around the wings of Aero-Train is different from the flow around the wings of an airplane in low-speed condition. This difference is due to the ground effect phenomenon from three sides of the U-shape guide way, and depend on some factors like, side force direction, stagnation point, downwash, wingtip vortex, etc.. Key words: Aero-Train, Wing-wing interaction, Ground effect phenomenon

Yoon, Dong-Hee; Kohama, Yasuaki; Kato, Takuma



Universal heat conduction in the iron arsenide superconductor KFe2As2: evidence of a d-wave state.  


The thermal conductivity ? of the iron arsenide superconductor KFe2As2 was measured down to 50 mK for a heat current parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis. A residual linear term at T?0, ?(0)/T is observed for both current directions, confirming the presence of nodes in the superconducting gap. Our value of ?(0)/T in the plane is equal to that reported by Dong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 087005 (2010)] for a sample whose residual resistivity ?(0) was 10 times larger. This independence of ?(0)/T on impurity scattering is the signature of universal heat transport, a property of superconducting states with symmetry-imposed line nodes. This argues against an s-wave state with accidental nodes. It favors instead a d-wave state, an assignment consistent with five additional properties: the magnitude of the critical scattering rate ?(c) for suppressing T(c) to zero; the magnitude of ?(0)/T, and its dependence on current direction and on magnetic field; the temperature dependence of ?(T). PMID:23002766

Reid, J-Ph; Tanatar, M A; Juneau-Fecteau, A; Gordon, R T; de Cotret, S René; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Saito, T; Fukazawa, H; Kohori, Y; Kihou, K; Lee, C H; Iyo, A; Eisaki, H; Prozorov, R; Taillefer, Louis



Infrared spectroscopy and tunneling dynamics of the vinyl radical in 4He nanodroplets.  


The vinyl radical has been trapped in (4)He nanodroplets and probed with infrared laser spectroscopy in the CH stretch region between 2850 and 3200 cm(-1). The assigned band origins for the CH2 symmetric (?3), CH2 antisymmetric (?2), and lone ?-CH stretch (?1) vibrations are in good agreement with previously reported full-dimensional vibrational configuration interaction computations [A. R. Sharma, B. J. Braams, S. Carter, B. C. Shepler, and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 174301 (2009)]. For all three bands, a-type and b-type transitions are observed from the lowest symmetry allowed roconvibrational state of each nuclear spin isomer, which allows for a determination of the tunneling splittings in both the ground and excited vibrational levels. Comparisons to gas phase millimeter-wave rotation-tunneling [K. Tanaka, M. Toshimitsu, K. Harada, and T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3604-3618 (2004)] and high-resolution jet-cooled infrared spectra [F. Dong, M. Roberts, and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044305 (2008)] reveal that the He solvent effect is to reduce the ground and ?3 excited state tunneling splittings by ?20%. This solvent-induced modification of the tunneling dynamics can be reasonably accounted for by assuming either a ?2.5% increase in the effective barrier height along the tunneling coordinate or a ?5% increase in the effective reduced mass of the tunneling particles. PMID:23656129

Raston, Paul L; Liang, Tao; Douberly, Gary E



Sea experiments of the Underway Conductivity-Temperature-Depth prototype made in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new instrument for upper ocean survey, namely the UCTD (Underway Conductivity-Temperature-Depth), which combines some of the advantages of other underway instruments, is introduced in this paper. The Introduction section presents a description of the construction and function of the UCTD, and the experiments conducted in the South China Sea on board the R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 in July 2007 and August 2008. The UCTD system, with pressure and temperature sensors in the probe, is conveniently portable, cost-effective and environment-friendly. It is hopefully suitable for future cruises. An intercomparison based on regressing with the experiment temperature data from both SeaBird plus911 CTD and the UCTD showed that the standard deviation is 0.88°C and the correlation coefficient is 0.96, achieving the goals set for the current oceanography uses. In the hydrodynamic experiments, the descending velocities and depths were calculated for different ship speeds. A pulling test was designed with a tensiometer to measure the magnitude of the pull. The maximal tension of the line was found to be 66.2 kg, which is far lower than the bearing limit of the Hollow Spectra line. Finally, some improvement suggestions are put forward for future experiments and production.

Song, Xiangzhou; Li, Hui; Lin, Xiaopei; Chen, Xueen; Guo, Xinshun; Tian, Jiwei



R4, a non-LTR retrotransposon specific to the large subunit rRNA genes of nematodes.  


A 4.7 kb sequence-specific insertion in the 26S ribosomal RNA gene of Ascaris lumbricoides, named R4, is shown to be a non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposable element. The R4 element inserts at a site in the large subunit rRNA gene which is midway between two other sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposable elements, R1 and R2, found in most insect species. Based on the structure of its open reading frame and the sequence of its reverse transcriptase domain, R4 elements do not appear to be a family of R1 or R2 elements that have changed their insertion site. R4 is most similar in structure and in sequence to the element Dong, which is not specialized for insertion into rRNA units. Thus R4 represents a separate non-LTR retrotransposable element that has become specialized for insertion in the rRNA genes of its host. Using oligonucleotide primers directed to a conserved region of the reverse transcriptase encoding domain, insertions in the R4 site were also amplified from Parascaris equorum and Haemonchus contortus. Why several non-LTR retrotransposable elements have become specialized for insertion into a short (87 bp) region of the large subunit rRNA gene is discussed. PMID:8524653

Burke, W D; Müller, F; Eickbush, T H



Estimation of benchmark dose for micronucleus occurrence in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we estimated the possibility of using benchmark dose (BMD) to assess the dose–response relationship between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure and chromosome damage. A group of 317 workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and 166 normal, unexposed control in Shan-dong Province northern China were examined for chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CB-MN) assay of DNA damage. The exposed group (3.47 ± 2.65)‰ showed higher micronucleus frequency than the control (1.60 ± 1.30)‰ (P < 0.01). Occupational exposure level based on micronucleus occurrence in all individuals was analyzed with benchmark dose (BMD) methods. The benchmark dose lower limit of a one-sided 95% confidence interval (BMDL) for 10% excess risk was also determined. Results showed a dose–response relationship between cumulative exposure and MN frequency, and a BMDL of 0.54 mg/m3 and 0.23 mg/m3 for males and females, respectively. Female workers were more susceptible to MN damage than male workers.

Wang, Qi; Tan, Hong-shan; Ma, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yuan; Feng, Nan-nan; Zhou, Li-fang; Ye, Yun-jie; Zhu, Yi-liang; Li, Yong-liang; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.; Tang, Nai-jun; Xia, Zhao-lin



Linewidth Narrowing for ^31Phosphorus MRI of Bones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone is a particularly challenging tissue to study with conventional MRI given the relatively low water density and wider linewidths of its solid components.ootnotetextF. W. Wehrli, J. MRI 25, 390 (2007); S. Anumula et al., Bone 42, 405 (2008); D. Idiyatullin et al., J. Mag Res 193, 267 (2008); E.E. Sigmund et al., NMR Biomed 22, 436 (2009); Y. Wu et al., J. MRI 31, 954 (2010) Recent fundamental research in quantum computing gave rise to a new NMR pulse sequence that can be used to narrow the broad NMR spectrum of solids.ootnotetextY. Dong et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100: 247601 (2008); D. Li et al. Phys. Rev. B 77: 214306 (2008) Here we narrow the spectrum of the ^31P in natural bone mineral (by a factor of up to 1600x). This technique offers a new route to do high spatial resolution, 3D ^31P MRI of bone which complements conventional MRI and x-ray based techniques to study bone physiology and structure. Thus far we have used our pulse sequence to do high spatial resolution (sub-250 ?m)^3 3D ^31P MRI of ex vivo dry bovine cortical bones, wet procine rib bones, and wet rabbit femoral bones at 4T. We have also explored the use of compressive samplingootnotetextM. Lustig et al., Mag Res Med 58, 1182 (2007) to push imaging time down to less than two hours without distracting artifacts.

Frey, Merideth; Barrett, Sean



Influence of ship emissions on ozone concentrations around coastal areas during summer season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of ship emissions on ozone (O 3) concentrations in a coastal area (CA) including Busan port, Korea was examined based on a numerical modeling approach during a high O 3 episode. The analysis was performed by two sets of simulation scenarios: (1) with ship emissions (e.g., TOTAL case) and (2) without ship emissions (e.g., BASE case). A process analysis (PA) (the integrated processes rate (IPR) and integrated reaction rate (IRR) analyses) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of individual physical and chemical processes in O 3 production in and around the CA (e.g., sites of Dong Sam (DS) and Dae Yeon (DY)). The model study suggested the possibility that pollutant gases emitted from the ships traversing Busan port can exert a direct impact on the O 3 concentration levels in the CA. Largest impacts of ship emissions on the O 3 concentrations were predicted at the coast (up to 15 ppb) and at inland locations (about 5 ppb) due to both the photochemical production of pollutant gases emitted from the ships and meteorological conditions. From the PA, the photochemical production of O 3 (P(O 3)) due to ship emissions in the CA was found to increase by a mean of 1.5 ppb h -1 (especially by ?10 ppb h -1 at the DS site) during the day.

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Kang, Yoon-Hee; Oh, In-Bo; Jung, Chang-Hoon



Multi-Stage origin of the ophiolites along the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone: Implications for the evolution of central Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the BNS ophiolite is important for models of the tectonic evolution of Central Tibet during the Mesozoic. Current petrologic, geochemical, and stratigraphic data all favor the interpretation of the ophiolite as having formed in a transitional MORB-IAT setting above a supra-subduction zone. Detailed studies of field relationships at several localities indicate that two distinct ophiolitic suites are present, especially in the western and middle sectors of the suture zone. One suite includes all elements of an entire ophiolite sequence albeit dismembered or disrupted through faulting. These rocks are mainly scattered along the northern part of the BNS, e.g. at Bangong Tso, Dong Tso and Dongqiao-Amdo. Radiometric ages for this ophiolitic suites are limited to the Early to Middle Jurassic. The other zone of ophiolitic rocks is located in the southern part of the BNS, such as Shiquanhe, Guchang, Lagkor Tso, Baila-Jueweng and Xainza, and is associated with a remnant basin allowed the deposition of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous cherts along the south part of the suture, and shallow marine deposition continued on the structural highs elsewhere along the suture.

Wang, W.; Aitchison, J. C.



Ptosis Repair Using Preserved Fascia Lata with the Modified Direct Tarsal Fixation Technique  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcome of frontalis sling operation using preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation in congenital ptosis patients. Methods Forty-seven congenital ptosis patients (60 eyes) who underwent a frontalis sling operation using preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation method between March 2001 and December 2008 with a mean follow-up time of 52 months (range, 26 to 122 months) were included in this study. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Results A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients who were diagnosed with congenital ptosis and underwent frontalis suspension surgery using preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation from 2001 through 2008 at Dong-A University Hospital. The patients were 34 males and 14 females. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 18 years with an average age of 4.51 years. At a mean follow-up of 60 months, good final results were achieved in 46 eyes (76.6%), fair in 8 eyes (13.3%), and poor in 6 eyes (10%). The poor results consisted of undercorrection of 1 eye and recurrence in 5 eyes. The accumulative survival rate was 87.2%, with all recurrences occurring within 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions Frontalis sling operation by preserved fascia lata with modified direct tarsal fixation appears to be an effective treatment for severe congenital ptosis, showing good long term results.

Suh, Ji Young



Complementary role of frontoparietal activity and cortical pattern similarity in successful episodic memory encoding.  


One central goal in cognitive neuroscience of learning and memory is to characterize the neural processes that lead to long-lasting episodic memory. In addition to the stronger frontoparietal activity, greater category- or item-specific cortical representation during encoding, as measured by pattern similarity (PS), is also associated with better subsequent episodic memory. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether frontoparietal activity and cortical PS reflect distinct mechanisms. To address this issue, we reanalyzed previous data (Xue G, Dong Q, Chen C, Lu ZL, Mumford JA, Poldrack RA. 2010. Greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better memory. Science. 330:97, Experiment 3) using a novel approach based on combined activation-based and information-based analyses. The results showed that across items, stronger frontoparietal activity was associated with greater PS in distributed brain regions, including those where the PS was predictive of better subsequent memory. Nevertheless, the item-specific PS was still associated with later episodic memory after controlling the effect of frontoparietal activity. Our results suggest that one possible mechanism of frontoparietal activity on episodic memory encoding is via enhancing PS, resulting in more unique and consistent input to the medial temporal lobe. In addition, they suggest that PS might index additional processes, such as pattern reinstatement as a result of study-phase retrieval, that contribute to episodic memory encoding. PMID:22645250

Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A



Applications of continuity and discontinuity of a fractional derivative of the wave functions to fractional quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

The space fractional Schroedinger equation with a finite square potential, periodic potential, and delta-function potential is studied in this paper. We find that the continuity or discontinuity condition of a fractional derivative of the wave functions should be considered to solve the fractional Schroedinger equation in fractional quantum mechanics. More parity states than those given by standard quantum mechanics for the finite square potential well are obtained. The corresponding energy equations are derived and then solved by graphical methods. We show the validity of Bloch's theorem and reveal the energy band structure for the periodic potential. The jump (discontinuity) condition for the fractional derivative of the wave function of the delta-function potential is given. With the help of the jump condition, we study some delta-function potential fields. For the delta-function potential well, an alternate expression of the wave function (the H function form of it was given by Dong and Xu [J. Math. Phys. 48, 072105 (2007)]) is obtained. The problems of a particle penetrating through a delta-function potential barrier and the fractional probability current density of the particle are also discussed. We study the Dirac comb and show the energy band structure at the end of the paper.

Dong Jianping; Xu Mingyu [Institute of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and System Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)



Mass hierarchy determination using neutrinos from multiple reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of a medium baseline reactor neutrino experiment. The difference in baselines resulting from the 1 km separations of Daya Bay and Ling Ao reactors reduces the amplitudes of 1-3 oscillations at low energies, decreasing the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. A perpendicular detector location eliminates this effect. We simulate experiments under several mountains perpendicular to the Daya Bay/Ling Ao reactors, considering in particular the background from the TaiShan and YangJiang reactor complexes. In general the hierarchy can be determined most reliably underneath the 1000 meter mountain BaiYunZhang, which is 44.5 km from Daya Bay. If some planned reactors are not built then nearby 700 meter mountains at 47-51 km baselines gain a small advantage. Neglecting their low overhead burdens, hills near BaiMianShi or DongKeng would be the optimal locations. We use a weighted Fourier transform to avoid a spurious dependence on the high energy neutrino spectrum and find that a neural network can extract quantities which determine the hierarchy marginally better than the traditional RL + PV.

Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Zhang, Xinmin



Studying the role of vision in cycling: Critique on restricting research to fixation behaviour.  


In a recent study published in Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vansteenkiste et al. (2013) - as one of the first in this field - investigated the visual control of bicycle steering. They undertook the interesting task of testing cyclists' eye fixation behaviour against Donges' two-level model of steering, i.e. the guidance level to anticipate alternations in the course of the road and the stabilization level for lane keeping. Although the laboratory experiment itself is well conducted, we believe that its results cannot be used to test the two-level model of steering as developed for driving. The test track was only 15m long, was completely straight and was known in advance. Accordingly, it did not provide adequate conditions for testing the guidance level. Furthermore, as the experimental lanes were much narrower than real-world cycling lanes, the stabilization level differed considerably from that in the real world. The study by Vansteenkiste et al. (2013) may provide valuable insight into the role of vision in 'precision steering', but, as we discuss in the paper, more elaborate research paradigms are needed to achieve more comprehensive knowledge of the role of vision in real-world cycling and cycling safety. PMID:23911618

Schepers, J P; Den Brinker, B P L M; De Waard, D; Twisk, D A M; Schwab, A L; Smeets, J B J



The behavior of dissolved inorganic selenium in the Bohai Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cruises of “R/V Dong Fang Hong 2” were carried out in September 1998 and May 1999, respectively, to understand the behavior of selenium in the Bohai Sea. Selenium species (dissolved inorganic selenium, selenite) are determined by HG-AFS for 30 grid stations. Selenium concentrations display short-term variability and seasonal change in the Bohai Sea, with higher levels in shallow coastal waters than in the Central Bohai Sea. The influence of riverine discharge on selenium levels can be seen from salinity isopleths, selenium distribution and species ratios. Near-bottom waters have similar selenium concentrations as to the surface waters in the Central Bohai Sea, whereas stratification takes place in the Bohai Strait and North Yellow sea. Based on the data of this study, a preliminary estimate of selenium budgets via riverine input is established. The seasonal variation of Se (IV)/Se (VI) ratio is maximum in Bohai Sea. The predominant species of selenium was selenate in autumn 1998. However, selenite became the dominant species in spring 1999. A simple box model was used to estimate the water-mass balance and selenium budgets for the Bohai Sea. Selenium budgets demonstrated that net sink of selenium can be mainly from the water column into bottom sediments and/or by transformation to other forms of selenium.

Yao, Q. Z.; Zhang, J.



Temporal and spatial distribution of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters, China.  


Between 1972 and 2009, evidence of red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent waters was collected. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of these red tides, and it was subsequently used to map the distribution of these events. The results show that the following findings. (1) There were three red tide-prone areas: outside the Yangtze River Estuary and the eastern coast of Sheshan, the Huaniaoshan-Shengshan-Gouqi waters, and the Zhoushan areas and eastern coast of Zhujiajian. In these areas, red tides occurred 174 total times, 25 of which were larger than 1000 km(2) in areal extent. After 2000, the frequency of red tide outbreaks increased significantly. (2) During the months of May and June, the red tide occurrence in these areas was 51% and 20%, respectively. (3) Outbreaks of the dominant red tide plankton species Prorocentrum dong-haiense, Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum dantatum, and Noctiluca scientillan occurred 38, 35, 15, and 10 times, respectively, during the study interval. PMID:23628547

Liu, Lusan; Zhou, Juan; Zheng, Binghui; Cai, Wenqian; Lin, Kuixuan; Tang, Jingliang



Universal Heat Conduction in the Iron Arsenide Superconductor KFe2As2: Evidence of a d-Wave State  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity ? of the iron arsenide superconductor KFe2As2 was measured down to 50 mK for a heat current parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis. A residual linear term at T?0, ?0/T is observed for both current directions, confirming the presence of nodes in the superconducting gap. Our value of ?0/T in the plane is equal to that reported by Dong et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 087005 (2010)] for a sample whose residual resistivity ?0 was 10 times larger. This independence of ?0/T on impurity scattering is the signature of universal heat transport, a property of superconducting states with symmetry-imposed line nodes. This argues against an s-wave state with accidental nodes. It favors instead a d-wave state, an assignment consistent with five additional properties: the magnitude of the critical scattering rate ?c for suppressing Tc to zero; the magnitude of ?0/T, and its dependence on current direction and on magnetic field; the temperature dependence of ?(T).

Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Gordon, R.T.; Rene de Cotret, S.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Saito, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Kohori, Y.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C.H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Taillefer, Louis



Pseudonocardia ammonioxydans sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment.  


Actinomycete strain H9T was isolated from coastal sediment of the Jiao-Dong peninsula (near Tsingdao city) in China, and was identified by means of polyphasic taxonomy. The strain grew autotrophically on modified nitrifying medium and heterotrophically on Luria-Bertani medium, with NaCl ranging from 0 to 8% (w/v) (optimal growth at 3.5%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of strain H9T to members of the genus Pseudonocardia ranged from 93.0 to 97.5%, indicating that strain H9T was phylogenetically related to members of the genus Pseudonocardia. Strain H9T had type IV cell wall and type PIII phospholipid, and its major menaquinone was MK-8 (H4). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain H9T and Pseudonocardia kongjuensis, Pseudonocardia autotrophica and Pseudonocardia compacta were 42, 13 and 11%, respectively. These results support the conclusion that H9T represents a novel species within the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia ammonioxydans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain H9T (= CGMCC 4.1877T = JCM 12462T). PMID:16514026

Liu, Zhi-Pei; Wu, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Shuang-Jiang



[Influence of "danxi theory" in Korea and Japan].  


"Danxi Theory" had deep influence on the traditional medicine in Korea and Japan. In Korea, the compilation of Yi Fang Lei Ju and Dong Yi Bao Jian referred to the medical works of ZHU Danxi and that of his students, the Korean doctors advocated the theory of ZHU Danxi's theory of "four injuries by qi, blood, phlegm and stagnation", and quoted large number of formulas and herbs from Dangxi's works into the above books. In Japan, Tashiro Sanki had came to China and studied medicine from Japanese monk Yue Hu, who was the disciple of YU Tianmin (a private disciple of ZHU Danxi). After returned to Japan he energetically initiated Danxi's theory and classified diseases to blood disease, qi disease and phlegm disease (water toxin) according to Danxi's theory of "four injuries by qi, blood, phlegm and stagnation". His student Manase D?san set up a "Danxi Society" and spread Danxi Theory in Japan and therefore the unique medical system "Gose Ha shcool" was formed. His student Manase Gensaku, and Manase Gensaku's students Okamoto Genya, Nagasawa Doju and Hurubayashi Kengi spread and developed Danxi Theory, hich was popular in Japan for more than 200 years. It was proved that Danxi Theory had deep and far influence on the formation and development of overseas traditional medicine in Korea and Japan. PMID:21781548

Yan, Yuming; Zhu, Jianping



Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  


Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi



Miyun metre-wave aperture synthesis radio telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miyun metre-wave aperture synthesis radiotelescope, working at frequency of 232 MHz, consists of an E-W array of 28 elements, each of 9 m aperture. 192 baselines are effected with a full coverage of the U-V plane (Fig. 2). The longest baseline is 1,164m. This instrument is designed for source survey and detection of peculiar sources in northern declinations. A set of observations completed in 2 × 12 hours gives a thermal noise limited sensititity of 0.05 Jy and a resolution of 3'8 × 3'8 csc ?. The field of view is 8° × 8°. This should enable us to complete an overall survey of the region ? >= + 30° within two years, and to carry out monitoring of selected areas. Figures 1 and 2 show the main properties and general design of the instrument and Figures 3 and 4 give some preliminary results of sky mapping. The following persons took part in the designing and making of the telescope: WANG Hong, Wang Xin-min, Wang Shou-guan, Liu Fu-you, Pu Ting-yi, Chen Hong-shen, Qiu Yu-hai, Yang Yi-pei, Pang Lei, Zhang Chun-lu, Zhang Guo-quan, Zhang Xi-zhen, Jin Tie-lin, Zheng Yi-jia, Zhao Hui-ping, Nan Ren-dong, Kang Lian-sheng, Bao Hong-qi, Wei Ming-zhi.



Defect Dynamics and Diblock Copolymer Alignment on Smooth and Intentionally Crafted Templating Substrates*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will present issues pertaining to defect mobility and thermal annealing, spatial alignment, and the prospect for functional decoration of diblock copolymer surface structures. The first stage of this effort has demonstrated that atomic force microscopy imaging can be used in a time-lapse manner to track the interactions of topological defects. Combining rules for various dislocation and disclination pairs have been established [1]. Next, efforts have been focussed on inducing spatial alignment in phase-separated cylinders. Strong polymer alignment has been realized in annular structures [2] and, most recently, on intentionally constructed lithographically generated grating substrates having selected depths and widths which guide the assembly of highly-aligned polymeric interfaces [3]. Future activities in hierarchical decoration of these thin-film materials will also be discussed. *It is with pleasure that I acknowledge my collaborators Jong-in Hahm, Deepak Sundrani, Qin Zheng, Dong-Chang Lee, Vladimir Belyi, Luping Yu, Heinrich Jaeger, and Tom Witten, as well as funding from the UC NSF-MRSEC, the UC-ANL Consortium for Nanoscience Research, and instrumentation development funds from the AFOSR. [1]. J. Hahm and S.J. Sibener, J. Chem. Phys. 114 4730-4740 (2001). [2]. J. Hahm and S.J. Sibener, Langmuir 16 4766-4769 (2000). [3]. Deepak Sundrani and S.J. Sibener, Macromolecules 35, 8531-8539 (2002).

Sibener, Steven J.



Opposite trends in sea-surface salinity and temperature between open-ocean and marginal seas in the tropical Western Pacific during the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?18O profiles of surface sea-waters from the Western Equatorial Pacific (MD982170, MD982176 and MD982181 in Stott et al., 2004) show a common, declining trend (~0.7‰) during the Holocene, reflecting a freshening-up of the tropical Pacific. On the other hand, our newly compiled data show that the sea- watern?18O in the South China Sea (MD972142, MD972151), Celebes Sea (MD12380) and Banda Sea (MD12388) increased through the Holocene by ~0.6‰. This suggests that in the western Pacific when the open-ocean has become less saline, the tropical marginal seas have become saltier. The latter phenomenon is consistent with the interpretation that the East Asian monsoon has become weaker during the past 9 ka as suggested by the increasing ?{18}O trend in speleothems of Doggae Cave (Wang et al., 2005) and Shanbao Cave in southern China (Dong et al., 2006). Furthermore, the SSTs in the Western equatorial Pacific have decreased by about 0.6°C during the Holocene (Stott et al., 2004) while the SSTs in the NE South China Sea (MD972142) shows a rising trend of ~1.0°C. On the other hand, the SSTs at other sites of the studied tropical marginal seas do not show any distinctive trends.

Wei, K.; Chen, C.; Chen, M.



Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine.  


Insects and other arthropods appear in pharmacopoeias of Korean traditional medicine, but little was known about their use in modern South Korea. Interviews were conducted with 20 traditional medicine doctors at clinics in South Korea's Kyeong Dong Shijang in Seoul--one of the world's largest traditional drug markets--to learn about current patterns of usage. Seventeen products are prescribed and the use of arthropod drugs is stable or increasing. Centipedes (Scolopendra spp.) used primarily to treat arthritis and the silk moth fungus (Beauveria bassiana, which infects silk moth larvae) used mostly to treat stroke, are the most frequently prescribed and medically important arthropod drugs. Most of the arthropod drugs were traditionally collected or reared on the Korean Peninsula, but now they are imported, mainly from China. Folk logic appears to be the basis for some arthropod drug uses (i.e. centipedes, which have many legs, are used for leg problems). But many of the arthropods have venom and other defensive chemicals which are biologically active. The South Korean use of arthropods as drugs (as well as for food and enjoyment) is due, in part, to more positive attitudes towards these animals compared to many cultures. Arthropods appear to be an unexplored and unexploited source of drugs for modern medicine. PMID:10404418

Pemberton, R W



Mass Analyzed Threshold Ionization of Lutetium Dimer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lu_2 is produced in a pulsed laser-vaporization metal-cluster source and studied by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. The MATI spectrum displays several long progressions from the transitions between various vibrational levels of the neutral and ion electronic states. From the spectrum, the upper limit of the ionization energy of the dimer is determined to be 43996 cm^{-1}, and the vibrational frequencies are measured to be 121 cm^{-1} in the neutral state and 90 cm^{-1} in the ion state. By combining with ab initio calculations at CASPT2 level, the ground state of Lu_2 is identified as ^3?_g^-. The ^3?_g^- state has an electron configuration of 6s?_g^25d?_u^15d?_u^16s?_u^2, which is formed by the interactions of two Lu atoms in the ^2D(5d6s^2) ground state. Ionization of the neutral state removes a 5d?_u bonding electron and yields a ion state with a considerably longer bond distance. Lu_2 has a very different bonding feature from La_2, for which a ^1?_g^+ ground state was previously identified with an electron configuration of 5d?_u^46s?_g^2 formed by the interactions of two La atoms in the ^4F(5d^26s) excited state. Yang Liu, Lu Wu, Chang-Hua Zhang, Serge A. Krasnokutski, and Dong-Sheng Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034309 (2011).

Wu, Lu; Roudjane, Mourad; Liu, Yang; Yang, Dong-Sheng



Effect of Antenatal Corticosteroid and Antibiotics in Pregnancies Complicated by Premature Rupture of Membranes between 24 and 28 weeks of Gestation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of active intervention with antenatal maternal corticosteroid and antibiotics therapy in infants delivered between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation after premature rupture of membrane. This retrospective study included pregnant women complicated by preterm delivery at the Dong-A University Hospital from 1998 to 2002. Patients were divided into labor induction group 1 (n=20), observation group 2 (n=19), and medication group 3 (n=20). We evaluated the effects of prolongation of pregnancy and intervention with maternal corticosteroids and antibiotics therapy on perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Each group did not have a significant difference (p<0.05) in neonatal outcomes, such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and sepsis. The mean latency period was 4.7 days and 7.6 days in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Therefore, this study was unable to demonstrate any beneficial effects of corticosteroids in improving neonatal outcomes and prolongation of the latency period with antibiotics.

Han, Myoung Seok



The impact of surface albedo on the retrievals of low-level stratus cloud properties: An updated parameterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated version of Dong et al. (1998, hereinafter referred to as D98) parameterization is developed from a total of 40 hours of data with a broad range of surface albedos (0.1-0.8) during the 2000-2002 winter seasons at the DOE ARM SGP site. The updated parameterization includes the impact of surface albedo on the retrievals of stratus cloud microphysical and radiative properties, and has a significant improvement over D98 when surface albedo is high. Comparing the retrievals, the cloud-droplet effective radii (re) calculated from the updated parameterization have a higher correlation coefficient (0.733) and lower Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error (1.74 ?m or 17.4%) than those (0.602, 4.0 ?m or 40%) from the D98. The cloud albedos also have a much higher correlation coefficient (0.983) and lower RMS (3%) than those (0..465, 26%) from the D98. The upper limit of surface albedo is 0.3 in applying the D98.

Dong, Xiquan



Prediction of Communication Outage Period between Satellite and Earth station Due to Sun Interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostationary satellites are located at an altitude of approximately 35,786km above the equator, and revolve in the same angular velocity as earth. Geostationary satellites can therefore, communicate with a ground earth station at all times. However, geostationary satellites also experience communication failure time, twice a year, closely one upon the other in spring and autumn quarters. The communication errors occur when ground station-satellite-the Sun are aligned closely, which occurs during spring and fall equinoxes. At such times, thermal noise emitted from the Sun's surface hits the rear side of the satellite and flows directly into the earth station antenna. This is called solar interference. Studies on duration calculation methods and prediction results of a solar interference phenomenon were implemented by many scientists (Vuong & Forsey 1983, Mohamadi & Lyon 1988, Lin & Yang 1989) abroad, and also by Lee et al. (1991) in Korea. To calculate the time of solar interference, information on precise position of the Sun and earth station antenna systems is necessary. Previous researches used the formula of Van Flandern (Van Flandern & Pulkkinen 1979) when calculating the Sun's position, but it has position error of about 1 arcmin. Using the precise ephemeris DE406, which published by NASA/JPL and the earth ellipsoid model, the study calculated the precise positioning of the Sun as causing error within 10 arcsec. For the verification of the calculation, we used TU media ground station located in Seongsu-dong and the MBSAT satellite operated by TU media.

Song, Yongjun; Kim, Kap-Sung; Jin, Ho; Lee, Byoung-Sun



Fo Shou San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction, Protects Endothelial Function through Increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity  

PubMed Central

Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) in a ratio of 2?3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS) were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels in HUVECs, and the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca2+ and a reduction of ROS.

Bi, Cathy W. C.; Xu, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Jian; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Lau, Chi Wai; Lau, David T. W.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Huang, Yu; Tsim, Karl W. K.



An integrated high resolution mass spectrometric and informatics approach for the rapid identification of phenolics in plant extract.  


An integrated approach based on high resolution MS analysis (orbitrap), database (db) searching and MS/MS fragmentation prediction for the rapid identification of plant phenols is reported. The approach was firstly validated by using a mixture of phenolic standards (phenolic acids, flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, isoflavones). In particular, the integrated approach consists of the following steps: (1) LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis in data dependent scan mode using an orbitrap mass analyzer (resolution 60,000; positive ion-mode, ESI source); (2) searching the experimental monoisotopic masses (tolerance 1 ppm) in plant phenols databases; (3) filtering the entries on the basis of the phenol class to which the unknown belongs, as determined on the basis of the UV spectrum. Final identification is achieved by matching the isotopic pattern and by MS/MS fragmentation studies. In particular, experimental MS/MS fragments are matched with those predicted by a commercially available software. The method was then successfully applied for the rapid identification of phenolics contained in an EtOH extract of Angelica keiskei. PMID:21435648

Aldini, Giancarlo; Regazzoni, Luca; Pedretti, Alessandro; Carini, Marina; Cho, Soo-Muk; Park, Ki-Moon; Yeum, Kyung-Jin



Protective effects of a novel synthetic ?-lipoic acid-decursinol hybrid compound in experimentally induced transient cerebral ischemia.  


Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a natural antioxidant, is widely used for the treatment of some diseases including diabetes, and decursinol (DA), a constituent of root of Angelica gigas Nakai, has some pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory function. In this study, we synthesized a novel synthetic alpha-lipoic acid-decursinol (ALA-DA) hybrid compound, and compared neuroprotective effects of ALA, DA or ALA-DA against ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region induced by 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. In the 10 and 20 mg/kg ALA-, DA- and 10 mg/kg ALA-DA-pre-treated-ischemia-groups, there were no neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage 4 days after ischemic injury. However, 20 mg/kg ALA-DA pre-treatment protected pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage in the CA1 region. In addition, 20 mg/kg ALA-DA pre-treatment markedly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the CA1 region 4 days after ischemic injury. On the other hand, post-treatment with the same dosages of them did not show any neuroprotective effect against ischemic damage. In brief, these findings indicate that pre-treatment with ALA-DA, not ALA or DA alone, can protect neurons from ischemic damage in the hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia via the decrease of glial activation. PMID:22814803

Lee, Tae Hun; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong-Dai; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, In Hye; Yim, Yongbae; Lee, Seul Ki; Yan, Bing Chun; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Park, Jeong Ho; Won, Moo-Ho



Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: a review.  


The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species (Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis to their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. While some of these herbaceous plants have a direct inhibitory effect on microbial organisms, we observe that each plant has at least one compound that selectively modulates cells of the immune system. The successful derivation of pure bioactive compounds from Ganoderma lucidum, ginseng and Zingiber officinale supports the traditional practice of using these plants to stimulate the immune system. As many modern drugs are often patterned after phytochemicals, studying the influence of each compound on immune cells as well as microbes can provide useful insights to the development of potentially useful new pharmacological agents. PMID:15180575

Tan, Benny K H; Vanitha, J



Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth by medical plant extracts.  


This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 18 plants and two fungi used in the Chinese and Mediterranean traditional medicines on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The extracts were tested against epimastigote of T. cruzi Bra C15C2 clone in vitro at 27 degrees C and at a concentration of 250 microg/ml in axenic culture. Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A. sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Coptis chinensis, Haplophyllum hispanicum, Phellodendron amurense, Poria cocos, Ranunculus sceleratus and Scutellaria baicalensis showed significant effects against the parasite with a percentage of growth inhibition between 20 and 100%. C. chinensis and R. sceleratus showed the greatest activity with IC(50) values of 1.7 microg/ml for C. chinensis and 10.7 microg/ml for R. sceleratus. These activities are greater than that of allopurinol. C. chinesis and R. sceleratus extracts did not show cytotoxic effects on rat polimorphonuclear cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactic dehydrogenase assays. These results allowed us to suggest that R. sceleratus and C. chinensis could be a source of new compounds clinically active against T. cruzi. PMID:12490214

Schinella, G R; Tournier, H A; Prieto, J M; Ríos, J L; Buschiazzo, H; Zaidenberg, A



Suppression of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene expression by Danggui buxue tang, a traditional Chinese herbal preparation, in retarding the progress of renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  


Danggui buxue tang (DBT), a preparation containing Angelica sinensis (danggui) and Astragalus membranaceus (huangqi) at a ratio of 1 : 5, is used widely in China for stimulating red blood cell production and enhancing cardiovascular function. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of this preparation on diabetic nephropathy using streptozotocin-diabetic rats as a model. Streptozotocin-dependent alterations in renal weight/body weight ratio, urinary albumin and beta (2)-microglobulin concentrations, urinary albumin excretion rate, and creatinine clearance were ameliorated after eight weeks of treatment with either DBT or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril. DBT, but not benazepril, partially attenuated the increases in blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in STZ-diabetic rats. Additionally, the increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta (1) mRNA in the renal cortex due to streptozotocin-induced diabetes was modestly attenuated by these treatments. However, eight weeks of treatment with DBT failed to modify the concentration of angiotensin II in plasma or kidney, indicating that the ability of the preparation to retard the progression of kidney disease was not attributable to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. We propose that DBT alleviates renal alterations in diabetes and slows the progression of diabetic nephropathy by suppressing transforming growth factor-beta (1) mRNA expression. The preparation may therefore be useful as an adjuvant therapy for controlling diabetes and its complications. PMID:16523407

Zhang, Y W; Xie, D; Xia, B; Zhen, R T; Liu, I-M; Cheng, J-T



Naoxintong protects against atherosclerosis through lipid-lowering and inhibiting maturation of dendritic cells in LDL receptor knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.  


Naoxintong (NXT), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product, extracted from 16 various kinds of Chinese traditional herbal medicines including Salvia miltiorrhiza, Angelica sinennsis, Astragali Radix, is clinically effective in treating atherosclerosisrelated diseases. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-atherosclerosis effects of NXT might be mediated by suppressing maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) in a mice model of atherosclerosis. LDLR(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with placebo, NXT (0.7 g/kg/d, oral diet) or simvastatin (100mg/kg/d, oral diet) for 8 weeks, respectively. NXT treatment significantly reduced plasma triglyceride (112 ± 18 mg/dl vs. 192 ± 68 mg/dl, P<0.05) and total cholesterol (944 ± 158 mg/dl vs. 1387 ± 208 mg/dl, P<0.05) compared to placebo treatment. Vascular lesions were significantly smaller and macrophage content and amount of DCs in plaques were significantly less in NXT and simvastatin groups than in placebo group (all P<0.05). In addition, expressions of splenic DC membrane molecules (CD40, CD86 and CD80) and the plasma level of IL-12p70 were significantly lower in NXT and simvastatin groups than in placebo group. In conclusion, NXT protects against atherosclerosis through lipid-lowering and inhibiting DCs maturation in this mice model of atherosclerosis. PMID:23438960

Zhao, Jingjing; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Shijun; Ma, Xin; Liu, Xiangwei; Wang, Cong; Zhao, Hangtian; Fan, Shuxia; Jin, Xueting; Zhao, Buchang; Zhao, Tao; Jia, Lifu; Wang, Keqiang; Zou, Yunzeng; Hu, Kai; Sun, Aijun; Ge, Junbo



The Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang Inhibits Angiogenesis in a Rat Model of Liver Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of the Chinese herbal decoction Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT; Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis in 5?:?1 ratio) in a rat model of liver fibrosis, in order to elucidate its mechanisms of action against liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced with CCl4 and high-fat food for 6 weeks, and the rats were treated with oral doses of DBT (6?g raw herbs/kg/d) and N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 0.1?g/kg/d). The results showed that both DBT and NAC attenuated liver fibrosis and neo-angiogenesis. Furthermore, DBT and NAC improved SOD activity but decreased MDA content and 8-OH-dG in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective than NAC. DBT decreased the expression of VEGF, Ang1 and TGF-?1 and their signaling mediators, whereas NAC had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR2 expression. Both DBT and NAC reduced HIF-1? gene and protein expression in fibrotic livers, with DBT being more effective. These data clearly demonstrate that the anti-fibrotic properties of DBT are related to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis and its anti-angiogenic mechanisms are associated with improving oxidative stress, regulating the expression and signaling of angiogenic factors, and especially modulating HIF-1? in fibrotic livers.

Lv, Jing; Zhao, Zhimin; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Qinglan; Tao, Yanyan; Yang, Li; Fan, Tai-Ping; Liu, Chenghai



Optimizing Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Unstable Angina Based on Partially Observable Markov Decision Process  

PubMed Central

Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root?+?Tangshen?+?Indian Bread?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root?+?Chinese Angelica?+?Safflower?+?Red Peony Root?+?Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit?+?Longstamen Onion Bulb?+?Pinellia Tuber?+?Dried Tangerine peel?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome?+?Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.

Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan



Position of the Upper Devonian Frasnian--Famennian boundary in the central Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

Biostratigraphic analysis of eight Upper Devonian sections in VA and WV reveals that the section at Huttonsville, Randolph County, WV, is a key locality for determining the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. The Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville indicates a higher stratigraphic placement of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary than has been generally assumed. Conodonts are not known within that section, so placement of the boundary uses the last occurrence of tentaculitids and the last and first occurrences of several species of brachiopods. It is believed that the Frasnian-Famennian boundary can be identified independently of the atrypoid brachiopods. Stratigraphic ranges of the cricoconarid Tentaculites discusses and the brachiopod Tropidoleptus carinatus, both considered Frasnian marker fossils, indicate that the Frasnian extends well into the Red Lick Member of the Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville, with T. carinatus occurring up to 70% of the stratigraphic thickness of the Red Lick. The Famennian marker fossils A. angelica and C. sulcifer are both found at Huttonsville above the last recorded occurrence of all the Frasnian marker fossils. To the northeast of Huttonsville the Frasnian-Famennian series boundary has been placed by other workers within or at the top of the Pound Member of the Foreknobs Formation. This discrepancy implies that either the Pound Member is diachronous or that to the northeast paleoecologic factors caused local disappearances of critical fossils before their extinction at Huttonsville.

Rossbach, T.J. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology)



Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia.  


Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-A? activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom. PMID:21808655

Lin, Zhihong; Gu, Jie; Xiu, Jin; Mi, Tingyan; Dong, Jie; Tiwari, Jyoti Kumar



Attractiveness of Michigan native plants to arthropod natural enemies and herbivores.  


The use of plants to provide nectar and pollen resources to natural enemies through habitat management is a growing focus of conservation biological control. Current guidelines frequently recommend use of annual plants exotic to the management area, but native perennial plants are likely to provide similar resources and may have several advantages over exotics. We compared a set of 43 native Michigan perennial plants and 5 frequently recommended exotic annual plants for their attractiveness to natural enemies and herbivores for 2 yr. Plant species differed significantly in their attractiveness to natural enemies. In year 1, the exotic annual plants outperformed many of the newly established native perennial plants. In year 2, however, many native perennial plants attracted higher numbers of natural enemies than exotic plants. In year 2, we compared each flowering plant against the background vegetation (grass) for their attractiveness to natural enemies and herbivores. Screening individual plant species allowed rapid assessment of attractiveness to natural enemies. We identified 24 native perennial plants that attracted high numbers of natural enemies with promise for habitat management. Among the most attractive are Eupatorium perfoliatum L., Monarda punctata L., Silphium perfoliatum L., Potentilla fruticosa auct. non L., Coreopsis lanceolata L., Spiraea alba Duroi, Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze, Anemone canadensis L., and Angelica atropurpurea L. Subsets of these plants can now be tested to develop a community of native plant species that attracts diverse natural enemy taxa and provides nectar and pollen throughout the growing season. PMID:17716466

Fiedler, A K; Landis, D A



LC-DAD-APCI-MS-based screening and analysis of the absorption and metabolite components in plasma from a rabbit administered an oral solution of danggui.  


A valid chromatographic fingerprint method using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in negative mode (LC-DAD-APCI-MS) is proposed for studying the absorption and metabolites of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Angelica sinensis (danggui) in rabbit plasma, after the rabbit is administered with danggui oral solution (DOS). More than thirty-two common components were detected in both DOS and rabbit plasma, which shows that the components in the DOS were absorbed into the body of the rabbit. Of these, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, Z-6,7-epoxyligustilide, 3-butylidene-7-hydroxyphthalide, Z-ligustilide, Z-butylidenephthalide, Diels-Alder dimers of ligustilide, linolenic acid, linoleic acid and falcarindiol were tentatively identified from their MS, UV spectra and retention behavior by comparing the results with the published literature. At least ten components were found in rabbit plasma but not in DOS, indicating that these components must be metabolites of some of the components in the original extract. The results prove that the proposed method can be used to rapidly analyze multiple constituents in TCMs, and to screen for bioactive compounds by comparing and contrasting the chromatographic fingerprints of DOS and plasma samples. PMID:16132135

Wang, Ya-Li; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Chen, Ben-Mei; He, Yong-Kang; Li, Bo-Yan; Hu, Qian-Nan



HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target.  


Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains the most common cause of death in the intensive care units, claiming approximately 225000 victims annually in the USA alone. The pathogenesis of sepsis is attributable, at least in part, to dysregulated systemic inflammatory responses characterized by excessive accumulation of various proinflammatory cytokines. A ubiquitous nuclear protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released by activated macrophages/monocytes, and functions as a late mediator of lethal endotoxaemia and sepsis. First, circulating HMGB1 levels are elevated in a delayed fashion (after 16-32h) in endotoxaemic and septic animals. Second, administration of recombinant HMGB1 to mice recapitulates many clinical signs of sepsis, including fever, derangement of intestinal barrier function, lung injury and lethal multiple organ failure. Third, administration of anti-HMGB1 antibodies or inhibitors (e.g. ethyl pyruvate, nicotine, stearoyl lysophosphatidylcholine and Chinese herbs such as Angelica sinensis) protects mice against lethal endotoxaemia, and rescues mice from lethal experimental sepsis even when the first doses are given 24 hours after onset of sepsis. Taken together, these experimental data establish HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal endotoxaemia and sepsis with a wider therapeutic window for the clinical management of lethal systemic inflammatory diseases. PMID:17380789

Wang, Haichao; Li, Wei; Goldstein, Richard; Tracey, Kevin J; Sama, Andrew E



HemoHIM enhances the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation treatment in tumor-bearing mice.  


Although radiotherapy is commonly used for a variety of cancers, radiotherapy alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In this study, we examined the possibility that HemoHIM can enhance the anticancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in melanoma-bearing mice. The HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs-Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma, and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice exposed to IR. IR treatment (5 Gy at 7 days after melanoma cell injection) reduced the weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with IR enhanced the decreases in tumor weight (P < .03). In the melanoma-bearing mice treated with IR, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, although the proportions of these cells in spleen were not different. In addition, HemoHIM administration increased the interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice treated with IR. In conclusion, HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during radiotherapy for enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:20136435

Park, Hae-Ran; Ju, Eun-Jin; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Sung-Ho



Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.  


The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. PMID:17705143

Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae



Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.  


HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-?(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23844220

Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae



HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses in fractionated ?-irradiated mice by modulating the IL-12p70-STAT4 signaling pathway.  


Whole body irradiated mice appear to experience a down-regulation of the helper T (Th)1-like immune response, and maintain a persistent immunological imbalance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HemoHIM (an herbal product made from Angelica Radix, Cnidium officinale , and Paeonia japonica cultivated in Korea) to ameliorate the immunological imbalance induce in fractionated ?-irradiated mice. The mice were exposed to ? rays twice a week (0.5 Gy fractions) for a total dose of 5 Gy, and HemoHIM was administrated orally from 1 week before the first irradiation to 1 week before the final analysis. All experiments were performed 4 and 6 months after their first exposure. HemoHIM ameliorated the Th1- and Th2-related immune responses normally occur in irradiated mice with or without dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. HemoHIM also restored the natural killer cell activities without changing the percentage of natural killer cells in irradiated mice. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM prevented the reduction in levels of interleukin-12p70 in irradiated mice. Finally, we found that HemoHIM enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4 that was reduced in irradiated mice. Our findings suggest that HemoHIM ameliorates the persistent down-regulation of Th1-like immune responses by modulating the IL-12p70/pSTAT4 signaling pathway. PMID:22439601

Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Choi, Nam-Hee; Jung, Uhee



Identification of metabolites of Buyang Huanwu Decoction in rat urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-QTOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines.

Wen, Xiao-Dong; Liu, E-Hu; Yang, Jie; Li, Chang-Yin; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Ping



Evaluating a Cumaean Sibyl: Domenichino or later? A multi analytical approach.  


The purpose of this study is to clarify important details about a Cumaean Sibyl painting that is preserved in a private collection. This work, bearing neither signature nor date, has never undergone conservation. It was executed after Domenichino's Cumaean Sibyl, a work known to have been used as a model by many 18th century painters. Investigation of the anonymous artist's painting technique and identification of its constituent materials were facilitated by employing optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), FTIR and microRaman spectroscopies and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The painter's palette comprised lead white, yellow ochre, lead-antimonate yellow (Naples yellow), cinnabar, cochineal lake, madder lake, haematite, Prussian blue and carbon black. The detection of Prussian blue (synthesized in 1704 and widely used as artist's pigment after 1750) was decisive in establishing the work's authenticity for, as such, it cannot be attributed either to Domenico Zampieri (1581-1641) or to his apprentices. In addition, the identification of Naples yellow, which prevailed in the period from 1750 to 1850, supports this statement. Nevertheless, its elaborate painting technique strongly suggests an artist greatly influenced by the Renaissance masters. A comparison of its stylistic features with those of the Cumaean Sibyl of Angelica Kauffmann (1741-1807), a prolific 18th century artist known to have studied and to have copied Domenichino's Sibyl, reveals significant similarities between the two in composition and palette. The unsigned Sibyl, therefore, could well be by Kauffmann. PMID:18328327

Daniilia, Sister; Minopoulou, Elpida; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Kourouklis, Gerasimos A



Effect of a novel botanical agent Drynol Cibotin on human osteoblast cells and implications for osteoporosis: promotion of cell growth, calcium uptake and collagen production.  


Osteoporosis is a widespread problem afflicting millions of people. Drynol Cibotinis is a newly developed proprietary botanical combination of eight botanicals including Angelica sinensis, Glycine max, Wild yam, Ligustrum lucidum, Astragalus membranaceus, Cuscuta chinensis, Psoraleae corylifoliae, and Drynaria fortune. Each of the botanicals has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat osteoporosis. The effect of Drynol Cibotinis, with the specific combination of these anti-osteoporosis botanicals for promoting bone growth, was examined in this study. The effects of Drynol Cibotin on cell growth, apoptosis, cell spreading, calcium uptake and production of bone matrix proteins Collagen I and Laminin B2 on human osteoblast cells were assessed by BrdU incorporation, TUNEL assay, cell staining, intracellular Ca2+ measurement and Western blot analysis. The results showed that Drynol Cibotin significantly increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in osteoblasts (P < 0.01). In addition, Drynol Cibotin was found to promote cell spreading and greatly increase calcium uptake both instantaneously and in the long term (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Drynol Cibotin significantly increased production of two key extracellular matrix proteins in bone cells: Collagen I and Laminin B2. These results indicate that Drynol Cibotin alone or in combination with amino acids and vitamins may have prophylactic potentials in osteoporosis. PMID:19953582

Wegiel, Barbara; Persson, Jenny L



The Dynamic Nature of the Ligustilide Complex  

PubMed Central

Monomeric phthalides like Z-ligustilide (1) and Z-butylidenephthalide (2) are major constituents of medicinal plants of the Apiaceae family. While 1 has been associated with a variety of observed biological effects, it is also known for its instability and rapid chemical degradation. For the purpose of isolating pure 1 and 2, a gentle and rapid 2-step countercurrent isolation procedure was developed. From a supercritical CO2 fluid extract of Angelica sinensis roots, the phthalides were isolated with high GC-MS purities of 99.4 % for 1 and 98.9 % for 2, and consistently lower qHNMR purities of 98.1 % and 96.4 %, respectively. Taking advantage of molarity-based qHNMR methodology, a time-resolved study of the dynamic changes and residual complexity of pure 1 was conducted. GC-MS and (qH)NMR analysis of artificially degraded 1 provided evidence for the phthalide degradation pathways and optimized storing conditions. Parallel qHNMR analysis led to the recognition of variations in time- and process-dependant sample purity, and has impact on the overall assessment of time dependent changes in complex natural products systems. The study underscores the importance of independent quantitative monitoring as a prerequisite for the biological evaluation of labile natural products such as monomeric phthalides.

Schinkovitz, Andreas; Pro, Samuel M.; Main, Matthew; Chen, Shao-Nong; Jaki, Birgit U.; Lankin, David C.; Pauli, Guido F.



Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of {beta}-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia.  


The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of beta-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of beta-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of beta-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and gamma-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto



Diepoxybutane and mitomycin C toxicity is associated with the induction of oxidative DNA damage in sea urchin embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diepoxybutane (DEB)-and mitomycin C (MMC)-associated toxicity was investigated in embryos from the sea urchin (SU) species Sphaerechinus granularis. DEB-and MMC-induced toxicity resulted in S. granularis embryos and larvae at concentrations ranging 10 5 to 10 4 M DEB, and 3 10 3International Atomic Energy Agency, Quai 6 to 3 10 5 M MMC, in terms of larval malformations, developmental arrest

G. Pagano; P. Degan; A. de Biase; M. Iaccarino; M. Warnau



Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Automotive Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quais-isotropic carbon-fiber thermoplastic composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite consisted of a PolyPhenylene Sulfide (PPS) thermoplastic matrix (Fortron's PPS - Ticona 0214B1 powder) reinforced with 16 plies of carbon-fiber unidirectional tape, [0?\\/90?\\/+45?\\/-45?]2S. The carbon fiber was Hexcel AS-4C and was present in a fiber volume of 53%

Dan J Naus; James Corum; Lynn B Klett; Mike Davenport; Rick Battiste; Simpson Jr. William A



As paixões naturais e as ações humanas voluntárias em Thomas Hobbes1 The natural passions and voluntary human actions in Thomas Hobbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo procuram-se examinar as razões pelas quais se originam e procedem as ações humanas em Hobbes. Primeiramente, evidencia-se que as ações humanas procedem dos movimentos voluntários, e que tais movimentos são responsáveis pelo processo de deliberação humana. Em seguida, discute-se o papel da vontade em relação às ações voluntárias, ressaltando, sobretudo, como essas ações constituem-se em ações livres, de

Delmo Mattos da Silva


Johnson-Cook Strength Model Constants for VascoMax 300 and 1080 Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High strength steels, VascoMax 300 and 1080 steel, are characterized under tension at strain rates of ˜1\\/s, ˜500\\/s, ˜1000\\/s, and ˜1500\\/s and at high temperatures (1000°F for Vascomax 300 and 1080 steel to 750°F) using the quai-static and split Hopkinson bar techniques. The data on 1080 steel exhibit a strain hardening response, whereas VascoMax 300 steel showed diminishing flow stress

John D. Cinnamon; N. S. Brar



Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais e problemas de comportamento: comparando pais e mães de pré-escolares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Práticas educativas parentais podem contribuir para a instalação de problemas de comportamento em crianças. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais (HSE-P) entre pais de pré-escolares com problemas de comportamento e pais de pré-escolares com comportamentos socialmente habilidosos. Adicionalmente, compa- raram-se as HSP-E de pais e mães. Participaram 48 casais, dos quais 24 tinham um(a) filho(a)

Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva; Edna Maria Marturano



Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I. Polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery. EM wave propagation and scattering in polarimetric SAR interferometry / S. R. Cloude. Terrain topographic inversion from single-pass polarimetric SAR image data by using polarimetric stokes parameters and morphological algorithm / Y. Q. Jin, L. Luo. Road detection in forested area using polarimetric SAR / G. W. Dong ... [et al.]. Research on some problems about SAR radiometric resolution / G. Dong ... [et al.]. A fast image matching algorithm for remote sensing applications / Z. Q. Hou ... [et al.]. A new algorithm of noised remote sensing image fusion based on steerable filters / X. Kang ... [et al.]. Adaptive noise reduction of InSAR data based on anisotropic diffusion models and their applications to phase unwrapping / C. Wang, X. Gao, H. Zhang -- II. Scattering from randomly rough surfaces. Modeling tools for backscattering from rough surfaces / A. K. Fung, K. S. Chen. Pseudo-nondiffracting beams from rough surface scattering / E. R. Méndez, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin. Surface roughness clutter effects in GPR modeling and detection / C. Rappaport. Scattering from rough surfaces with small slopes / M. Saillard, G. Soriano. Polarization and spectral characteristics of radar signals reflected by sea-surface / V. A. Butko, V. A. Khlusov, L. I. Sharygina. Simulation of microwave scattering from wind-driven ocean surfaces / M. Y. Xia ... [et al.]. HF surface wave radar tests at the Eastern China Sea / X. B. Wu ... [et al.] -- III. Electromagnetics of complex materials. Wave propagation in plane-parallel metamaterial and constitutive relations / A. Ishimaru ... [et al.]. Two dimensional periodic approach for the study of left-handed metamaterials / T. M. Grzegorczyk ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of the effective constitutive parameters of a random medium containing small chiral spheres / Y. Nanbu, T. Matsuoka, M. Tateiba. Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media: from the Helmholtz to the Ginzburg -Landau equation / M. Gitterman. Transformation of the spectrum of scattered radiation in randomly inhomogeneous absorptive plasma layer / G. V. Jandieri, G. D. Aburjunia, V. G. Jandieri. Numerical analysis of microwave heating on saponification reaction / K. Huang, K. Jia -- IV. Scattering from complex targets. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering from layered crossed-gratings of circular cylinders using lattice sums technique / K. Yasumoto, H. T. Jia. Scattering by a body in a random medium / M. Tateiba, Z. Q. Meng, H. El-Ocla. A rigorous analysis of electromagnetic scattering from multilayered crossed-arrays of metallic cylinders / H. T. Jia, K. Yasumoto. Vector models of non-stable and spatially-distributed radar objects / A. Surkov ... [et al.]. Simulation of algorithm of orthogonal signals forming and processing used to estimate back scattering matrix of non-stable radar objects / D. Nosov ... [et al.]. New features of scattering from a dielectric film on a reflecting metal substrate / Z. H. Gu, I. M. Fuks, M. Ciftan. A higher order FDTD method for EM wave propagation in collision plasmas / S. B. Liu, J. J. Mo, N. C. Yuan -- V. Radiative transfer and remote sensing. Simulating microwave emission from Antarctica ice sheet with a coherent model / M. Tedesco, P. Pampaloni. Scattering and emission from inhomogeneous vegetation canopy and alien target by using three-dimensional Vector Radiative Transfer (3D-VRT) equation / Y. Q. Jin, Z. C. Liang. Analysis of land types using high-resolution satellite images and fractal approach / H. G. Zhang ... [et al.]. Data fusion of RADARSAT SAR and DMSP SSM/I for monitoring sea ice of China's Bohai Sea / Y. Q. Jin. Retrieving atmospheric temperature profiles from simulated microwave radiometer data with artificial neural networks / Z. G. Yao, H. B. Chen -- VI. Wave propagation and wireless communication. Wireless propagation in urban environments: modeling and experimental verification / D. Erricolo ... [et al.]. An overview of physics-based wave propagation in forested environment / K. Sarabandi, I. Koh. Angle-of-arrival fluctuations due

Jin, Ya-Qiu


Internal Tides and Solitons in the Deep Basin of the South China Sea Observed From a Drifting Ship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Ocean Researcher 3 and 2 cruises in May, 2005 we collected approximately 100 hourly CTD (up-down) casts to 1000m spanning about 10 calendar days along with drifter, thermistor chains, and ADCP data in the upper 200m. This dataset allows to analyze the solitons and internal tides in time-depth space at a fixed location in the South China Sea deep basin. Averaged profiles of hydrographic field were produced and extended to the bottom using climatological fields. Then an analysis of internal oscillations was performed using the method of separation of vertical and horizontal variables in the rotating reference frame. For the first vertical mode modal speed was found to be around C_m=2.5 m/s. Due to rotation of the Earth the group speed C_g is somewhat lower: it characterizes the propagation of energy from Luzon Strait within the envelope modulated by the spring-neap cycle. The phase speed C_p is somewhat larger, C_g C_p=C_m2. Presumably the surface expression of the internal tide and the solitons are locked to the phase propagation. We estimate the role of the nonlinearity by considering the front of the internal soliton packet as an internal hydraulic jump. The observed finite amplitude isopycnal displacements of some 200m at about 700m result in roughly 20% variation in the modal speed according to the long wave theory. If a wave has a sinusoidal shape originally it will evolve into a nonlinear N-shape with hydraulic jumps over 3/4 of the distance from Luzon Strait to Dong Sha Island. The fact that the observed isopycnal displacements have the N-shape form closer to Luzon Strait suggests importance of the nonlinear factors in the internal tide at the origin.

Sheremet, V. A.; Centurioni, L.; Niiler, P.



Purification and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase from apple fruit.  


1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of ACC to ethylene. Following conventional column fractionation, the enzyme was purified 180-fold to near homogeneity with a specific activity of 20 nmol/(mg.min). This purified enzyme preparation migrated as a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa on SDS/PAGE and 39 kDa on gel filtration. As in vivo, the purified enzyme required CO2 for activity. Removal of CO2 from the reaction mixture completely abolished the enzyme activity, while 0.5% atmospheric CO2 (0.15 mM in the medium) gave half-maximal activity. The purified enzyme displayed an absolute requirement for Fe2+ and ascorbate. The stoichiometry of the enzymatic reaction was determined: ACC + ascorbate + O2-->C2H4 + HCN + CO2 + dehydroascorbate + 2 H2O. A polyclonal antibody was raised against a synthetic tridecapeptide (PDLEEEYRKTMKE) whose sequence was deduced from the apple pAE12 cDNA [Dong, J. G., Olson, D., Silverstone, A. & Yang, S. F. (1992) Plant Physiol. 98, 1530-1531], which is homologous to tomato cDNAs encoding ACC oxidase. On a Western blot, this antibody specifically recognized the purified ACC oxidase protein. The amino acid composition of the purified enzyme agreed well with that deduced from the pAE12 sequence. When the protein was cleaved with CNBr and one of the peptide fragments was isolated and sequenced for 20 cycles, its sequence (KEFAVELEKLAEKLLDLLCE) precisely matched that predicted from pAE12 (residues 115-134). When preclimacteric apple fruit was treated with ethylene, a parallel increase in in vivo and in vitro ACC oxidase activities was observed, and this increase was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the level of pAE12 transcript. These observations support the conclusion that the isolated ACC oxidase protein is encoded by pAE12. PMID:1409700

Dong, J G; Fernández-Maculet, J C; Yang, S F



The Rous Sarcoma Virus Env Glycoprotein Contains a Highly Conserved Motif Homologous to Tyrosine-Based Endocytosis Signals and Displays an Unusual Internalization Phenotype  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic domains of retroviral transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins contain conserved sequence motifs that resemble tyrosine-based (YXXØ-type) endocytosis signals. We have previously described a mutant Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Env protein, Env-?26, with an L165R mutation in the membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of TM, that exhibited dramatically decreased steady-state surface expression (G. L. Davis and E. Hunter, J. Cell Biol. 105:1191–1203, 1987; P. B. Johnston, J. Y. Dong, and E. Hunter, Virology 206:353–361, 1995). We now demonstrate that the tyrosine of the Y190RKM motif in the RSV TM cytoplasmic domain is crucial for the ?26 phenotype and is part of an efficient internalization signal in the context of a mutant MSD. In contrast, despite the presence of the Y190RKM motif, wild-type RSV Env is constitutively internalized at a slow rate (1.1%/min) more characteristic of bulk uptake during membrane turnover than of active clustering into endocytic vesicles. The ?26 mutation and two MSD mutations that abrogate palmitoylation of TM resulted in enhanced Env endocytosis indicative of active concentration into coated pits. Surprisingly, an Env-Y190A mutant was apparently excluded from coated pits since its uptake rate of 0.3%/min was significantly below that expected for the bulk rate. We suggest that in RSV Env an inherently functional endocytosis motif is silenced by a counteracting determinant in the MSD that acts to prevent clustering of Env into endocytic vesicles. Mutations in either the cytoplasmic tail or the MSD that inactivate one of the two counteracting signals would thus render the remaining determinant dominant.

Ochsenbauer, Christina; Dubay, Susan R.; Hunter, Eric



2K09 and thereafter : the coming era of integrative bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing for functional genomics and personalized medicine research.  


Significant interest exists in establishing synergistic research in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. Supported by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF), International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine (, International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design (IJCBDD) and International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalized Medicine, the ISIBM International Joint Conferences on Bioinformatics, Systems Biology and Intelligent Computing (ISIBM IJCBS 2009) attracted more than 300 papers and 400 researchers and medical doctors world-wide. It was the only inter/multidisciplinary conference aimed to promote synergistic research and education in bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing. The conference committee was very grateful for the valuable advice and suggestions from honorary chairs, steering committee members and scientific leaders including Dr. Michael S. Waterman (USC, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Chih-Ming Ho (UCLA, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Academician of Academia Sinica), Dr. Wing H. Wong (Stanford, Member of United States National Academy of Sciences), Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy (UC Berkeley, Member of United States National Academy of Engineering and Member of United States Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), Dr. Mary Qu Yang (United States National Institutes of Health and Oak Ridge, DOE), Dr. Andrzej Niemierko (Harvard), Dr. A. Keith Dunker (Indiana), Dr. Brian D. Athey (Michigan), Dr. Weida Tong (FDA, United States Department of Health and Human Services), Dr. Cathy H. Wu (Georgetown), Dr. Dong Xu (Missouri), Drs. Arif Ghafoor and Okan K Ersoy (Purdue), Dr. Mark Borodovsky (Georgia Tech, President of ISIBM), Dr. Hamid R. Arabnia (UGA, Vice-President of ISIBM), and other scientific leaders. The committee presented the 2009 ISIBM Outstanding Achievement Awards to Dr. Joydeep Ghosh (UT Austin), Dr. Aidong Zhang (Buffalo) and Dr. Zhi-Hua Zhou (Nanjing) for their significant contributions to the field of intelligent biological medicine. PMID:21143775

Yang, Jack Y; Niemierko, Andrzej; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Xu, Dong; Athey, Brian D; Zhang, Aidong; Ersoy, Okan K; Li, Guo-Zheng; Borodovsky, Mark; Zhang, Joe C; Arabnia, Hamid R; Deng, Youping; Dunker, A Keith; Liu, Yunlong; Ghafoor, Arif



Biotransformation of Ni-substituted hydrous ferric oxide by an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium.  


The reductive biotransformation of a Ni(2+)-substituted (5 mol %) hydrous ferric oxide (NiHFO) by Shewanella putrefaciens, strain CN32, was investigated under anoxic conditions at circumneutral pH. Our objectives were to define the influence of Ni2+ substitution on the bioreducibility of the HFO and the biomineralization products formed and to identify biogeochemical factors controlling the phase distribution of Ni2+ during bioreduction. Incubations with CN32 and NiHFO were sampled after 14 and 32 d, and both aqueous chemistry and solid phases were characterized. By comparison of these results with a previous study (Fredrickson, J. K.; Zachara, J. M.; Kennedy, D. W.; Dong, H.; Onstott, T. C.; Hinman, N. W.; Li, S. W. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1998, 62, 3239-3257), it was concluded that coprecipitated/sorbed Ni2+ inhibited the bioreduction of HFO through an undefined chemical mechanism. Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed analysis of the residual HFO phase and the identity and approximate mass percent of biogenic mineral phases. The presence of AQDS, a soluble electron shuttle that obviates need for cell--oxide contact, was found to counteract the inhibiting effect of Ni2+. Nickel was generally mobilized during bioreduction in a trend that correlated with final pH, except in cases where PO4(3-) was present and vivianite precipitation occurred. CN32 promoted the formation of Ni(2+)-substituted magnetite (Fe2IIIFe(1-x)IINixIIO4) in media with AQDS but without PO4(3-). The formation of this biogenic coprecipitate, however, had little discernible impact on final aqueous Ni2+ concentrations. These results demonstrate that coprecipitated Ni can inhibit dissimilatory microbial reduction of amorphous iron oxide, but the presence of humic acids may facilitate the immobilization of Ni within the crystal structure of biogenic magnetite. PMID:11349281

Fredrickson, J K; Zachara, J M; Kukkadapu, R K; Gorby, Y A; Smith, S C; Brown, C F



Analysis of cellular proteome alterations in porcine alveolar macrophage cells infected with 2009 (H1N1) and classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses.  


The H1N1/2009 influenza virus has the potential to cause a human pandemic, and sporadic cases of human-to-pig transmission have been reported. In this study, two influenza viruses were isolated from pigs. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the A/swine/NanChang/F9/2010(H1N1) (F9/10) strain shared a high degree of homology with the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus, and A/swine/GuangDong/34/2006 (H1N1) (34/06) strains was a classical swine influenza virus. A proteomic analysis was performed to investigate possible alterations of protein expression in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells infected by the F9/10 and 34/06 viruses over different time courses. Using 2-DE in association with MALDI-TOF MS/MS, we identified 13 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated protein spots, including cytoskeleton proteins, cellular signal transduction proteins, molecular biosynthesis proteins and heat shock proteins. The most significant changes in the infected cells were associated with molecular biosynthesis proteins and heat shock proteins. We analysed the biological characteristics of the F9/10 and 34/06 viruses in vivo and in vitro. The F9/10 virus showed greater pathogenicity than the 34/06 virus in PAM cells and mice. This study provides insights into the biologic characteristics, potential virulence alteration and cross-species transmission mechanisms of the pandemic H1N1/2009. PMID:22202185

Zhu, JiPing; Zou, Wei; Jia, GuangMin; Zhou, HongBo; Hu, Yong; Peng, MengYun; Chen, HuanChun; Jin, MeiLin



Cross-genome screening of novel sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons: various multicopy RNA genes and microsatellites are selected as targets.  


Although most LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements), which are autonomous non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons, are inserted throughout the host genome, three groups of LINEs, the early-branched group, the Tx group, and the R1 clade, are inserted into specific sites within the target sequence. We previously characterized the sequence specificity of the R1 clade elements. In this study, we screened the other two groups of sequence-specific LINEs from public DNA databases, reconstructed elements from fragmented sequences, identified their target sequences, and analyzed them phylogenetically. We characterized 13 elements in the early-branched group and 13 in the Tx group. In the early-branched group, we identified R2 elements from sea squirts and zebrafish in this study, although R2 has not been characterized outside the arthropod group to date. This is the first evidence of cross-phylum distribution of sequence-specific LINEs. The Dong element also occurs across phyla, among arthropods and mollusks. In the Tx group, we characterized five novel sequence-specific families: Kibi for TC repeats, Koshi for TTC repeats, Keno for the U2 snRNA gene, Dewa for the tRNA tandem arrays, and Mutsu for the 5S rRNA gene. Keno and Mutsu insert into the highly conserved region within small RNA genes and destroy the targets. Several copies of Dewa insert different positions of tRNA tandem array, which indicates a certain "site specifier" other than sequence-specific endonuclease. In all three groups, LINEs specific for the rRNA genes or microsatellites can occur as multiple families in one organism. This indicates that the copy number of a target sequence is the primary factor to restrict the variety of sequence specificity of LINEs. PMID:12949131

Kojima, Kenji K; Fujiwara, Haruhiko



Identification of the endonuclease domain encoded by R2 and other site-specific, non-long terminal repeat retrotransposable elements.  


The non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, R2, encodes a sequence-specific endonuclease responsible for its insertion at a unique site in the 28S rRNA genes of arthropods. Although most non-LTR retrotransposons encode an apurinic-like endonuclease upstream of a common reverse transcriptase domain, R2 and many other site-specific non-LTR elements do not (CRE1 and 2, SLACS, CZAR, Dong, R4). Sequence comparison of these site-specific elements has revealed that the region downstream of their reverse transcriptase domain is conserved and shares sequence features with various prokaryotic restriction endonucleases. In particular, these non-LTR elements have a Lys/Arg-Pro-Asp-X12-14aa-Asp/Glu motif known to lie near the scissile phosphodiester bonds in the protein-DNA complexes of restriction enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis of the R2 protein was used to provide evidence that this motif is also part of the active site of the endonuclease encoded by this element. Mutations of this motif eliminate both DNA-cleavage activities of the R2 protein: first-strand cleavage in which the exposed 3' end is used to prime reverse transcription of the RNA template and second-strand cleavage, which occurs after reverse transcription. The general organization of the R2 protein appears similar to the type IIS restriction enzyme, FokI, in which specific DNA binding is controlled by a separate domain located amino terminal to the cleavage domain. Previous phylogenetic analysis of their reverse transcriptase domains has indicated that the non-LTR elements identified here as containing restriction-like endonucleases are the oldest lineages of non-LTR elements, suggesting a scenario for the evolution of non-LTR elements. PMID:10393910

Yang, J; Malik, H S; Eickbush, T H



A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability  

SciTech Connect

In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: •Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? •What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? •Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.



Reactive scattering of F+HD -> HF(v,J)+D: HF(v,J) nascent product state distributions and evidence for quantum transition state resonances  

SciTech Connect

Single collision reactive scattering dynamics of F+ HDHF(v,J)+ D have been investigated exploiting high-resolution (0.0001 cm?1) infrared laser absorption for quantum state resolved detection of nascent HF(v,J) product states. State resolved Doppler profiles are recorded for a series of HF rovibrational transitions and converted into state resolved fluxes via density-to-flux analysis, yielding cross-section data for relative formation of HF(v,J) at Ecom0.6(2), 1.0(3), 1.5(3), and 1.9(4) kcal/mol. State resolved HF(v,J) products at all but the lowest collision energy exhibit Boltzmann-type populations, characteristic of direct reactive scattering dynamics. At the lowest collision energy[Ecom0.6(2) kcal/mol], however, the HF(v= 2,J) populations behave quite anomalously, exhibiting a nearly''flat'' distribution out to J11 before dropping rapidly to zero at the energetic limit. These results provide strong experimental support for quantum transition state resonance dynamics near Ecom0.6 kcal /mol corresponding classically to H atom chattering between the F and D atoms, and prove to be in remarkably quantitative agreement with theoretical wave packet predictions by Skodje et al.[J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4536 (2000)]. These fully quantum state resolved studies therefore nicely complement the recent crossed beam studies of Dong et al.[J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3633 (2000)], which confirm the presence of this resonance via angle resolved differential cross-section measurements. The observed quantum state distributions near threshold also indicate several rotational states in the HF(v= 3) vibrational manifold energetically inaccessible to F(2P3/2) reagent, but which are consistent with a minor (5%) nonadiabatic contribution from spin?orbit excited F*(2P1/2).?2002 American Institute of Physics.

Harper, Warren W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Nizkorodov, Sergey A. (California Institute of Technology); Nesbitt, David (Colorado, University Of)



[Analysis of trace elements in corncob by microwave digestion-ICP-AES].  


The contents of trace elements of Zn, Mg, Mn, Sr, Fe, Pb, Cu and Se in the corncob collected from Beijing, Shan-dong, Jilin, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Gansu, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Neimeng in China were determined by ICP-AES using microwave digestion. The optimum condition of digesting the corncob was: put 1.5 mL of 68% nitric acid and 0.5 mL of hydrofluoric acid in the pot, then digested the sample with 3 steps under the 400 W power in the microwave oven. This digesting procedure could completely and quickly digest the sample. The relative standard deviations and recovery yield are 0.72%-4.16% and 95.5%-104.5% for Zn, 1.58-3.66% and 98.2%-103.5% for Mg, 0.19%-4.58% and 97.0%-103.2% for Mn, 1.31%-4.90% and 95.7%-104.1% for Sr, 1.40%-4.01% and 95.9%-104.6% for Fe, 1.55%-4.28% and 95.1%-104.5% for Pb, 2.16%-5.00% and 96.4%-103.5% for Cu, and 2.00%-4.99% and 95.1%-101.3% for Se, respectively. The analysis of the trace metals by the method of ICP-AES using the method of microwave digestion proved to be easily operational, rapid, highly sensitive, and accurate. It could be adopted as the method of determining many elements simultaneously. PMID:17944429

Sun, Yong; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Yang, Gang; Li, Zuo-Hu



Life time suicidal thoughts in an urban community in Hanoi, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Suicidal thought is a risk factor and a stage in the suicidal process from planning to attempting and dying by suicide. To date, studies on suicidal thought in the general population, especially in Asian communities, have been limited. Method The WHO SUPRE-MISS (the multisite intervention study on suicidal behaviours) community survey questionnaire was filled in for 2,280 randomly selected residents of the DongDa district of Hanoi, Vietnam by means of face-to-face interviews. This multi-factor questionnaire includes such variables as sociodemographic information, suicidal thought and history of suicide attempts, physical health, alcohol consumption and medication. Results Prevalence rates for life time suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts were 8.9%, 1.1% and 0.4% respectively. Suicidal thoughts are associated with multiple characteristics, such as female gender, single/widowed/separated/divorced marital status, low income, lifestyle (use of alcohol, sedatives and pain relief medication), but not with low education or employment status. Having no religion and being a Buddhist appear to be protective factors for suicidal thought. The ratio of suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts on a lifetime basis is 22.3:2.8:1. Conclusion In Vietnam, as in Western and other Asian countries, suicidal thoughts are associated with similar negative psychosocial risk factors, lifestyle and emotional problems, which implies that suicide preventive measure developed elsewhere can be adjusted to Vietnamese condition. Understanding the unique and common risks in a culture may assist in prediction and control.

Thanh, Huong Tran Thi; Tran, Trung Nam; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Leenaars, Antoon; Wasserman, Danuta



The heptad repeats region is essential for AcMNPV P10 filament formation and not the proline-rich or the C-terminus basic regions  

SciTech Connect

Baculovirus P10 protein is a small conserved protein and is expressed as bundles of filaments in the host cell during the late phase of virus infection. So far the published results on the domain responsible for filament structural formation have been contradictory. Electron microscopy revealed that the C-terminus basic region was involved in filament structural formation in the Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) [van Oers, M.M., Flipsen, J.T., Reusken, C.B., Sliwinsky, E.L., Vlak, J.M., 1993. Functional domains of the p10 protein of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedorsis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 74, 563-574.]. While in the Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV), the heptad repeats region but not the C-terminus domain was proven to be responsible for filament formation [Dong, C., Li, D., Long, G., Deng, F., Wang, H., Hu, Z., 2005. Identification of functional domains required for HearNPV P10 filament formation. Virology 338, 112-120.]. In this manuscript, fluorescence confocal microscopy was applied to study AcMNPV P10 filament formation. A set of plasmids containing different P10 structural domains fused with a fluorescent protein were constructed and transfected into Sf-9 cells. The data indicated that the heptad repeats region, but not the proline-rich region or the C-terminus basic region, is essential for AcMNPV P10 filament formation. Co-transfection of P10s tagged with different fluorescent revealed that P10s with defective heptad repeats region could not interact with intact heptad repeats region or even full-length P10s to form filament structure. Within the heptad repeats region, deletion of the three amino acids spacing of AcMNPV P10 appeared to have no significant impact on the formation of filament structures, but the content of the heptad repeats region appeared to play a role in the morphology of the filaments.

Dong Chunsheng; Deng Fei; Li Dan; Wang Hualin [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu Zhihong [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)], E-mail:



In vitro investigation of anti-diabetic effect of Taxus cuspidate extracts by ultrasound assisted method.  


Extracting active components from Chinese medicinal herbs efficiently is a key step in the investigation of their pharmacological effects and modes of action. In this project, we compared the ultrasound-assisted method and the conventional solvent method for extracting the active compound of Taxus cuspidate (dong bei hong dou shan). Through the analysis of various extractions with a quadruple time-of-fight (Q-TOF) LC/MS, we demonstrated that the ultrasound-assisted method reduced solvent consumption and had shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields of the active compound (taxol) were equivalent to or even higher than those obtained with the conventional solvent extraction method. Through the comparison of Taxus cuspidate extracts (TCEs) with different concentrations of acetone and ethanol, we proved that 50% ethanol was an optimal solvent for extracting taxol from Taxus cuspidate. Based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) literature, we further determined whether TCEs possess antidiabetic effects by testing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TCEs from Taxus cuspidate bark and twigs under insulin stimulation (100 nM). The results showed that neither taxol (10 ?g/ml) nor TCEs (1 and 0.1 mg/ml) changed glucose uptake significantly compared with insulin alone. This study demonstrated that the ultrasound-assisted method with 50% ethanol is a highly efficient approach for extracting Taxus cuspidate, which may be applicable for extraction of other Chinese medicinal herbs. Extracts of Taxus cuspidate bark and twigs had no effect on insulin stimulated-glucose uptake in vitro. This result conflicts with the description in TCM literature. Further in vivo study to clarify Taxus cuspidate's metabolic actions is necessary. PMID:23227792

Xiao, Linda; Lao, Wei-Guo; Tan, Yi; Qu, Xianqin



On-road remote sensing of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the real-world on-road liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle/taxi emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated. A regression analysis approach based on the measured LPG vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road LPG vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the LPG vehicle model years and driving patterns have a strong correlation to their emission factors. A unique correlation of LPG vehicle emission factors (i.e., g km -1 and g l -1) on different model years for urban driving patterns has been established. Finally, a comparison was made between the average LPG, and petrol [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., Leung, C.W., Cheung, C.S., Hung, W.T., Dong, G., 2004. On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 38, 2055-2066 and 3541] and diesel [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., 2005. On-road remote sensing of diesel vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6843-6856] vehicle emission factors. It has shown that the introduction of the replacement of diesel taxis to LPG taxis has alleviated effectively the urban street air pollution. However, it has demonstrated that proper maintenance on the aged LPG taxis should also be taken into consideration.

Ning, Z.; Chan, T. L.


The Structure of Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disks. I. Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Disk+Cavity in the PDS 70 System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through detailed radiative transfer modeling, we present a disk+cavity model to simultaneously explain both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and Subaru H-band polarized light imaging for the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk PDS 70. In particular, we are able to match not only the radial dependence but also the absolute scale of the surface brightness of the scattered light. Our disk model has a cavity 65 AU in radius, which is heavily depleted of sub-micron-sized dust grains, and a small residual inner disk that produces a weak but still optically thick near-IR excess in the SED. To explain the contrast of the cavity's edge in the Subaru image, a factor of ~1000 depletion for the sub-micron-sized dust inside the cavity is required. The total dust mass of the disk may be on the order of 10-4 M ?, only weakly constrained due to the lack of long-wavelength observations and the uncertainties in the dust model. The scale height of the sub-micron-sized dust is ~6 AU at the cavity edge, and the cavity wall is optically thick in the vertical direction at H-band. PDS 70 is not a member of the class of (pre-)transitional disks identified by Dong et al., whose members only show evidence of the cavity in the millimeter-size dust but not the sub-micron-sized dust in resolved images. The two classes of (pre-)transitional disks may form through different mechanisms, or they may simply be at different evolution stages in the disk-clearing process. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Dong, Ruobing; Hashimoto, Jun; Rafikov, Roman; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Whitney, Barbara; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Muto, Takayuki; Brandt, Timothy; McClure, Melissa K.; Wisniewski, John; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Grady, C.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; McElwain, M.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martin, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.



Lattice thermal conductivity of minerals in the deep mantle condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal transport property of materials under pressure and temperature is of importance for understanding the dynamics of the solid Earth and the thermal history. Both experimental and theoretical determinations of the thermal conductivity, however, still remain technically challenging particularly at the deep mantle condition. Recent progress in ab initio computational method based on the density-functional theory is now makes it possible to examine the transport phenomena including the lattice thermal conduction. The intrinsic bulk thermal conduction of insulator is caused by lattice anharmonicity owing to phonon-phonon interaction. The key parameter to predict lattice thermal conductivity is thus the anharmonic coupling constant. Earlier theoretical works calculated the lattice thermal conductivity of MgO with ab initio molecular dynamics simulation or finite difference lattice dynamics simulation (Nico de Koker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 125902, 2009; X. Tang and J. Dong, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 4539, 2010). However, in these approaches, the simulation cell size could often be insufficient for accurate description of the long wavelength phonon scattering. This leads to a lack of the decay channels for the phonons. As an alternative approach, the anharmonic coupling strength between phonon modes can be evaluated within the density-functional perturbation theory. In this approach, the higher-order force tensors are calculated through a number of phonon decay channels obtained within the perturbative scheme taking care only of the primitive cell. We have been developing a technique for calculation of the phonon linewidth necessary to obtain the phonon lifetime. Then the lattice thermal conductivity is evaluated combining with additional harmonic-level of propeties. In this presentation, we show the behavior of lattice thermal conductivity in lower mantle minerals, and discuss the effects of pressure and temperature on their conductivities up to the deep mantle condition. Research supported by Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University.

Dekura, H.; Tsuchiya, T.; Tsuchiya, J.



Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

McMillen, K.J. (Beaver Creek Tech. Co., Mason, TX (United States)); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. (PEDCO, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam))



Protein Dynamics, Ligand Binding, and Biological Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics is essential for protein function. To demonstrate this point, this talk presents three studies. (1) For a ligand-gated ion channel, ligand binding leads to channel activation by modulating the dynamics of the channel protein. A common theme that emerges from different families of ligand-gated ion channels is that agonist binding closes the ligand-bidning domain (LBD), leading to pore opening in the transmembrane domain (TMD); in contrast, antagonist binding opens the LBD, leading to pore closing in the TMD [1]. (2) When the structure [2] and gating dynamics [3] of the influenza M2 proton channel are accounted for, the calculated rate of ion transport is in quantitative agreement with experimental data [4]. (3) In enzymes, gating dynamics afford substrate selectivity [5]. [4pt] [1] M. Yi, H. Tjong, and H.-X. Zhou (2008). Spontaneous conformational change and toxin binding in ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insight into channel activation and inhibition. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 8280-8285. [0pt] [2] M. Sharma, M. Yi, H. Dong, H. Qin, E. Peterson, D. D. Busath, H.-X. Zhou, and T. A. Cross (2010). Insight into the mechanism of the influenza A proton channel from a structure in a lipid bilayer. Science 330, 509-512. [0pt] [3] M. Yi, T. A. Cross, and H.-X. Zhou (2009). Conformational heterogeneity of the M2 proton channel and a structural model for channel activation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 13311-13316. [0pt] [4] H.-X. Zhou (2010). Diffusion-influenced transport of ions across a transmembrane channel with an internal binding site. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 1973-1976. [0pt] [5] H.-X. Zhou, S. T. Wlodek, and J. A. McCammon (1998). Conformation gating as a mechanism for enzyme specificity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 9280-9283.

Zhou, Huan-Xiang



Efficient Geometric Probabilities of Multi-transiting Systems, Circumbinary Planets, and Exoplanet Mutual Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transit method for discovering extra-solar planets relies on detecting regular diminutions of light from stars due to the shadows of planets passing in between the star and the observer. NASA's Kepler Mission has successfully discovered thousands of exoplanet candidates using this technique, including hundreds of stars with multiple transiting planets. In order to estimate the frequency of these valuable systems, our research concerns the efficient calculation of geometric probabilities for detecting multiple transiting extrasolar planets around the same parent star. In order to improve on previous studies that used numerical methods (e.g., Ragozzine & Holman 2010, Tremaine & Dong 2011), we have constructed an efficient, analytical algorithm which, given a collection of conjectured exoplanets orbiting a star, computes the probability that any particular group of exoplanets are transiting. The algorithm applies theorems of elementary differential geometry to compute the areas bounded by circular curves on the surface of a sphere (see Ragozzine & Holman 2010). The implemented algorithm is more accurate and orders of magnitude faster than previous algorithms, based on comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. Expanding this work, we have also developed semi-analytical methods for determining the frequency of exoplanet mutual events, i.e., the geometric probability two planets will transit each other (Planet-Planet Occultation) and the probability that this transit occurs simultaneously as they transit their star (Overlapping Double Transits; see Ragozzine & Holman 2010). The latter algorithm can also be applied to calculating the probability of observing transiting circumbinary planets (Doyle et al. 2011, Welsh et al. 2012). All of these algorithms have been coded in C and will be made publicly available. We will present and advertise these codes and illustrate their value for studying exoplanetary systems.

Brakensiek, Joshua; Ragozzine, D.




SciTech Connect

Through detailed radiative transfer modeling, we present a disk+cavity model to simultaneously explain both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and Subaru H-band polarized light imaging for the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk PDS 70. In particular, we are able to match not only the radial dependence but also the absolute scale of the surface brightness of the scattered light. Our disk model has a cavity 65 AU in radius, which is heavily depleted of sub-micron-sized dust grains, and a small residual inner disk that produces a weak but still optically thick near-IR excess in the SED. To explain the contrast of the cavity's edge in the Subaru image, a factor of {approx}1000 depletion for the sub-micron-sized dust inside the cavity is required. The total dust mass of the disk may be on the order of 10{sup -4} M {sub Sun }, only weakly constrained due to the lack of long-wavelength observations and the uncertainties in the dust model. The scale height of the sub-micron-sized dust is {approx}6 AU at the cavity edge, and the cavity wall is optically thick in the vertical direction at H-band. PDS 70 is not a member of the class of (pre-)transitional disks identified by Dong et al., whose members only show evidence of the cavity in the millimeter-size dust but not the sub-micron-sized dust in resolved images. The two classes of (pre-)transitional disks may form through different mechanisms, or they may simply be at different evolution stages in the disk-clearing process.

Dong Ruobing; Rafikov, Roman; Zhu Zhaohuan; Brandt, Timothy [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hashimoto, Jun [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Whitney, Barbara [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, S.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); McClure, Melissa K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Wisniewski, John [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Carson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming St., Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Grady, C. [ExoPlanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hayashi, M., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others



Average Volume of Alcohol Consumed, Drinking Patterns, and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Controversial results have been reported on the relationship between alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of average volume of alcohol consumed and drinking patterns with MetS and its components. Methods This study was conducted as a baseline survey for the Dong-gu Study of adults aged 50 years or older. Drinking patterns were assessed using a structured interview, and average volume of alcohol consumed was calculated. MetS was defined according to the updated version of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Results Compared with individuals who never drank, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in men who consumed 2.1 to 4.0 drinks/day (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.17–2.00) and greater than 4.0 drinks/day (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.23–2.14), whereas no significant association was observed in women. Significant dose-response relationships between average volume of alcohol consumed and all metabolic components were observed in men. A usual quantity of 5 to 6 drinks/drinking day (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19–2.09), 7 or more drinks/drinking day (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.45–2.44), and binge drinking on at least 1 occasion/week (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01–1.76) were associated with a significantly higher OR for prevalence of MetS in men; however, none of these drinking patterns were associated with MetS in women. Conclusions Unhealthy drinking patterns such as high usual quantity and binge drinking were significantly associated with MetS, suggesting that the effect of alcohol consumption on MetS should be considered in the context of drinking pattern, particularly in men.

Shin, Min-Ho; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Bok-Hee; Lee, Young-Hoon



Paleozoic exhumation history of the North Qinling terrane?China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Qinling mountain range lies between the North and South China blocks, and is bounded on the north by the Lushan fault and on the south by the Mianlue-Bashan-Xiangguang fault (Dong et al., 2008). The Qinling-Dabie orogen can be subdivided, from north to south, into the Southern North China block with the North Qinling terrane, the Shangdan suture, the South Qinling microcontinent block, the Mianlue suture and the South China block (Zhang et al., 1995; Meng et al., 1999; Li SZ et al., 2007). A number of models for the Qinling tectonic evolution have been proposed. Controversies, however, still exist, in particular on the timing of the joining and the processes of convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan suture zone. Most authors believe that the collision between the North and the South China blocks occurred after the closure of the Shangdan ocean. However, an increasing body of data is not consistent with simple collision models. This paper reports new U-Pb age zircon and 40Ar/39Ar hornblende and biotite ages from magmatic and metamorphic rocks from the Northern Qinling Terrane. Based on this new dataset, we discuss the exhumation and cooling history of the Northern Qinling Terrane in order to advance the understanding of the tectonic processes that operated during convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan zone. The amphibolite-grade North Qinling metamorphic unit forms the centre of the Qinling orogenic belt. Results of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon, 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and biotite dating reveal the Palaeozoic tectonic history. U-Pb zircon dating of migmatitic orthogneiss and granite dykes constrains the age of two possible stages of migmatization at 517 ±14 Ma and 445.4 ± 4.6 Ma. Subsequently, intrusion by granites occurred at 417.2 ± 1.6 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of amphibole, ranging from 397.1 ± 8.6 Ma to 432.3± 3.4 Ma constrain the cooling of the Qinling complex below ca. 540°C and biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages below ca. 300°C at about 367.2 ± 3.0 Ma ~329.5 ± 0.45 Ma. The ages are used to construct a cooling path with slow/non-exhumation during 517~445 Ma, a time-integrated cooling at a rate < 2.5°C/Ma during the 445 - 411Ma period, an acceleration of cooling and exhumation at a cooling rate of 6°C/Ma from 411 Ma to 367 Ma, and subsequently slow/non-cooling from 367 to 330 Ma. The data show a significant delay of exhumation after peak metamorphic conditions and a long period of tectonic quiescence between the Silurian and the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary when the suturing of the Shangdan suture occurred. These relationships exclude classical exhumation models of formation and exhumation of metamorphic cores in orogens, which all imply rapid cooling after peak conditions of metamorphism. References Dong, Y.P., Zhou, M.F., Zhang, G.W., Zhou, D.W., Liu, L., Zhang, Q., 2008. The Grenvillian Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling Mountains, Central China: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 32: 325-335. Li, S.Z., Kusky, T. M., Wang, L., 2007. Collision leading to multiple-stage large-scale extrusion in the Qinling orogen: Insights from the Mianlue suture. Gondwana Research, 12: 121-143. Meng, Q.R., Zhang, G.W., 1999. Timing of collision of the North and South China blocks: Controversy and reconciliation. Geology, 27:123-126. Zhang, G.W., Zhang, Z.Q., Dong, Y.P., 1995. Nature of Main Tectono-Lithostratigraphic Units of the Qinling Orogen: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 11: 101-114. (In Chinese with English abstract).

Dong, Yunpeng; Genser, Johann; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhao; Zhang, Guowei; Heberer, Bianca



Local interstitial delivery of z-butylidenephthalide by polymer wafers against malignant human gliomas  

PubMed Central

We have shown that the natural compound z-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis, has antitumor effects. Because of the limitation of the blood-brain barrier, the Bdph dosage required for treatment of glioma is relatively high. To solve this problem, we developed a local-release system with Bdph incorporated into a biodegradable polyanhydride material, p(CPP-SA; Bdph-Wafer), and investigated its antitumor effects. On the basis of in vitro release kinetics, we demonstrated that the Bdph-Wafer released 50% of the available Bdph by the sixth day, and the release reached a plateau phase (90% of Bdph) by the 30th day. To investigate the in situ antitumor effects of the Bdph-Wafer on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we used 2 xenograft animal models—F344 rats (for rat GBM) and nude mice (for human GBM)—which were injected with RG2 and DBTRG-05MG cells, respectively, for tumor formation and subsequently treated subcutaneously with Bdph-Wafers. We observed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, with no significant adverse effects on the rodents. Moreover, we demonstrated that the antitumor effect of Bdph on RG2 cells was via the PKC pathway, which upregulated Nurr77 and promoted its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Finally, to study the effect of the interstitial administration of Bdph in cranial brain tumor, Bdph-Wafers were surgically placed in FGF-SV40 transgenic mice. Our Bdph-Wafer significantly reduced tumor size in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, our study showed that p(CPP-SA) containing Bdph delivered a sufficient concentration of Bdph to the tumor site and effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the glioma.

Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Lin, Po-Cheng; Liu, Cyong-Yue; Liu, Po-Yen; Chang, Li-Fu; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Liu, Fu-Chen; Tai, Dar-Fu; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen



Wound-healing plants from TCM: in vitro investigations on selected TCM plants and their influence on human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes.  


Wound-healing plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine and described for wound healing in the Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China (2005 ed.) were investigated by in vitro bioassay on human skin cells. Therefore water and EtOH-water extracts (6:4, v/v) from 12 plants were tested on human primary dermal fibroblasts (pNHDF) and human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line by quantification of cell viability (MTT assay) and cellular proliferation (BrdU incorporation ELISA). No functional activity was found for extracts from Achyranthis bidentatae rhizoma, Cimicifugae rhizoma, Corydalis rhizoma, Gardeniae fructus, Houttuyniae herba, Lonicerae japonicae caulis, Paeoniae rubrae radix and Rehmanniae radix. Extracts from Notoginseng radix et rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix and Lonicerae japonicae flos showed moderate activity, while extracts from Moutan cortex (the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., Ranunculaceae) increased cell viability of HaCaT keratinocytes and pNHDF in a dose-dependent manner significantly. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded paeonol 1, the flavan-3-ols catechin 2 and epicatechin-3-O-gallate 3, the dimeric proanthocyanidin epicatechin-(4??8)-catechin 4, a mixture of trigalloyl-glucoses 5 and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-d-glucose (PGG) 6. The proanthocyanidin-containing fractions as well as PGG-containing fractions contributed substantially to the stimulating effects. Especially PGG-containing fractions enhanced cell viability and cellular proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes at concentration of 100nM. From these data we conclude that indication claims for TCM herbal materials must be carefully investigated in order to establish evidence-driven use of such plants. In case of Moutan cortex skin cell stimulating effects have clearly been proven. These effects can be related to the polyphenol fractions of condensed and hydrolysable tannins. PMID:23266731

Wang, Ruxi; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Deters, Alexandra; Hensel, Andreas



Enemy-free space and habitat-specific host specialization in a butterfly.  


The majority of herbivorous insects have relatively specialized food habits. This suggests that specialization has some advantage(s) over generalization. Traditionally, feeding specialization has been thought to be linked to digestive or other food-related physiological advantages, but recent theory suggests that generalist natural enemies of herbivorous insects can also provide a major selective pressure for restricted host plant range. The European swallowtail butterfly Papilio machaon utilizes various plants in the Apiaceae family as hosts, but is an ecological specialist being monophagous on Angelica archangelica in southern Sweden. This perennial monocarp grows in three seaside habitat types: (1) on the barren rocky shore in the absence of any surrounding vegetation, (2) on the rocky shore with some surrounding vegetation, and (3) on species-rich meadows. The rocky shore habitat harbors few invertebrate generalist predators, whereas a number of invertebrate predators abound in the meadowland habitat. Here, we test the importance of enemy-free space for feeding specialization in Papilio machaon by assessing survival of larvae placed by hand on A. archangelica in each of the three habitat types, and by assessing the habitat-specificity of adult female egg-laying behavior by recording the distribution of eggs laid by free-flying adult females among the three habitat types. Larval survival was substantially higher in the rocky shore habitat than in the meadowland and significantly higher on host plants without surrounding vegetation on the rocky shore. Eggs laid by free-flying females were found in all three habitat types, but were significantly more frequent in the rocky shore habitat, suggesting that females prefer to lay eggs in the habitat type where offspring survival is highest. These results show that larval survivorship on the same host plant species can be strongly habitat-specific, and suggest that enemy-free space is an underlying factor that drives feeding specialization in Papilio machaon. PMID:18607636

Wiklund, Christer; Friberg, Magne



[Historical study on traditional Chinese formulations and crude drugs used for bad breath].  


Bad breath is a topic of general interest. In this study, the treatment for bad breath in traditional Chinese medicine was reviewed with a special focus on pathologic diagnosis and crude drug prescriptions. It was shown that bad breath developed based on both systemic and local diseases. Some systemic conditions, including nasal, paranasal, pulmonary and digestive diseases, are considered to cause bad breath. The morbid state of a patient with bad breath has been recognized as being based on "heat syndrome" and "Qi-stagnation syndrome." Bad breath based on "heat syndrome" is manifested as thirst and ulceration of the oral cavity, and has been treated with crude drugs such as Coptis rhizome, Scutellaria root and gypsum. One case study reported that bad breath resulting from a dry mouth was treated with byakkokaninjinto, a Kampo formulation containing gypsum. "Qi" is considered to be the vital energy of all life forms including for the functioning of organs and mental and emotional activity. "Qi-stagnation syndrom," referring to the dysfunction of organs, is manifested as psychosomatic symptoms such as irritability, a flushed face and restlessness. Bad breath based on "Qi-stagnation syndrome" has been treated with crude drugs such as Cnidium rhizome, clove and cinnamon bark. Modern dental and medical treatment both accept the participation of psychogenic agents in the development of bad breath. Bad breath also develops based on periodontal and oral diseases. This type of bad breath has been treated with mouth-wash (collutorium) containing Asiasarum root, Angelica dahurica root and Cnidium rhizome. This historical evidence regarding crude drug prescriptions contributes to the development of mouth care products for preventing and treating bad breath. PMID:22164685

Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Honda, Mami; Honda, Shun-Ichi; Tani, Tadato



Inhibitory effect of herbal remedies on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation.  


For the past several years we have been evaluating natural products as potential cancer chemopreventive agents in a short term in vitro assay involving Epstein--Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation in Raji cells promoted by phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Because of the current interest in the use of herbal remedies, we considered examining them for their cancer chemopreventive activities, using their extracts with a view to uncovering such benefits (if any) these remedies might possess. Thirty-six extracts of 32 herbs belonging to 27 families in use as herbal remedies including those of gingko, black cohosh, echinacea, kava-kava, saw palmetto, turmeric, angelica, wild yam, cat's claw, passion flower, muira puama, feverfew, blueberry, chasteberry, licorice, nettle, golden seal, pygeum, ginger, valerian and hops were prepared and evaluated. Turmeric at a concentration of 10 microg x ml (-1)exhibited the most potent anti-EBV-EA activity, which is ten times more than passionflower, that is next in the order of activity. At the concentration level of 100 microg ml (-1), several of the herbal remedies tested inhibited the EBV-EA in Raji cells exposed to the tumor promoter TPA (32 pM) by more than 90%. We also report for the first time the activities of 16 new medicinal plants as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. Since inhibitors of EBV-EA promoted by TPA in vitro have been shown to be effective anti-tumor promoting agents in laboratory animal models, our results indicate new and potential applications of these herbal remedies as cancer chemopreventive agents since they are already in clinical use in the human population. PMID:11884218

Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Tokuda, Harukuni; Hang, Eric; Mukainaka, T; Nishino, Hoyoku; Sridhar, Rajagopalan



Occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amides in different herbal drugs and their influence on human keratinocytes, on human liver cells and on adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the human stomach.  


Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica archangelica, fruits of Cassia angustifolia, C. senna, Coriandrum sativum, leaves from Hedera helix, flowers from Lavandula spec. and from Sambucus nigra contained high amounts (1 to 11 microg/g) of mixtures of the different amides 1 to 12. For functional investigations on potential activity in cellular physiology, two amides with an aliphatic (8) and an aromatic amino acid residue (5) were used. N-(E)-Caffeic acid L-aspartic acid amide (8) and N-(E)-caffeic acid L-tryptophan amide (5) stimulated mitochondrial activity as well as the proliferation rate of human liver cells (HepG2) at 10 microg/mL significantly. When monitoring the influence of selected phase I and II metabolizing enzymes, both compounds did not influence CYP3A4 gene expression, but stimulated CYP1A2 gene expression and inhibited GST expression. Also, the proliferation of human keratinocytes (NHK) was increased up to 150% by both amides 5 and 8; this stimulation was also detectable on the level of gene expression by an up-regulation of the transcription factor STAT6. The aliphatic aspartic compound 8 showed strong antiadhesive properties on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human stomach tissue. PMID:17295182

Hensel, A; Deters, A M; Müller, G; Stark, T; Wittschier, N; Hofmann, T



HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of a Traditional Chinese Medical Formulation of Bu-Yang-Huan-Wu-Tang and Its Pharmacokinetics after Oral Administration to Rats  

PubMed Central

Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) is one of the most popular formulated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, and is widely for prevention of ischemic cardio-cerebral vascular diseases and stroke-induced disability. A specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the nine main bioactive components, i.e., astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV, formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside, ligustilide and paeoniflorin in rat plasma after oral administration of BYHWT extract. This method was applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics in conscious and freely moving rats. No significant matrix effects were observed. The overall analytical procedure was rapid and reproducible, which makes it suitable for quantitative analysis of a large number of samples. Among them, three astragalosides and four isoflavones in A. membranaceus, ligustilide in Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra were identified. This developed method was then successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of the nine bioactive constituents after oral administration of BYHWT extracts in rats. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that astragaloside I, astragaloside II, astragaloside IV and ligustilide presented the phenomenon of double peaks. The other herbal ingredients of formononetin, ononin, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside and paeoniflorin appeared together in a single and plateau absorption phase. These phenomenona suggest that these components may have multiple absorption sites, regulation of enterohepatic circulation or the gastric emptying rate, or there is ingredient-ingredient interaction. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to better understand the absorption mechanism of BYHWT and to support additional clinical evaluation.

Shaw, Lee-Hsin; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu



An investigation into competence in TCM of BSN graduates from technological universities in Taiwan.  


The purpose of this study was to determine what competences in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be possessed by Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) graduates from technological universities in Taiwan. There were two phases in this study: focus groups and expert panel discussion. First, we held four focus groups, and interviewed 31 participants, including consumers, nursing staff and clinical nursing faculty. The interview tapes were transcribed verbatim, were proofed for accuracy and the content was analyzed. The results were then discussed by four academic experts in a panel discussion. Results indicated that the TCM competences of BSN graduates from technological universities should include the following: (1) to understand the basic concepts of TCM, including Yin/Yang, the Five Evolutive Phases, holistic view, the Five Viscera and Six Bowels, Meridians, etiology, and concepts of therapy and health preservation; (2) to recognize the cold and hot nature of food; (3) to illustrate the common dietetic care for immune enhancement in the four seasons, and the foods that help postnatal and postoperative physical regeneration; (4) to illustrate the properties, indications, and administration of common Chinese medicines, including: Ginseng, Lycium, Astragalus, Angelica sinensis (danggui), Chrysanthemum, Pinellia, Zizyphi fructus; (5) to describe the properties, indications, adverse effects, and administration of Siwutang and Shenghuatang; (6) to describe basic principles of administering both Chinese medicine and Western medicine; (7) to describe the indications and cautions of the following techniques: acupuncture, scraping therapy, and cupping; (8) to implement acupressure as a measure for promoting comfort under the following conditions: pain, vomiting, insomnia, palpitations; and (9) to demonstrate an open mind and cautious attitude to respect consumers using TCM. Results of the study can serve as a reference for nurse educators when training BSN graduates from technological universities in TCM competences. PMID:18080975

Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chung, Ue-Lin



Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice  

PubMed Central

Background Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. Methods HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. Results In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-? secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. Conclusion HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin.



Astragaloside IV synergizes with ferulic acid to inhibit renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in rats with obstructive nephropathy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The combination of Chinese herbs, Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, could alleviate renal interstitial fibrosis. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and ferulic acid (FA) are the two major active constituents in this combination. In this study, we employed rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction to determine whether AS-IV and FA have the same renoprotective effects and investigated the mechanisms of this action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Renal pathological changes were evaluated after treatment with AS-IV, FA or AS-IV + FA (AF) for 10 days. Meanwhile, the expression of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and nitric oxide (NO) production in kidney were determined. The expressions of fibronectin, ?-SMA, mitogen-activated protein kinases [JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), P38] in TGF-?1-treated NRK-49F cells or interleukin-1-treated HK-2 cells after AS-IV, FA or AF were assessed. KEY RESULTS AF alleviated the infiltration of mononuclear cells, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis; reduced the expression of fibronectin, ?-SMA, TGF-?1 and p-JNK; and dramatically increased the production of NO in obstructed kidneys. Neither AS-IV nor FA alone improved renal damage, but both increased NO production. AF inhibited ?-SMA and fibronectin expression in NRK-49F or HK-2 cells. Furthermore, AF significantly inhibited IL-1?-induced JNK phosphorylation, without affecting ERK or P38 phosphorylation. Neither AS-IV nor FA alone had any effect on the cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AS-IV synergizes with FA to alleviate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis; this was associated with inhibition of tubular epithelial–mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) and fibroblast activation, as well as an increase in NO production in the kidney.

Meng, LQ; Tang, JW; Wang, Y; Zhao, JR; Shang, MY; Zhang, M; Liu, SY; Qu, L; Cai, SQ; Li, XM



In vitro anti-microbial and in vivo cytokine modulating effects of different prepared Chinese herbal medicines.  


The toxicity, antimicrobial and cytokine modulating effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases were evaluated in this study. Using the broth dilution method and disc agar diffusion test, in individual and combined decocted preparations, different concentrations of Ching-Wei-San and its individual herbal components, Coptidis rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix, Rehmanniae radixet rhizom, Moutan radicis cortex, and Cimicifuga foetida, were tested for in vitro inhibitory effects on three well-known plaque-causing bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivialis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus mutans, and two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cytokine modulating effects were evaluated in Balb/c mice. The results suggested that one milliliter Ching-Wei-San at the 25,000 mg/mL concentration daily for the mice had significantly high levels in the liver function indexes in the 3-day acute toxicity test and in both the liver and kidney function indexes in the 28-day subacute toxicity test (P<0.01). The 250 mg/mL Ching-Wei-San is comparable to 250 mg/mL of tetracycline, and had similar inhibitory effects on the tested bacteria. Coptidis rhizoma (62.5 mg/mL) was the only individual herbal component to show 100% inhibitory effects. The mean cytokine ratios of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha in Balb/c mice treated with individual herbal components were shown to be different from each other. Ching-Wei-San modulated the immunity of mice, up-regulated IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-alpha, but down-regulated IFN-gamma. The effects of none of the individual herbal components alone can substitute for the cumulative effect of Ching-Wei-San. PMID:16962225

Lin, Shyh-Jye; Chen, Chung-Shih; Lin, Shih-Shen; Chou, Ming-Yung; Shih, Hung-Che; Lee, I-Pang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Chen, Fong-Lin; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Hsieh, Kuang-Hui; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Yang, Chi-Chiang



Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.  


There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako



CESD99 - A new version to represent atomic wave functions in a determinant basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determinant expansions of atomic wave functions have several advantages for calculating transition probabilities and cross sections. For instance, such a representation can easily be applied to rather a large number of transition operators and also in order to include rearrangement effects of the bound-state density following the excitation or the decay of an atomic state. In practice, the rearrangement of the electron density is most simply taken into account if the variation of the initial and final state wave functions is carried out separately in studying transition or ionization processes. Of course, such a computational procedure yields sets of one-electron orbitals which are not quite orthogonal to each other and which do require special care in evaluating the (many-electron) transition matrix. For relativistic wave functions of the atomic structure package GRASP92 [F.A. Parpia, C.F. Fischer, I.P. Grant, CPC 92 (1996) 249], a determinant representation of the atomic states is obtained by the CESD97 program [S. Fritzsche, I.P. Grant, CPC 103 (1997) 277]. This program performs a complete expansion of symmetry-adapted functions and has been found useful in a number of applications. For accurate transition probability studies, however, often large wave function expansions of several ten or even hundred thousand determinants are required which cannot be handled by CESD97 due to the demand on memory and computing time. Further difficulties were caused by the tight binding of both GRASP92 and CESD97 to the IBM XL Fortran standard. To overcome these difficulties and to facilitate the transfer to other architectures, CESD97 has entirely been rewritten according to the ANSI standard Fortran 90/95. The new version, CESD99, considerably improves the efficiency of large computations and, now, enables wave function expansions based on several (hundred) thousand determinants. The conversion to Fortran 90/95 is considered as major step to render the CESD program ready to use for systematic investigations of open-shell atoms. CESD99 is part of the RATIP package for the calculation of relativistic atomic transition and ionization properties and will be distributed within this framework [S. Fritzsche, C.F. Fischer, C.Z. Dong, this volume].

Fritzsche, S.; Anton, J.



[King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].  


King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken important as a means of finding the origin of disease, while deploring how doctors then neglected to study. PMID:20098054

Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae



PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA. In the two conferences, eight keynote lectures were delivered by S Miyazaki, S A Akbar, D J Singh, C Suryanarayana, M~Greenblatt, H Zhang, T Sato and J Ding. This topical issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the ISFM 2009 and AFM 2009. Keyan Li from Dalian University, People's Republic of China, presents some empirical formulae to estimate the elastic moduli of rocksalt-, zincblende- and chalcopyrite-structured crystals, on the basis of electronegativities of bonded atoms in the crystallographic frame. Min-Jung Kim from Hanyang University, Korea, reports on the preparation and characterization of carboxyl functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles for oligonucleotide immobilization. F Yan from the National University of Singapore studies the fabrication of Bi(Fe0.5Sc0.5)O3-PbTiO3 (BSF-PT) thin films by pulsed laser deposition, and the enhanced magnetic moment with respect to BiFeO3-PbTiO3. Dong-Gil Lee from Pusan National University, Korea, reports on the sterilization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli using nanofiber TiO2 films prepared by the electrostatic spray method. Sang-Eun Park from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology reports on the study of encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a silica thin layer with a reversible capacity of about 363 mAhg-1. Other researchers report on many other exiting achievements in the fields of ferromagnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, thermoelectric materials, shape memory materials, fuel-cell and battery materials, and other related advanced functional materials. The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials 2011 (ISFM 2011) will be held in Sendai, Japan, from 2-6 August 2011 just before the Sendai Tanabata Festival. Its preconference (AFM 2011) will be held at Jeju Island, Korea, just before ISFM 2011. We look forward to meeting you in Jeju and Sendai.

Kiwon, Kim; Li, Lu; Taehyun, Nam; Jouhyeon, Ahn



Structural perspective on enzymatic halogenation.  


Simple halogen substituents frequently afford key structural features that account for the potency and selectivity of natural products, including antibiotics and hormones. For example, when a single chlorine atom on the antibiotic vancomycin is replaced by hydrogen, the resulting antibacterial activity decreases by up to 70% ( Harris , C. M. ; Kannan , R. ; Kopecka , H. ; Harris , T. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985 , 107 , 6652 - 6658 ). This Account analyzes how structure underlies mechanism in halogenases, the molecular machines designed by nature to incorporate halogens into diverse substrates. Traditional synthetic methods of integrating halogens into complex molecules are often complicated by a lack of specificity and regioselectivity. Nature, however, has developed a variety of elegant mechanisms for halogenating specific substrates with both regio- and stereoselectivity. An improved understanding of the biological routes toward halogenation could lead to the development of novel synthetic methods for the creation of new compounds with enhanced functions. Already, researchers have co-opted a fluorinase from the microorganism Streptomyces cattleya to produce (18)F-labeled molecules for use in positron emission tomography (PET) ( Deng , H. ; Cobb , S. L. ; Gee , A. D. ; Lockhart , A. ; Martarello , L. ; McGlinchey , R. P. ; O'Hagan , D. ; Onega , M. Chem. Commun. 2006 , 652 - 654 ). Therefore, the discovery and characterization of naturally occurring enzymatic halogenation mechanisms has become an active area of research. The catalogue of known halogenating enzymes has expanded from the familiar haloperoxidases to include oxygen-dependent enzymes and fluorinases. Recently, the discovery of a nucleophilic halogenase that catalyzes chlorinations has expanded the repertoire of biological halogenation chemistry ( Dong , C. ; Huang , F. ; Deng , H. ; Schaffrath , C. ; Spencer , J. B. ; O'Hagan , D. ; Naismith , J. H. Nature 2004 , 427 , 561 - 565 ). Structural characterization has provided a basis toward a mechanistic understanding of the specificity and chemistry of these enzymes. In particular, the latest crystallographic snapshots of active site architecture and halide binding sites have provided key insights into enzyme catalysis. Herein is a summary of the five classes of halogenases, focusing on the three most recently discovered: flavin-dependent halogenases, non-heme iron-dependent halogenases, and nucleophilic halogenases. Further, the potential roles of halide-binding sites in determining halide selectivity are discussed, as well as whether or not binding-site composition is always a seminal factor for selectivity. Expanding our understanding of the basic chemical principles that dictate the activity of the halogenases will advance both biology and chemistry. A thorough mechanistic analysis will elucidate the biological principles that dictate specificity, and the application of those principles to new synthetic techniques will expand the utility of halogenations in small-molecule development. PMID:18774824

Blasiak, Leah C; Drennan, Catherine L



Lower mantle dynamics and the role of pressure-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out numerical simulations of large aspect-ratio 2-D mantle convection that feature pressure-dependent thermal expansivity and conductivity along with the major mantle phase transitions, including the deep phase change from perovskite (pv) to post-perovskite (ppv). The rheological law is Newtonian and has both temperature- and pressure-dependences, while the extended Boussinesq approximation is assumed for the energetics. We have analyzed the combined effects of a strongly decreasing thermal expansivity, according to the diffraction experiments on pv by Katsura et al. (2009), and steeply increasing lattice thermal conductivity based on different models obtained from experiments (Ohta, 2010) and first principles (de Koker, 2010; Tang and Dong, 2010). Since ppv is expected to have a relatively weak rheology with respect to pv (Hunt et al., 2009; Ammann et al., 2010) and a large thermal conductivity (Ohta, 2010), we have also assumed that the transition from pv to ppv is accompanied by both a reduction in viscosity by 1 order of magnitude and by a 50% increase in conductivity. As long as the thermal expansivity and conductivity are constant, ppv exerts small but noticeable effects: it destabilizes the D" layer, causes focusing of the heat flux peaks and a slight increase of the average mantle temperature and of the temporal and spatial frequency of upwellings. The destabilizing character of ppv is strong enough to affect the stability of mantle plumes even in the presence of a large decrease of the thermal expansivity which otherwise, without ppv, delivers remarkably stable large upwellings. However we have found that if a sufficiently large thermal conductivity near the core-mantle is also accounted for, lower mantle plumes are stabilized for a geologically long time-span in excess of billion of years, even in the presence of the disturbances induced by the pv-ppv transition. Preliminary results confirm the validity of these findings even for thermo-chemical piles in the framework of thermo-chemical convection with important implications for the understanding of the large low shear velocity provinces (Dziewonski et al., 2010; Torsvik et al., 2010). The combination of strongly depth-dependent expansivity and conductivity is a viable mechanism for the formation of long-wavelength, long-lived thermo-chemical anomalies in the deep mantle, even if a low-viscosity ppv atop the core-mantle boundary is included.

Tosi, N.; Yuen, D. A.; Cadek, O.



Dynamic Topology and Spatio-Temporal Complexity of Stick-Slip Events in Natural Faulted Westerly Granite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterns of acoustic events prior to and after a stick-slip event are transformed to complex networks and the characteristics of the networks are measured. The patterns are the result of acoustic emission monitoring through loading a cylindrical sample of Westerly granite containing a natural fault [1].Two approaches are implemented in construction of the networks. In the first approach the network is constructed based on nearest neighbour events while the interactions of the main fault with the second and third faults are inspected through analyzing the spatial communities of the networks. The second approach uses a network method on phase space of time series (i.e., constructing a smooth manifold) obtained from the waveforms of over occurrence rank of events [2]. With the later implementation, we characterize the source mechanism of events while we compare the characteristics of the obtained networks (i.e., motif distribution and eigenvector of Laplacian) with the inferred source mechanism from the inverse moment tensor approach. Our results show the correlation of motifs rank evolution with source mechanism. Furthermore, with respect to the shape of triangles (as well as stretching and folding) over spatial complex networks and based on the first approach, the 3 point nodes motif distributions are extended to consider possible statistical geometry of events. Thus, the spatio-temporal complexity and possible coupling of events in time and space in terms of network parameters is inferred. We compare our results with the recent analysis of networks motifs from pure shear rupture associated with sudden variation of contact strings [3]. Keyword:, Stick-sllip; Westerly granite, Acoustic Emission Patterns; Complex Networks, and Motifs Ref. [1] Thompson, B.D., D.A. Lockner and R.P. Young, Premonitory acoustic emissions and stick slip in natural and smooth faulted Westerly granite,J. Geophysical Research, Vol 114, B02205, doi: 10.1029/2008jb005753, 2009. [2] J. F. Donges, Y. Zou, N. Marwan and J. Kurths, The backbone of the climate network, EPL, 87 (2009) 48007. [3] H.O.Ghaffari and R.P.Young, Structural complexity of shear fractures; Physica A 2011 (submitted) ; ArXive-prints (2011) [4] H.O.Ghaffari and R.P.Young, Motifs of Networks from Shear Fractures ; IJRMMS (Submitted)

Ghaffari, H.; Thompson, B. D.; Young, R.



The thermal conductivity of MgSiO3 post-perovskite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity of MgSiO3 post-perovskite in D" is likely to control the heat flux across the core-mantle boundary. It will thereby affect the overall heat budget of the Earth and could play a key role on how plumes develop. Unfortunately, current experimental methods are unable to measure the thermal conductivity under the extreme conditions of D". Recent progress in theoretical methods [1-3], however, provided first direct estimates of the thermal conductivity of MgO throughout the lower mantle, without relying on complex extrapolations from low pressure experimental data. We will report our results on the thermal conductivity of MgSiO3 perovskite and post-perovskite, the dominant phases in the lower mantle and D", obtained using the so-called direct method[2] with interatomic potentials. The advantage is that we avoid the problem of small system sizes and short molecular dynamics runs that one encounters when using density functional theory (DFT), yielding more precise results than DFT. The disadvantage, on the other hand, is that it is unknown if interatomic potentials can accurately describe the physics of the investigated systems. We have therefore used three different interatomic potentials, that well describe the elastic properties of perovskite and post-perovskite. Whilst the absolute values obtained with each potential differs from one another, they all show the same trends: We find, in agreement with experiments on low-pressure analogue phases, that the average thermal conductivity of post-perovskite is about 50% higher than the one of perovskite. Moreover, we find that the thermal conductivity of post-perovskite is anisotropic with the thermal conductivity almost twice as high along the x-direction than along the slowest one (y or z, depending on the used potential). REFERENCES: [1] de Koker, N.,2009. Thermal Conductivity of MgO Periclase from Equilibrium First Principles Molecular Dynamics, Physical Review Letters 103, 125902:1-4. [2] Stackhouse, S., Stixrude, L., Karki, B. B., 2010. Thermal Conductivity of Periclase (MgO) from First Principles, Physical Review Letters 104, 208501:1-4. [3] Tang, X., Dong, J., 2010. Lattice thermal conductivity of MgO at conditions of Earth's interior. PNAS 107, 4539-4543.

Ammann, M. W.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.



Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio-Hetem and Silvia Alencar; SpS 8. The galactic plane N. A. Walton, A. Damineli, M. G. Hoare, J. E. Drew, Roberto D. D. Costa and Walter J. Maciel; SpS 9. Marking the 400th anniversary of Kepler's 'astronomia nova' T. J. Mahoney; SpS 10. Next generation large astronomical facilities Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; Author index.

Corbett, Ian



Anomalous Harmonics in the Spectra of GPS Position Estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior studies of the power spectra of GPS position time series have found pervasive seasonal signals against a power-law background of white noise plus flicker noise. Dong et al. [2002] estimated that less than half the observed GPS seasonal power can be explained by redistributions of geophysical fluid mass loads. Much of the residual variation is probably caused by unidentified GPS technique errors and analysis artifacts. Among possible mechanisms, Penna and Stewart [2003] have shown how unmodeled analysis errors at tidal frequencies (near 12- and 24-hour periods) can be aliased to longer periods very efficiently. Signals near fortnightly, semi-annual, and annual periods are expected to be most seriously affected. We have examined spectra of the 167 sites of the International GNSS Service (IGS) network having at least 200 weekly measurements during 1996.0-2006.0. The non-linear residuals of the weekly IGS solutions that were included in ITRF2005 have been used. In order to improve the detection of common-mode signals, the normalized spectra of all sites have been stacked, then smoothed with a boxcar filter (0.03 cpy window), for each local N, E, and U component. The stacked, smoothed spectra are similar for all three components. Peaks are evident at harmonics of about 1 cpy up to at least 6 cpy, but the peaks are not at strictly 1.0 cpy intervals. Based on the 6th tone of the N spectrum, which is among the sharpest peaks, and assuming a linear overtone model, then a common fundamental of 1.043 cpy can explain all peaks well. A flicker noise power-law continuum describes the background spectrum down to periods of a few months, after which the residuals become whiter. Similiar tones are not apparent in the residuals of available SLR and VLBI sites, which are both 10 times less numerous and dominated by white noise. There is weak evidence for 1 cpy overtones in the spectra of atmospheric loadings but these are much noisier than for GPS positions. Alternatively, as pointed out to us by U. Hugentobler (U. Berne), the period of the 1.043 cpy frequency, about 341.5 days, is close to a "GPS year"; i.e., the interval required for the constellation to repeat its inertial orientation with respect to the sun. This could indicate that the harmonics are a type of systematic error related to the modeling of the GPS satellite orbits.

Ray, J. R.; van Dam, T. M.; Altamimi, Z.; Collilieux, X.



The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA-JPL; Eyal Amitai, NASA-GSFC; Xiaogang Gao, U. California, Irvine; George Huffman, NASA-GSFC & SSAI; Jared Entin, NASA; Joseph Santanello, NASA-GSFC; John Roads, UCSD; W. Timothy Liu, NASA-JPL; Lixin Lu, Colorado State U.; Zhengzhao Luo, Colorado State U.; Michael Bosilovich, NASA-GSFC; Michael Jasinski, NASA-GSFC; William Olson, NASA-GSFC & UMBC-GEST; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Phil Arkin, U. Maryland; Paul Houser, CREW & GMU; Ralph Ferraro, NOAA; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Robert Schiffer; UMBC-GEST; Sujay Kumar, NASA-GSFC; Joseph A. Santanello, NASA-GSFC; Tristan L'Ecuyer, Colorado State U.; Wei-Kuo Tao; NASA-GSFC; Xia Feng; George Mason U.

Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.



[Medical doctor Lee Hyeon Yang's writings in Gokcheongsago].  


Medical doctors in the Chosun Dynasty read Chinese literature of high level in order to take the medical civil service examination, but there are not many extant writings of theirs except some medical books. Middle class people's selections of poems such as Haedongyuju, Sodaepungyo, Pungyosokseon and Pungyosamseon were published, and among the list of the writers, those who were identified as medical doctors were Park Gun, Baek Heung jeon, Shin Myeong hee, Shin Hee myeong, Oh Chang ryeol, Yoo Dong yeok, etc. Even their works are not many, and this suggests that doctors' writing was not active except for medical books. Lee Hyeon yang (1783-1852), the author of Gokcheongsago, was born the only son of Lee Jaewoo (1750-1808), an acupuncturist at the Lee family from Ansan, which was an influential middleclass family. His pen name was changed from Gokcheong to Anrakwa, Yongheon and Gyeongsudang, and for each pen name, he wrote a foreword explaining the origin of the name and his resolution. The Lee family from Ansan produced 20 medical officials through eight generations from Lee Yoon yeong in the 7th generation to Lee Myeong ryun in the 15th generation. He learned medicine, his family occupation, diligently and passed the medical civil service examination in 1803 when he was 21. In addition, he studied Confucian scriptures enthusiastically and left many writing along with medical books. Based on the forewords in his anthology Gokcheongsago, there are eight writings of his as follows in chronological order: Suseongpyeongam (1798), Cheongimiyo (1799), Euihakjeongwon (1801), Gwangjebiyo(five volumes, 1810), Wonbyeonggiyo (1819), Bonchojeongeui(1826), Euiyakcheongji (1838), and Yeonghwaji (1843). He wrote not only medical books but also traditional Chinese texts in different styles. In the 180pages transcription, he as a medical doctor showed various writing styles based on Confucianism including 22 prologues and epilogues, 9 diaries, discussions and opinions, 2 biographies, 5 letters, 10 memorial addresses and condolence messages, and 8 miscellaneous writings. His writing attitude was different among the periods when preparing for the medical civil service examination, when acting as a medical doctor, and when working as a magistrate, and it shows medical doctors' life in the 18th and 19th centuries. PMID:19174624

Hur, Kyoungjin



Do climatic and physical factors affect populations of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala and house fly Musca domestica?  


The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and house fly, Musca domestica L., are medically and forensically important flies. The population dynamic of these flies is essential for both control and forensical aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate the climatic and physical factors affecting the population trend of both species in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, using the Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on systematic random sampling, 18 study sites were selected in three districts (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong). Six land use types were involved in the study sites, i.e., disturbed mixed deciduous, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city, and paddy field. Adult flies were sampled every 2 weeks using an in-house prototype reconstructable funnel trap. Two types of bait were used--one with fresh beef viscera for luring M. domestica and the other with 1-day tainted beef viscera for luring C. megacephala. Collections were conducted from May 2009 to May 2010, and analysis of climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) was carried out. Correlation bivariate analysis was performed initially to determine the relationship between climatic factors and the number of flies. Consequently, an ordinary co-kriging approach, in ArcGIS 9.2, was performed to predict the spatial distribution of flies with land use and climatic factors as co-variables. A total of 63,158 flies were captured, with C. megacephala being the most common species collected (68.37%), while only 1.3% were M. domestica, thus proving that C. megacephala was the most abundant species in several land use types. A significantly higher number of females than males was found in both species. Fly populations can be collected throughout most of the year with a peak in late summer, which shows a positive relation to temperature but negative correlation with relative humidity. C. megacephala was predicted to be abundant in every land use type, from lowland to forested areas, while the density of house fly was association with altitude and land use types. PMID:21479574

Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Irvine, Kim N; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Prangkio, Chira; Somboon, Pradya; Sukontason, Kom



Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings from this study will help to design intervention models for RTI among this vulnerable group such as communication for behavioural impact of RTI health care, fostered collaboration between local health care services and employer enterprises, and on-site service (e.g. local or enterprise health clinics) strengthening.



EDITORIAL: Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan Plateau is one of the Earth's most sensitive regions in responding to climate change due to its extremely high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The cryosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere of the plateau have been undergoing significant changes. Due to the low human population density, environmental changes on the plateau are largely driven by natural processes. Thus, the plateau provides a unique and comprehensive site for global change studies. This focus issue on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau aims to address both paleo and recent environmental changes across the plateau to facilitate our understanding of this remote and under-studied area. We invited a wide spectrum of contributions to address climate change, permafrost degradation, glacier/snow/ice dynamics, lake dynamics, land- cover/land-use changes, and their interactions on the plateau. Collectively, the diverse contributions in this special issue are expected to present the recent advancement of the above topics and beyond. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau Contents Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau? Qinglong You, Shichang Kang, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Yuping Yan, Yanwei Xu and Jie Huang Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations Xiaodong Liu, Aijuan Bai and Changhai Liu Lake-level fluctuations since the Last Glaciation in Selin Co (lake), Central Tibet, investigated using optically stimulated luminescence dating of beach ridges Dewen Li, Yingkui Li, Baoqi Ma, Guocheng Dong, Liqiang Wang and Junxiang Zhao Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery Koji Fujita, Akiko Sakai, Takayuki Nuimura, Satoru Yamaguchi and Rishi R Sharma Changes in frozen ground in the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and their eco-environmental impacts Huijun Jin, Ruixia He, Guodong Cheng, Qingbai Wu, Shaoling Wang, Lanzhi Lü and Xiaoli Chang A shallow ice core re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap, western China: recent changes in the Asian high mountains Nozomu Takeuchi, Takayuki Miyake, Fumio Nakazawa, Hideki Narita, Koji Fujita, Akiko Sakai, Masayoshi Nakawo, Yoshiyuki Fujii, Keqin Duan and Tandong Yao Review of climate and cryospheric change in the Tibetan Plateau Shichang Kang, Yanwei Xu, Qinglong You, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Nick Pepin and Tandong Yao Simulated impacts of land cover change on summer climate in the Tibetan Plateau Qian Li and Yongkang Xue

Sheng, Yongwei; Yao, Tandong



Retrospective Analysis of Prognostic Factors in 205 Patients with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Who Underwent Surgical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the most important factors affecting the prognosis of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx. Methods Based on the clinical and follow-up data, 205 patients with SCC of the larynx receiving total laryngectomy, partial laryngectomy, or CO2 laser surgery in GuangDong General Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. A survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and a multivariable analysis of prognostic factors was carried out using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results Subtypes of carcinoma included 69.8% glottic and 30.2% supraglottic. Most patients were in N0 stage (77.6%), and 22.4% patients were in N1?N3 stage. Over half of the patients were in T1?T2 stage (55.1%), 20.0% in T3, and 24.9% in T4. Mean follow-up duration was 49.2 months. The survival rates 1, 2, and 3 years after the surgery were 99.0%, 91.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The survival rate for those patients with clinical stage IV was significantly lower than for those with clinical stage I and II (p<0.001 and p?=?0.013, respectively). The disease-free progression rates 1, 2, and 3 years after the surgery were 83.9%, 74.6%, and 71.2%, respectively. Futhermore, those patients with a Charlson score of 1 to 2 and ?3 had higher risk of mortality than those with a Charlson score of 0 (hazard ratios of 1.8 and 2.41 p?=?0.042 and p?=?0.008). Multivariable analysis revealed that clinical stage, surgical margin, and comorbidity were significantly associated with both mortality and disease-free progression. Conclusion The surgical resection margin, clinical stage, and comorbidity were independent factors affecting the laryngeal cancer prognosis. The survival rates were lower for patients with advanced laryngeal cancer, positive surgical margins, or severe comorbidity, suggesting the importance of early diagnosis, early treatment, negative surgical margins, and conditions of comorbidity.

Luo, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Liang-Si; Ge, Ping-Jiang; Song, Xin-Han; Chen, Shao-hua; Wu, Yi-Long



Granitoids and Crustal Growth in the East- Kunlun Orogenic Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1MO Xuanxue, 1LUO Zhaohua, 1DENG Jinfu,1YU Xuehui, 2LIU Chengdong, 1Yuan Wanming, 1Bi Xianmei 1China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083; 2Donghua University of Technology, Nanchang, 330013 Abstract: The East- Kunlun orogenic belt (abbrev. EKOB) is one of major tectono-magmatic belts in the Tibetan plateau. Four stages of granitoid plutonism took place in Precambrian (the Proterozoic), early Paleozoic (?-D3), late Paleozoic- early Mesozoic (D3-T3), and late Mesozoic- Cenozoic (after early Jurassic), respectively. Among them, the late Paleozoic- early Mesozoic, especially Triassic granitoids are predominant. The basement of EKOB formed in late Paleo- Proterozoic. The early Paleozoic tectono-magmatic event sequence is comparable to that in the North- Qilian orogenic belt, and became a part of the Qilian- East- Kunlun Caledonian orogenic system. However, EKOB had been involved in the Paleo- Tethyan tectonic regime during late Paleozoic- early Mesozoic period, and yield an integrated Variscian- Indo-Chinese orogenic cycle, similar to the Sanjiang Paleo-Tethyan orogeny. The south- Kunlun suture zone then defined the main boundary between the north and the south China. Subsequently, EKOB has been involved in the Tibetan collisional orogenic system in the Cenozoic since Indo- Eurasia collision. While the continental crust of EKOB mainly formed in late Paleo- Proterozoic, juvenile crust was also generated in the Phanerozoic time, similar to the Xing'anling- Mongolia, the Gangdese and the Andes orogenic belts. There are abundant conclusive evidences of underplating and magma mixing in the East- Kunlun granitoid belt (Fig.1). Initiate values of 87Sr/86Sr of the East- Kunlun granitoids are mostly less than 0.710 and ?Nd(t)values of them range from -9.2 to +3.6. Those imply that inputting of mantle materials and mixing between mantle- and crust- derived materials played an important role in crustal generation and evolution in EKOB during the Phanerozoic time. According to SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from granitoid host rocks, mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and associated gabbros, two major events of underplating and magma mixing took place in EKOB in the early- middle Devonian (394- 403 Ma) and the middle Triassic (239- 242Ma), corresponding to the stage from the ending of subduction to the initiation of collision during the Caledonian and Variscian- Indo-Chinese orogeny, respectively. Key words: The East- Kunlun orogenic belt; granitoids; underplating; magma mixing; crustal growth Acknowledgements: The research has been supported by China Geological Survey projects 200113900018 and 1212010610104, and National Key Project 2002CB41260. This paper is specially in memory of late Professor and Academician Dong Shenbao.

Mo, X.; Luo, Z.; Deng, J.; Yu, X.; Liu, C.; Yuan, W.; Bi, X.



Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village and small municipal supplies in the delta.

Anderson, Henry R.



Consequences on lower-mantle plume dynamics with the post-perovskite phase change and strongly depth dependent thermodynamic and transport properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out numerical simulations of 2-D mantle convection specifically with the deep phase change from perovskite (pv) to post-perovskite (ppv). Using the extended Boussinesq approximation for a fluid with both temperature and pressure dependent viscosity, we have performed an extensive sensitivity analysis of the post-perovskite phase parameters and investigated their effects on the convective planform, heat transport and mean temperature profiles. Since the rheology of ppv is expected to be relatively weak with respect to pv (Ohta et al., 2008; Hunt et al., 2009) and to have a large thermal conductivity (Hofmeister, 2007), we assume that the transition from pv to this ppv phase is accompanied by both a reduction in viscosity by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude and by an increase in thermal conductivity by a factor of 2. Furthermore, we investigate the combined effects of decreasing pressure-dependent thermal expansivity, by considering the most recent findings by Katsura et al. (2009), and steeply increasing thermal conductivity (Hofmeister, 2008, Tang and Dong, 2010). As long as the thermal expansivity and conductivity are constant, ppv exerts a small but measurable effect on mantle convection: it destabilizes the D" layer and causes focusing of the heat-flux peaks and an increase of the average mantle temperature and also of the temporal and spatial frequency of upwellings. When depth dependent thermal expansivity and the latest thermal conductivity models are introduced, the effects of ppv are dramatic. On the one hand, without ppv, we obtain a very sluggish convective regime characterized by a relatively cool mantle dominated by large downwellings that tend to stagnate beneath the transition zone. With ppv, on the other hand, we observe an extremely significant increase of the average mantle temperature due to the formation of large sized and vigorous upwellings that in some cases tend to cluster, thus forming superplumes. If a very large thermal conductivity at the core-mantle boundary is assumed (k ~ 20 W/Km) we obtain a quasi-steady state regime characterized by large and very stable plumes with long lifetimes. The combination of strongly depth dependent expansivity and conductivity is a viable mechanism for the formation of long-wavelength, long-lived structures in the deep mantle (Torsvik et al., 2008;Dziewonski et al., 2010).

Tosi, Nicola; Yuen, David; Cadek, Ondrej



Soil respiration in tropical seasonal forest of Southern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration was monitored as a part of a complex research of carbon balance in Nam Cat Tien National Park in Southern Vietnam (NCT site in AsiaFlux index). The study area is described as a tropical monsoon valley tall-stand forest at altitude about 156 m above sea level, mean annual air temperature is 26.2°C, with fluctuations of monthly averaged temperatures within 4°C; mean annual precipitation is 2470 mm with a distinct alternation of wet and dry seasons (Dong Phu weather station, 1976-1990). Measurements were made every 10-15 days during year 2012 at 6 plots that differ in soil and forest type, mostly in Lagerstroemia- or Dipterocarpus-dominated tree stands. Five chambers Ø162 mm were installed at each plot. CO2 concentration was defined with LI-820 gas analyser and 20 ml syringes (three syringes/samples per chamber) up to August 2012, and by means of closed-loop continuous field analysis from August on. Our studies have shown significant temporal and spatial variability of soil respiration in tropical rainforest. Namely, highest annual CO2 efflux rates were calculated for cambisols under lagerstroemia-dominated tree stand and for light sandy fluvisols under dipterocarpus-dominated tree stand (1694.3±546.0 and 1628.1±442.7 gC•m-2•y-1 respectively). Noteworthy is that the content of organic carbon in these soils varies utterly. Lowest annual CO2 efflux rate was calculated for clay-slate leptosols under dipterocarpus-dominated tree stand (972.7±716.5 gC•m-2•y-1). We also observed a significant impact of termites activity on site-scale spatial variability of soil respiration. Seasonal patterns of soil respiration rates were conformed for all plots except one on sandy soils. The beginning of rainy season in April did not result in higher soil respiration rates, but rates did rise in August - October, at the end of rainy season. Apparently this pattern is related to the accumulation of decomposed organic matter in soil and to the deficient aeration caused by high water table at the peak of wet season. On sandy fluvisols CO2 efflux rates were high throughout the whole length of rainy season.

Avilov, Vitaly; Anichkin, Alexandr; Descherevskaya, Olga; Evdokimova, Elena; Nguyen Van, Thinh; Novichonok, Artyom; Do Phong, Luu; Kurbatova, Julia; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin



Seasonal signals in the reprocessed GPS coordinate time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global (IGS) and regional (EPN) CGPS time series have already been studied in detail by several authors to analyze the periodic signals and noise present in the long term displacement series. The comparisons indicated that the amplitude and phase of the CGPS derived seasonal signals mostly disagree with the surface mass redistribution models. The CGPS results are highly overestimating the seasonal term, only about 40% of the observed annual amplitude can be explained with the joint contribution of the geophysical models (Dong et al. 2002). Additionally the estimated amplitudes or phases are poorly coherent with the models, especially at sites close to coastal areas (van Dam et al, 2007). The conclusion of the studies was that the GPS results are distorted by analysis artifacts (e.g. ocean tide loading, aliasing of unmodeled short periodic tidal signals, antenna PCV models), monument thermal effects and multipath. Additionally, the GPS series available so far are inhomogeneous in terms of processing strategy, applied models and reference frames. The introduction of the absolute phase center variation (PCV) models for the satellite and ground antennae in 2006 and the related reprocessing of the GPS precise orbits made a perfect ground and strong argument for the complete re-analysis of the GPS observations from global to local level of networks. This enormous work is in progress within the IGS and a pilot analysis was already done for the complete EPN observations from 1996 to 2007 by the MUT group (Military University of Warsaw). The quick analysis of the results proved the expectations and the superiority of the reprocessed data. The noise level (weekly coordinate repeatability) was highly reduced making ground for the later analysis on the daily solution level. We also observed the significant decrease of the seasonal term in the residual coordinate time series, which called our attention to perform a repeated comparison of the GPS derived annual periodicity and the surface mass redistribution models. We expect that using the reprocessed EPN data we can exclude several analysis related artifacts and we get a more clear view on the real physical information content of the data. In this paper we present a general overview and results of the EPN reprocessing and we show the detailed results of the harmonic analysis.

Kenyeres, A.; van Dam, T.; Figurski, M.; Szafranek, K.



VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria



Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.



Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China).  


In 1985, the collapse of the tailing dam in Chenzhou lead/zinc mine (Hunan, southern China) led to the spread of mining waste spills on the farmland along the Dong River. After the accident, an urgent soil cleaning up was carried out in some places. Seventeen years later, cereal (rice, maize, and sorghum), pulses (soybean, Adzuki bean, mung bean and peanut), vegetables (ipomoea, capsicum, taro and string bean) and the rooted soils were sampled at four sites: (1) the mining area (SZY), (2) the area still covered with the mining tailing spills (GYB), (3) the cleaned area from mining tailing spills (JTC), and (4) a background site (REF). Metal concentrations in the crops and soils were analyzed to evaluate the long-term effects of the spilled waste on the soil and the potential human exposure through food chains. The results showed that the physical-chemical properties of the soils obviously changed due to the different farming styles used by each individual farmer. Leaching effects and plant extraction of metals from some soils were quite weak. Certain soils were still heavily polluted with As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. The contamination levels were in the order of GYB>SZY>JTC showing that the clean-up treatment was effective. The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) levels for Chinese agricultural soils were still highly exceeded, particularly for As and Cd (followed by Zn, Pb and Cu), with mean concentrations of 709 and 7.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed the MAC levels by 24 times for As and 13 times for Cd at GYB. Generally, the edible leaves or stems of crops were more heavily contaminated than seeds or fruits. Ipomoea was the most severely contaminated crop. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were 3.30 and 76.9 mg kg(-1) in ipomoea leaves at GYB, which exceeded the maximum permit levels (0.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd and 9 mg kg(-1) for Pb) by 6.6 and 8.5 times, respectively. Taro (+skin) could accumulate high concentrations of Zn and Cd in the edible stem, and rice and capsicum had high Cd concentration in the edible parts. However, the toxic element concentrations in maize, sorghum, Adzuki bean, soybean and mung bean remained lower than the threshold levels. The bio-accumulation factors (BAFs) of crops were in the order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>As. BAF was typically lower in the edible seeds or fruits than in stems and leaves. The accumulation effect strongly depends on the crop's physiological properties, the mobility, of the metals, and the availability of metals in soils but not entirely on the total element concentrations in the soils. Even so, the estimated daily intake amount of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb from the crops grown in the affected three sites and arsenic at SZY and GYB exceeded the RDA (Recommended dietary allowance) levels. Subsequently, the crops grown in Chenzhou Pb/Zn mine waste affected area might have a hazardous effect on the consumer's health. This area still needs effective measures to cure the As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu contamination. PMID:15740766

Liu, Hongyu; Probst, Anne; Liao, Bohan



Reaction zone between pre-UHP titanite and host rock: insights into fluid-rock interaction and deformation mechanisms during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust (Dabie Shan UHP unit, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhumed crustal UHP rocks may occur as relict blocks in strongly metasomatized matrix rocks. Due to variations in competence between the mm to km sized blocks and their ductile matrix, the largely undeformed blocks may preserve the pre-subduction and the prograde history, whereas the matrix rocks have been ductilely deformed to high magnitudes and record successive stages of deformation. The reaction zones between blocks and matrix, however, provide insights into the fluid-rock interaction, deformation and the deformation mechanisms active during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust in the subduction channel. We investigate a titanite megacryst (3 cm in diameter) in a calc-silicate marble from the UHP unit in the Dabie Shan, China. The core of the titanite megacryst grew prograde during subduction. Its U-Pb system remained closed and yields a maximum age for UHP metamorphism. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in the core demonstrate that the titanite megacryst precipitated from a homogeneous fluid source. During metamorphism in the subduction zone, infiltration of external fluids resulted first in Sr-loss from the marbles and then introduction of Sr with unusually low 87Sr/86S values (Romer et al., 2003), leading to the contrasting 87Sr/86Sr values in the titanite megacryst and the hosting UHP marbles (Wawrzenitz et al., 2006). Related to deformation in the calc-silicate marble matrix, the rim of the titanite megacryst has been replaced during the following dissolution-precipitation reactions: (i) Pseudomorphic replacement of the old titanite megacryst by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Fluid migrated into the old grain producing a sharp boundary of the replacement front. (ii) New small titanite grains grew with their long axes parallel to the foliation of the marble matrix, reflecting the activation of dissolution precipitation creep. In the matrix, the foliation is defined by the orientation of the basal planes of phengitic white mica. The new titanite grains are patchy zoned and replace, along with rutile, calcite, quartz, and apatite, the old titanite megacryst. This reaction reflects the changing CO2 versus fluorine activity in the available fluid phase, rather than changing P-T conditions. The Sr isotope composition of the phases formed by these fluid-mediated reactions is variable and depends on the reaction-history and origin of the fluids. (iii) Brittle deformation of the titanite megacryst induced the formation of fractures, enhancing fluid transport and precipitation of new titanite, allanite, calcite ± rutile, and albite (locally anorthite), as well as Zn(Fe) - and Cu - sulphides along the vein walls. Dislocation creep is indicated by subgrains in local zones of high differential stress within the rim of the titanite megacryst. However, dissolution precipitation creep has been much more effective in changing the (isotope)chemical composition of titanite compared to dislocation creep. Romer, R.L., Wawrzenitz, N., Oberhänsli, R., 2003. Terra Nova 15, 5, 330-336. Wawrzenitz, N., Romer, R.L., Oberhänsli, R., Dong, S., 2006. Lithos 89, 1-2, 174-201.

Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.



Characterizing the nonlinear internal wave climate in the northeastern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four oceanographic moorings were deployed in the South China Sea from April 2005 to June 2006 along a transect extending from the Batanes Province, Philippines in the Luzon Strait to just north of Dong-Sha Island on the Chinese continental slope. The purpose of the array was to observe and track large-amplitude nonlinear internal waves (NIWs) from generation to shoaling over the course of one full year. The basin and slope moorings observed velocity, temperature (T) and salinity (S) at 1-3 min intervals to observe the waves without aliasing. The Luzon mooring observed velocity at 15 min and T and S at 3 min, primarily to resolve the tidal forcing in the strait. The observed waves travelled WNW towards 282-288 degrees with little variation. They were predominantly mode-1 waves with orbital velocities exceeding 100 cm s-1 and thermal displacements exceeding 100 m. Consistent with earlier authors, two types of waves were observed: the a-waves arrived diurnally and had a rank-ordered packet structure. The b-waves arrived in between, about an hour later each day similar to the pattern of the semi-diurnal tide. The b-waves were weaker than the a-waves, usually consisted of just one large wave, and were often absent in the deep basin, appearing as NIW only upon reaching the continental slope. The propagation speed of both types of waves was 323±31 cm s-1 in the deep basin and 222±18 cm s-1 over the continental slope. These speeds were 11-20% faster than the theoretical mode-1 wave speeds for the observed stratification, roughly consistent with the additional contribution from the nonlinear wave amplitude. The observed waves were clustered around the time of the spring tide at the presumed generation site in the Luzon Strait, and no waves were observed at neap tide. A remarkable feature was the distinct lack of waves during the winter months, December 2005 through February 2006. Most of the features of the wave arrivals can be explained by the tidal variability in the Luzon Strait. The near-bottom tidal currents in the Luzon Strait were characterized by a large fortnightly envelope, large diurnal inequality, and stronger ebb (towards the Pacific) than flood tides. Within about ±4 days of spring tide, when currents exceeded 71 cm s-1, the ebb tides generated high-frequency motions immediately that evolved into well-developed NIWs by the time they reached mooring B1 in the deep basin. These waves formed diurnally and correspond to the a-waves described by previous authors. Also near spring tide, the weaker flood tides formed NIWs which took longer/further to form, usually not until they reached mooring S7 on the upper continental slope. These waves tracked the semidiurnal tide and correspond to the b-waves described by previous authors. These patterns were consistent from March to November. During December-February, the structure of the barotropic tide was unchanged, so the lack of waves during this time is attributed to the deep surface mixed layer and weaker stratification along the propagation path in winter.

Ramp, S. R.; Yang, Y. J.; Bahr, F. L.



In-situ Cl/Br measurements in scapolite and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: A powerful tool to constrain fluid sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine and bromine are highly conservative elements, and are therefore widely used to trace the origin of fluids in sedimentary and hydrothermal/magmatic systems (e.g. Hanor & McIntosh, 2007; Nahnybida et al., 2009). Halogens are important ligands for metal transport in hydrothermal solutions and thus their behavior in hydrothermal environments is crucial for comprehending ore-forming processes. Besides fluid inclusions, scapolite-group minerals hold great potential as a tracer of igneous, metamorphic, and hydrothermal processes, as no Cl/Br fractionation in scapolite has been observed and therefore halogen ratios in scapolite are thought to mirror the halogen ratios in coexisting melts and fluids (Pan & Dong, 2003). Hence, Cl/Br ratios in fluid inclusions and minerals can be utilized to trace the origin of fluids and fluid-rock interaction pathways. Due to their high ionization energies, bromine and chlorine are not routinely measured by LA-ICP-MS and suitable standards are rare. Little is known about the potential interferences and analytical limitations of in-situ chlorine and bromine analysis by LA-ICP-MS. Nevertheless, Seo et al. (2011) showed that quantification of Br and Cl in single synthetic and natural fluid inclusions is possible. In this study, we have analyzed several scapolite grains of known bromine and chlorine concentrations by LA-ICP-MS and assess the capabilities and limitations of this method. The results show that Cl/Br ratios measured by LA-ICP-MS closely reproduce known values determined by microprobe (Cl), the Noble Gas Method (Br) and INAA (Br) (Kendrick, 2011; Lieftink et al., 1993) using laser ablation spot sizes from 24-120 ?m. The well-characterized scapolite grains cover bromine concentrations from 50-883 ppm and chlorine concentrations from 3 to 4 wt.%. In order to further assess the method, we analyzed Cl/Br ratios in natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite that were previously characterized by crush and leach ion chromatography. This is the first time that bulk crush and leach Cl/Br analyses can be compared with Cl/Br ratios within individual fluid inclusions. Our LA-ICP-MS measurements are in good agreement with bulk crush and leach analyses. For instance, molar Cl/Br ratios of single fluid inclusions (183±33) in sphalerite form East Tennessee match those obtained by crush and leach (206±8) Additionally, scapolite in samples from dykes of the Burstall granite, associated banded skarns and metasediments from the Mary Kathleen Fold Belt, Queensland, Australia are being studied. Scapolite is highly luminescent and therefore, cathodoluminescence images resolve chemical zoning in scapolite group minerals that, in combination with in-situ Cl/Br analyses, is a powerful tool to better understand fluid sources and fluid-rock interaction within various geological environments.

Hammerli, J.; Rusk, B.; Spandler, C.; Oliver, N. H. S.; Emsbo, P.



Monitoring and modeling the fate of commonly used pesticides in surface water of the Lower Mekong Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The Lower Mekong Delta, one of the largest agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, has been reported to be increasingly polluted by agrochemicals since the beginning of the transformation processes in Vietnamese economy and specifically in the agricultural sector in 1986 (MRCS, 2007; Dasgupta et al., 2005; Dung, 2003; Phuong, 2003). Although pesticides have contributed significantly to enhancing agricultural productivity, these agrochemicals also have created risks to human health and environment (Margni, 2001; Phuong, 2003; Dasgupta et al., 2005) and lead to value loss of water resources (Phuong, 2003). While prohibited persistent organic pollutants such as HCHs and DDTs, were monitored and still detected in the Lower Mekong Delta in recent studies (Minh et al., 2007, Carvalho et al., 2008) little data exist on water pollution by recently used pesticides in the Delta. Aiming to fill this information gap, a study comprising three components was set up at two study sites of the Delta. Pesticide use and management was investigated through surveys and participatory rural appraisals with farmers; pesticide residue concentrations were determined in field outflows, connected irrigation canals and in drinking water and finally pesticide fate was predicted by using a coupled MIKE 11/ MIKE SHE model. This abstract focuses on the work done in the field of pesticide monitoring. The western study site (An Long Commune, Dong Thap province) represented an agricultural pattern with two intensive paddy rice crops per year and was heavily affected by flood in the rainy season. The second site located in the central part of the Delta (Ba Lang ward, Can Tho City) was characterized by a mix of paddy rice, vegetables and fruit trees. Fifteen pesticide compounds (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, difenozonazol, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, hexaconazol, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazol) were monitored systematically from August 2008 to August 2009. Methods: Water samples (0.5 L) were collected in borosilicate bottles with Teflon caps, pre-filtered with glass wool (Roth, Germany) and glass fibre filter (Millipore, USA), solid-phase extracted (Phenomenex, C18-E) and quantified using GC-MS (Agilent 6890). For quality assurance samples and blanks were spiked with a surrogate standard (d-HCH). The recovery of the surrogate standard was used to monitor for matrix effects and sample processing errors. Surrogate recovery was evaluated by a recovery standard (Fluoren-d10) spiked to the sample after the extraction. Results: A total of 434 samples (253 samples in Ba Lang, 119 samples in An Long and 62 drinking water samples) were collected from August 2008 to August 2009. In An Long 13 of the 15 target compounds were detected in water samples. Average residue concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.96 ?g/l. The fungicide isoprothiolane and the insecticide buprofezin occurred with the highest concentrations (up to 20.77 and 16.53 ?g/l, respectively). In Ba Lang, 12 of the 15 monitored pesticides were detected with an average concentration from 0.01 to 0.30 ?g/l. The fungicide isoprothiolane was detected with highest (up to 12.86 ?g/l). In 70% of all samples more than four different pesticides were detected. Their effect may add up and pose risk to humans and aquatic organisms. In rural areas surface water is frequently used as drinking water source. First results from a sampling program of drinking water indicate that locally used water treatment methods (precipitation with aluminium sulfate followed by boiling) were not appropriate to reduce the pesticide exposure of the consumer. Through evaporation, boiling of drinking water even increased the concentrations of some non-volatile pesticides. References Carvalho, F. P., Villeneuve, J.P., Cattini, C., Tolosa, I., Thuan, D. D., Nhan, D. D., 2008. Agrochemical and polychlorobyphenyl (PCB) residues in the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 1476-1485. Dasgupta S., Meisner C., Wheeler D., Nhan L.

van Toan, Pham; Sebesvari, Zita; Loan, Vo Phuong Hong; Renaud, Fabrice



[Establishment and activity of PoKuNyoKwan].  


PoKuNyoKwan was established in 1887 by Meta Howard, a female doctor who was dispatched from Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, an evangelical branch affiliated with U.S. North Methodist Church. PoKuNyoKwan was equipped with dispensaries, waiting rooms, pharmacies, warehouses, operating rooms, and wards for about 30 patients. It used a traditional Korean house, which was renovated for its medical purpose, in Ewha Haktang. Residing in Chung Dong, the medical institution had taken care of women's mental and physical health for about 25 years, until it was merged with East Gate Lillian Harris Memorial Hospital in 1912, and then its dispensary function was abolished in 1913. Medical missionaries (Meta Howard, Rosetta Sherwood, Mary M. Cutler, Emma Ernsberger, Esther K. Pak, Amanda F. Hillman) and nurse missionaries (Ella Lewis, Margaret J. Edmunds, Alta I. Morrison, Naomi A. Anderson), who were professionally trained in the United States, and their helpers, who were trained by those missionaries, managed PoKuNyoKwan. Nurses who were educated in Nurses' Training School, which was also established by PoKuNyoKwan, helped to run the institution as well. At the beginning, they usually had worked as a team of one medical missionary and three helpers. Since its establishment in 1903, however, the helpers began to enter the Nurses' Training School to become professional nurses, and the helpers eventually faded out because of the proliferation of those nurses. PoKuNyoKwan did not only offer medical services but also executed educational and evangelical activities. Medical missionaries struggled to overcome Koreans' ignorance and prejudice against westerners and western medical services, while they took care of their patients at office, for calls, and in hospital dispensaries. Enlightening the public by criticizing Korean traditional medical treatments including fork remedies, acupuncture, and superstitions, they helped modernization of medical systems in Korea. In the area of education, Rosetta Sherwood taught helpers basic medical science to make them regular medical staff members, and Margaret J. Edmunds established the Nurses' Training School in PoKuNyoKwan for the first time in Korea. The nurses who graduated from the school worked at PoKuNyoKwan and some other medical institutions. Evangelical activities included Bible study in the waiting rooms of PoKuNyoKwan and prayer meeting on Sunday for those who were treated in PoKuNyoKwan. The institution in the end worked as a spot for spreading Christianity in Korea. As the first women's hospital, PoKuNyoKwan attempted to educate female doctors. Eventually, it played a role as a cradle to produce Esther K Pak, who was the first female doctor in Korea. The hospital also ran the first nurse training center. It was, in a real sense, the foundational institution to raise professional practitioner undertaking medical services in Korea. Therefore, it is reasonable to say that PoKuNyoKwan provided sound basis for the development of modem medical services for women in Korea. PMID:19008653

Lee, Bang Weon



Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AdS/QCD, light-front holography, and the nonperturbative running coupling / Stanley J. Brodsky, Guy de Teramond and Alexandre Deur -- New results on non-abelian vortices - Further insights into monopole, vortex and confinement / K. Konishi -- Study on exotic hadrons at B-factories / Toru Iijima -- Cold compressed baryonic matter with hidden local symmetry and holography / Mannque Rho -- Aspects of baryons in holographic QCD / T. Sakai -- Nuclear force from string theory / K. Hashimoto -- Integrating out holographic QCD back to hidden local symmetry / Masayasu Harada, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Holographic heavy quarks and the giant Polyakov loop / Gianluca Grignani, Joanna Karczmarek and Gordon W. Semenoff -- Effect of vector-axial-vector mixing to dilepton spectrum in hot and/or dense matter / Masayasu Harada and Chihiro Sasaki -- Infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators compatible with color confinement in Yang-Mills theory with the Gribov horizon / Kei-Ichi Kondo -- Chiral symmetry breaking on the lattice / Hidenori Fukaya [for JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations] -- Gauge-Higgs unification: Stable Higgs bosons as cold dark matter / Yutaka Hosotani -- The limits of custodial symmetry / R. Sekhar Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Higgs searches at the tevatron / Kazuhiro Yamamoto [for the CDF and D[symbol] collaborations] -- The top triangle moose / R. S. Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Conformal phase transition in QCD like theories and beyond / V. A. Miransky -- Gauge-Higgs unification at LHC / Nobuhito Maru and Nobuchika Okada -- W[symbol]W[symbol] scattering in Higgsless models: Identifying better effective theories / Alexander S. Belyaev ... [et al.] -- Holographic estimate of Muon g - 2 / Deog Ki Hong -- Gauge-Higgs dark matter / T. Yamashita -- Topological and curvature effects in a multi-fermion interaction model / T. Inagaki and M. Hayashi -- A model of soft mass generation / J. Hosek -- TeV physics and conformality / Thomas Appelquist -- Conformal Higgs, or techni-dilaton - composite Higgs near conformality / Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase diagram of strongly interacting theories / Francesco Sannino -- Resizing conformal windows / O. Antipin and K. Tuominen -- Nearly conformal gauge theories on the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Going beyond QCD in lattice gauge theory / G. T. Fleming -- Phases of QCD from small to large N[symbol]: (some) lattice results / A. Deuzeman, E. Pallante and M. P. Lombardo -- Lattice gauge theory and (quasi)-conformal technicolor / D. K. Sinclair and J. B. Kogut -- Study of the running coupling constant in 10-flavor QCD with the Schrodinger functional method / N. Yamada ... [et al.] -- Study of the running coupling in twisted Polyakov scheme / T. Aoyama ... [et al.].Running coupling in strong gauge theories via the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Higgsinoless supersymmetry and hidden gravity / Michael L. Graesser, Ryuichiro Kitano and Masafumi Kurachi -- The latest status of LHC and the EWSB physics / S. Asai -- Continuum superpartners from supersymmetric unparticles / Hsin-Chia Cheng -- Review of minimal flavor constraints for technicolor / Hidenori S. Fukano and Francesco Sannino -- Standard model and high energy Lorentz violation / Damiano Anselmi -- Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and fourth family / Michio Hashimoto -- Holmorphic supersymmetric Nambu-Jona-Lasino model and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking / Dong-Won Jung, Otto C. W. Kong and Jae Sik Lee -- Ratchet model of Baryogenesis / Tatsu Takeuchi, Azusa Minamizaki and Akio Sugamoto -- Classical solutions of field equations in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity / P. Suranyi, C. Vaz and L. C. R. Wijewardhana -- Black holes constitute all dark matter / Paul H. Frampton -- Electroweak precision test and Z [symbol] in the three site Higgsless model / Tomohiro Abe -- Chiral symmetry and BRST symmetry breaking, quaternion reality and the lattice simulation / Sadataka Furui -- Holographic techni-dilaton, or conformal Higgs / Kazumoto Haba, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase structure of topologicall

Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.



Thermal History of Planetary Objects: From Asteroids to super-Earths, from plate-tectonics to life (Runcorn-Florensky Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection in the interiors of planetesimals (asteroids), planets, and satellites is driving the thermal and chemical evolution of these bodies including the generation of possible magnetic fields. The wide size range induces a wide of range of time scales from hundreds of thousands of years for small planetesimals to a few tens of Gigayears for massive super-Earths. Evolution calculations are often based on energy (and entropy) balances parameterizing the transport properties of the interior in suitable ways. These thereby allow incorporating (in parameterized forms) interesting physical processes that depend in one way or another on the transport properties of the interior. The interior will usually be chemically layered in mantles and cores and include ice layers if icy satellites are considered. In addition to magnetic field generation calculated via energy balances of the core and using semi-empirical dynamo strength relations, processes that can be considered include sintering and compaction for small bodies and mantle (or ice) melting, differentiation and even continental growth for full-scaled terrestrial planets. The rheology of the interior is considered temperature and pressure dependent and the concentration of volatiles can be important. For super-Earths, probably the most critical consideration is how the mantle rheology would vary with pressure and thus with depth. It is possible that the increasing pressure will frustrate deep mantle convection thereby reducing the vigor of mantle convection. Possibly, the generation of a magnetic field in a putative iron-rich core will be impossible, if super-Earths at all have earth-like cores. On a much smaller scale, the decay of short-lived radioactives suffices to heat and melt planetesimals, the melting being helped by the low thermal conductivity of the initially porous body. This allows planets to form from pre-differentiated planetesimals thus helping to differentiate and form cores rapidly. On active planets - like the Earth - the volatile budget matters for the interior evolution. With plate tectonics, large-scale volatile cycles are invoked. On the Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. A model is presented that includes mantle convection, mantle water vapor degassing at mid-oceanic ridges and regassing through subduction zones, continental crust formation and erosion and water storage and transport in a porous oceanic crust that includes hydrous mineral phases. The biosphere enters the model through its effect on continental erosion and through a reduction of the activation barrier to metamorphic reactions (e.g., Kim et al., 2004) in sediment layers. An abiotic world is found to have a much drier mantle than the present Earth but may have a similar surface coverage by continents. The reduced rate of continental crust production on the abiotic world would be balanced by a reduced rate of continent erosion. Through the effect of water on the mantle rheology, the biotic world would tend to be tectonically more active and have a more rapid long-term carbon-silicate cycle. J. Kim, H. Dong, J. Seabaugh, S. W. Newell, D. D. Eberl, Science 303, 830-832, 2004 N. H. Sleep, D. K. Bird, E. Pope, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 40, 277-300, 2012 M. T. Rosing, D. K. Bird, N. H. Sleep, W. Glassley, F. Albarede, Paleo3 232, 90-113, 2006

Spohn, Tilman



Comparison Between Elemental Carbon Measured Using Thermal-Optical Analysis and Black Carbon Measurements Using A Novel Cellphone-Based System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is produced through the incomplete combustion of fossil and solid fuels. Current BC emissions inventories have large uncertainties of factors of 2 or more due to sparse measurements and because BC is often emitted by local sources that vary over time and space (Bond et al, 2004). Those uncertainties are major sources of error in air pollution models. Emissions from a variety of improved cookstove/fuel/combustion conditions were collected on pre-conditioned 47 mm quartz-fiber filters and analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using thermal-optical analysis (TOA). The samples were then analyzed for BC concentration by using cellphone-based instrumentation developed by Ramanathan et al., 2011. The cellphone-based monitoring system (CBMS) is a wireless, low-cost, low-power system that monitors BC emissions. The CBMS is comprised of an aerosol filter sampler containing a battery-powered air pump and a 25mm filter holder that draws air in through a quartz-fiber filter. As black carbon deposits increase, the filter darkens--the darkest color representing the highest loading. A cellphone photograph of the filter with the black carbon deposit is taken and relayed to an analytics unit for comparison to a reference scale to estimate airborne BC concentration. The BC concentration can then be compared to the thermally derived EC concentration. TOA was conducted on a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics Carbon Analyzer using a modified version of the Birch and Cary (1996) NIOSH 5040 protocol. The dual-optical instrument permitted simultaneous monitoring of the transmission (TOT) and reflectance (TOR). 619 samples were collected; EC was obtained using NIOSH TOT and NIOSH TOR methods, and BC was obtained using the CBMS analytics unit. The mean BC value reported by the CBMS agrees within 20% of the reference values for EC, confirming the findings in Ramanathan et al. (2011) based on samples from India. Given this accuracy, we conclude that the CBMS provides an affordable real-time method for gathering BC data on a mass scale. The CBMS' scalability should enable dense deployments near emissions sources and reduce uncertainty in emissions inventories due to undersampling. Bond, T. C., E. Bhardwaj, R. Dong, R. Jogani, S. Jung, C. Roden, D. G. Streets, and N. M. Trautmann (2007), Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840. Birch, M. E. and R.A. Cary (1996), Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 25, 221-241. NIOSH (1996). Elemental carbon (diesel particulate) method 5040. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio (1st Suppl.). Ramanathan, N., M. Lukac, T. Ahmed, A. Kar, P.S. Praveen, T. Honles, I. Leong, I.H. Rehman, J.J. Schauer, V. Ramanathan (2011), A cellphone based system for large-scale monitoring of black carbon, Atmos. Environ., 45 (26), 4481-4487.

Ramanathan, N.; Khan, B.; Leong, I.; Lukac, M.



PREFACE: IARD 2012: 8th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the subject of relativistic dynamics has been explored, from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view, since the work of Einstein and Dirac, its most striking development has been in the framework of quantum field theory. The very accurate calculations of spectral and scattering properties, for example, of the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics, and many qualitative features of the strong and electroweak interactions, demonstrate the very great power of description achieved in this framework. Yet, many fundamental questions remain to be clarified, such as the structure of classical relativistic dynamical theories on the level of Hamilton and Lagrange in Minkowski space as well as on the curved manifolds of general relativity. There moreover remains the important question of the covariant classical description of systems at high energy for which particle production effects are not large, such as discussed in Synge's book, The Relativistic Gas, and in Balescu's book on relativistic statistical mechanics. In recent years, the study of high energy plasmas and heavy ion collisions has emphasized the importance of developing the techniques of relativistic mechanics. The results of Lindner et al [Physical Review Letters 95 0040401 (2005)] as well as the more recent proposal of Palacios et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 253001 (2009)] and others, have shown that there must be a quantum theory with coherence in time. Such a theory, manifestly covariant under the transformations of special relativity with an invariant evolution parameter, such as that of Stueckelberg [Helv. Phys. Acta 14 322, 588 (1941); 15 23 (1942); see also R P Feynman Phys. Rev. 80 4401 and J S Schwinger Phys. Rev. 82 664 (1951)] could provide a suitable basis for the study of such questions, as well as many others for which the application of the standard methods of quantum field theory are difficult to manage, involving, in particular, local properties of spacetime structure. The scope of this series of conferences is, however, much wider. There have been recent developments in the understanding of general relativity concerning questions associated with dark energy and the dark matter problem, the distribution of stars in galaxies, and the distribution of galaxies in the visible universe, as well as the internal structure of stars. There are, moreover fundamental questions in the applications of relativistic dynamics to physical problems, and in its mathematical and logical structure. It was for this purpose, to bring together researchers from a wide variety of fields, such as particle physics, astrophysics, cosmology, heavy ion collisions, plasma research, and mathematical physics, with a common interest in relativistic dynamics, that this Association was founded. The International Association for Relativistic Dynamics was organized at its first meeting as an informal session of seminars among researchers with common interest in February 1998 in Houston, Texas, with John R Fanchi as president. The second meeting took place, in 2000, at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel, the third, in 2002, at Howard University in Washington, D.C., and the fourth, on 12--19 June 2004, in Saas Fee, Switzerland. In 2006, the meeting took place at the University of Connecticut campus in Storrs, Connecticut, and the sixth meeting, in Thessaloniki, Greece. The seventh meeting took place at the National Dong Hwa University in Hualien, Taiwan from 30 May to 1 June 2010, and the eighth meeting, reported here, at the Galileo Galilei Institute for Theoretical Physics (GGI) in Florence, Italy, 29 May to 1 June 2012. This meeting forms the basis for the Proceedings of IARD 2012, recorded in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Along with the work of some of the founding members of the Association, we were fortunate to have lecturers from application areas that provided strong challenges for further developments in cosmology and astrophysics, the geometry of spacetime, including the possible prese

Horwitz, L. P.; Land, Martin C.; Gill, Tepper; Lusanna, Luca; Salucci, Paolo



In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Oxides and their tailored structures are at the heart of electrochemical energy storage technologies and advances in understanding and controlling the dynamic behaviors in the complex oxides, particularly at the interfaces, during electrochemical processes will catalyze creative design concepts for new materials with enhanced and better-understood properties. Such knowledge is not accessible without new analytical tools. New innovative experimental techniques are needed for understanding the chemistry and structure of the bulk and interfaces, more importantly how they change with electrochemical processes in situ. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used extensively to study electrode materials ex situ and is one of the most powerful tools to obtain structural, morphological, and compositional information at nanometer scale by combining imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, e.g., EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Determining the composition/structure evolution upon electrochemical cycling at the bulk and interfaces can be addressed by new electron microscopy technique with which one can observe, at the nanometer scale and in situ, the dynamic phenomena in the electrode materials. In electrochemical systems, for instance in a lithium ion battery (LIB), materials operate under conditions that are far from equilibrium, so that the materials studied ex situ may not capture the processes that occur in situ in a working battery. In situ electrochemical operation in the ultra-high vacuum column of a TEM has been pursued by two major strategies. In one strategy, a 'nano-battery' can be fabricated from an all-solid-state thin film battery using a focused ion beam (FIB). The electrolyte is either polymer based or ceramic based without any liquid component. As shown in Fig. 1a, the interfaces between the active electrode material/electrolyte can be clearly observed with TEM imaging, in contrast to the composite electrodes/electrolyte interfaces in conventional lithium ion batteries, depicted in Fig.1b, where quantitative interface characterization is extremely difficult if not impossible. A second strategy involves organic electrolyte, though this approach more closely resembles the actual operation conditions of a LIB, the extreme volatility In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry by Ying Shirley Meng, Thomas McGilvray, Ming-Che Yang, Danijel Gostovic, Feng Wang, Dongli Zeng, Yimei Zhu, and Jason Graetz of the organic electrolytes present significant challenges for designing an in situ cell that is suitable for the vacuum environment of the TEM. Significant progress has been made in the past few years on the development of in situ electron microscopy for probing nanoscale electrochemistry. In 2008, Brazier et al. reported the first cross-section observation of an all solid-state lithium ion nano-battery by TEM. In this study the FIB was used to make a 'nano-battery,' from an all solid-state battery prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In situ TEM observations were not possible at that time due to several key challenges such as the lack of a suitable biasing sample holder and vacuum transfer of sample. In 2010, Yamamoto et al. successfully observed changes of electric potential in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery in situ with electron holography (EH). The 2D potential distribution resulting from movement of lithium ions near the positive-electrode/electrolyte interface was quantified. More recently Huang et al. and Wang et al. reported the in situ observations of the electrochemical lithiation of a single SnO{sub 2} nanowire electrode in two different in situ setups. In their approach, a vacuum compatible ionic liquid is used as the electrolyte, eliminating the need for complicated membrane sealing to prevent the evaporation of carbonate based organic electrolyte into the TEM column. One main limitation of this approach is that EELS spectral imaging is not possible due to the high plasmon signal of the ionic li

Graetz J.; Meng, Y.S.; McGilvray, T.; Yang, M.-C.; Gostovic, D.; Wang, F.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, Y.



Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Automotive Composite  

SciTech Connect

This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quais-isotropic carbon-fiber thermoplastic composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite consisted of a PolyPhenylene Sulfide (PPS) thermoplastic matrix (Fortron's PPS - Ticona 0214B1 powder) reinforced with 16 plies of carbon-fiber unidirectional tape, [0?/90?/+45?/-45?]2S. The carbon fiber was Hexcel AS-4C and was present in a fiber volume of 53% (60%, by weight). The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL; Corum, James [ORNL; Klett, Lynn B [ORNL; Davenport, Mike [ORNL; Battiste, Rick [ORNL; Simpson, Jr., William A [ORNL



Transition from supercapacitor to battery behavior in electrochemical energy storage  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the storage of electrochemical energy in battery, supercapacitor, and double-layer capacitor devices is considered. A comparison of the mechanisms and performance of such systems enables their essential features to be recognized and distinguished, and the conditions for transition between supercapacitor and battery behavior to be characterized. Supercapacitor systems based on two-dimensional underpotential deposition reactions are highly reversible and their behavior arises from the pseudocapaccitance associated with potential-dependence of two-dimensional coverage of electroactive adatoms on an electrode substrate surface. Such capacitance can be 10-100 times the double-layer capacitance of the same electrode area. An essential fundamental difference from battery behavior arises because, in such systems, the chemical and associated electrode potentials are a continuous function of degree of charge, unlike the thermodynamic behavior of single-phase battery reactants. Quai-two-dimensional systems, such as hyperextended hydrous RuP{sub 2}, also exhibit large pseudocapacitance which, in this case, is associated with a sequence of redox redox processes that are highly reversible.

Conway, B.E. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)



Simulações Numéricas de Rotação Nuclear Cometária  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho apresenta os resultados iniciais de simulações numéricas da evolução rotacional, de um núcleo cometário não esférico, ao longo de uma passagem periélica, levando-se em conta os torques devido a existência dos jatos de poeira e de gás. Inicialmente os autores apresentam um modelo simples (primeira aproximação), com somente um único jato na extremidade do semi-eixo maior, para compreender a variação positiva ou negativa que estas forças não gravitacionais exercem sobre o período de rotação cometário. Posteriormente incrementa-se o número de jatos, os quais são distribuídos ao longo da superfície cometária, para observar-se a contribuição dos efeitos provenientes dos torques originários da liberação da poeira e gás cometários, que provavelmente violará a suposição da livre precessão. Os estados rotacionais, sob torques induzidos devido à sublimação, dependem fortemente da localização das áreas ativas do núcleo. Os cometas P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, P/Tempel 2, P/Forbes e C/Meunier-Dupouy serão observados fotometricamente, pelos autores, no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA) ao longo de algumas noites consecutivas em abril, junho e julho de 1999. Estas observações serão comparadas com as simulações numéricas de rotação cometária.

Voelzke, M. R.; Winter, O. C.



Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.



OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.



Comparação de modelos para o cálculo de perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aplicações recentes de satélites artificiais com finalidades geodinâmicas requerem órbitas determinadas com bastante precisão. Em particular marés terrestres influenciam o potencial terrestre causando perturbações adicionais no movimento de satélites artificiais, as quais tem sido medidas por diversos processos. A atração exercida pela lua e pelo sol sobre a terra produz deslocamentos elásticos em seu interior e uma protuberância em sua superfície. O resultado é uma pequena variação na distribuição da massa na terra, consequentemente no geopotencial. As perturbações nos elementos orbitais de satélites artificiais terrestres devidas a maré terrestre podem ser estudadas a partir das equações de Lagrange, considerando-se um conveniente potencial. Por outro lado, como tem sido feito pelo IERS, as mudanças induzidas pela maré terrestre no geopotencial podem ser convenientemente modeladas como variações nos coeficientes Cnm e Snm do geopotencial. As duas teorias ainda não foram comparados para um mesmo satélite. Neste trabalho são apresentadas e comparadas as variações de longo período e seculares nas perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre, calculadas por um modelo simples, o de Kozai, e pelo modelo do I